0ross Iond ecosysfem

Jhonsironi.P AP/ECE
Grass |and ecosystem
· Grass lands are dominant by grass
· Sometimes allows the growth of few trees
and shrubs
· Rainfall is average but erratic (25-75)cm
· Limited grazing helps to improve primary
production off grassland
· Overgrazing leads to degradation resulting
in desertification
1vpes of arasslands
· Based on different climatic regions
grasslands are of types
%ropical grasslands
%emperate grasslands
Polar grasslands (arctic tundra)
@rop|ca| grass|ands
· %hey are near the borders of tropical rain
· Found in region of high average
· Rain fall is low to moderate
· Ìn Africa they are known as Savannas
· %hey have tall grasses with scattered
shrubs and stunted trees
· Savanna have wide diversity of animals
· Zebras, Giraffes, Gazelle, Antelopes etc.,
· During dry season fires are quite common
· %ermite mounds are very common here.
· %ermites gather the detritus containing a lot of
cellulose and build up a mound
· On %op of the mound fungi are found to grow
which feed upon this dead matter including
cellulose and in turn release methane, a
greenhouse gas.
1ermlLe mound
@rop|ca| savanna
· %ropical savanna have a highly efficient
system of photosynthesis.
· Most of the carbon assimilated by them in
the form of carbohydrates is in the
perennating bulbs, rhizomes, runners etc.,
which are present underground
· Burning of these grasslands can release
huge quantity of CO2, a green house gas,
responsible for global warming.
1rees of savanna
@emperate grass|and
· %hey are found on flat, gentle sloped hills
· Winters are very cold
· Summers are hot and dry
· Ìntense grazing and summer fires do not
allow shrubs are trees to grow
· Ìn U.S & Canada ÷ Prairies
· Ìn south America ÷ Pampas
· Ìn Africa ÷ Velds
· Ìn Central Europe & Asia - Steppes
@emperate grass|and
9ralrle ln Lfflav Mounds naLlonal
MonumenLţ lowaţ unlLed SLaLes
9ampasţ Argent|na
Ie|dsţ Afr|ca
SLeppesţ Monaolla
@emperate grass|and
· Winds keep blowing
· Evaporation rate is very high
· Favors rapid fires in summer
· Soil is quite fertile and therefore, often
these grasslands are cleared for
· Animals like Deer, Bison, Saiga, Jlld
horsesţ CovoLesţ ecLŦţ are found hereŦ
9olar arassland (arcLlc 1undra)
· %hey are found in arctic polar region
· Severe cold & strong, frigid winds along with ice and
snow create too harsh a climate for trees to grow
· Ìn summer sunshine's hence several small annual
plants grow in summer
· Animals include arctic wolf, weasel, arctic fox, reindeer
· A thick layer of ice remains frozen under the soil
surface throughout the year is known as permafrost.
· Ìn summer it appears like shallow lakes, bogs etc.,
· Where mosquitoes, insects and migratory birds
9olar arassland
eserL ecosvsLem
eserL ecosvsLem
· %hey occur in regions where evaporation
exceeds precipitation
· Rainfall is less than 25cm/year
· About 1/3
of our worlds land area is covered by
· Deserts have little species diversity
· Ìt consist of drought resistance or drought
avoiding plants
· Atmosphere is very dry, hence a poor insulator
· %hat's why in deserts soil gets cooled up quickly
making the nights cool.
1vpes of deserLs
· Based on different climatic conditions
deserts are of 3 major types
%ropical deserts
%emperate deserts
Cold deserts
@rop|ca| deserts
· Sahara and Namibia in Africa
· %har desert, Rajasthan, Ìndia
· %hese are the driest of all with only few
· Wind blown sand dunes are very common
· Camelţ Armadllloţ 8andlcooLţ 8aLţ 8lack wldow
splderţ eserL 1orLolseţ splnvŴLalled llzardţ
scorplonsţ snakes are found here
· 9lanLs llke CacLusţ !oshua Lreeţ 9alm Lree arow
1roplcal deserL (1har) ţ lndla
@emperate deserts
· Monjave in south California
· Day time temperature is very hot in
summer but cool in winter
· Has a variety of different animals including
different types of mammals, birds and
1emperaLe deserL (Cobl) ln lnner Monaolla
Cold deserLs
· Gobi desert in china has cold winters and
warm summers
· 1he maln planLs are declduousţ mosL havlna
splnv leavesŦ
· Jldelv dlsLrlbuLed anlmals are [ack rabblLsţ
kanaaroo raLsţ kanaaroo mlceţ pockeL mlceţ
arasshopper mlceţ and anLelope around
1 Antarctic Desert Polar Antarctica
2 Sahara Subtropical Africa
3 Arctic Polar Alaska . Canada. Greenland (Denmark). Iceland and Russia
4 Arabian Desert Subtropical Saudi Arabia. 1ordan. Iraq. Kuwait. Qatar. UAE. Oman. Yemen
5 Gobi Desert Cold Winter Mongolia and China
6 Kalahari Desert Subtropical Angola. Botswana. Namibia and South Africa
7 Patagonian Desert Cold Winter Argentina and Chile
8 Great Victoria Desert Subtropical Australia
9 Syrian Desert Subtropical Syria. 1ordan and Iraq
10 Great Basin Desert Cold Winter United States
11 Chihuahuan Desert Subtropical Mexico and United States
12 Great Sandy Desert Subtropical Australia
13 Karakum Desert Cold Winter Turkmenistan
14 Colorado Plateau Cold Winter United States
15 Sonoran Desert Subtropical Mexico and United States
16 Kyzyl Kum Cold Winter Kazakhstan. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
17 Taklamakan Desert Cold Winter China
18 Thar Desert Subtropical India and Pakistan
19 Gibson Desert Subtropical Australia
20 Simpson Desert Subtropical Australia
21 Atacama Desert Cool Coastal Chile and Peru
22 Namib Desert Cool Coastal Angola and Namibia
23 Dasht-e Kavir Cold Winter Iran
24 Mojave Desert Subtropical United States
25 Dasht-e Lut Cold Winter Iran
eserL planLs
· Desert plants and animals has most typical
adaptations for conservation of water
· Many desert plants have reduced scaly
leaves to cut down loss of water due to
· %hey may have succulent leaves to store
· %heir stems get flattened and develop
chlorophyll for photosynthesis
eserL planLs
· Some have deep roots to tap ground water
· Many plants have waxy, thick cuticle over
the leaf to reduce loss of water
· Due to low species diversity, shortage of
water and slow growth rate, desert plants
if face with sever stress takes long time to
eserL 9lanLs
· Many plants are found in the desert.
%hey usually grow close to the ground.
· %hick stem, shallow and wide roots, and
thick skin covered with spines instead of
eserL Anlmals
· 1here are manv anlmals ln Lhe deserLŦ
· 1hev can survlve bv eaLlna oLher anlmals or bv eaLlna
planLs LhaL sLore waLerŦ
· 1o proLecL Lhem from Lhe hoL sunţ Lhev sLav ln Lhe
shade or ln Lhelr shelLerŦ
· 1hev usuallv llve lnslde burrows where humldlLv ls
beLLer and heaL ls lessŦ
· Anlmals mav bulld Lhelr shelLers lnslde planLsŦ
· Some anlmals sleep durlna Lhe dav and are acLlve aL
· Some anlmals have hard shells Lo proLecL Lhem from
loslna much waLerŦ
· eserL soll ls rlch ln nuLrlenLs buL deflclenL ln waLerŦ
Gila monster (lizard)

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