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International Workshop Intelligent Underwater Systems and Technologies (IPSIT2012)

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing 27 March, 2012, Zagreb

Protection and management of marine environment in Croatia Current activities and plans in line with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and national legislation

Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection Department for Sea and Coast Protection Sandra Troselj Stanisic, Senior Adviser

Regulation establishing a framework for action of the Republic of Croatia in the field of marine environment protection (OG 136/11)

Institutional framework
Marine strategy
development action programs implementation Regional/subregional approach Activities on the nationa/regional/subregional level Relation of MSFD in the context of existing EU policies

Croatian contingency system for accidental marine pollution

Concluding remarks

Regulation establishing a framework for action of the Republic of Croatia in the field of marine environment protection (OG 136/11) legal framework

Environmental Act (OG 110/07), (Art. 19.(2)., 48. i 49.)

Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy- MSFD (OJ L 164 25 June 2008)
Commission Decision 2010/477/EU on criteria and methodological standards on good environmental status of marine waters (OJ L 232 1 September 2010) Common understanding documents EC guiding documents (non-obligatory) for implementation of various MSFD aspects

EU Common Water Policy

Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EZ) MSFD (2008/56/EZ)

Surface waters Underground waters

Coastal waters

Teritorial sea

Pressures on the sea

LB pressures

Protected economic zone

Adriatic river basin district management plan

Marine strategy (including Programmes of measures and Monitoring and Observation System)


Regulation (scope):
Establishment of framework (initial bases and criteria) for Marine Strategy development, implementation and monitoring. Geographical coverage areas which are under the sovereignty of the RC and in which the RC exercises sovereign rights and jurisdiction Marine Strategy a tool for achieving/maintaining GES of marine environment by 2020

General goals include goals defined in:

MSFD Regional initiative UNEP/MAP Road map for EBM National strategic documents

Regulation (general goals):

to protect, preserve and enable recovery, and where practicable, restore the structure and functions of marine and coastal ecosystems and to protect biodiversity and sustainable use; to preserve marine protected areas and ecologically significant regions of the European Union NATURA 2000 network ; to reduce pollution and inputs in the marine and coastal environment so as to ensure that there are no significant adverse impacts on or risks to human health and/or marine ecosystems and/or uses of the sea and coast; to preserve, improve and restore the balance between human activities and natural resources in the sea and on the coasts

Institutional framework
Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection (MENP) (coordination)
Other competent bodies
ministries, state institutes, legal person with public responsibilities, scientific institutes

Implementing bodies
Coordination Commission National Committee for implementation of the tasks laid down in Regulation and for development and implementation of the Marine Strategy (National Committee) Working bodies

Marine Strategy development:

Preparatory documents: Initial Assessment of the marine environmental status (state, pressures, economic-social analysis) Set of characteristics for GES Set of environmental targets (ET) and indicators

Action programmes: Monitoring and observation system - for on-going assessment and regular updating of targets Programme of measures - to achieve and/or maintain GES

Plan of action for development of Marine Strategy

2012 IA - finalized Set of characteristics for GES-determined Set of ET established 2014 Monitoring and observation system established and implemented 2015 Programme of measures established 2016 Programme of measures beginning of implementation

Marine Strategy development - IA

Preparation : based on existing data applying consistent and comparable methodology (sub/regional approach) includes: 1. analysis of the essential features and characteristics of the current environmental status of the marine waters 2. analysis of the predominant pressures and impacts on the environmental status of the marine waters (cumulative and synergetic effects)

3. economic and social analysis of the use of the marine waters and of the cost of degradation of the marine environment - assessment of direct/indirect profit from ecosystem goods and services - analyses of cost of degradation (selection of approach!) -link with programme of measures (cost-benefit analysis of measures) -support decision making and programme of measures

Activities- national level

Draft of the Initial assessment of the state and pressures on the marine environment in Croatian part of the Adriatic (currently in consultation procedure)

In preparation TORs for:

Economic and social analysis of the use of the marine environment and of the cost of its degradation Determination of GES and Environmental targets (ET)


Topography and bathymetry of the seabed Geological features of the seabed Movements of water masses Thermohaline features Chemical parameters (pH, oxygen, nutrients) 2. 3. HABITAT TYPES BIOLOGICAL FEATURES Short-living single-celled organisms (bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton) Benthos communities (macro algae, angiosperms, invertebrate) Structure of fish population (demersal, pelagic and i coastal) POLLUTANTS (heavy metal, organotin compounds, POPs), 3. 1.


PHYSICAL LOSSES AND DAMAGE (construction activities, impacts of fisheries, mariclture, maritime traffic etc.)


CONTAMINATION BY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (pesticides, antifouling substances, heavy metals)

NUTRIENT AND ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT (input of fertilizers and other nitrogen and phosphorus-rich substances, inputs from point and diffuse sources, riverine inputs, eutrophication: TRIX index) BIOLOGICAL DISTURBANCE (introduction of microbial pathogens, introduction of NIS, impact of accidental catch on large marine vertebrates)




Marine Strategy development - Set of characteristics for GES

Based on: IA 11 qualitative descriptors -descriptive outline of good marine environmental status Commission Decision 2010/477/EU Sub/regional cooperation Base for: Defining ET Allowing comparison to which extend GES is achieved

Marine Strategy development determining of GES

Commission Decision 2010/477/EU Criteria for assessing the extent to which good environmental status is being achieved in relation to each of the eleven descriptors of good environmental status
1 Biodiversity 2 NIS 3 Commercial fish/shellfish 4 Food web 5 Eutrophication 6 Seafloor integrity 7 Hydrographical conditions 8 Contaminants 9 Contaminants in seafood 10 Marine litter 11 Energy

28 criteria
linked with related 56 indicators (to make such criteria operational and allow subsequent progress) linked with references to applicable methodological standards (where available) need for further development and additional information (revision of Decision)

Set of ET
qualitative or quantitative statement on the desired condition of different components of marine waters, and pressures and impacts on them

enables regular marine waters assessment

Based on: IA and GES characteristics Existing ET for marine environment Sub/regional cooperation

Monitoring and observation system and Programes of measures

Monitoring and observation system
Baseline for:
Assessments Achieving ET Implementation of measures Based on : IA, Set of ET compatible within the marine subregion and marine region combining and harmonization of existing national monitoring programs and databases taking into consideration obligations from WFD, Bird Directive, Habitat Directive, regional monitoring programmes etc.

Programes of measures
Based on :
IA, Set of ET using integrative (existing national/international measures and transboundary impacts) and adaptable approach measures impact assessment, cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility analysis

Marine Strategy - Implementation Reviewing successively every 6 years New Assessment (2018) new management cycle

Other: Public information and consultation Reporting

Marine Strategy - Implementation Regional approach (MSFD Art. 4. i 6.)

Coordinated development and implementation of marine strategies in defined marine region (Mediterranean) and subregion (Adriatic Sea) Why? To achieve consistency and coherence at different levels in marine environment: - assessing - monitoring -measure implementation and to allow comparison of the extent to which GES is achieved Relevant framework of cooperation:
UNEP/MAP (region) Joint Commission for the Protection of the Adriatic Sea and Its Coastal Area (subregion)

Activities- regional level

UNEP/MAP implementation of the Road Map for EBM (Decision IG 17/6 -15 Ordinary Meeting, Almeria, January 2008)
Step 3. - Identification of the important ecosystem properties and pressures under which initial assessment is being carried out by the UNEP/MAP Secretariat in collaboration with CPs
Initial integrated Assessment of the Mediterranean Sea February 2012

2010-2011 GDE/TE meetings on Step 4 (Development of ecological objectives) and Step 5 (Derivation of operational objectives, indicators and target levels)
Ecological and operational objectives and related indicators February 2012

Work to do on the Step 5, Step 6 (Revision of monitoring programs and updating of targets) and Step 7 (Redrafting of the management plans)

Activities- subregional level

Joint Commission for the Protection of the Adriatic Sea and Its Coastal Areas (dated back to 1977)
Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, Slovenia (B&H and Albaniaso far observers)

Joint position about cooperation regarding implementation of MSFD and UNEP/MAP EBM Road map
2008 Sub-commission for harmonization of evaluation methods and development of indicators for the purpose of assessing the marine environment of the Adriatic. 2011 renamed in Sub-commission for development of Adriatic Marine strategy Exchanging information on indicators

Contaminants D8 Criteria to asses the descriptor Concentrations of contaminants in water, sediment and biota are below threshold values identified on the basis of toxicological data Concentrations of contaminants should not be increasing Levels of pollution effects are below thresholds representing harm at organism, population, community and ecosystem level The occurrence and severity of pollution effects should not be increasing Indicators to be measured Feasibility
(YES, achievable, NO)


Monitoring programme
(institutional or research)

Type of data availabl e Hazardo us substan ces (Heavy metals, organic pollutant s)

Time period covered 1998present

Area Covered hot spots

Freque ncy 1/year hot spots; seasona lly shellfish culture zones

Referen ce web site


Presence of contaminants at concentrations which may adversely impact organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems

Contaminant concentrations and their trends in water, sediment and biota (see (a) and (c) below)

yes in sediment and biota, no in the water

Presence of pollution effects at organism, population, community and ecosystem level


Biomark ers


coastal area

seasona lly

Levels of pollution effects and their trends measured using appropriate methodologies (see (b) and (c) below)


(a)- Relevant contaminants to be identified at EU, regional or subregional level (b)- Relevant biological effects to be identified at EU, regional or subregional level

Marine Litter

(D 10) Feasibilit y
(YES, achie vable , NO)


Criteria to asses the descriptor

Indicators to be measured

Monitoring program me
(institutional or research)

Type of dat a ava ilab le

Time peri od cov ere d

Area Co ver ed

Frequenc y

Referenc e we b site

1) Marine litter in the marine environ ment

Inputs, impacts on aesthetic values, the potential presence of toxic compounds and socioeconomical damage litter dynamics, accumulation areas

Amount, composition and source of litter washed ashore and/or deposited on coastlines Amount, composition and source of litter floating at sea, in the water column and on the sea floor Amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals Amount, composition and source of microparticl es (mainly microplastic

Occasionall y

Occasionall y

2) impacts of litter on marine life

time-trends and spatial variation in inputs and impacts on marine life degradation of marine litter and potential sources of contaminants

Occasionall y



Degrad ation of litter at sea

Activities- subregional level

Subcommisions planned activities in 2012
First step assess and evaluate the already existing data/information in the Mediterranean and define the indicators related to ECAP taking into consideration MSFD
Answer the questions: What do we have? What do we need? Where are the gaps? How to prepare socio-economic analysis? ...

MSFD and other EU policies

expansion of the WFD Environmental pillar of the Integrated maritime Policy (IMP)
Adriatic Sea Monitoring -comprehensive -coherent -modernized

Links with:
Maritime Spatial Planning policy (EC Communication Maritime Spatial Planning in the EU Achievement and future development; COM(2010)771 final) ICZM policy Common Fisheries Policy
EBM ICZM GES of marine environment by 2020

Strengthening o capacities: -administrative -scientific -technical

National legal framework

Biodiversity and nature protection initiatives (EC Communication Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 COM(2011)244 final) ..... Need for harmonization and coordination on the national level of all EU policies related to marine environment

Croatian contingency system for accidental marine pollution National legal framework : Contingency plan for accidental marine pollution (OG 92/08)
prepared based on
Environmental Protection Act (OG 110/07) Maritime Code (OG 181/04, 76/07, 146/08, 61/11)

International framework
Protocol (of Barcelona Convention) concerning Cooperation in Preventing Pollution from Ships and, in Cases of Emergency, Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea (Prevention and Emergency Protocol) (OG IT, 12/03) Agreement on the Sub-regional Contingency Plan for Prevention of, Preparedness for and Response to Major Marine Pollution Incidents in the Adriatic Sea (OG IT, 7/08)

Croatian contingency system for accidental marine pollution Contingency Plan for Accidental Marine Pollution (OG
92/08) - responsibility of the Ministry Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure, MENP and other responsible authorities.

Establishes procedures and measures for:

predicting accidental pollution Monitoring of marine environment Designating and management of PSSAs System for control of marine traffic Technical resources and services for preventing and restricting sea pollution Assessment of risk and sensitivity mapping

preventing and restricting of accidental pollution risk

preparedness for and response to accidental pollution and unusual natural marine phenomenon

Croatian contingency system for accidental marine pollution

Risks and threats for marine pollution- identified in the Plan:

Accidents at sea (ship collision, fire explosion, construction failure, accident during ship operation, accidents on offshore maritime facilities) Accidents on submarine pipelines Sunken ships and aircraft, Unusual natural marine phenomena, Aircraft or helicopter crashes into the sea, Accidents on shore installations and terminals

Croatian contingency system for accidental marine pollution

Implemented in cases of pollution by:

oils and/or oil mixtures hazardous and noxious substances (excluded in county contingency plans) unusual natural marine phenomenon

Entities for the implementation of CP:

Headquarters commanding and coordinating activities Marine Rescue Coordination Centre-Rijeka (MRCC) operational and coordinating activities (operational and coordination activities) County Operational Centre (COC) operational (and commanding) activities

Croatian contingency system for accidental marine pollution

Some of the tasks of the Headquarters / MRCC / COCs are:

Commanding/coordinating activities, Mobilization of available technical and human resources, Surveillance of polluted area, Issuing orders for sampling and analysis of the pollution of marine environment during and after intervention, - Collecting evidences for the purpose of preparation of claims for damage, - Making decisions on methods of pollution removal, - ..

Concluding remarks

Possibilities for use of new technologies in marine environment protection In monitoring activities Intervention activities (specially in cases representing danger to human life- pollution by dangerous and noxious substances) Other (suggestions?)

Concluding remarks

Identified challenges in marine environment protection:

Better integration of science with decision-making Enhance administrative, technical and scientific capacities Improve institutional coordination and cooperation on all levels EBM application on national/regional/local level Financing ...

Thank you for your attention!