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External Guide ─ Professor Dr G. Jagadeesh Internal Guide ─ Ms Roopa K (Sr. Lecturer)
Karthik G.S : 1MV08TE020 Karthik K.S : 1MV08TE021 Kishore K : 1MV08TE023
Real aperture image Generation and correlation study
AIM: To generate radar images as obtained from a missile onboard seeker and use them to apply correlation technique with respect to digitally stored image data for extended target detection. • The study involves generating missile onboard seeker radar image based on simplified geometry and radar parameters as function of different Grazing angles and positions in a missile trajectory.
• Then the generated images are digitally correlated with stored image data to obtain 2D intensity plot of correlation.
•The correlation plots provide the angular errors developed over the flight time of the approaching missile which is then used to correct the flight path during terminal guidance. • This work is to be done using visualization and computation application software with image processing tools (MATLAB).It is software intensive work with application to missile terminal guidance.
PHASES OF WORK COVERED
• Development of radar image simulation tool • Implementation of algorithm for image intensity • Results for Test case involving runway /city landscape
• • RADAR is an abbreviation for RAdio Detection And Ranging. Uses modulated waveforms and directive antennas to transmit electromagnetic energy into a specific volume in space to search for targets. Objects (targets) within a search volume will reflect portions of this energy (radar returns or echoes) back to the radar. Echoes are then processed by the radar receiver to extract target information such as range, velocity, angular position, and other target identifying characteristics. 2 operational types of Radar: Passive Radar Active Radar
Types of RADARS
• Considering the waveforms used, RADARS can be classified as Continuous-wave Radars (CW) Pulsed-Radars (PR) • CW radars are those that continuously emit electromagnetic energy, and use separate transmit and receive antennas. Target range information cannot be extracted without utilizing some form of modulation. Pulsed radars use a train of pulsed waveforms (mainly with modulation). In this category, radar systems can be classified on the basis of the Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF), as low PRF, medium PRF, and high PRF radars. Low PRF radars are primarily used for ranging where target velocity (Doppler shift) is not of interest.
.• During each PRI the radar radiates energy only for τ seconds and listens for target returns for the rest of the PRI.
Imaging RADARS • Imaging radar produces an image in which the digital number(intensity) at each pixel position is determined by the strength of the radar signal reflected from the corresponding location in the scene. depending on the imaging technique used: • Real Aperture Radar(RAR) Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR). Imaging radars can be divided in 2 main categories. .
this is the antenna. For RAR systems. only the amplitude of each echo return is measured and processed • • • • .Real Aperture Radars • Real-aperture radar (RAR) is a form of radar usually implemented by mounting. on a moving platform These are non-coherent which are controlled by the physical length of the antenna It is an active radar because it emits little pulses of energy transmitted from the radar antenna to the piece of terrain which we want to obtain the image Aperture means the opening used to collect the reflected energy that is used to form an image In the case of radar imaging.
.e. The target is illuminated several times from different locations generating numerous echoes that are recorded coherently (i. SAR systems can be either airborne or space borne and are much more complex than the RAR systems • • . amplitude and phase as a function of time) and subsequently combined to synthesize a linear array.Synthetic Aperture Radars • SAR or coherent radars generates high resolution images.
air-to-air. anti-ship.Missiles and its types • A Missile is a self-propelled guided weapon system Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile to its intended target Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface. surface-to-air (anti-aircraft and anti-ballistic). and anti-satellite missiles Surface to surface missile is considered in the study • • Surface to surface missile • . cruise. anti-tank). air-to-surface (ballistic.
may be defined as an application-specific compact missile-borne pulse tracking radar whose antenna is mounted .such that the antenna is isolated from the body movement of the missile.Seeker in Missiles Why seeker in missile? • Because there is uncertainty in the flight path or target location that makes it impossible to achieve the desired accuracy without a seeker. Active Radar seeker . from a radar engineer's view. • • Active radar seekers are the most popular in all the current missile programs owing to their flexibility of design and implementation to suit almost every mission requirement apart from all weather capability. The active radar seeker.
which has units of m² Assume the power density of a wave incident on a target located at range R away from the radar is PDI . The amount of reflected power from the target is: where σ denotes the target cross section • RCS forms a strong function of viewing aspect in 3-D • . σ.Radar Cross Section • The size and ability of a target to reflect radar energy can be summarized into a single term. known as the radar crosssection(RCS).
Parameters affecting RCS • Detection of targets located on the ground. Radar scattering depends on: • • • • Dielectric properties (terrain property) Conductivity(terrain property) Surface roughness/ volume properties (terrain property) Incidence angle /Elevation angle(geometric property) . now called clutter. generally poses more serious challenges because of the randomness of the terrain and the presence of strongly scattering features on the ground which decreases the SNR of the backscattered signal.
Furthermore dependence on: • • Frequency (radar property) Moisture(terrain property) • • Polarization (radar property) Motion (geometry/ trajectory) .
more penetration .Parameters affecting RCS Different surface features exhibit different scattering characteristics: • Urban areas: very strong backscatter Forest: intermediate backscatter Calm water: smooth surface. low backscatter • • • Rough sea: increased backscatter due to wind and current effects More wavelength.
Point targets are those targets whose size is smaller than the beam width. • Extended Target .RADAR Targets There are two types of Radar Target: • Point targets . Backscattering Point Target • Higher σ facilitates point target detection. Extended targets – Extended targets are those targets whose size is larger than the beam width. complete beam filling.
POINT TARGET DETECTION High facilitates point target detection .
EXTENDED TARGET DETECTION Detection based on .
RAR SEEKER IMAGE SYNTHESIS BLOCK DIAGRAM .
The Geometry and Projection block gives the azimuth and elevation angles subtended by the On-board radar with respect to the distributed target of interest. The image generation plot (intensity plot) finally generates the whole frame by weighted averaging method. location. which contributes the Trajectory related information. target type and grazing/depression angle are stored and this is used by σ0 computation block as a lookup corresponding to the input data to calculate σ0. nature of target or surroundings and approaching trajectory data. Experimentally obtained database of radar backscatter strength as a function of frequency. • .RAR SEEKER IMAGE SYNTHESIS • The input includes extended target boundaries. • • • The Blurring module generates the boundary areas separating the regions of varying backscatter. polarization.
a geometric shape of the runway is drawn with a defined boundary. For example. • • . if a runway is situated in a thickly wooded area. This test image is then dynamically filled with gray scale intensity corresponding to the backscatter strength of the runway and the surroundings. For the purpose of generating radar image the rectangular boundaries around distributed target of interest should be specified. Based on this scanning area is marked .Image Generation Procedure • A test image is constructed based on the geometry of the Landscape and its structures.
• • • The scanning interval is the time between two samples taken for processing to generate an image. uniform scan period and beam deceleration period. The radial and azimuthal extent of the surface area that is illuminated by the airborne radar is called as the Radar Footprint. Common Search patterns used are: Raster Spiral Helical and Nodding (Sinusoidal) • The intensity pixels in the images are generated by averaging the backscatter intensities over the area illuminated by the beam (foot print area) The scan angular rate has to be increased as the onboard radar approaches towards target since as beam footprint shrinks more time is needed to generate the complete frame covering the same area of interest. This time includes the beam acceleration period. • .
Raster scanning is a technique for generating or recording a video image by means of a line-by-line sweep. tantamount to a data mapping scheme between one and two dimensional spaces.Raster Scanning in RAR • • Raster Scanning has been employed in this study. . where it turns back on and sweeps out the next line. • In raster scanning. the beam sweeps horizontally left-to-right at a steady rate. then blanks and rapidly moves back to the left.
Search Radar Scan 3D Geometry .
Antenna beam footprint scan pattern without overlap Antenna beam footprint scan pattern without overlap .
These factors can be divided into three parameters and they are : Radar Parameters Geometry/Trajectory Parameters Terrain Parameters .Imaging Parameters • Many factors affect the image generation in a typical Real Aperture Radar (RAR).
factor by which each scan sample overlaps with the other.beam footprint projected on to the land surface. • • • . Beam width . Scan ellipse . Frequency Band –frequency band of the RAR operation.width of the pulses sent out by radar. Pulse width . Pixel per unit distance .width of the beam across the scan direction.width of the beam along the scan direction.Radar parameters The factors that influence the radar image formation: • • • • Beam depth .distance that each pixel in radar represents. Scan overlap Factor .
The angle of onboard radar w.Trajectory Parameters • • • • • • • Elevation angle – The angle of the onboard radar w. • . Azimuth scan range – The angular range in azimuth plane over which the beam moves Length & Depth of the rectangular area to be scanned for imaging.t centroid of target patch. Elevation scan range – The angular range in elevation plane over which the beam moves.r. Velocity missile – Closing velocity of vehicle towards impact point. Azimuth angle . Radar Range – The radial distance from onboard radar to centroid of target patch Scan shift angle – The shift in angle required while changing scan direction.t centroid of target patch in azimuth plane.r.
Terrain Type The type of terrain in which the target/structure of interest resides.Terrain Parameters • Target MCS Number The gray scale representation of the back scatter signal value (mean clutter strength (MCS)) corresponding to distributed land of interest. • • . Background MCS Number The gray scale representation of the terrain background back scatter signal value. Also the MCS number includes the effect of propagation in a given atmosphere.
5 µs 20 dB .5 deg 75 m 64 scans/sec 0. rocky terrain +15 to -35 deg ± 45 deg 60 km Radar range Velocity 60 km max 3*e+8 .5 dB Terrain type (o variation -25dB to -10 dB) Elevation angle scan range Azimuth angle scan range Length of search Fields. grass.IMPORTANT PARAMETERS PARAMETER Beam Depth and Width Range resolution Scan Rate Pulse Width Background Clutter (land o) Target Backscatter (o) TYPICAL VALUES ± 4.
as imaged through a Real Aperture Radar. To obtain 2-Dimensional Correlation plots which are used for extended target detection. • • . Provides the angular errors developed over the flight time of the approaching missile which is then used to correct the flight path during terminal guidance.CORRELATION METHODOLOGY(RAR) • The purpose of the study of Correlation is to evaluate the ‘similarity’ of a chosen ground patch (sub-image) with other parts of a candidate scene.
Stored target image on-board Seeker generated image Normalized correlation Correlation plots .
• .Correlation Methodology • Each image is expressed as a matrix of numbers corresponding to the pixel-wise distribution of intensities (Reflectivities) in the image. it is necessary to ensure that the pixel size in the subimages is identical. To ensure that the two sub-images being correlated are of equal physical size. • The correlation process then reduces to mathematical operations between the elements of matrices representing the two sub-images being correlated.
.. l = height & length (in number of pixels) of the reference subimage NOTE : The full image and the reference subimage will have identical resolution (i. y hl y 1 x 1 I x. y I h l y 1 x 1 R R S S IR where IS 1 h h I R x. y) on the reference sub image Pixel intensity at xth row and yth column IR .e.I s = Averaged image intensity of reference and underlying subimage (x. pixel size) for any beam width of the seeker during Correlation process. y hl y 1 x 1 C = Normalized correlation coefficient between the reference sub image and its underlying sub image at a given location IR = intensity (reflectivity) of pixel ( x.Correlation methodology Correlation (normalized) is performed between the reference subimage and the underlying subimage of equal size. y I h l y 1 x 1 R R 2 1 h l I S x. C I x. using the formula. y I I x.y) = indicates the individual pixel location h.
Composite Image Generation for Test Case Study Generic cityscape used as the larger scene Image of a runway complex which is inserted into the main scene on the bottom right Composite image used for correlation studies .
is demonstrated if the self-correlation of the reference scene is sharp and unambiguous. This. there are no other competing peaks of comparable magnitude in the vicinity of the self-correlation peak.e. This is repeated till the entire row is exhausted.Correlation Process steps The reference sub image is then shifted by one pixel along the horizontal axis and a fresh correlation coefficient value is obtained. . which is shown as intensity variation over the x-y plane. i. and correlated by shifting one pixel at a time along the horizontal axis. The ability of the vehicle to home on to the target based on the reference scene is determined by the ‘uniqueness’ of the reference within the larger image. The reference sub image is then shifted down by one pixel. an area of radius equal to the prior guidance error around the self-correlation peak should be free from competing peaks.. The value of the correlation coefficient for each position of the reference subimage is plotted as function of the x-y displacement of the subimage from the top left corner of the larger image. This yields a 2-D plot. in turn. In particular. The entire scene is thus traversed until the reference sub image reaches the bottom right corner of the larger image.
Correlation characteristics of the ideal image: (a) main image showing cityscape with embedded airport feature. (f) downrange view of (d). (b) (b) clean subimage containing runways and surrounding areas. (c) intensity plot of correlation of subimage across main image. (d) mesh plot of (c). (e) cross-range view of (d). .
Scan Ellipse. Pixel per Unit Distance and Scan Overlap Factor Trajectory/Geometry Parameters: • Elevation Angle (equivalent to grazing angle) • Length of Stretch • Radar Range .SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION • MATLAB software has been used in this study for generating seeker images in a RAR and then evaluating the similarity between these missile seeker images and the digital images stored in the database of the On-Board computer using the process of correlation. Beam Width. List of Parameters used in the study Radar Parameters: • Beam Depth. Pulse Width.
CASE STUDY ON KARACHI AIRPORT Clean Scene Stored On-Board .
Convert this image to a grayscale image if the image is true-color using the IPT function RGB2GRAY. Crop out a portion of this main image to get the target sub-image using the IPT function imcrop. This is used by the RAR as the reference target image. This is the main reference image stored in the database of the On-Board computer in RAR.ALGORITHM • Read an image (true-color or grayscale) using the MATLAB IPT function imread. • .
• But for practical cases noise is associated with seeker image generation due to various reasons. . one is noise due to electronic sensors in seeker or due to other reasons. Noise is added to the image by using the MATLAB IPT function imnoise. So to accommodate for noise and observe the results we add noise (Gaussian noise ) to the main image and using that image we generate a degraded seeker image.
• • • Load the trajectory parameters (Radar_RANGE) IPT function spline is used The original trajectory and the trajectory curve obtained by splining is as shown .
at all these points a structural element is generated using the IPT function getnhood. . Seeker images for both main image and target images are generated at all these points by a method of degradation/blurring For this purpose. The radius of this structural element is different at each point in the trajectory(Radar Range) and it is dependent on Pixel per unit distance and Radar Beam-width.• • Now using the splined trajectory curve obtain Radar_RANGE values at these new points and seeker images are generated at all these points.
This process is repeated as the structural element sweeps the entire image area and we get a set of averaged out values which are rounded off.• This structural element (analogous to beam footprint) is used as a template for Raster scanning with overlapping ( as defined by the Overlap_FACTOR) to cover the entire image area. The structural element is made to sweep the whole image defined by its own area. At each of these positions the pixels defined by the area of the circle/distorted ellipse are averaged out to get a single value. . A certain percentage (25%) is used here.
For the purpose of effective correlation of two images. So we downgrade the clean target scene cropped from the main image to the resolution of the seeker generated image. At each point in the trajectory. Thus we generate the seeker generated main image at all points in the trajectory. • • • . providing the angular errors developed over the flight time of the approaching missile which is then used to correct the flight path during terminal guidance. The projections of this plot are also obtained using the view MATLAB function. the downgraded target sub-image is correlated with the seeker generated main image using the IPT MATLAB function normxcorr2 to yield an intensity plot which is the intensity variation of the normalized correlation coefficients over the x-y plane. the two images should have the same resolution. This plot gives a sharp and an unambiguous intensity peak. For this purpose we use the MATLAB IPT function imtransform.• This image is the degraded seeker generated image. To get the mesh plot which is the 3-D view of the intensity plot we use the IPT MATLAB function mesh.
Conclusion and scope for future work .
CONCLUSION • Thus RAR Imaging is a simple and cost effective technique for missile guidance for extended target detection .
THANK YOU .
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