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f = c + tan

failu re e elop env

Friction angle

Cohesio n

is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without failure, under normal stress of .

Effectiv e cohesio n

re ailu f e elop env

' = u

u = pore water pressure

f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without failure, under normal effective stress of .

Shear strength consists of two components: cohesive and frictional.

f tan c f

e esiv ent coh pon com

frictional compone nt

'

Normal stresses and shear stresses on any plane can be obtained with the following equations

Principal stresses

or

1

Soil element

' + + 2

2 ' 1

' 2 3

= 2

' 1

' 2 3

1

3

Soil element

' + + 2

2 ' 1

' 2 3

= 2

' 1

' 2 3

' 1' 3 2

' 3

' 1' + 3 2

1'

1

3

Soil element

' + + 2

2 ' 1

' 2 3

= 2

' 1

' 2 3

' 3

' 1' 3 2

( , )

' 1' + 3 2

1'

Failure surface

Y

Y ~ stable X ~ failure

NEED AND SCOPE In many engineering problems such as design of foundation, retaining walls, slab bridges, pipes, sheet piling, The value of the angle of internal friction and cohesion of the soil involved are required for the design. Direct shear test is used to predict these parameters quickly.

Direct shear test 1. This test is performed to determine the consolidated - drained shear strength of a sandy to silty soil. 2. The shear strength is one of the most important engineering properties of a soil, because it is required whenever a structure is dependent on the soils shearing resistance. 3. The shear strength is needed for engineering situations such as determining the stability of slopes or cuts, finding the bearing capacity for foundations, and calculating the pressure exerted by a soil on a retaining wall.

Apparatus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Direct shear box apparatus Loading frame (motor attached). Dial gauge. Proving ring. Tamper. Straight edge. Balance to weigh upto 200 mg. Aluminum container. Spatula.

PROCEDURE Check the inner dimension of the soil container. Put the parts of the soil container together. Calculate the volume of the container. Weigh the container. Place the soil in smooth layers (approximately 10 mm thick). If a dense sample is desired tamp the soil. Weigh the soil container, the difference of these two is the weight of the soil. Calculate the density of the soil. Make the surface of the soil plane. Put the upper grating on stone and loading block on top of soil.

Direct shear test is most suitable for consolidated drained tests specially on granular soils (e.g.: sand) or stiff clays

Preparation of a sand specimen Pressure plate

Test procedure Porous plates S P Steel ball Pressure plate

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation

Test procedure Porous plates S P Steel ball Pressure plate

Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant rate

PROCEDURE 8. Measure the thickness of soil specimen. 9. Apply the desired normal load. 10. Remove the shear pin. 11. Attach the dial gauge which measures the change of volume. 12. Record the initial reading of the dial gauge and calibration values. 13. Before proceeding to test check all adjustments to see that there is no connection between two parts except sand/soil. 14. Start the motor. Take the reading of the shear force and record the reading. 15. Take volume change readings till failure. 16. Add 5 kg normal stress 0.5 kg/cm2 and continue the experiment till failure 17. Record carefully all the readings. Set the dial gauges zero, before starting the experiment

Shear box

Dial gauge to measure vertical displacement

Analysis of test results

Normal force (P) = Normal stress = Area of cross section of the sample

Shear resistance developed at the sliding surface (S) = Shear stress = Area of cross section of the sample

Note: Cross-sectional area of the sample changes with the horizontal displacement

Stress-strain relationship Dense sand/ OC clay

r ae h S , ssert s

Shear displacement

Expansion

Shear displacement

Compression

How to determine strength parameters c and

Normal stress =

3 2 1

Normal stress =

, ssert s r ae h S

f 2

Normal stress =

f

Shear displacement

ehS ui a l f

Normal stress,

Some important facts on strength parameters c and of sand Direct shear tests are drained and pore water pressures are dissipated, hence u = 0 Therefore, = and c = c = 0

In case of clay, horizontal displacement should be applied at a very slow rate to allow dissipation of pore water pressure (therefore, one test would take several days to finish) Failure envelopes for clay from drained direct shear tests

ert s r ae h S , er ui a l f

Normal force,

In many foundation design problems and retaining wall problems, it is required to determine the angle of internal friction between soil and the structural material (concrete, steel or wood) P

f = ca + ' tan

Due to the smaller thickness of the sample, rapid drainage can be achieved Can be used to determine interface strength parameters Clay samples can be oriented along the plane of weakness or an identified failure plane

Failure occurs along a predetermined failure plane Area of the sliding surface changes as the test progresses Non-uniform distribution of shear stress along the failure surface

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