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Dr. S. Cruz-Pol

INEL 6216

University of Puerto Rico

Mayagez

Waveguide components

Figures from: www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/waveguide.cfm

Rectangular waveguide

Waveguide to coax adapter

E-tee Waveguide bends

More waveguides

http://www.tallguide.com/Waveguidelinearity.html

Uses

To reduce attenuation loss

High frequencies

High power

Can operate only above certain

frequencies

Acts as a High-pass filter

Normally circular or rectangular

We will assume lossless rectangular

Rectangular WG

Need to find the fields

components of the

em wave inside the

waveguide

E

z

H

z

E

x

H

x

E

y

H

y

Well find that

waveguides dont

support TEM waves

http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/D.Jefferies/wguide.html

Rectangular Waveguides:

Fields inside

Using phasors & assuming waveguide

filled with

lossless dielectric material and

walls of perfect conductor,

the wave inside should obey

c

k

H k H

E k E

QI [

2 2

2 2

2 2

where

0

0

=

= + \

= + \

Then applying on the z-component

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

: obtain we where from

) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (

: Variables of Separation of method by Solving

0

k

Z

Z

Y

Y

X

X

z Z y Y x X z y x E

E k

z

E

y

E

x

E

'' '' ''

z

z

z z z

= + +

=

= +

0

2 2

= + \

z z

E k E

Fields inside the waveguide

0

0

0

: s expression in the results which

2

2

2

2 2 2 2

2

=

= +

= +

= +

= + +

Z Z

Y k Y

X k X

k k k

k

Z

Z

Y

Y

X

X

''

y

''

x

''

y x

'' '' ''

z z

y y

x x

e c e c z Z

y k c y k c Y(y)

x k c x k c X(x)

+ =

+ =

+ =

6 5

4 3

2 1

) (

sin cos

sin cos

2 2 2 2 2

y x

k k k h + = + =

Substituting

z z

y y

x x

e c e c z Z

y k c y k c Y(y)

x k c x k c X(x)

+ =

+ =

+ =

6 5

4 3

2 1

) (

sin cos

sin cos

) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , ( z Z y Y x X z y x E

z

=

) ) )

) )

) )

z

y y x x z

z

y y x x z

z z

y y x x z

e y k B y k B x k B x k B H

e y k A y k A x k A x k A E

z

e c e c y k c y k c x k c x k c E

+ + =

+ + =

+

+ + + =

sin cos sin cos

, field magnetic for the Similarly

sin cos sin cos

: direction - in traveling wave at the looking only If

sin cos sin cos

4 3 2 1

4 3 2 1

6 5 4 3 2 1

Other components

From Faraday and Ampere Laws we can find the

remaining four components:

2 2 2 2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

y x

z z

y

z z

x

z z

y

z z

x

k k k h

where

y

H

h x

E

h

j

H

x

H

h y

E

h

j

H

x

H

h

j

y

E

h

E

y

H

h

j

x

E

h

E

+ = + =

[I

[I

[Q

[Q

*So once we know

E

z

and H

z

, we can

find all the other

fields.

Modes of propagation

From these equations we can conclude:

TEM (E

z

=H

z

=0) cant propagate.

TE (E

z

=0) transverse electric

In TE mode, the electric lines of flux are

perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide

TM (H

z

=0) transverse magnetic, E

z

exists

In TM mode, the magnetic lines of flux are

perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide.

HE hybrid modes in which all components

exists

TM Mode

Boundary

conditions:

,a x E

,b y E

z

z

0 at 0

0 at 0

= =

= =

Figure from: www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~microwave/programs/magnetic/rect/info.htm

) )

z

y y x x z

e y k A y k A x k A x k A E

+ + = sin cos sin cos

4 3 2 1

) )

z j

y x z

e y k x k A A E

F

= sin sin

4 2

From these, we conclude:

X(x) is in the form of sin k

x

x,

where k

x

=mT/a, m=1,2,3,

Y(y) is in the form of sin k

y

y,

where k

y

=nT/b, n=1,2,3,

So the solution for E

z

(x,y,z) is

TM Mode

Substituting

2 2

2

sin sin

=

b

n

a

m

h

where

e y

b

n

x

a

m

E E

z j

o z

T T

T T

F

2 2

k + =

TM

mn

Other components are

x

E

h

j

H

y

E

h

j

H

y

E

h

E

x

E

h

E

z

y

z

x

z

y

z

x

=

2

2

2

2

[I

[I

z

o y

z

o x

z

o y

z

o x

e

b

y n

a

x m

E

a

m

h

j

H

e

b

y n

a

x m

E

b

n

h

j

H

e

b

y n

a

x m

E

b

n

h

E

e

b

y n

a

x m

E

a

m

h

E

T T T [I

T T T [I

T T T

T T T

=

sin cos

cos sin

cos sin

sin cos

2

2

2

2

0

sin sin

=

=

z

z j

o z

H

e y

b

n

x

a

m

E E

F

T T

TM modes

The m and n represent the mode of propagation

and indicates the number of variations of the

field in the x and y directions

Note that for the TM mode, if n or m is zero, all

fields are zero.

See applet by Paul Falstad

http://www.falstad.com/embox/guide.html

TM Cutoff

The cutoff frequency occurs when

Evanescent:

Means no propagation, everything is attenuated

Propagation:

This is the case we are interested since is when the wave is allowed to

travel through the guide.

)

QI [

T T

2

2 2

2 2 2

=

+ =

b

n

a

m

k k k

y x

2 2

2 2

2

1

2

1

or

0 then When

=

= + =

=

b

n

a

m

f

j

b

n

a

m

c

c

T T

QI T

F E

T T

QI [

0 and When

2 2

2

= =

F E

T T

QI [

b

n

a

m

0 and When

2 2

2

= =

" E F

T T

QI [ j

b

n

a

m

Cutoff

The cutoff frequency is the frequency

below which attenuation occurs and above

which propagation takes place. (High Pass)

The phase constant becomes

2

2 2

2

1 '

=

f

f

b

n

a

m

c

F

T T

QI [ F

2 2

2

'

=

b

n

a

m u

f

mn c

f

c,mn

attenuation Propagation

of mode mn

Phase velocity and impedance

The phase velocity is defined as

And the intrinsic impedance of the mode

is

f

u

u

p

p

= = =

F

T

P

F

[ 2

'

2

1 '

= = =

f

f

H

E

H

E

c

x

y

y

x

TM

L L

Summary of TM modes

Wave in the dielectric

medium

Inside the waveguide

I Q L / ' =

QI [ [ F = = ' / ' u

2

1 '

=

f

f

c

TM

L L

2

1

'

=

f

f

c

P

P

F [

F

[

/

1 '

2

=

=

f

f

u

c

p

2

1 '

=

f

f

c

F F

f u / ' ' = P

QI P F [ / 1 ' / ' = = = f u

Related example of how fields look:

Parallel plate waveguide - TM modes

T

=

a

x m

sin A E

z

) z t j

e

F [

0 a x

m = 1

m = 2

m = 3

x

z

a

E

z

TE Mode

Boundary

conditions:

,a x E

,b y E

y

x

0 at 0

0 at 0

= =

= =

Figure from: www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~microwave/programs/magnetic/rect/info.htm

) )

z j

y x z

e y k x k B B H

F

= cos cos

3 1

From these, we conclude:

X(x) is in the form of cos k

x

x,

where k

x

=mT/a, m=0,1,2,3,

Y(y) is in the form of cos k

y

y,

where k

y

=nT/b, n=0,1,2,3,

So the solution for E

z

(x,y,z) is

) )

z

y y x x z

e y k B y k B x k B x k B H

+ + = sin cos sin cos

4 3 2 1

TE Mode

Substituting

Note that n and m cannot be both zero

because the fields will all be zero.

2 2

2

again where

cos cos

=

b

n

a

m

h

e y

b

n

a

x m

H H

z j

o z

T T

T T

F

TE

mn

Other components are

z

o y

z

o x

z

o y

z

o x

e

b

y n

a

x m

H

b

n

h

j

H

e

b

y n

a

x m

H

a

m

h

j

H

e

b

y n

a

x m

H

a

m

h

j

E

e

b

y n

a

x m

H

b

n

h

j

E

T T T F

T T T F

T T T [Q

T T T [Q

=

sin cos

cos sin

cos sin

sin cos

2

2

2

2

0

cos cos

=

=

z

z j

o z

E

e y

b

n

x

a

m

H H

F

T T

y

H

h

H

x

H

h

H

x

H

h

j

E

y

H

h

j

E

z

y

z

x

z

y

z

x

=

2

2

2

2

[Q

[Q

Cutoff

The cutoff frequency is the same

expression as for the TM mode

But the lowest attainable frequencies are

lowest because here n or m can be zero.

2 2

2

'

=

b

n

a

m u

f

mn c

f

c,mn

attenuation Propagation

of mode mn

Dominant Mode

The dominant mode is the mode with

lowest cutoff frequency.

Its always TE

10

The order of the next modes change

depending on the dimensions of the

guide.

Summary of TE modes

Wave in the dielectric

medium

Inside the waveguide

I Q L / ' =

QI [ [ F = = ' / ' u

2

1

'

=

f

f

c

TE

L

L

2

1

'

=

f

f

c

P

P

F [

F

[

/

1 '

2

=

=

f

f

u

c

p

2

1 '

=

f

f

c

F F

f u / ' ' = P

QI P F [ / 1 ' / ' = = = f u

Variation of wave impedance

Wave impedance varies with

frequency and mode

L

TE

L

TM

L

f

c,mn

Example:

Consider a length of air-filled copper X-band

waveguide, with dimensions a=2.286cm,

b=1.016cm operating at 10GHz. Find the

cutoff frequencies of all possible propagating

modes.

Solution:

From the formula for the cut-off frequency

2 2

2

'

=

b

n

a

m u

f

mn

c

Example

An air-filled 5-by 2-cm waveguide has

at 15GHz

What mode is being propagated?

Find F

Determine E

y

/E

x

) ) V/m 50 sin 40 sin 20

z j

z

e y x E

F

T T

=

Group velocity, u

g

Is the velocity at which

the energy travels.

It is always less than u

=

=

s

m

f

f

u u

c

g

rad/m

rad/s

1 '

/

1

2

[ F

)

2

' u u u

g p

=

z

o y

e

a

x m

H

a h

j

E

T T [Q

= sin

2

http://www.tpub.com/content/et/14092/css/14092_71.htm

Group Velocity

As frequency is increased,

the group velocity increases.

Power transmission

The average Poynting vector for the waveguide

fields is

where L = L

TE

or L

TM

depending on the mode

? A ? A

z

E E

H E H E H E

y x

x y y x ave

2

Re

2

1

Re

2

1

2

2

* *

*

L

+

=

= - = P

= =

+

= =

a

x

b

y

y x

ave ave

dx dy

E E

dS P

0 0

2

2

2L

P

[W/m

2

]

[W]

Attenuation in Lossy

waveguide

When dielectric inside guide is lossy, and walls

are not perfect conductors, power is lost as it

travels along guide.

The loss power is

Where E=E

c

+E

d

are the attenuation due to ohmic

(conduction) and dielectric losses

Usually E

c

>> E

d

z

o ave

e P P

E 2

=

ave

ave

L

P

dz

dP

P E 2 = =

Attenuation for TE

10

Dielectric attenuation, Np/m

Conductor attenuation, Np/m

2

1 2

'

=

f

f

c

d

WL

E

=

2

10 ,

2

10 ,

5 . 0

1 '

2

f

f

a

b

f

f

b

R

c

c

s

c

L

E

Dielectric

conductivity!

Waveguide Cavities

Cavities, or resonators, are

used for storing energy

Used in klystron tubes,

band-pass filters and

frequency meters

Its equivalent to a RLC

circuit at high frequency

Their shape is that of a

cavity, either cylindrical or

cubical.

Cavity TM Mode to z

: obtain we where from

) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (

: Variables of Separation by Solving

z Z y Y x X z y x E

z

=

z k c z k c z Z

y k c y k c Y(y)

x k c x k c X(x)

z z

y y

x x

sin cos ) (

sin cos

sin cos

6 5

4 3

2 1

+ =

+ =

+ =

2

2 2 2

z y x

k k k k where + + =

TM

mnp

Boundary Conditions

,c z E E

,a x E

,b y E

x y

z

z

0 at , 0

0 at 0

0 at 0

= = =

= =

= =

From these, we conclude:

k

x

=mT/a

k

y

=nT/b

k

z

=pT/c

where c is the dimension in z-axis

QI [

T T T

T T T

2

2 2 2

2

sin sin sin

=

=

c

p

b

n

a

m

k

where

c

z p

b

y n

a

x m

E E

o z

c

Resonant frequency

The resonant frequency is the same

for TM or TE modes, except that the

lowest-order TM is TM

111

and the

lowest-order in TE is TE

101

.

2 2 2

2

'

=

c

p

b

n

a

m u

f

r

Cavity TE Mode to z

: obtain we where from

) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (

: Variables of Separation by Solving

z Z y Y x X z y x H

z

=

z k c z k c z Z

y k c y k c Y(y)

x k c x k c X(x)

z z

y y

x x

sin cos ) (

sin cos

sin cos

6 5

4 3

2 1

+ =

+ =

+ =

2

2 2 2

z y x

k k k k where + + =

TE

mnp

Boundary Conditions

,b y E

,a x E

,c z H

x

y

z

0 at , 0

0 at 0

0 at 0

= =

= =

= =

From these, we conclude:

k

x

=mT/a

k

y

=nT/b

k

z

=pT/c

where c is the dimension in z-axis

=

c

y p

b

y n

a

x m

H H

o z

T T T

sin cos cos

c

Quality Factor, Q

The cavity has walls with finite

conductivity and is therefore losing

stored energy.

The quality factor, Q, characterized the

loss and also the bandwidth of the

cavity resonator.

Dielectric cavities are used for

resonators, amplifiers and oscillators at

microwave frequencies.

A dielectric resonator antenna

with a cap for measuring the

radiation efficiency

Univ. of Mississippi

Quality Factor, Q

Is defined as

)

) ) ? A

2 2 3 3

2 2

101

2

TE mode dominant For the

101

c a ac c a b

abc c a

Q

TE

+ + +

+

=

o

c o

f

where

W Q T

o

101

1

=

L

P

W

lation e of oscil y per cycl loss energ

stored ge energy Time avera

Q

T 2

2

=

=

Example

For a cavity of dimensions; 3cm x 2cm x 7cm filled with

air and made of copper (W

c

=5.8 x 10

7

)

Find the resonant frequency and the quality factor

for the dominant mode.

Answer:

GHz f

r

44 . 5

7

1

2

0

3

1

2

10 3

2 2 2

10

=

=

6

9

10 6 . 1

) 10 44 . 5 (

1

=

=

c o

W Q

o

)

) ) ? A

378 , 568

7 3 7 3 7 3 2 2

7 2 3 7 3

2 2 3 3

2 2

101

=

+ + +

+

=

o

TE

Q

GHz f

r

9

7

0

2

1

3

1

2

10 3

2 2 2

10

110

=

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