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Asma Shabbir

Ph.d Scholar Lecture 2

Asma Shabbir Ph.d Scholar Lecture 2

Stereotypes

Stereotypes
Stereotyping

Stereotyping

Stereotyping
Stereotyping

Measuring Stereotype Activation:

Semantic Priming Tasks

Measuring Stereotype Activation: Semantic Priming Tasks
Measuring Stereotype Activation: Semantic Priming Tasks
Measuring Stereotype Activation: Semantic Priming Tasks

Definitions

Assigning identical characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of the actual variation among members of that group

Not necessarily intended to be abusive, may even be a “positive” stereotype

They are mental shortcuts like the representative heuristic

But, if they rob us of our individuality

Definitions – Assigning identical characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of the actual variation

that may be problematic

Remember the dangers of de

individuation

Stereotype Components

Culturally shared beliefs

Stereotype Components Culturally shared beliefs cognitive component (beliefs) affective component (feelings) behavioural component (actions) Categorical associations

cognitive component (beliefs)

affective component (feelings)

behavioural component (actions)

Stereotype Components Culturally shared beliefs cognitive component (beliefs) affective component (feelings) behavioural component (actions) Categorical associations

Categorical associations

men are …?

?

Are Stereotypes Adaptive?

– First impressions – Categorizing groups Status quo

Tends to form from limited personal/individual exposure

The more information we have about someone the less stereotypes influence

Are Stereotypes Adaptive? – First impressions – Categorizing groups Status quo Tends to form from limited

– Works with gender too! – Behavior & personality become more important

Development of Stereotypes

Begins at age 3

Starts with one’s own sex, then generalizes

Flexible application of stereotypes decreases with age

Development of Stereotypes Begins at age 3 Starts with one’s own sex, then generalizes Flexible application
Development of Stereotypes Begins at age 3 Starts with one’s own sex, then generalizes Flexible application
Age-Related Trends • Very young • Labeling comes first Less stereotyping than older children • Models’

Age-Related Trends

Very young Labeling comes first Less stereotyping than older children Models’ consistency contributes to rigid role expectations Older children More flexibility w/ greater exposure Tendency to stereotype always present

Age-Related Trends • Very young • Labeling comes first Less stereotyping than older children • Models’

Stereotyping Isn’t Good For Us…

exert power and control Position of power over others Helps to maintain status quo

Stereotyping Isn’t Good For Us… exert power and control Position of power over others Helps to

Evaluating Stereotypes

Attitudes

Explicit (open) (hidden)

or Implicit

Systematic judgments combat stereotypes

Richer, across time/situations, etc.

Take time and repeated

exposure

Evaluating Stereotypes Attitudes Explicit (open) (hidden) or Implicit – Systematic judgments combat stereotypes • Richer, across
Evaluating Stereotypes Attitudes Explicit (open) (hidden) or Implicit – Systematic judgments combat stereotypes • Richer, across

Prescriptive function of stereotypes

Defined as beliefs about what category members ideally ought to be like

Prescriptive stereotypes justify or rationalize a social system of inequality

Enables perceivers to justify their own and their groups beliefs about the

conduct of others

Prescriptive function of stereotypes Defined as beliefs about what category members ideally ought to be like

Legitimizes long standing social

practices and status hierarchies

Prescriptions

• Ensures that people gravitate toward roles and levels of status considered appropriate for their gender (or race).

Prescriptive stereotypes for Blacks: uncle tom; to keep the system running, whites encouraged prescriptive ideals for blacks that matched the roles they depended on blacks to play

• Men depend on women to perform primary domestic and child care responsibilities

– Gender role and status distinctions create prescriptions

Prescriptions • Ensures that people gravitate toward roles and levels of status considered appropriate for their

– The prescription that men should be strong and

bold reinforces their higher status gender role

Jost & Hamilton: Review of Social Cognition

Stereotypes influence cognition:

Serve as expectations

Direct attention to certain aspects of available information

Color the interpretation of that information

– Influence the way the information is retained in memory

Jost & Hamilton: Review of Social Cognition Stereotypes influence cognition: Serve as expectations Direct attention to

Serve as hypotheses that are favored in

the interpretation of new information fi

ti

bi

Who gets stereotyped?

Wheel of oppression and Peggy McIntosh

What’s normative, desired, and/or most usual in your society? What is expected and regular? What’s standard?

Who gets stereotyped? Wheel of oppression and Peggy McIntosh What’s normative, desired, and/or most usual in
ABLE ABLE UPPER UPPER Ability Ability Class Class ABLE ABLE MIDDLE MIDDLE Ability Ability Class Class
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FROM GENDER ROLES TO STEREOTYPES

Gender roles

• Activities • Defined by behaviors

Gender stereotypes

– Categorical

FROM GENDER ROLES TO STEREOTYPES • Gender roles • Activities • Defined by behaviors • Gender

– Defined by beliefs and attitudes about

masculinity and femininity

– Psychological behavior and characteristics

– Appropriate activities

Myths & Media Major Mythological Themes Male as Powerful – Male as Normative – Female as
Myths & Media Major Mythological Themes Male as Powerful – Male as Normative – Female as

Myths & Media

Major Mythological Themes

Male as Powerful – Male as Normative – Female as Evil – Female as Giver of Life – Female as Sexual Being

• Media Reflection of Myths

Myths & Media Major Mythological Themes Male as Powerful – Male as Normative – Female as

– Representations of Boys & Men – Representations of Girls & Women

Myths & Media Major Mythological Themes Male as Powerful – Male as Normative – Female as

• Importance?