This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Module 2: Centroids & Moment of Inertia

Centroid

Centroid or center of gravity is the point within an object from which the force of gravity appears to act. Centroid of 3D objects often (but not always) lies somewhere along the lines of symmetry.

Hollowed pipes, L shaped section have centroid located outside of the material of the section

The Centroid of any area can be found by taking Centroidal axis or Neutral moments of identifiable areas (such as rectangles or triangles) about any axis. i.e A.y or A.x The moment of an area about any axis is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of its component areas. The moment of any area is defined as the product of the area and the perpendicular distance from the Centroid of the area to the moment axis.

**First Moment of Area-Centroid
**

Composite areas

± ± ± ± Subdivide Select coordinate axes Find the overall area Apply the composite centroid formula

First Moment of Area-Centroid First moments of area: Centroids: y and z .

Moment of Inertia (I) Also known as the Second Moment of the Area is a term used to describe the capacity of a cross-section to resist bending. The reference axis is usually a centroidal axis. where . It is a mathematical property of a section concerned with a surface area and how that area is distributed about the reference axis.

Cross Section of Beam Y Y .

Internal Forces Naming those internal forces 2011-2-11 7 .

centroid example simple rectangular shape y Sum MAtotal = MA1 + MA2 + MA3+ .t ZZ¶ axis h ¨ 3h h ¸ ! (b )© ¹ 2 ª 4 4º h ! (b ). MA2« = A1h1..r. MA1.. A2h2««««« centroid h/2 ZZ¶ b area x distance | from the centroid of the area to the moment axis h/2 h ¨h h¸ h ¨h¸ (bh)Y ! (b )© ¹ (b )© ¹ 2 ª2 4º 2 ª4º Take ZZ¶ as the reference axis and take moment w.

h 2 .

Iz ! Ix I y Iz = (1/12) bd(b2 + d2) Izz Polar Moment of Inertia .Perpendicular Axis Theorem Iy = (1/12) b3d Ix = (1/12) bd3 Iz ! Ix I y d b For flat objects the rotational moment of inertia of the axes in the plane is related to the moment of inertia perpendicular to the plane.

d: Perpendicular distance from new to original axis x d A x I X ' ! I X Ad 2 2011-2-11 x' x' 10 .Parallel-Axis Theorem for an Area Used to calculate the moment of inertia about other axis.Ix¶: Moment of Inertia about new axis .A: Area of shape .Ix: Moment of Inertia about original axis . The moment of inertia of an area about an axis is equal to the moment of inertia of the area about a parallel axis passing through the area¶s Centroid plus the product of the area and the square of the perpendicular distance between the axes. .

Parallel Axis Theorem Parallel axis theorem: Consider the moment of inertia Ix of an area A with respect to an axis AA¶. I x ! ´ y dA 2 .Moment of Inertia . Denote by y the distance from an element of area dA to AA¶.

Parallel Axis Theorem Consider an axis BB¶ parallel to AA¶ through the Centroid C of the area. known as the centroidal axis. The equation of the moment inertia becomes I x ! ´ y dA ! ´ .Moment of Inertia .

yd d dA 2 2 dA dA ! ´ yd 2 ´ yd d 2 2 dA ´ .

Moment of Inertia .Parallel Axis Theorem The first integral is the moment of inertia about the centroid.G yd ! ´ yd yd 0 A dA ! ´ yd ! 0 dA . 2 I x ! ´ yd dA The second component is the first moment area about the centroid i.e if the area is located at the C.

Parallel Axis Theorem Modify the equation obtain the parallel axis theorem.Moment of Inertia . 2 d 2 ´ yd d 2 ´ dA I x ! ´ y dA dA ! Ix d A 2 .

Look at IX of following shapes: x x x x 15 .Moments of Inertia and Radius of Gyration In general case Polar Moment of Inertia kX ! ky ! kO ! IX A A Iy JO A It is a mathematical property of a section concerned with a surface area and how that area is distributed about the reference axis.

Moment of Inertia example simple rectangular shape dA ! bdy Centroid or Neutral axis .

Hollow steel sections) 150mm x x 2. memorize equations. etc..Rectangular Area Moment of Inertia about centroidal axes for a rectangle 1 1 bh 3 ! (300mm )(150mm ) 3 ! 562500mm 4 12 12 1 1 hb 3 ! (150mm )(300mm ) 3 ! 1125000mm 4 IY ! hb 3 ! 12 12 ± Which one is bigger? New Unit! IX ! To Remember IX ! IY 1 bh 3 12 1 ! hb 3 12 y 1. triangles.): The equation or value will be given to you. 3. Rectangular shapes: Calculate yourself. Other shapes (circles. 17 h y 300mm b . Standard sections (C-shapes. Wide flange beams.

Y Y .

.

then the moment of inertia of the composite area equals the algebraic sum of the moments of inertia of all its parts. very likely you need to find the Centroid of that composite area first) ± Take the algebraic sum of the moments of inertia of all parts to get the moment of inertia of the composite area 20 ± ± ± ± . if this is the case.Moments of Inertia for Composite Areas If the moment of inertia of each simpler area (a part of the composite area) is known or can be determined about a common axis. Steps to follow: Divide the composite area into smaller and simpler parts Find the Centroid of each part Calculate the moment of inertia (I) for each part about its centroidal axis Use parallel-axis theorem to calculate the moment of inertia of each part about the given axis (normally the centroidal axis of composite area.

y h h/2 z h/2 b/2 b/2 z b y bh 3 Iz ! 12 > Stronger section hb 3 Iz ! 12 . It can be used to determine the amount of deflection in a beam.³I´ is an important value! It is used to determine the state of stress in a section. It is used to calculate the resistance to bending.

Moment of Inertia Use a set of tables: .

Built-up sections It is often advantageous to combine a number of smaller members in order to create a beam or column of greater strength. The moment of inertia of such a built-up section is found by adding the moments of inertia of the component parts .

Transfer formula There are many built-up sections in which the component parts are not symmetrically distributed about the centroidal axis. To determine the moment of inertia of such a section is to find the moment of inertia of the component parts about their own centroidal axis and then apply the transfer formula. It is known from calculus to be: . The transfer formula transfers the moment of inertia of a section or area from its own centroidal axis to another parallel axis.

Find the M. h2x. h3x = 0 .section Y 24 mm 6mm 8 mm 48 mm X X2 X2 X3 X3 y3 h2y h3y X y2 6mm 48 mm X1 y h1y X1 y1 Y Ix = Ix1 + A1h1y2 + Ix2 + A2h2y2 + Ix3 + A3h3y2 Symmetric about Y axis hence h1x.I of the I .

C. h1y = y-y1 h2y = y ± y2 h3y = y ± y3 Similarly find Iy. «««.G x = 0 . Ix2. y = (A1y1 + A2y2 + A3y3)/ (A1 + A2 + A3) Ix1 . Ix3= (b1d13 )/12. Iy1 = (d1b13 )/12 Radius of Gyration along X & Y axis .

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd