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Rectangular Waveguides

Dr. S. Cruz-Pol
INEL 6216
University of Puerto Rico
Mayagez
Waveguide components
Figures from: www.microwaves101.com/encyclopedia/waveguide.cfm
Rectangular waveguide
Waveguide to coax adapter
E-tee Waveguide bends
More waveguides
http://www.tallguide.com/Waveguidelinearity.html
Uses
To reduce attenuation loss
High frequencies
High power
Can operate only above certain
frequencies
Acts as a High-pass filter
Normally circular or rectangular
We will assume lossless rectangular
Rectangular WG
Need to find the fields
components of the
em wave inside the
waveguide
E
z
H
z
E
x
H
x
E
y
H
y
Well find that
waveguides dont
support TEM waves
http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/D.Jefferies/wguide.html
Rectangular Waveguides:
Fields inside
Using phasors & assuming waveguide
filled with
lossless dielectric material and
walls of perfect conductor,
the wave inside should obey
c
k
H k H
E k E
QI [
2 2
2 2
2 2
where
0
0
=
= + \
= + \
Then applying on the z-component
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
: obtain we where from
) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
: Variables of Separation of method by Solving
0
k
Z
Z
Y
Y
X
X
z Z y Y x X z y x E
E k
z
E
y
E
x
E
'' '' ''
z
z
z z z
= + +
=
= +

0
2 2
= + \
z z
E k E
Fields inside the waveguide
0
0
0
: s expression in the results which
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
=
= +
= +
= +
= + +
Z Z
Y k Y
X k X
k k k
k
Z
Z
Y
Y
X
X
''
y
''
x
''
y x
'' '' ''

z z
y y
x x
e c e c z Z
y k c y k c Y(y)
x k c x k c X(x)

+ =
+ =
+ =
6 5
4 3
2 1
) (
sin cos
sin cos
2 2 2 2 2
y x
k k k h + = + =
Substituting
z z
y y
x x
e c e c z Z
y k c y k c Y(y)
x k c x k c X(x)

+ =
+ =
+ =
6 5
4 3
2 1
) (
sin cos
sin cos
) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , ( z Z y Y x X z y x E
z
=
) ) )
) )
) )
z
y y x x z
z
y y x x z
z z
y y x x z
e y k B y k B x k B x k B H
e y k A y k A x k A x k A E
z
e c e c y k c y k c x k c x k c E

+ + =
+ + =
+
+ + + =
sin cos sin cos
, field magnetic for the Similarly
sin cos sin cos
: direction - in traveling wave at the looking only If
sin cos sin cos
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
6 5 4 3 2 1
Other components
From Faraday and Ampere Laws we can find the
remaining four components:
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
y x
z z
y
z z
x
z z
y
z z
x
k k k h
where
y
H
h x
E
h
j
H
x
H
h y
E
h
j
H
x
H
h
j
y
E
h
E
y
H
h
j
x
E
h
E
+ = + =

[I
[I
[Q
[Q
*So once we know
E
z
and H
z
, we can
find all the other
fields.
Modes of propagation
From these equations we can conclude:
TEM (E
z
=H
z
=0) cant propagate.
TE (E
z
=0) transverse electric
In TE mode, the electric lines of flux are
perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide
TM (H
z
=0) transverse magnetic, E
z
exists
In TM mode, the magnetic lines of flux are
perpendicular to the axis of the waveguide.
HE hybrid modes in which all components
exists
TM Mode
Boundary
conditions:
,a x E
,b y E
z
z
0 at 0
0 at 0
= =
= =
Figure from: www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~microwave/programs/magnetic/rect/info.htm
) )
z
y y x x z
e y k A y k A x k A x k A E

+ + = sin cos sin cos
4 3 2 1
) )
z j
y x z
e y k x k A A E
F
= sin sin
4 2
From these, we conclude:
X(x) is in the form of sin k
x
x,
where k
x
=mT/a, m=1,2,3,
Y(y) is in the form of sin k
y
y,
where k
y
=nT/b, n=1,2,3,
So the solution for E
z
(x,y,z) is
TM Mode
Substituting
2 2
2
sin sin

=

b
n
a
m
h
where
e y
b
n
x
a
m
E E
z j
o z
T T
T T
F
2 2
k + =
TM
mn
Other components are
x
E
h
j
H
y
E
h
j
H
y
E
h
E
x
E
h
E
z
y
z
x
z
y
z
x

=
2
2
2
2
[I
[I

z
o y
z
o x
z
o y
z
o x
e
b
y n
a
x m
E
a
m
h
j
H
e
b
y n
a
x m
E
b
n
h
j
H
e
b
y n
a
x m
E
b
n
h
E
e
b
y n
a
x m
E
a
m
h
E

T T T [I
T T T [I
T T T
T T T

=
sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
2
2
2
2
0
sin sin
=

=

z
z j
o z
H
e y
b
n
x
a
m
E E
F
T T
TM modes
The m and n represent the mode of propagation
and indicates the number of variations of the
field in the x and y directions
Note that for the TM mode, if n or m is zero, all
fields are zero.
See applet by Paul Falstad
http://www.falstad.com/embox/guide.html
TM Cutoff
The cutoff frequency occurs when
Evanescent:
Means no propagation, everything is attenuated
Propagation:
This is the case we are interested since is when the wave is allowed to
travel through the guide.
)
QI [
T T

2
2 2
2 2 2

=
+ =
b
n
a
m
k k k
y x
2 2
2 2
2
1
2
1
or
0 then When

=
= + =

=
b
n
a
m
f
j
b
n
a
m
c
c
T T
QI T
F E
T T
QI [
0 and When
2 2
2
= =

F E
T T
QI [
b
n
a
m
0 and When
2 2
2
= =

" E F
T T
QI [ j
b
n
a
m
Cutoff
The cutoff frequency is the frequency
below which attenuation occurs and above
which propagation takes place. (High Pass)
The phase constant becomes
2
2 2
2
1 '

=
f
f
b
n
a
m
c
F
T T
QI [ F
2 2
2
'

=
b
n
a
m u
f
mn c
f
c,mn
attenuation Propagation
of mode mn
Phase velocity and impedance
The phase velocity is defined as
And the intrinsic impedance of the mode
is
f
u
u
p
p
= = =
F
T
P
F
[ 2
'
2
1 '

= = =
f
f
H
E
H
E
c
x
y
y
x
TM
L L
Summary of TM modes
Wave in the dielectric
medium
Inside the waveguide
I Q L / ' =
QI [ [ F = = ' / ' u
2
1 '

=
f
f
c
TM
L L
2
1
'

=
f
f
c
P
P
F [
F
[
/
1 '
2
=

=
f
f
u
c
p
2
1 '

=
f
f
c
F F
f u / ' ' = P
QI P F [ / 1 ' / ' = = = f u
Related example of how fields look:
Parallel plate waveguide - TM modes

T
=
a
x m
sin A E
z
) z t j
e
F [
0 a x
m = 1
m = 2
m = 3
x
z
a
E
z
TE Mode
Boundary
conditions:
,a x E
,b y E
y
x
0 at 0
0 at 0
= =
= =
Figure from: www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~microwave/programs/magnetic/rect/info.htm
) )
z j
y x z
e y k x k B B H
F
= cos cos
3 1
From these, we conclude:
X(x) is in the form of cos k
x
x,
where k
x
=mT/a, m=0,1,2,3,
Y(y) is in the form of cos k
y
y,
where k
y
=nT/b, n=0,1,2,3,
So the solution for E
z
(x,y,z) is
) )
z
y y x x z
e y k B y k B x k B x k B H

+ + = sin cos sin cos
4 3 2 1
TE Mode
Substituting
Note that n and m cannot be both zero
because the fields will all be zero.
2 2
2
again where
cos cos

=

b
n
a
m
h
e y
b
n
a
x m
H H
z j
o z
T T
T T
F
TE
mn
Other components are
z
o y
z
o x
z
o y
z
o x
e
b
y n
a
x m
H
b
n
h
j
H
e
b
y n
a
x m
H
a
m
h
j
H
e
b
y n
a
x m
H
a
m
h
j
E
e
b
y n
a
x m
H
b
n
h
j
E

T T T F
T T T F
T T T [Q
T T T [Q

=
sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
2
2
2
2
0
cos cos
=

=

z
z j
o z
E
e y
b
n
x
a
m
H H
F
T T
y
H
h
H
x
H
h
H
x
H
h
j
E
y
H
h
j
E
z
y
z
x
z
y
z
x

=
2
2
2
2

[Q
[Q
Cutoff
The cutoff frequency is the same
expression as for the TM mode
But the lowest attainable frequencies are
lowest because here n or m can be zero.
2 2
2
'

=
b
n
a
m u
f
mn c
f
c,mn
attenuation Propagation
of mode mn
Dominant Mode
The dominant mode is the mode with
lowest cutoff frequency.
Its always TE
10
The order of the next modes change
depending on the dimensions of the
guide.
Summary of TE modes
Wave in the dielectric
medium
Inside the waveguide
I Q L / ' =
QI [ [ F = = ' / ' u
2
1
'

=
f
f
c
TE
L
L
2
1
'

=
f
f
c
P
P
F [
F
[
/
1 '
2
=

=
f
f
u
c
p
2
1 '

=
f
f
c
F F
f u / ' ' = P
QI P F [ / 1 ' / ' = = = f u
Variation of wave impedance
Wave impedance varies with
frequency and mode
L
TE
L
TM
L

f
c,mn
Example:
Consider a length of air-filled copper X-band
waveguide, with dimensions a=2.286cm,
b=1.016cm operating at 10GHz. Find the
cutoff frequencies of all possible propagating
modes.
Solution:
From the formula for the cut-off frequency
2 2
2
'

=
b
n
a
m u
f
mn
c
Example
An air-filled 5-by 2-cm waveguide has
at 15GHz
What mode is being propagated?
Find F
Determine E
y
/E
x
) ) V/m 50 sin 40 sin 20
z j
z
e y x E
F
T T

=
Group velocity, u
g
Is the velocity at which
the energy travels.
It is always less than u

=

=
s
m
f
f
u u
c
g
rad/m
rad/s
1 '
/
1
2
[ F
)
2
' u u u
g p
=
z
o y
e
a
x m
H
a h
j
E

T T [Q

= sin
2
http://www.tpub.com/content/et/14092/css/14092_71.htm
Group Velocity
As frequency is increased,
the group velocity increases.
Power transmission
The average Poynting vector for the waveguide
fields is
where L = L
TE
or L
TM
depending on the mode
? A ? A
z
E E
H E H E H E
y x
x y y x ave

2
Re
2
1
Re
2
1
2
2
* *
*
L
+
=
= - = P

= =
+
= =
a
x
b
y
y x
ave ave
dx dy
E E
dS P
0 0
2
2
2L
P
[W/m
2
]
[W]
Attenuation in Lossy
waveguide
When dielectric inside guide is lossy, and walls
are not perfect conductors, power is lost as it
travels along guide.
The loss power is
Where E=E
c
+E
d
are the attenuation due to ohmic
(conduction) and dielectric losses
Usually E
c
>> E
d
z
o ave
e P P
E 2
=
ave
ave
L
P
dz
dP
P E 2 = =
Attenuation for TE
10
Dielectric attenuation, Np/m
Conductor attenuation, Np/m
2
1 2
'

=
f
f
c
d
WL
E

=
2
10 ,
2
10 ,
5 . 0
1 '
2
f
f
a
b
f
f
b
R
c
c
s
c
L
E
Dielectric
conductivity!
Waveguide Cavities
Cavities, or resonators, are
used for storing energy
Used in klystron tubes,
band-pass filters and
frequency meters
Its equivalent to a RLC
circuit at high frequency
Their shape is that of a
cavity, either cylindrical or
cubical.
Cavity TM Mode to z
: obtain we where from
) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
: Variables of Separation by Solving
z Z y Y x X z y x E
z
=
z k c z k c z Z
y k c y k c Y(y)
x k c x k c X(x)
z z
y y
x x
sin cos ) (
sin cos
sin cos
6 5
4 3
2 1
+ =
+ =
+ =
2
2 2 2
z y x
k k k k where + + =
TM
mnp
Boundary Conditions
,c z E E
,a x E
,b y E
x y
z
z
0 at , 0
0 at 0
0 at 0
= = =
= =
= =
From these, we conclude:
k
x
=mT/a
k
y
=nT/b
k
z
=pT/c
where c is the dimension in z-axis
QI [
T T T
T T T
2
2 2 2
2
sin sin sin
=

=
c
p
b
n
a
m
k
where
c
z p
b
y n
a
x m
E E
o z
c
Resonant frequency
The resonant frequency is the same
for TM or TE modes, except that the
lowest-order TM is TM
111
and the
lowest-order in TE is TE
101
.
2 2 2
2
'

=
c
p
b
n
a
m u
f
r
Cavity TE Mode to z
: obtain we where from
) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , (
: Variables of Separation by Solving
z Z y Y x X z y x H
z
=
z k c z k c z Z
y k c y k c Y(y)
x k c x k c X(x)
z z
y y
x x
sin cos ) (
sin cos
sin cos
6 5
4 3
2 1
+ =
+ =
+ =
2
2 2 2
z y x
k k k k where + + =
TE
mnp
Boundary Conditions
,b y E
,a x E
,c z H
x
y
z
0 at , 0
0 at 0
0 at 0
= =
= =
= =
From these, we conclude:
k
x
=mT/a
k
y
=nT/b
k
z
=pT/c
where c is the dimension in z-axis

=
c
y p
b
y n
a
x m
H H
o z
T T T
sin cos cos
c
Quality Factor, Q
The cavity has walls with finite
conductivity and is therefore losing
stored energy.
The quality factor, Q, characterized the
loss and also the bandwidth of the
cavity resonator.
Dielectric cavities are used for
resonators, amplifiers and oscillators at
microwave frequencies.
A dielectric resonator antenna
with a cap for measuring the
radiation efficiency
Univ. of Mississippi
Quality Factor, Q
Is defined as
)
) ) ? A
2 2 3 3
2 2
101
2
TE mode dominant For the
101
c a ac c a b
abc c a
Q
TE
+ + +
+
=
o
c o
f
where
W Q T
o
101
1
=
L
P
W
lation e of oscil y per cycl loss energ
stored ge energy Time avera
Q
T 2
2
=
=
Example
For a cavity of dimensions; 3cm x 2cm x 7cm filled with
air and made of copper (W
c
=5.8 x 10
7
)
Find the resonant frequency and the quality factor
for the dominant mode.
Answer:
GHz f
r
44 . 5
7
1
2
0
3
1
2
10 3
2 2 2
10
=

=
6
9
10 6 . 1
) 10 44 . 5 (
1

=

=
c o
W Q
o
)
) ) ? A
378 , 568
7 3 7 3 7 3 2 2
7 2 3 7 3
2 2 3 3
2 2
101
=
+ + +
+
=
o
TE
Q
GHz f
r
9
7
0
2
1
3
1
2
10 3
2 2 2
10
110
=