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Unit 1 – Measurements

Chapter 1- Timberlake
Sections 1 & 2 - Units
of Measurement.
Systems of
measurement
–Metric
–SI (System
International)
Metric Prefixes – see
table 1.3 page 5
Length
– Metric and SI base unit – meter (m)
– 1 m = 39.4 inches
– 1 in = 2.54 cm
– Equalities - in future calculations,
these numbers are “exact”
• 1 m = 100 cm
• 1 m = 1000 mm
Volume = space occupied
– Metric base unit = liter (L)
– 1 L = 1.06 quarts
– 946 mL = 1 quart
– Equalities
• 1 cm3 = 1 cc = 1 mL
• 1000 cm3 = 1000 mL = 1 L
Mass – quantity of material
contained
– Metric base unit = gram (g)
– 1 kg = 2.20 pounds
– 454 g = 1 pound
– Equalities
• 1 kg = 1000 g
• 1 g = 1000 mg
• 1 mg = 1000 µg
Homework: read pp 1-
9, do 1.1 to 1.14 evens
Section 3 – Conversion
Factors
Changing units using
equalities
–If a = a, then a/a = 1
–if a = b then a/ b = 1
and b/a =1
Example Conversions
• equality: 1 m = 100 cm
• conversion factors: 1
m/100 cm or 100 cm/1 m
• see other examples pages
10 – 12
Homework: 1.16 to
1.20 evens
Section 4 – Significant
Figures
Significant Figures –
• numbers reported in
measurements including
the last estimated digit.
Estimating the last digit.
• See cylinder A page 14 ;
volume is between 30 mL
and 40 mL
• 35 mL has 2 significant
figures: 1 is measured, 1
is estimated.
Zeros
• Zeros that are measured
are significant
• Zeros that hold places
(like hundreds or
hundredths) are not
significant.
Zero rules
• Significant zeros
–between nonzero digits
(205) 3 sig figs
–at end of decimal
number (2.0) 2 sig figs
Nonsignificant zeros
zero in front of
decimal (.02) 1 sig fig
zero at end of
nondecimal number
(560) 2 sig figs
Exact numbers
• numbers not measured
but counted
• equalities
• See table 1.9 page 15
for examples
Rounding
• 8.54 is rounded to 8.5
(4 or less- drop)
• 8.55 is rounded to 8.6
(5 or more – drop and
increase)
Significant Figures after
Calculations
• Multiplication and Division
– Final answer has same as measurement
with fewest sig figs.
– 2 x 35.5 = 71 2 has 1 sig fig: 70
Adding and Subtraction
–Final answer with same
number of decimal
places as least accurate
measurement
–3.4 + 3.5689 = 6.9689
round off to 10ths place
or 7.0
Practice Practice
Practice !!!
Homework 1.22 to 1.34
evens
Section 5 – Problem Solving
Example:
• 1 lb of apples cost 48
cents, how much will
2.0 lbs cost?
• Step 1 - Given
quantity is 2.0 lbs
Step 2 - Unit
plan. Convert lb
to cents.
Step 3 - Establish
conversion factors

• 1 lb apples = 48 cents
• 1 lb / 48 cents or
48 cents / 1 lb
Step 4 Set up
problem
• given x conversion
factor = answer
• 2.0 lb x 48 cents/ 1 lb =
96 cents
Units must
cancel !!!!

Lbs cancel lbs.


Do sample
problems 1.9, 10,
11, and 12
Homework: 1.36
to 1.44 evens
Measuring precisely
Always take the time to measure
“exactly” using both the concept of
precision and accuracy.!
Accuracy – often depends on
where you start.
Accuracy is high
Accuracy will be low
Precision depends on care of
measurement.
• What do you think the most precise
measurement should be?

14 ?
14.4?
14.40?
14.41?
14. 40 cm or
How to help with precision
14.41 cm

• Use a triangle to help.


What is the measurement?
6.57 cm
Use
In mm?
a better ruler!
Use
65.7 mma piece of paper
2 measured – 1 estimated
Section 6 –
Density and
Specific Gravity
Density = mass /
volume of same
substance
See Sample
problem 1.14
Measuring
Density by
Displacing Water
Using Density in
Calculations
See sample
problem 1.17
Specific Gravity(sp
gr): Ratio between
density of substance
and density of water.
water is 1.00 g/mL
for our purposes but
varies slightly with
temperature.
sp gr = density of
sample / density of
water.
Units must match
and therefore cancel
out.
Homework:
Problems 1.46 to
1.50