Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Subsurface Radio Propagation Experiments (1968)

Subsurface Radio Propagation Experiments (1968)

Ratings: (0)|Views: 19 |Likes:
Propagation experiments were conducted on Cape Cod, the Adirondack region of New York State, and in Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado to determine the feasibility of communication between vertical linear antennas located in drill holes in the rock below overburden, and similar antennas located on the surface of the ground. The bulk conductivity of the propagation media, i.e., the average conductivity along the path between the antennas, must be determined by measurements of propagation loss and transmission delay, because of the lack of homogeneity in the rock media. High values of bulk conductivity limited experiments in the VLF region on Cape Cod and the Adirondacks, which involved ranges of 1.6 km and 5 krn.
respectively. D1stances up to 48 km in the LF region were achieved by up·and·over transmissions from
inside Cheyenne Mountain.
Analysis of the experimental results and theoretical considerations indicate that the usefulness of the through·the·rock mechanism is severely limited by the bulk conductivity. For shallow antenna
depths, particularly if the overburden is thin or absent, substantial transmission ranges can be achieved by using up-over-down propagation.
Propagation experiments were conducted on Cape Cod, the Adirondack region of New York State, and in Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado to determine the feasibility of communication between vertical linear antennas located in drill holes in the rock below overburden, and similar antennas located on the surface of the ground. The bulk conductivity of the propagation media, i.e., the average conductivity along the path between the antennas, must be determined by measurements of propagation loss and transmission delay, because of the lack of homogeneity in the rock media. High values of bulk conductivity limited experiments in the VLF region on Cape Cod and the Adirondacks, which involved ranges of 1.6 km and 5 krn.
respectively. D1stances up to 48 km in the LF region were achieved by up·and·over transmissions from
inside Cheyenne Mountain.
Analysis of the experimental results and theoretical considerations indicate that the usefulness of the through·the·rock mechanism is severely limited by the bulk conductivity. For shallow antenna
depths, particularly if the overburden is thin or absent, substantial transmission ranges can be achieved by using up-over-down propagation.

More info:

Published by: THE NIKOLA TESLA INSTITUTE on Aug 31, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/23/2013

pdf

text

original

 
lr
II
IL
Subsuriace Radio Propagation Experiments
1
Carson
K.
H.
Tsao
and
J.
T.
deBettencourt
Raytheon
Company,
Norwood,
Mass
.02062, U.S.A.
~ropagation
experiments
were conducted
on
Cape Cod, the Adirondack region of New
York
State,
and m Cheyenne Mountain in Colorado
to
determine the feasibility of communication
betwe~n
vertical
linear
antennas located
in
drill holes in the
rock
below overburden, and similar antennas
located
onthe
surface
of the ground.
The
bulk conductivity
of
the
propagation media, i.e., the average conductivity along
the
path
he·tween the antennas,
must
be
determined
by
measurements
of
propagation loss and transmission delay,
b~cause
of
the
lack
ofhomogeneity
in the rock media. Highvalues
of
bulkconductivitylimited
e~pP-ri·
ments
I?
the VI;F
reJZion
on
Cape
Cod and the Adirondacks, which involved ranges
of
1.6
km and
5 krn.respectively.D1stances
up
to 48 km in the
LF
region were achieved by up·and·over transmissions frominside Cheyenne Mountain.Analysis of the
experimental
results and theoretical considerations indicate that the usefulness
of
the throu!lh·the·rock
mechanism
is severely limited by the bulk conductivity.
For
shallow
antenna
depths, particularly
if the overburden
is thin
or
absent, substantial transmission ranges
can
be
achieved
by
using up-over-down propagation.
1.
Introduction
;There
hasbeen
considerable
interest
recently
in
~
possibility
of using
subsurface
rock stratafor
. dened radio
communications.
With
both
trans
)ting
and
receiving
antennas
situated
inthebedrock
·
.1~w
the
.surface
of
theearth, propagation can
be
hteved dtrectly
through the
rock
mediumbetween
e antennas. Through-the-rock
propagation
has
been
,e principal
concern
of
a
series
of
investigations onape Cod, and
inthe
Mineville
and
Black
River
areas
_ ted in
northern New York
State
.
The
"up-and-over"
~chanism
was
also
investigated
in the
Cheyenne
~mntain
area
in
Colorado,
betweenan
antenna buried
,eply in the rock
and
an
antennalocated
onthe
sur
i!e
of
the ground.
This paper
reviews
the
various
~h~iques
and summarizes
the
experimental
results
Jamed in the
course
of
these investigations
.any programs
of
theoretical
and
experimental
·estigations in
this
field
have
been
conducted
ine past.
References
cited here
are
but
a small portion
j
or addition to, the
bibliography
to
be
found else,ere. Tocite
but
a few
publications,
Hansen
(1963)
.es
an excellent
survey that
considers
up-over-and·
;wn
propagation.
Ames,
et
al. (
1963)
considerthe
,tenttal of
communicating
via
direct
through-the-rock
..
mission. Biggs
and Swarm
(1963)
treat
the
fields
··rur
from a
buried
antenna
to
antennas
on the
surface
·elevatedin
the
air, neglecting
the
influence of
the
l'hi,
work
wu
spnn
tw
r~d
by
thr Air
Furcor
Cambrid,:eo
Res.tarch
J
aburatutie"
undC"r
_
net
No. AF19162S)-2362
and.
in
1ntrt.
hy
1heo
Raylheouo
Cumpan;.Nurwnod
MasF-
.
ionosphere; this
can be designated the
up-and-overmechanism. Wait
(1963)
developsthe idea
of
a
wave
guided
in
a low-loss
horizontal
layer
in
theearth's
crust
.A thorough review
of
progress
on
the
subject
is
presented
by
deBettencourt
(1966)
2.
Experimental
Arrangements
In
conducting
through-the-rock
propagation experi·
ments,access
to
the rockis
made
by drilling
vertical
holes
through
the
overburden
and
into the rock.Vertical
linear
antennas
are
placed
in
the
holes
below
the
conducting overburden as
shown
in figure
l.
Sincethe
overburden
generally
is more conducting
than
the
rock below, the
overburden serves as
a reflectingground
plane,
allowing
monopoles
to
be
driven
against
it.
Theantennas areconnected
by
transmission
lines
to
thetransmitter
and
receiver located
on
thesurface
of
the
ground.
The
properties
of
antennas
in
drill
holesare
discussed
in detail by
deBettencourtand
Sutcliffe(1962).
For
these
experiments
a 100-W
audio
amplifier wasused as a
transmitter,
and
either
a low
frequency
communication
receiver
or
a
narrowband
wave analyzer was used as a
receiver.
The
magnitudes
and
phase
angles
of
mutual
impedances
betweenthe
transmitting
and
receiving
antennas
were
obtained
through
measurements.
From
these, the
bulk conductivity, i.e.,
the
average
conductivity,
of
the medium
between
the antennas
was
deduced.The
length
of
the
antennas
in the drill holes
varied
from
the
150-m
I
i1
I
I
(~
I
I
JJ
~
 
~
I
II
~~:'\,':
.
:..!)
..
.
{
·!
.,;, \.
pt
·(:
.
:
In
riOO-m
antr
nnas
IISf'd
j,
:,;:
~
d
\
'I"
1
:1
;"
"!:---
,
·.,nttut·tv•J
ul
Ure\o\oster
.
.\1as-
l
sachusetts.
on
Cape
Cod
used
two drill holes300
rn
!
deep.
separated
by 1.6
km
(Tsao.1963).
Transmissio
ns
were
made at
frequencies
below 7.5 kHz. Later,
meas·
urements
were
made
in the Mineville
area
in NewYork
State,where
twoexisting
deeper
drill
holes,
separated
by 1.6 krn,
were used
as
antennasites
fortransmi
ss
ionsat
frequencies
upto
50
kHz
(Tsao,
1964a).
Subsequently,
based
on
results
o
bt
ained
in
the
Mineville
area
,
and
also from
supportingdata
froma
surface
resistivity
survey,
two drill holes were
made
available
to
establisha 5-km
path
in
the
Black
Riverarea
in New York
State,
where
tntnsmissions
weremade at frequencies
below 100
kHz
(Tsao,1964b).Later,
experiments
wereconducted
intheC
heyenne
1
Mountain
area of
Colorado to investigate
the
up-and·
over transmission(Tsao,1965). Asshownin figure 2, a transmitting
antenna
was
placed in a
slanted
drillhole
such
that
the
antenna
was paralleltoand
about
210 m below the
eastern
sl
opeof Cheyenne
Mountain.Access tothedrill hole
was made
at
Turnaround,
apointalong a
tunne
l
road
leading
intothe
NORAD
complex.
The
antenna
orientation
wasselected
tofavor up-and
-ov
er
transmission
to
surface
points
locatedeast
of
the
transmittingantenna.
I
I.
~
a
TRANSM
I
TTER
COAXIAL
CABLE
RECEIVER
COAXIA
L
CABLEDRILL
HOLE
BEDRO
CK
ANTENNA
FIGURE
1.
Schematic configuration
for
through-the-rockpropagationexperiments.
50
40
"'
IE
:r
30
00
~
20
:IE
'!!:
10
e
N
~
0
3
0
N
·
10
-~
1001000
FREQUENCY
IN
HZ
"'
\
\
\
\
10,000
FIGURE
3.
Mutualimpedance vs.frequency,I-mile
path,
CapeCod, Mass.
i1
ubsurface
I
.
Experiments
ond
of
esultsTronsmissions
3.1,
1.6-km Transmissions on
Cape
Cod
On
Cape
Cod,
transmissions
were
made
atfrequencies below 7.5 kHz
overthe
1.6-km
path
between
antennas
insertedin
the305m
deep
drill holes(Tsao,196
3).
Figure
3 shows
the
magnitude
of the
mutual
impedance,
i.e
.,
the
magnitude
ofratio
of the
voltage
induced
in
the
receiving
antenna
to
the
current
at
the
input terminalofthetransmittingantenna.
It
isseenthat the
magnitude of the mutualimpedance
is constant
at
the lower
end
of
the
frequency
scale.
This
is because
the
el
ectrica
l
distancebetween
the
antennas
is short.
and
only
the
quasi-electricfield is
important.
(In
thi~
case,
the
mutual impedance does
not
hav
e aninductiv(
component
and
can
be
referred
to
as
the
mutua'resistance.) As
thefrequencyincreases,
the
electricadistance increases.
Hence,th
e
magnitude of
thtmutual
impedance
decreases
rapidly,
due
to
the
inc
reased
importanceof
the
exponentialdamping
in
th(
far
field zone.
The measuredphaseangle
of
mutual
impedance
a~
a function
of frequency
for the
Cape
Cod
path
i~
shown in figure 4.
Thesquare
root
dependency
ol
phase
an~le
to
frequency indicates
that
the
rod
.,
3000
IS
...
"'
.,250D
I
z
0
;:
2000
c
>
...
-'
w
15
00
-
WEST-
_]
1000
~
TURNAROUND-.~
H5
METER
DRILL
HOLE
..1
2DOO
METERS
__]
3000
-EAST
~000
FIGURE
2.
East
-W
estcross section
of
CheyenneMountainthrough Turnaround.
.,
...
...
0:
..
"'
"
0
!!:
-200
e
a>
-300
0
.
I
.
.
.
I
I
l
I
..
.
!
.
I
.
I
''
.
..
i
.
i
.
23
FREQUENCY
IN
KHZ
FIGURE
4.
Measured
phaseangle
of
mutual
impedance,1-mile
path, Cape
Cod,Mass.
I
.!1
 
IT
.
~~~F
i1
\
tedium
along
the
path
has
a large
losstangent.
Meas-
In
the
Black River experiment
there
isstrong
I
!i'
rnent
of
the
phase
angle
of
the
mutualimpedance
evidence that
at
frequencies above
50
kHz,
signals
I
:quires
the use
of
common reference phasesatbothwere received
due
mainly to
propagationthrough
the
i.:
e
transmitter
a~d
the
receiver.
On
C~ape
Cod_,
t?is
air, i.e.,
the
up-over-down
or
up-and-over
mechanism.
:.
ference was
denv
ed from a
LORAN
C transmissiOn
This
is
shown
in figure 6 by
comparing
the
measured
Jiginating on
Nantucket
Island (Tsao
and
deBetten·
field
intensities
with
the estimated strengths
of
sig-
1 
urt, 1967). nals
inair
and
in
the
earth,
as
shown
by
the
solid
and
i
':The
bulk
condu
ctivity
ofthe
rock
forthe
1.6-
km
.
the dashed
curves,
respectively.
There
is
equally
i
··
th on
Cape
Cod
was
deduced
from the amplitudestrong
evide
nce
that
atfrequencies
below 50
kHz,
the
pd
phase
data
independently,
and
wasfound
to
be
signals
received
in
the
hole
were primarily
due
to
the
'lpproximately I
X
10-a
mhos/m.
direct
or through-the-rock
propagation.
The
bulk
conductivity in
this
area
was
found
to
be
about
8
X
10-
5
f
~'
3.2.1.6-kmTronsmissi.ons
ot
Mineville,
New
York
mhos/m.;Measurements
of
amplitude and
phas
e
of the
mutual
3.4.
Tronsmission
From
Inside
Cheyenne
Mountoin
(:
.pedance
were
also ma.de
at
Mineville
between
an.nnas
in
deeper
drill
holes
1.6-km
apart
.At Mineville,
..
..
easurements
weremadeat
frequ
e
nciesup
to50
·Hz
(Tsao,1964a).
Fromthesemeasurements
,
the
ttenuation
and
phase
conSt!lnts
of
the
propagation
_dium
were deduced
as shown
in
figure 5.
Atthe
wer
frequency,
the attenuation
and
the
phase
·onstants are·
equal
and
proportional
to
the square
:
oot
of
thefrequency
due
to
the
large
loss tangent.
)
frequencies
near
50 kHz,
as
the
loss tangent
he
.'
mes small
the phase
constant becom
es
greater
.
an
the attenuation
constant.
U
sing
a
curv
e-fitting·· ethod,
thesedata
provided a
bulk
c
onductivity
of
,5
X
10-
4
mhos/m and
a relative
diele
c
tric constant
~,
f
48.
The
corresponding
theoretical
attenuation and
hase
constants are
shown
by
the solidcurved
lines
·figure 5.
;
3.3.5-km Tronsmissions
ot
BlockRiver,
New
York
t 
Transmission
tests over
a 5-km
path were made
..
etw
e
en
drill holes
in the
Black
River area
(Tsao,
a964b).
Only the
magnitudesof
th
efield
intensities
rere me
asured
.Field
intensities
measur
ed
in air
and
Ill
the hole at
the receiving site
(Wadhams,
N.Y.)
ar
e
rown
in figure 6.
I
t
1 
t
~
i
.
!.
·2
10
f
TRANSM
·
I~TING'
ANT•~OME;E';~
;
~
;-
.
J
,
PVCINSOCINHOLENO.I
il
·•[r
:RECEIVING ANT.
300
METER RG·B
•:
/3
t:
~~
i
TYPE
,
INi~C
.
I
N
t
~
~
LEN~
.
9
'
.
I
;:
.
:~
"
;
i :
~
:
~
!
::~;::li
I''
I. .
I'
I'
~~
-3
;
j
, :
j
:i'
i
:I'
I
!
!..
a:;Z
10
1
j'
l'
'
·•
''...
kl
<
~
-
--r-
1
•.
!'
l
--CALCULATED
~
~
~
1
i
.
i.
i
•r
~
4 8
z
a:
L .
I.
)I
I
.;.;,
'
~
·
it!
I
<r
2
.
5XIO"'~MHOS/M
t
T
~
pr~l
:
+MEASURED,
.8
·j
i :
::
lJ;i
1.
0MEASURED,
a
: ::
-4
' '
I
!
ll
;:..,
0
--
-~-
--'-
--
lI....
.
.L
.
.:.____L
0.1 I
10
100
FREQUENCY
-KHZ
FIGURE 5.
Attenuation
and
phase cons
tant
s
us
.frequency,1-mile
path-Mineville.
Following
the
experiments.
describedabove,
propagation tests were
made
in the
Ch
e
yenne
Mountain area
to
determine
whether
transmissions
c
ould be
made
from inside
Cheyenne
Mountain to receivers on thesurface east
of
the mountain
(Tsao, 1965
).
Th
ethroughthe-rock
transmission
was
not
attempted
in this area
.
An
antenna buri
ed 210 m below
the
surfa
ce
of
Chey
enne
Mo
untain
(fig.
2)
was
used
for
transmission;
me
asurements
of
field
intensity
weremade
on thesurface of
the
ground
.
The
tran
smission
path
wasonly partially
through
rock
Measurements
of
surface
field
intensities
due
to
tran
smission from
inside
Che
y
enne
Mountain wer
e
mad
ealong se
veral
50-km
radials
from
the
tran
s
mitter,
at
a
frequency of
70
kHz
.
The measur
ed
fi
eld
intensities,
normalized
to l A
of
input
current
to
the
transmitting
antennas
,
ar
e
shown
in figure 7.
Th
efield intensity
along each radial
varied
inversely
with
distanc
e.
The inverse distance
dependency
is
chara
cteristic of
groundwave
propagation for
the
fr
e
quen
cyand distances involved,
becauseth
e
ground
attenua·
tion is negligible.
The
bulk
conductivity
of
the
rock
surrounding
the
buried
antenna
was
estimated
to beabout 3.5
X
I0
-
4
mho
s/m.
a:
BO
"'
..
"'
:li
60
'
::>
"'
40
>
0
"'
t
20
"'
o
MEASURED,
IN
HOLE
J
o
MEASURED, IN AIR
1-
-CALCULATED,IN AIR CUP-OVER)
--CALCULATED,
IN
HOLE(UP
-
OVER
-
DOWN
)
---
 
0 0
-----
....
___
r----_
--
oo
•..,
c
-
00
o
oo
ct
------
---
------
-
10
3
FREQUENCY-HZ
~
/
0
~
0
~/.
l"'
,
,;
0
_..,.
FIGURE
6.
Vertical fieldintensities, 3-mile transmission path
at
Black River
.
. . ..
.
. . .
.··
·:
.:.
!:;
.
:-.:o
~::
.
:.:·
z.-~.
'to
I
J
Jl
~

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->