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Measurements and significant figures

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You are on page 1of 50

Chapter 1- Timberlake

Sections 1 & 2 - Units

of Measurement.

Systems of

measurement

–Metric

–SI (System

International)

Metric Prefixes – see

table 1.3 page 5

Length

– Metric and SI base unit – meter (m)

– 1 m = 39.4 inches

– 1 in = 2.54 cm

– Equalities - in future calculations,

these numbers are “exact”

• 1 m = 100 cm

• 1 m = 1000 mm

Volume = space occupied

– Metric base unit = liter (L)

– 1 L = 1.06 quarts

– 946 mL = 1 quart

– Equalities

• 1 cm3 = 1 cc = 1 mL

• 1000 cm3 = 1000 mL = 1 L

Mass – quantity of material

contained

– Metric base unit = gram (g)

– 1 kg = 2.20 pounds

– 454 g = 1 pound

– Equalities

• 1 kg = 1000 g

• 1 g = 1000 mg

• 1 mg = 1000 µg

Homework: read pp 1-

9, do 1.1 to 1.14 evens

Section 3 – Conversion

Factors

Changing units using

equalities

–If a = a, then a/a = 1

–if a = b then a/ b = 1

and b/a =1

Example Conversions

• equality: 1 m = 100 cm

• conversion factors: 1

m/100 cm or 100 cm/1 m

• see other examples pages

10 – 12

Homework: 1.16 to

1.20 evens

Section 4 – Significant

Figures

Significant Figures –

• numbers reported in

measurements including

the last estimated digit.

Estimating the last digit.

• See cylinder A page 14 ;

volume is between 30 mL

and 40 mL

• 35 mL has 2 significant

figures: 1 is measured, 1

is estimated.

Zeros

• Zeros that are measured

are significant

• Zeros that hold places

(like hundreds or

hundredths) are not

significant.

Zero rules

• Significant zeros

–between nonzero digits

(205) 3 sig figs

–at end of decimal

number (2.0) 2 sig figs

Nonsignificant zeros

zero in front of

decimal (.02) 1 sig fig

zero at end of

nondecimal number

(560) 2 sig figs

Exact numbers

• numbers not measured

but counted

• equalities

• See table 1.9 page 15

for examples

Rounding

• 8.54 is rounded to 8.5

(4 or less- drop)

• 8.55 is rounded to 8.6

(5 or more – drop and

increase)

Significant Figures after

Calculations

• Multiplication and Division

– Final answer has same as measurement

with fewest sig figs.

– 2 x 35.5 = 71 2 has 1 sig fig: 70

Adding and Subtraction

–Final answer with same

number of decimal

places as least accurate

measurement

–3.4 + 3.5689 = 6.9689

round off to 10ths place

or 7.0

Practice Practice

Practice !!!

Homework 1.22 to 1.34

evens

Section 5 – Problem Solving

Example:

• 1 lb of apples cost 48

cents, how much will

2.0 lbs cost?

• Step 1 - Given

quantity is 2.0 lbs

Step 2 - Unit

plan. Convert lb

to cents.

Step 3 - Establish

conversion factors

• 1 lb apples = 48 cents

• 1 lb / 48 cents or

48 cents / 1 lb

Step 4 Set up

problem

• given x conversion

factor = answer

• 2.0 lb x 48 cents/ 1 lb =

96 cents

Units must

cancel !!!!

Do sample

problems 1.9, 10,

11, and 12

Homework: 1.36

to 1.44 evens

Measuring precisely

Always take the time to measure

“exactly” using both the concept of

precision and accuracy.!

Accuracy – often depends on

where you start.

Accuracy is high

Accuracy will be low

Precision depends on care of

measurement.

• What do you think the most precise

measurement should be?

14 ?

14.4?

14.40?

14.41?

14. 40 cm or

How to help with precision

14.41 cm

What is the measurement?

6.57 cm

Use

In mm?

a better ruler!

Use

65.7 mma piece of paper

2 measured – 1 estimated

Section 6 –

Density and

Specific Gravity

Density = mass /

volume of same

substance

See Sample

problem 1.14

Measuring

Density by

Displacing Water

Using Density in

Calculations

See sample

problem 1.17

Specific Gravity(sp

gr): Ratio between

density of substance

and density of water.

water is 1.00 g/mL

for our purposes but

varies slightly with

temperature.

sp gr = density of

sample / density of

water.

Units must match

and therefore cancel

out.

Homework:

Problems 1.46 to

1.50

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