Anatomy of Phonation Chapter 5

Perry C. Hanavan

Phonation
‡ Phonation or voicing
± Vibrating the vocal folds in the larynx
± Video Stroboscopy of the Vocal Cords

‡ Subglottis

Phonation ‡ Voiced ‡ Unvoiced ‡ Subglottal .

Bernoulli ‡ Bernoulli effect ± Inverse relationship ± Increase in air flow results in air pressure decrease ± YouTube ± YouTube .

and Bernoulli . elasticity of vocal folds.Summary of Phonation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Phonation is the act of voicing Vocal fold vibrates Bernoulli effect Interaction between subglottal pressure.

Larynx ‡ Musculocartilaginous structure located at upper end of trachea ‡ Valve ‡ Size varies with age and gender .

Tour of Larynx ‡ Cartilaginous structures ± ± ± ± ± Cricoid Thyroid Arytenoid Corniculate Epiglottis .

Osseous Structure ‡ Hyoid .

Inside the Larynx ‡ True vocal folds ‡ False vocal folds ‡ Laryngeal ventricle Zemlin: Tour of the Larynx .

Vocal Folds Vocal folds in action .

Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles .

Cricothyroid Muscle ‡ Pulls the thyroid cartilage forward. increasing the distance between the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages ‡ Tenses the vocal cord ‡ Innervated by external laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (X) .

Lateral Cricoarytenoid Muscle Draws the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly. which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and adducts the vocal folds .

causing the vocal cords to separate opening the rima glottidis ‡ Thyroarytenoideus ± Draws arytenoid cartilage forward forward relaxing and adducting the vocal folds ‡ Vocalis muscle ± relaxes segments of the vocal ligament thereby adjusting voice pitch . adducting vocal folds ‡ Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscles ± Opens space between the vocal cords (abduct) by rotating the arytenoids laterally (abduct).Intrinsic Muscles ‡ Aryepiglottic Muscle ± Draws the epiglottis posteriorly and downward during swallowing ‡ Oblique Arytenoid ± Draws arytenoid cartilages together adducting vocal folds ‡ Transverse Arytenoideus Muscle ± Draws arytenoid cartilages together.

Muscles of Approximation .

Muscle Review Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx ‡ Adductors ± Lateral cricoarytenoid ± Transverse arytenoid ± Oblique arytenoid ‡ Abductor ± Posterior cricoarytenoid ‡ Tensors ± Thyrovocalis (medial thyroarytenoid) ± Cricothyroid. and pars oblique ‡ Relaxers ± Thyromuscularis (lateral thyroarytenoid) ‡ Auxiliary Musculature Thyroepiglotticus* ± Superior thyroarytenoid Thyroarytenoid Aryepiglotticus Suprahyoid and Intrahyhoid Muscles ‡ Hyoid and laryngeal Elevators Stylohyoid Mylohyoid Geniohyoid ± Genioglossus Hyoglossus ± Inferior pharyngeal constrictor ± Digastricus anterior and posterior ‡ Hyoid and laryngeal Depressors ± ± ± ± Sternothyroid Sternohyoid Omohyoid Thyrohyoid . pars recta.

Intrinsic Muscles Intrinsic Muscle Name thyroarytenoid posterior cricoarytenoid lateral cricoarytenoid arytenoid (oblique & transverse) cricothyroid move the arytenoids with reference to one another (check Comments or vocalis muscle .

thyroid cartilage) thyrohyoid inferior pharyngeal constrictor (thyroid cartilage. hyoid bone) (bottom of the "throat". the pharynx) .Extrinsic Muscles Extrinsic Muscle Name Joining these structures sternothyroid (sternum.

styloid process) mylohyoid (both sides of the jaw [forming the floor of the mouth].Laryngeal Elevators Elevator Muscle Name Joining these structures stylohyoid (hyoid bone. hyoid bone) geniohyoid .

Intrinsic Muscles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Larynx Anatomy Made Easy UAMS Anatomy Intrinsic Muscles Intrinsic Muscles Discover the Larynx .

Extrinsic Muscles ‡ Larynx Anatomy Made Easy ‡ Extrinsic Muscles ‡ Discover the Larynx .

Joints ‡ Discover the Larynx ‡ Zemlin Slides .

Nerves ‡ Discover the Larynx .

Common Disorders ‡ University of Pittsburgh ‡ Vocal Surgery .

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