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makalah psycolinguistics

makalah psycolinguistics

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Published by Kyo Kura Kura

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Published by: Kyo Kura Kura on Mar 21, 2013
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11/03/2014

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Memory and Logic in Language Learning
In the field of psycholinguistics during the late 1970‟s and early 1980‟s we may use the
introductory textbook 
 Psychology and Language
by Herbert and Eva Clark (1977) asrepresentative. This is the textbook used in the course on psycholinguistics that took as an
undergraduate in 1983. The chapter on “Language and Thought” begins with the observation,“Language does not exist in a vacuum.
It serves and is molded by other systems in the humanmind. Because it is used for conveying ideas, its structure and function must reflect these ideas...Because it is used for communication within a complex social and cultural system, its structureand function are molded by these forces as well. Yet once people have learned how to uselanguage, it wields a power of its own. It aids them in thinking about some ideas and hinders
them in thinking about others. It molds many aspects of their daily affairs.”
The authors go on to present a balanced view of the question in which they conclude that different features of language do have significant effects upon cognitive differentiation, memory, and problemsolving.
a.
 
memoryMemory is more important at the start of a language and fades as one becomes morecomfortable with it. Exposure, exposure, ENJOYABLE exposure seems to be the key toabsorption and access. I too love flashcard automated reviews: whole sentences only!They incorporate self-testing, which seems to be another primordial element in good,systematic, automatic absorption. Memorization means a deliberate attempt to remember.When I read, or listen or review flash cards I am not making any conscious effort to
 
remember. I invest a little time on each of our LingQ flash cards, editing the captured phrase, looking at it, thinking about it, and I always click "got it" and move on. I mightget through the list once or twice. I know I will see them again as part of the word list of some other content item. When I am satisfied that I know a word or phrase, or do notwant to see it again.Memory divides four parts:1.
 
Declarative memory is our ability o learns and consciously remembers every dayfacts and events.Studies using functional brain imaging have identified a large network of areas in thecerebral context that work together to support declarative distinct role in complexaspects of perception, movement, emotion, and cognitive.2.
 
Working memory is a transient form of declarative memory.Working memory depends on the prefrontal cortex as well as other cerebral corticalareas. Studies on animals have shown that neurons in the prefrontal context maintainrelevant information during working memory and can combine different kinds of sensory information when required. In humans, the prefrontal cortex is highlyactivated when people maintain and manipulate memories.3.
 
Semantic memory is a form of declarative knowledge that includes general facts anddata. Although scientists are just beginning to understand the nature andorganization of cortical areas involved in semantic memory, it appears that differentcortical networks are specialized for processing particular kinds of information, suchas faces, houses, tools, actions, language, and many other categories of knowledge.Studies using functional imaging of normal humans have revealed zones within a
 
large cortical expanse that selectively process different categories of information,such as animals, faces, or words.4.
 
Episodic memory is our memories of specific personal experiences that happened ata particular place and time. It is generally believed that the medial temporal lobeareas serve a critical role in the initial processing and storage of these memories.a.
 
LogicLogic is the science of the processes of inference. What, then, is inference? It is thatmental operation which proceeds by combining two premises so as to cause a consequentconclusion. Some suppose that we may infer from one premise by a so-called
“immediate
 inference.Learning, memory and languageLearning, memory and language society is thinking that save of long-term memory. In addition,studies using genetically mode-fed mice have shown that alterations in specific genes for NMDAreceptors or CREB can dramatically affect the capacity for LTP in particular brain areas, and thesame studies have shown that these molecules are critical to memory. The many kinds of studiesof human and animal memory have led scientists to conclude that no single brain center storesmemory. It most likely is stored in distributed collections of cortical process-in systems that arealso involved in the perception, processing, and analysis of the material being learned. In short,each part of the brain most likely contributes differently to permanent memory storageSome types of memories and not others indicate that the brain has multiple memory systemssupported by distinct brain regions. No declarative knowledge, the knowledge of how to do

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