Page
V29
V3Z
V43
V44
V49
V50
V50
V55
V61
VII
VII
VIZ
VIZ
VIII
VI16
VI19
VIZ4
VIZ'1
VIZ7
VI27
VI30
VI30
VI33
VI36 If
CONTENTS (cont)
VII. DISCUSSlON. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS VIIl
A.
B.
D.
E.
. F.
Propagation Models
Propagation Tests
Antcmnas
Measurements of Constants of Rock Media
Noise
Modulation
VIII
VIII
VII3
VII4
VII6
VII6
VIII. PERSONNEL
IX. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
X. BIBLIOGRAPHY
VIIlI
IXI
XI.
APPENDIX A  Tables of the Function VI . j P = f(p) .j g(p) AI
APPENDIX B  Theory of Waveguide Propagation for Very B1
Deep Strata
APPENDIX C  Theory of Radio Wave Propagation in Rock Near CI
and Below Overbur,denRock L.'"lterface
APPENDIX D  Uninsulated (Bare) Cylindrical Antennas in DI
Dissipative Media  Theory
APPENDIX E  Theory of Insulated Linear in Dissi EI
pative Media
APPENDIX F  Antenna Performance Factors and the Transmission FI
Equa.tion for Dissipative Media
APPENDIX G  Theory .of Attenuation of Atmospheric Noise and GI
Interference By the Overburden
vii
Figure No.
I. 1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
II. 1
II. 2
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Oversimplied sketch of earth structure
and radio propagation modes above the
surface (not to scale)
Sketch of crust and mantle regions near
earth's surface (lithosphere)
Conductivity of earth (after
Amer. Inst. Phys. Handbook)
Subsurface propagation modes  simplified
sketch
Vertically polarized field (E
z
) vs distance
e for guided waves, perfectly conducting
plane walls. f:::: 10 kc, d :::: 2Q kIn, e
rz
:::: 4
 15 x 10
4
(Ids) :::: :::: 16,900 amp. m. (rms)
21\" ..f2
The functions f(p) and g(p) used in
v1:!:. j p :::: f(p) :!:.j g(p). Also shown is
ratio g(p)/f(p). Range of p < 1. 0
The functions f(p) and g(p) used in evaluating
Jl 2:. j p :::: 'f(p) .:!:. j g(p). Also shown is
ratio g(p)/f(p). Shown are approximations
for small p (p 0.6) and large p 6.0).
12
16
110
114
121
II5
II6
.>
..
II. 3 Loss tangent (p) vs frequency,
parameters
(a) Small p (p 0.6)
(b) Large p (p 6.0.)
0:' and ,
r
II12
II. 4
viii
(y":::: effective conductivity (real) in
mhos/meter
Propagation constants for infinite homo
geneous medium
er :::: Z x 10
4
mhos/meter
e  9
r 
II22
..
Figure No.
II. 5
II. 6
U.7
n.8
II. 9
n.IO"
II. 11
"Il. 12
II.l3
Variations of 0<, )..1 and .7:"
with frequency 0
cr' = 2 x 10
4
mhos/meter
=9.
r
Bare and insulated dipoles in infinite"
simple medium
A. Bare dipole
B. Insulated dipole. opencircuited
C. Insulated. dipole, shortcircuited
Maximum power gain (modified) G
M
for lossless, center fed dipoles, elec
trical short (h = 100 m, fih 0.3, and
/112 wires) {}3 =2 x 10
4
mhos/m,
P3 10.
. Efficiency,? of electrically
short OJ =2 x 10
4
rnhos/m,
10, h = 100 m, a1 = 10
3
m.
EfficiencyGain Product (V' GM) for
electrically short dipoles, 03 =
2 x 10
4
mhos/m, P3 10, h"= 100 m,
a
1
=10
3
m (#12 wire).
Nearzone enhancement gain (ON) vs 13R.
Center fed dipole (13h .3), = 1 kc,
e
r3
= 9
Nearzone enhancement gain (GN) vs R.
Center fed dipole (j93h .3), f = 1 kc,
G = 9
r3 
Nearzone enhancement gain (G
N
) vs f3
3
R.
Short dipole (t13h .3), f= 10 kc, 6
r3
= 9
Nearzone enhancement gain (GN) VS R.
Short dipole (e3h .3), f= 10 kc, 6:
r3
= 9
II23
II39
II43
1145
II47
II49
II50
II53
II54
ix
figure No.
n.14
II. 15
II. 16
. II. 17
II. 18
II. 19
II. 20
II. 21
11.22
x
Spreadil1,g loss (L
S
' ,and exponential
attenuation (A) vs f::requency..
Nearzone enhance:znent gain (G
N
),
antenna modified I'c>wergain (lossless)
and radiation e:fficiency ,,?SC
for center fed, inst.=l.la,ted dipole, short
circuit termination _ h = 475 ft,
ain(total) = 100 ohnc:ls (constant), 6
r
:: 9.
3
Propagation losses (L
p
) and antenna
coupling losses LA for center fed elec
trically short, insu.J.ated dipole, short
circuit termination _ R = 5800 ft,
G =9, h = 475 ft.
l)
Total system loss betwe en center' fed,
parallel, insulated <iipol es wi th short
circuit termina.tion::s. R :: 5800 ft,
 ::: 9, h =475 ft_
r3
L
p
(db) vs R for va:Jl::'ious frequencies (G
N
neglected). OJ =10.
4
r.cl.ho/rn.
Total system loss L
T
vs distance R for
various frequencies. cr: :: 10 4 mho/m.
3
Propagation losses Lp(db) vs distance
R(nii) at various fr.equen.cies.
03 = 5 x 10
4
mho/ C
r3
=9.
Total system Ipss L..Tvs distance Rat
various freql,lencies. <r:::: 5 x 10
4
,
P3 = 10. 3
Propagation L
p
vs distance Rat
various frequencies;;. cr::;:: 10 3 mho/m,
3
b =9.
r3
1I58
II59
II60
iI6l
II64
II65
II66
. II67
1168
..
"
Figure No.
II. 23
II. 24
III. 1
III. 2
III. 3
III. 4
III. 5
III. 6
III. 7
III. 8
III. 9
Ill. 10
Ill. 11
Ill. 12
III. 13
Ill. 14
III. 15
Ill. 16
III. 17
Total system loss L
T
vs distance R
at various frequencies. CYJ. = 10
3
mho/m,
e
r3
=9.
Oversimplified sketch of twolayer, three
dium propagation modes from vertical
)ole in rock.
New Hampshire  Location of Drill Hole
Sites
Cape Cod  Location of Drill Hole Sites
Concord, New Hampshire Site
Bedford, New Hampshire Site
Goffstown, New Hampshire Site
Swenson's Quarry, Concord, N. H.
Drilling  Harwich Site
Drilling  Harwich Site
Drilling  Harwich Site
Harwich
Cable Winch'
Power Source  Harwich
Test Area  Harwich
Brewster
Shielded room and facilities  Brewster
Ground Cage  Unassembled
Ground Cage Mount  Assembled
II69
II72
III2
III 3
III4
III6
III7
III8
IIII0
IIIII
III12
III13
III14
III15
III16
11117
III 20
III 27
III28
xi
o
".< f:'''>.O 0
Figure No.
III. 18
III. 19a
III.19b
o III. 19c
III.20a
III.20b
III.20c
III. 21
III. 22
111.23
III. 24
Measurement system. with subbox
components
Antenna Z plot (X vs R)  Goffstown
Antenna input impedance (R vs f) 
Goffstown
Antenna input impedance (X vs f) "
Goffstown .
. Antenna impedance (X vs R)  Harwich
..ntenEa. impedance (R vs f)  Harwich
Antenna impedance (X vs f)  Harwich
Noise figure measurement setup
Low noise preamplifier
Diode noise source
Calibration of SP600 VLF receiver and
preamplifier f::: 200 kc
Page
IH31
III33
HI34
III 35
1II36
III37
III38
III43
1II47
G
III47
III50
IV. 1
0
0
IV.2a
0
0
IV.2b
IV.3
xii
Bare antennas  comparison of theory with
experimental data of Iizuka and King.
f::: 114 mc,.IL::: 10
Input impedance of bare wire vs length h of
#12 wire  Harwich  R
in
Input impedance of bare wire vs length h of
#12 wire  Harwich  X
in
Required quarterwave resonant lengths h
r
RG8/U type insulated monopole antenna,
opencircuit termination (2a
Z
::: O. 285",
2a
l
::: 0.0816", ::: 2.25)
r2
::: of surrounding medium,
r3
IV5
IV12
IV13
IV17
o
o
O'
o
;.
Figure
IVA
IV. S
. IV.6
IV.7
IV. 8
IV.9
V.l
RG8/U coaxial antenna  effect of
conductivity (<J3) on quarterwave
resonant frequency (f
r
) for various
monopole lengths (h). c
r
=9.
3
Input impedance of an insu]lated monopole.
opencircuit termination. Comparison of
impedance for same antenna in two differ
ent lOOOft. drill holes on Cape Cod, and
barely inserted into rock below overburden.
Frequency in kc is parameter on curves.
Complex plane, spiral plot
Input resistance (R) and reactance (X) of
insulated. opencircuited rrlOnopole vs
frequency. Conditions are those of
Figure IV. S. Solid curves (Harwich).
dashed curves (Brewster)
of input impedances of
insulated monopoles with shortcircuit
or opencircuit terminations (complex
impedance plane, spiral plot). Frequency
in kc is parameter on curves.
o Input resistance (R) and reactance (X) of
an insulated monopole vs "open
circuit" (dashed curves), and shortcircuit"
(solid curves) terminations. Conditions as
for Figure IV. 7.
Comparison of theoretical with measured
input impedance Zin(OC) for insulated
monopole, open circuited.
Four electrode, equispaced, arrays for
surface resistivity measurements (A) Wenner
array, (B) Eltran array, (e) Right angle
array.
IV20
IV26
IV27
IV28
IV29
IV32
VIO
xiii
Figure No.
V.2
V.3
V.5
V.6
V.7
V.8
V.9
V.10
V. 11
xiv
Schematic representation for two
layer ground, each layer anisotropic.
(Sketch shows Wenner type 4electrode
arrangement. )
Electrical characteristics of drill hole
water (Goffstown, N. H.) June, 1961
Parallel wire transmis sion line method.
Frequency dependence of electrical
properties of rock
Frequency dependence of conductivity (0)
for watersoaked rock samples
Conductivity of core: samples vs depth '_
Tubman Road drill hole (Cantwell)
A depth attenuation method for obtaining
electrical constants of rock media. Trans
mitter at A separated a distance R from a
receiving dipole at B, with R varied. The
receiver is at C on surface.
Photographs of experimental encapsulated
transmitter. Top shows complete trans
mitter plus batteries prior to insertion
into tubular housing. At bottom is the
transmitter.
Typical plot of C vs R. C ::::: 40 log R(ft)
+ V
R
(dbuv). Brewster, Mass., site,
155 kc.
Dependence of conductivity (er) and loss
tangent (p) with assumed relative dielectric
constant ( e ) for observed attenuation
r
constant (0<::) of rock. Brewster, Mass.,
site, 155 kJ.
Typical plot of G vs R. C = 40 log R(ft)
+ V
R
(dbuv). Tubman Road site, 314 kc.
V12
V20
V23
V24
V26
V28
V34
V36.
V38
V4l
..
..
Figure N,o.
V.12
VI. 1
VI. 2
VI. 3
V!. 4
VI. 5
VI. 6
VI. 7
Dependence of conductivity (0) and los s
tangent (p) with assumed relative dielec
tric constant ( 6) for observed attenuation
constant (0) ofrrock. Tubman Road site,
314 kc.
variation of. maximum vertical
loop voltage of field on surface in air due
to vertical radiator deep in drill hole.
Brewster, 150 kc.
Orientation of plan'e of vertical loop
for maximum surface slgnal vs azimuth
due to field from vertical radiator deep
in drilll hole. B'rewster, 150 kc.
Azimuthal patterns of relative vertical
'electric field 'on surface due to vertical"
radiat.or deep in drill hole. Brewster,
.. ' .150.k c.
Azimuthal patterns of horizontal field in
. air (axial or due to
vertical radiator deep in drill hole.
B.rewster, 150 kc.
Azimuthal patterns of horizontal field in
air (normal or' b.roadside compo:ilent) due
to vertical radiator deep in drill hole.
Brewster, 150 kc.
Surface vertical field intensity in air due
to transmissions from hole antenna. Wave
analyzer voltage V
R
at ELF and LF vs
frequency at several ranges R and bearings.
Brewster Town Dump site (6/20/62). HP 302A
wave analyzer with 6' vertical whip and
grounded with 3' grou'nd stake.
Surface vertical electric field intensity.
Corrected opencircuit voltages V(OC) in
6' vertical whip at various ranges NE (60
0
magnetic) of drill hole. Brewster, Mass.
V42
VI4
VI5
VI6
VI7
VI8
Vl13
VIIS
xv
....
Figl,lre No.
VI. 8
VI. 9
VI. 10
VI. 11
VI. 12
VI. 13
VI. 14
C.I
E.l
E.2
xvi
Effect of transmitti:ng antenna depth
on surface electric field intensity
(vertical).
Vertical electric intensity on surface due
to transmissions from vertical dipole in
drill hole vs frequency at several test sites.
60 cycle harmonic interference spectra
voltages V measured on shortcircuit
monopoles inserted into rock strata.
Signal voltages received on Tubman drill
hole antenna from transmissions on an
tenna in Brewster drill hole. R = 1. 1 mile
6/20/62.
Path propagation tests. Effect of Tubman
receiver antenna depth DA on receiver
voltage V
R
Comparison of signal voJLtages received at
Tubman Road with various antennas from
transmis sions at town. dump site, Brewster.
Comparison of "field intensity" E at antenna
in drill hole (with range R =6000 ft) with
field intensity on surface along the path at
shorter range (R =750 ft).
Normalized vertical electric field IEz/E
V
I
in. rock for vertical electr.ic dipole sourced
and point of observation located at depth d
below overburden
Insulated or coaxial antenna. Terminology.
Air insulated antenna  input resistance vs
frequency fo!' various diameters of inner
conductor. Opencircuit termination.
VI17
VI23
VI26
VI29
VI3l
VI32
VI34
C3
E2
E33 ..
Figure No.
E.4
E.5
o
o
Air insulated antenna  input reactance
va frequency for various diameters of
inner conductor. Opencircuit termination.
Air insulated antenna  input conductance vs
frequency for various diameters of inner
... conductor. termination.
Air insulatedantenp.a+  input susceptance vs
, frequency for"vaiious diameters 'of inner
conc;luctor ., .,"
o e C)*
'W ill \,0
e>
Insulated monopole antenna
o
 alumInum,
tube inner conductor'. Opencircuit
t;ermination,'air insulationFrequency
for which /3.ho =0 Tr /2. &
O.
E34
E35
E36
E37
'l1'
E.7
E.8
E.9
E.IO
.
''>RG8/U type insulated antenna" einput
. . 0 .
resistance vsrequency. Opencircuit
termination. ..: 0 . 0
I) 00 a
0
RG8/U type insulated antenna  input. "
reactance v'S frequency. 'Opencircuit
termination.
.
RG8/U type insulated antenna ' input
conductance vs frequency. Opencircuit
,;;,
RG.8/U type insulated antenna  input
susceptance vs frequency. Opencircuit
termination.
E39
E40
E41
E42
E.II Input impedance on complex plane (spiral
plot)  RG8/U type insulated antenna.
Opencircuit termination.
Geometry for field components in the ground
at point PI at a depth d due to a ground wave
field guided along the airground
E44
G4
xvii
"
Figure No.
G.2
G.3
G.4
Attenuation constant ( ~ ) vs frequency
(loss tangent p as parameter). r =9.
11
Overburden attenuation of ground wave
(vertical electric field components).
Refraction loss L
R
and exponential atten
uation, La vs f for a given depth d.
Overburden attenuation of ground waves
(vertical electric field components).
Total loss L
T
vs frequency at several
depths d for given overburden conduc
tivity OJ..
G7
G18
G20
..
G24
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
G28
0
0
0
00
0
0
0
0
(I
G29
~
G.5
~
'"
G.6
(1)
G.7
Ell
,;s,',
(@lG
@
..,
~ )
0
..
0
0
@
~
e
G.8
~
i:'iiJ .,;
xviii
Expected values of median noise (short loss
less vertical antenna). Eastern U. S.,
40
0
N.
...
Diurn"'al variation of expected noise F
(short lossless vertical antenna). am
Eastern U. S 40
0
N.
Depth d
1
:..equired to attenuate surface 0
noise fields for 90% of the time,F (90), 0
to the antenna noise level of a p e r f ~ c t ~
o .
receiver matched to a lossless vertical 0
dipole of length ...e and resistance R. 0 0
Eastern Coast U.S.A. OJ. = 4 ~ 10'3 mhos/m.
t
r
1 =25, ...it = 1 meter, R
a
= 1 ohm. 0
l ~
Received noise levels for 90% of the time
at a perfect receiver matched to a loss
less vertical dipole of length..R. and resist
ance R
a
at a depth d. Eastern Coast U. S. A.
cr: = 4 x 10
3
mhos/m, =25,
1 rl
1. =1 meter. R =i ohm.
a
G23
o
<:>
..
Section 1. INTRODUCTION
A. Geological Aspects of Radio Propagation
1. Propagation Modes in the Atmosphere
To put into proper perspective Raytheon's work on Deep Strata
Radio Propagation research, the large scal.e aspects of the pertinent propa
gation media for radio waves are reviewed first.
Figure 1. 1 is an oversimplified sketch of the earth with the
immediately s'urounding tropospheric and ionospheric media. Radio propa
gation between points on: the surface of the earth as affected by these media
has been and is a large field of research covering the radio frequency
spectrum. The troposphere extending upwards to about 10 km or more and
the major ionospheric regions at 100 km (E region) and 150 to 250 km (F
regi,ons) play various roles in short lineofsight, longer beyondhorizon,
and much longer distance paths. At UHF and for distances beyond horizon,
the principal effects of the troposphere are those of scattering, and tropo
spheric scattering modes have been studi.ed from higher HF through micro
wave frequencies "and at ranges up to hundreds of miles. At VHF and
distances beyond horizon, turbulent and meteoric scattering in the iono
sphere give rise to ionospheric and meteoric scatter modes at distances of
600 to 1200 miles. At frequencies up through HF (and neglecting sporadic
Elayer propagation), reflection and refraction in the ionospheric regions
give rise to wellknown regular ionospheric layer modes for propagation to
1 1
'..
.'
..
"
'" ,
.'.; .
. OF SIGHT, TROPOSPHEIUC
GROUND WAVES
________ REGULAR LAYER IONOSP.HERIC REFLECTIONS,
  .... IONOSPHERIC AND METEORIC SCATTER
  ===  ...............
TROPOSPHERE
r_'_.
,',".'
' .. ,'
: C.OI
" " "
'. " .
" ". '
'" .
, ".'.
.'
, ' .. , '
, :.,
Figure 1. 1. Oversimplified sketch of earth structure and radio propa
gation modes above the surface (not to scale)
12
great distances. The principal effect of the troposphere here is that of
radio refraction. There is an additional mode, that of the surface wave
along the airground interface, which contributes to vertically polarized
wave propagation of particular importance at LF and MF.
An explanation of the mechanism of propagation in the spherical
cavity between the earth's surface and the ionosphere. can be found in the
25,76,81
mode theory . at the low frequencies used in de.ep strata propagation.
Our interest in the mode theory is twofold: first, external noise, which may
liinit the range for subsurface propagation, is due mainly to atmospheric
radio noise propagated between the earth's surface and the ionosphere and
then attenuatedthrough the earth. to the buried receiver; second, the mode
theory for propagation in air between ground and ionosphere has a counter
part in certain possible propagation modes in the earth's crust ina "wave
guide" of very low conductivity rock between highly conducting boundaries,
e. g., overburden soil on top and the highly conducting "Moho" (Mohorovicic)
discontinuity on the bottom. This is discussed further in Section IB and .
Appendix B.
. 2. Geologicai Structure of the Earth
We have discussed one of perhaps four major spherical regions
of the earth: the atmosphere. Depending upon the definition used for these
regions: the second is the hydrosphere,. which includes the great oceans,
seas, lakes, and rivers; the third region is the lithosphere; the fourth is
the barysphere.
13
Th 1
, h h d' f d f' , , 20 f
e It osp ere, accor Ing to one set 0 e Inlhons, re ers
to the solid, rocky outer portion of the earthas distinguished from the
barysphere, which the unknown interior supposed to consist of
matter heavier than surface. materials. More positively, the lithosphere is
formec! only of the types of rocks observable to geologists is assumed to
..
@
Q'
3470 km).
e
inner core, there is doubt a's to wltether the .,boundary If>
(radius = BOO,, km) is sharp or whether the transi
Hon takel? place over a range of 100 to 200 km in
depth.
See Refeorence 13, section 2:k.
14
Therefore, the earth has four shells: the crust extends above
the Moho, with a thickness varying from 10 to 30 miles (its upper surface
may vary by 12 miles when considering the variation from the top of
Mt. Everest to the Mindinao Deep); the ~ c : . . . n t l e extends to a depth of about
1900 miles; the outer core is about 1300 miles thick;. the inner core is about
800 miles in radius. This division is depicted in an oversimplified fashion
in Figure 1. 1.
We will not discuss further the characteristics of the core.
The mantle is believed to be a plastic fluid area mostly of peridotite rock
(with conductivity and dielectric constant comparable to thoseoof surface
soils). Conductivity was deduced from diurnal variations in the earthIS
61 3 '
magnetic field by Lahiri and Price of about 4 x 10 mhos /meter at the
Moho. The crust consists of rocks in various forms most often with lower
conductivity.
Closer examination of the crust reveals more complexity in
structure and distributions of rock types with depth, causing consequent
difficulty in attaining suitably simplified, useful propagation models. The
crust may be divided into two thin portions: the outer or continental layer,
which is the foundation of all continents and consists largely of granite; the
inner or subcontinental layer, which lies beneath continents and makes up
ocean bottoms and consists mainly of basalt. An oversimplified sketch for
the model postulated is depicted in Figure 1. 2.
15
co'
HYDROSPHERE
f
<OJ
.'
'.
.,
Cl>
~
'.
, ~
.'
+
('
I
?ATMOSPHERE
J
SEA /'.
ROCK
FRACTURED GRANITE
,D
~
.C
. .'
~
o
, CONTINENTAL; l ~ ! ! ! l l l . i ~ ~
LAYER 1 :
H
I
Ci'
4 ~ k L
4
ISCONTINUITY
~
'0
...
.' g, V
9 "'J
cPo
,?
A
. ~
I>
T 0
'"
rI'
'" <I
A
SUB l
lOT
A
CONTINENTAL
.
<1
B A S A L
LAYER
v 8>
en
I
1<1
D.
"/
..J

~

20
CRUST
<1J'
~ ~
PLASTIC, PERIDOTITE ROC K
MANTLE
I
1
1900
MILES
30
Figure 1. 2. Sketch of crust and mantle regions near
earth's surface (lithosphere)
,
3. Rocks and Structure of the Crust
A rock consists of one or more minerals. 20 A simple rock
consists of one mineral; marble, for example, is formed from the single
mine1='al calcite. A compound rock is made of II:10re than one mineral;
granite, for example, is formed from feldspar and quartz in various ratios,
plus,minoI' amounts of and other accessory minerals.
Rocks may be divided classes' according to the code
of origin:
a. Igneous'  rocks formed from molten of material
. ,:.
from within the earth,' have cooled and solidified. In
part they are the lavas and other products of. volcanoes;
other masses cool ,slowly below't'he sUJ;'face to form granite
and other crystalline forms. The bulk ,or igneous types are
intrusiveas, distinct from' th'e' which are extrusive.,
Examples are: '
'(I) granite  a common and, widely occurring deep seated
igneous rock. 'As, the amount of increases,
granite becomes known'as
(Z) basalt  fine grained to dense, intrusive or extrusive;
black or greenblack, principally feldspar and
pyroxene.
(3) gabbro  often coarsegrained, deep seated.
17
b. Sedimentary  mated,al that !Iformed apart o..f preexistent
rocks, and that was moved from its former position, depos
ited by the action of water, atmosphere, or glacier ice,
and subsequently converted into rock. II
Examples are: conglomerate, sand?tone, and limestone.
c. Metamorphic rocks which were originally igneous or
. .
sedimentary but changed for some (e. g. , ,temperatur.e and
pressure) reason in texture, composition, or both, so that
the original are altered markedly.
" ,:,'
.Examples .are: Slate, formed from shale; marble, derived
, ..
'":'
.from pre:"existent
, .." " ...
. " ""
: ....
'..'
Referr'ing to Figure 1. 2, the gross picture is that of
with more solid granite and then blend into. basaltic rock, which extends
surface soils 'of thicknesses overlying in general sedimentary rocks
on 'of' "fracturedII. One, theory is that granites meld in depth
down to the Moho .
': ...... "
.; .'
, :
'.:
'. "
'" ,
4. Cross Electrical Characteristics of Crust and Mantle
, . :.
From a radio propagation point of view, we consider the region
above the Moho; our immediate and perhaps more limited and practical con
cern is with that portion nearer the earth's surface. We wish to know the
electrical characteristics of such media pertinent to the complex propaga
k are the conductivity cs and relative dielectric constant
tion constant k dis"cussed in Section JI. The .electrical constants which affect
(it is assumed
18
for simplicity that relative permeability I(r = 1). The way in which ()
and 6 affect attenuation constant 0< and phase constant H' (where k = r jJ
1 j C'() depends upon a ratio called the 10 s s tangent p =0 / (.'.(,16 =
60 ~ ). / (;; :A is the free space wavelength and mks units are employed.
oro
This ratio is that of conduction current to displacement current in the lossy
dielectric media. 1 p is large (say p :::: 10), propagation is siwilar to that
in metals; if p is small (say p ~ 0.5), propagation is similar to that in
dielectrics with small heating los s (glass, polyethylene, etc.).
For reason
..
e
able values of E:, the loss tangent pwill be large une.I:ess () is extremely
r
small at the necessarily low frequencies w h ' e r ~ ). is large.
. 0
The accuracy of values. of G and l.. is complicated by several
r
factors, becoming worse as depthincreeases because of the indirectornethods
of measurement. It is also found that CJ and : are not independent of
r
ranges of values of these constants and the loss tangen1ltmay .serve as a guide.
The ranges of conductivity for earth materials are shown
sketched in Figure 1. 3, based principally on data from the .American Institute
of Physics Handbook. ':< These cover various forms of water, unconsolidated
sediments (soils), and sedimentary, igneous,. and metamorphic rocks. One
notes the wide ranges of () , particularly for igneous and metamorphic rock.
':' See Reference 13, Table 5K2.
19
1
H
I
I'
o
10
6
10
5
10
4 10 3
10
2
10
1
2.5
1.2
0.3
1.2
0.5
2.56
0.2
0.31.2
1/ "1'\.
"
O I S T I ~ L E O I rI I
I
I T TTTTT T I I I I I I I I I I I I I II
LAKES
SEA

2) UNCONSOLIDATED SEDIMENTS
CLAY
'
GRAVEL
LOAM SOIL
SAND ( SURFACE)
SAND (BURIED) WITH. FRESH, H
2
0 FILLING ROCK PORES
.J
WITH BRACKISH H20 FILLING ROCK PORES
i
.

3) SED!MENTARY ROCKS
CONGLOMER,HE
LI ME STONE (DENSE)
~
LIMESTONE (POROUS) WITH FRESH H20 FILLING PORES J
WITH SALT H20 FILLING PORES f  ..  
...
WITH PETROLEUM 1  ....
SALT (ROCK)
SA NDSTONE WITH FRESH WATER
WITH SAl1"WATER 1.,  
.
WITH PETROLEUM
1
 
..
SHALE (HARD)
SHALE (SOFT) ~
 4) IGNEOUS ROCKS
I
GRANITE:
,
GABBRO
I
BASALT
5) METAMORPH'C ROCKS
 SCHIST
I
MARBLE
 QUARTZITE
r
GNEISS 
f SLATE
I I 1 I I I II I I 1 I I 1 11 I , I I I II
10
10
10
10
10
10
7
10
8
10
6
10
5
10
4
CONDUCTIVITY CT
10
3
1M HOlM)
10
2
10
1
Figure 1. 3 0 Conductivity of earth materials (after
Amero Insto Phys. Handbook)
At VLF where the loss tangent is large, the principal mechanism. of conduc
tion is electrolytic; hence, 0 depends on the state and amount of water in
the rock and the 0 of that water. The amount of water depends upon
whether the rocks are porous and upon the availability of water to fill the
cracks. Dense rocks such as dense limestone have lower values of () than
their porous forms. Buried sand with water has higher (J than surface sand.
The conductivity' of the included water itself depends on amounts of dissolved
salts. The salt content may be enhanced because the original rock minerals
have been changed into more soluble mineral forms or because the water has
been in contact for a very long time with rock normally thought insoluble.
In drill holes. from which much of the data was taken, tempera
ture with depth (perhaps parabolically down to the Moho) and so
does pressure (perhaps linearly with depth). The conductivity increases with
increased temperature and decreases with decreased water content. From
14
the tabulate(l. data of von Hippel for sandy soil and marble for example, the
effect of water content at constant temperature may be seen. Since the per
centage of water in rocks decreases as the temperature and pressure
increase, the conductivity at first decreases with depth well into the crust.
As the increases further and where the is several hundred
degrees centigrade, temperature increases result in a rising trend in cr
At the Moho. the conductivity is about 4 millimhos/m, which is comparable
to that for surface soils.
111
\
'.\
The electrical properties of rocks are frequency dispersive,
particularly when dry. The variation in <:r with frcquency is particularly
marked, the variation in bei.ng much less frequency dependent. Thus,
o
dry marble at 25 C, measured over the range 100 cps to 100 mc, shows that
r decreases slightly from 9.5 to 8.5, but C) increase.s from about 10
9
4 .
to 6 x 10 mhos/m. Throughout this frequency range the tangent p is
small, decreasing from 0.2 to about 0.03, respectively. A similar frequency
behavior of 0, (;, and p is found for dry sandy soil. . However, when wet
. r
with about 3.9% moisture, this soil shows decreasing slightly 5 at
r
.... ':'4
100 cps to 4.5 at 300 kc, while the values of cr vary from 5.3 x 10 at ..
.  3
100 cps, then decrease slightly and increase slowly to 2.25 x 10 at 300 kc.
The loss tangent is 19 at 100 cps and decreases to .03 at 300 kc. Crudely,
3 .
., it appears that for c:J > 10 and at frequen"cies where the loss tangent is
large, then 0 and Ci do not vary markedly with frequency. This seems to
...
hold true for surface soils and some sediments.
and loss tangents, C) increases markedly, and
For smaller conductivities
t:; decreases somewhat
r
with increasing frequency; consequently, p decreases markedly with frequency.
It is also found that materials are anisotropic in that 0
in a directionperpen:dicular to bedding planes is notably less than 0 in a
direction parallel to such planes:
Most of the measurements on CJ and to be reported have
r 
been done in drill holes of relatively small depth compared with the poten
tially larger depths into the crust previously discussed. The drill holes used
1 12
,',
: ".',
: ',Z, ". <
,:
'r', .
': "
to date in New Hampshire and on Cape Cod are 1000 feet deep or less. From
the discussion above, it is not expected that very small conductivities in situ
will be encountered at the locations studied and values of 10 4 mhos 1m and
greater were typical, certainly not as low as 10 6 mhos 1m. However, most
of the work was that of developing adequate theory and techniques of measure
,ment rather than attempting radio transmission over very great di.stances
(the 'results of propagation tests over various paths are discussed in Section VI).
B. Subsurface Modes of Propagation
One may, conveniently divide possible modes of radio propagation
bet.:Neen buried antennas b'elow th,e surface into three types by reference to
.,: , . ". ~
,'the'simplified sketches in Figure 1. 4. These are the upoveranddown
(UOD) mode, the short 'distance deep strata mode, and the potentially much
longer distance very, deep waveguide mode. The models 5hown for an example
" "
, ,
assume four media: (a) ,air,
perhaps 500 feet thick with
with ' 0: = 0 and
o
'V  Z I'
0: = 10 mhos m,
1
e = 1; (b) an overburden,
Yo
E., ~ 4 ; (c) a rock trans
rl
()2 having two lower ranges of mission medium with
C
rz
~ 4, to 9; (d) the Moho discontinuity where
mhos 1m with C ;:;' 4.
r2
cr:: values and
2
2
is of the order of 10
1. UpOverandDown Mode
This mode for propagation up through, over, and down through
60
sea water was suggested and, ano.lyzed by R. K. Moore and more recently
by Moore and colleagues at the Universi.ty of New Mexico. 61 Experiments
113
......
I
.......
~
1
t
CTO=O
E rO =1
AIR
CRUST D= 20 KM
I'Dfi n DH
I I OVERBURDEN 1 I
1 II!
: 1 D= 500' i I
I I I I
TI IR
I L I
I
I I
1 ROCK I
I I
: CT
2
< 10 6 I
 I
I ~ , I.
AIR
:II,R
I
,T r1
I I I I
DH I I OVERBURDEN I I DH
I ! I
1 I
R
CT
2
Er2
ROCK
CTI
Er I
OVERBURDEN
~
T
AIR
CT3
Er3
A. UPOVERANDDOWN B. DEEP STRATA,MEDIUM LOSS
SHORT DISTANCE MODES
MOHO c T 3 ~ 1 0  2 MANTLE
C. VERY DEEP STRATA, LOW LOSS,
LONG DISTANCE WAVE GUIDE MODE
Figure 1. 4. Subsurface propagation lTIodes  silTIplified sketch
'th t ' d 'I h b 'd b  . d H .. 43,45
Wl an ennas ln groun SOl save een carrle out y GUy an asserJlan
among other s.
Horizontal antennas are buried just below the earthI s surface,
perhaps a few tens of feet. The antennas are arranged axially, i. e., "endfire"
for maxilnum received field (A of Figure 1.4). Energy travels vertically upward
towards the air boundary, dampening exponentially. At the surface, the wave
suffers refraction loss and the major component in air is the vertically polarized
electric field,as though there were a pseudo vertically polariz.ed emitter just
abovethe burieq. tran!)mitting antenna T. The wave propagates along the surface
with the characteristics of a ground wave. Recent modifications to the simpler
theory take into account the mode theory of propagation in the cavity the
. earth a.nd ionosphere. As the wave propagates along the surface, energy leaks
into the ground; in the vicinity of the receiving antenna R, one may the
wave "bending over" after und3rgoing refraction loss to become a horizontally
polarized wave. with further exponential damping towards R.
With antem'las buried not too deep ( a few meters) to minimize
exponential damping. distances of hundreds of miles are potentially feasible.
The influence of external noise on the received signal, which is also attenuated
into the earth, gives rise to useful frequencies in the VLF region. There are
various tradeofis regarding depth and optimum frequency for best signalto
60.61
noise ratio at the receiver.
This mode has an advantage where antennas must be buried for
protection, but the depths cannot be too great. However, the signals can be
readily detected in air and ca.n cause interference; vice versa, VLF signals
IIS
from other stations can cause interference to the desired received signal.
The theory assumes a soil thickness so great that there is no
appreciable "reflection" effect from the overburdenrrick boundary, because
of exporiential damping in the s6il. It further assumes that the "direct"
signal through the overburden from T to R is negligible, a reasonable assump
Hon for larger distances in highly conducting soils and sea water.
2. DeepStrata, Medium Loss, Short Distance Mode
Deep strata 'modes, represented in B of Figure I,4artd C of
Figure 1. 4, differ from t h ~ DOD mode in A of Figure I. 4 in two principal
ways. First, rather deep drill holes (DH) must be available to afford access
from the earthI s surface to the lower los s rock lying beneath the overburden.
. ,
Second, and as a consequence of the geometry of orill hole's, vertically
polarized radiators appear more favorable from a practical point of view.
We have principally considered vertical linear radiators, insulated and bare,
and fed by means of coaxial lines. Tbe theory for and experiments with such
antennas are discussed in Section IV and 'in Appendices D and E.
When the conductivity of the rock a:z is som.ewhat lower than
that of the ovel."burden but not as low as that of such igneous rocks of
Figu.re 1. 3, the situation of B of Figure 1. 4 pertains. The theory assumes
first that the rock is a simple medium of infinite .extend; this is developed in
Section IIG. The result is applicable to the direct ray 'for great de.pths
shown in CD in B of Figure 1. 4. The next approximation takes into account
the e i f e ~ t of the overburdenrock boundary; it further assurre s that the thickness
1 16
of the rock down to the next major discontinuity such as the Moho, is so great
that the effect of reflections at such discontinuities is negligible due to expo
nential and. spreading losses. This assumption appears to be valid if
4
of the order to 10 mhos/m or greater.
a: is
2
The theory of the effect of the overburdenrock boundary is
given in Appendix C and summarized in Section IIG. Besides the direct ray
@ . t ~ e r e is a wave reflected from the overburdenrock interface as @,
and a wave component 0 guided along that interface. This wave component
notation parallels the "ground wave" treatment for antennas in air above
ground with the rock replacing the air as the "propagation" medium. The
resulting effect of waves @ and G) deP.t;nds upon the propagation constants
of the overburden and the rock and upon their ratio, which gives the relative
refractive index of the two media.
Estimates for communication range may be made for various
assumptions of the propagation model, the constants of the media, electrical
length. of antennas, and noise. The calculations have been done in Section IIF
for the rather simplified Inodel oLa. direct ray between T and R in a homo
geneous rock medium, which calculations would apply for antennas at several
,
skin depths below an overburden boundary. The antennas were assumed to be
identi.cal and electrically short, and results are given for insulated antennas
which were short circuited. For an allowed total transmission loss of 205 db
4
and a conductivity oz = 10 mhos/m, the range is 5 miles at 10 kc and
about 12 miles at 1 kc. If the conductivity 0
2
varies, the ranges will vary
117
roughly proportional to JI/ C)2 at a given frequency and f.or .such ranges.
Greater ranges can be achieved by using resona.nt insulated antennas if hole
depths are sufficiently great. If the allowed transmission loss is based upon
a receiver limited by its own internal noise, then the.ranges will decrease if
atmospheric noise fields are not sufficiently attenuated by the overburden,
There is the possibility of the UOD mode of propagation. For
vertical electric dipole!? immersed in the overburden or sea water, as for
60,61
the model sketched in A of Figure 1. 4, Moore has shown that the verti
cal electric field in air at large distances is negligible compared with the
horizontal component, which is itself weak. The theory for such mode has
not been worked out completely for vertical electrical antennas in the rock.
However, if values of relative refractive index of the ovel"burden with respect
to the rock are not too great, the potential UOD modes would be expected to
be much weaker than those for similar antennas nearer the surface but
immersed in the overburden.
A further potentially attractive mode is the downward ref:racted
wave shown as @) in B of Figure 1. 4. Such a. mode can occ.ur if the con
ductivity decreases to low values with increasing depth, causing a decrease
in refractive index with depth compared with that nearer the overburden.
The situation is roughly analogous to ionospheric propagatiqn fx:om air into
an ionized medium of lesser refractive index c a ~ s i n g ray refraction and
return to earth. In the rock, the bending depends upon the initial values of
refractive index at transmitter and receiver and the gradient of refractive
118
index with depth. This mode is being studied further with several assumed
gradients of r'efractive ind,ex with depth, with a view of utilizing digital
computation.
3. Very Deep Strata, Low Loss, Waveguide Mode
This mode is shown sketched in idealized form in C of Figure 1. 4.
It assumes that the rock, conductivity
tude less than that for rays (D, @ ,
cr: is at least two orders of magni
Z
and Q) in B of Figure I.4 and that
the gradient of refractive index with depth is very sharp at the rockoverburden
boundary and also at the lower dil?continuity (say the Moho shown sketched
in the Figure at ZOkm depth). Rather larger antenna depths may be required
to excite this mode. The simple picture is that of waves propagated in rock
of very' low loss tangent and guided between parallel planes (or spherical
sections) of much larger conductivity. The theory is given in Appendix B
and'is discussed below.
Some examples were used tQ typify the theory. The cases
, chosen were those for which a 10kc wave was excited by a dipole near the
upper wall and the field was, at a point near that wall at a dis
tance f" The upper and lower plane walls were assumed tlsparated a
distance ci = ZO km. The dielectric in between was aSSUIIE d to have a rela
mhos/m {a rather low value, and such that the los,s tangent Pz
()z =0 (lossless dielectric) and (b) for
tive dielectric constant
considered: (a) for
=4.
rZ
Two cases for the conductivity we're
6
(J:; = 10
2
= 0.45). The
resulting electric field E
z
was normalized to the same dipole moment
1 19
Ids = 16,900 ampmeter for the two cases, the value chosen being that which
gives a field of 300 mv/m at ( = 1 km for 1 kw radiated from a short 1085
less dipole over a perfect ground p1ane for waves in a lossless dielectric
with = 4. The results are shown plotted in Figure 1. 5, in which values
r2
of E
z
in db above 1 mv/m are plotted vs horizontal distance
scale for the two assumed values of f'\" There are three
Q2'
f on a log
modes excited:
m = 0, 1, 2; the solid curves are the resultant field; the dashed curves are
those for the TEM mode (m =0). The departure of the solid and dashed
curves is the quantity l,wl given in Appendix B.
6
The values of E
z
for <)2 = 10 are relatively lower than
() in the
6
cr: = 10
2
<)2 = 0, due first to the exponential damping 'exp ( 0("2 those for
former. Also, .at f = 50 km, the relative enh.!=tncement of E
z
for
o(2f '
above E I e is sma.ller than that enhancement of E
z
for (J: = 0 above
o 2
E'
a
For the. example cited, there does not appear to be much theo
retical advantage in considering the waveguide mode over the TEM mode
6
when a conductivity as small as 10 mhos/m exists. If such a waveguide
mode existed over great distances i..n ...the earth, the presence of a lower
boundary may cause weaker fields than those due to the TEM mode, but not
much stronger. This appears due to the greater attenuation of the higher
order rnodes. Further calculations for different frequencies, plane separa
Hons, and co.nductivity are needed to generalize the relative behavior of E
z
found for this exa.mple.
1 20
~
',00 70 50 30 20
E ~

 ....... 
~ 
..
.....
........

............
...
I
)
,
)
E (2 =4 15X I C 4 ~ 16900 AMP M (RMSJ
) (I OS)= ar..j2 = ,
FREQ= 10Ke
,
70
10
60
30
50
CIl 30
~
a:
40
o
10
20
N 40
ILl
2
..... 10
>
~
/I
III 20
o
P (KM)
Figure 1. 5. Vertically polarized field {E
z
} vs distance p for guided waves, per
fectly conducting plane walls. f =10 kc, d =20 km, E r =4
2
H
J
N
.....
{Ids} =
15 x 10
4
2rr\12
=16,900 amp. m. {rms}
C. History of the Program
Basic consideration of the problem of underground communications
was undertaken in a study for project Minuteman, sponsored by Boeing Air
craft Company. It resolved into a program of electrical measurements of
rock and boundary media in the laboratory and field, antenna design and
measurements, propagation and path attenuation measurements in the field,
consideration of the subterranean noise levels to be encountered, and a
theoretical study and analysis effort.
Raytheon Company sponsorship was then used to initiate one phase
of immediate interest, based upon some of the results of the previous study.
This was the use of layers of rock salt as a potential transmission medium.
These salt layers, of varying thickness, are reached at drilling depths of
100 feet to 2000 feet depending on focation. The three major salt basin areaS'"
in the United States cover areas of 50, 000 to 150, 000 square miles. The low
conductivity of this medium offered attractive possibilities for underground
communications, though the thickness of the salt layers placed a lower limit
of 3 to 4 mc on the frequency to be used when assuming a waveguide mode.
Experiments were conducted in the Retsof salt mine at Geneseo,
New York, during the latter part of 1959. This mine is approximately
1000 feet underground, the depth'minimizing the limitations on signalto
noise due to surface noise and interference. It was intended to use test holes
drilled 100 feet into the floor of the mine as antenna holes for simple propa
gation tests. These holes, supposedly dry, were filled with brine and
1 22
totally unsatisfactory for the intended use. Cracks and fissures in the layers
under the mine floor allowed water infiltration reducing the effectiveness as
a transmission medium.
Further measurements in salt layers were attempted in early 1960
at Honeoye, New York. This is a site' of natural gas drilling, with hole
depths 1500 feet and deeper usual in the area. The wells selected were.
approximately 4 miles apart, and the corings indicated a layer of salt 75 feet
thick centered at 1500 feet. These holes were supposed to be dry. The water
used in drilling had, as at the Retsof salt mine, infiltrated 'the salt layers
encountered in driliing, and the insides of the holes were soaked with brine.
Tubular dipole antennas were used, resonant at about 6 mc. These antennas
were wrapped in pclyethylene sheeting to prevent their being shorted out
electrically by the blC'ine coating the inside of the holes.
These unsuccessful experiments in awatery salt medium indicated
the need for a more favorable area for experimentation. They pointed out
,the need for controlled 'conditions in drilling, which are not always feasible
when using h<:>les drilled for other purposes.
Work was initiated in New Hampshire where lowconductivity granite
is common and reached easily through relatively thin layers' of overburden.
Sites were selected at Concord, Goffstown, and Bedford where drilled holes
already existed at each location. Various antenna and propagation measure
ments were conducted at these f,j,l:es. The propagation tests pointed up a
problem. The small amount of overburden in this area complicated an
123
accurate assessment of the transmission path between the sites: Le., was
the signal propagated principally through the rock or via the upover.,and
, "
down mode?
The AFCRL sponsored a continuation of the work under the present
USAF contract, effective in the Spring of 1961. Following some preliminary
measurements of phase on signals between Goffstown and Bedford, the phase
measureluents were repeated in an attempt to differentiate between rock
propagated and airpropagated signals. Results were not conclusive in
proving that the principal mode 'was rockpropagated. Attention was then
, concentrated on measurements of the drill hole water, and first definitive
):::g..??surements were made on insulated antennas.
,Field model measurements were made in early 1961 at Weston,
Mas's'achusetts, where 'iOmc air'resonant dipoles were used from I to 25 me
over a path length of several hundred feet to arrive at vertical directivity
patterns for this type 'of antenna. Antenna impedance measurements were
taken ove,r this 'spectrum.
A study of bala'nced dipoles and J antennas was tnade at Swenson's
Quarry in Concord,' N. H., these antennas being lowered horizontally into
c r a c ~ s cut in the granite. It was hoped that the variation in impedance of the
standard dipole antenna when in close contact with the granite would allow a
better understanding of an antenna in intimate contact with a lowconductivity
medium.
124
;:;;., , ,
Later phases of the \l'lork were commenced on Cape Cod in early
1962. Seismic and magnetic surveys were performed over several areas,
and sites were then chosen for drill holes, one in Harwich and ultimately two
in Brewster. The holes were 1000 feet deep and overburden thickness, an
impprtant consideration for attenuation of atmospheric noise, varied from
400 to 450 feet.
It is with the work since early 1961 that the technical aspects of the
report are concerned.
D. Structure of This Report
The work to be reported consists of the work done under the con
tract since its inception over a year ago. The various wave propagation
constants to be employed are defined in Section II. Particular attention is
given to effects of large vs small loss tangents of the propagating media on
'the various coefficients used.
Section III contains a description of the various facilities ,equipment,
and test equipment employed, with several photographs.
In Section IV the theory and experimental results for bare and in
. sulated antennas are given. The theoretical discussions draw on more
detailed treatments given in the Appendix. The measurements refer to full
scale tests in New Hampshire and Cape Cod drill holes.
Section V contains a review of techniques employed for measuring
electrical properties of dissipative media. Almost all have been employed,
125
the major exception being that surface resistivity type techniques. have not
been employed directly. Emphasis was placed on techniques involving meas
urement of resonant frequencies of insulated antennas and thQse
measurement of attenuation with depth.
Section VI contains results of transmission path measurements,
principally those made on Cape Cod.
Section VII includes discussion, and recommendations
. based on the work to date.
Personnel invoived are listed in Section VIII; acknowledgements
are made in Section IX; an extensive bibliography is given in Section X.
The Appendices include a discussion and tabulation of. the f(p) and
g(p) functions, the theory of the very deep strata waveguide mode, theoret
ical treatments of the performance of bare and insulated antennas, the theory
of the short distance "ground wave" type of mode of propagation, and the
theory of attenuation of atmospheric noise through overburden.
1 26
Section II. WAVE PROPAGATION IN CONDUCTING MEDIA
A. Definitions of Electrical Constants  Notation
We shall be concerned with radio wave propagation in simple media.
A simple medium is homogeneous and isotropic, the electrical constants (in
general complex) of which are proportionality constants between density
. 5
functions and electromagnetic field vectors, as given for example by King.
Various complex amplitudes assume a periodic dependence upon time (t) of
j C<.I t r:
the form. (. , where j = \I 1, and cv =27r f where f =frequency of the
variation.
We employ the mks system of units. There are two universal con
stants t and 2/ :
o 0
, is the fundamental ",lectric constant, called t h ~
o
dielectric constant or permittivi.ty of free space; JJ is the fundamental
o
magnetic constant,called the diamagnetic constant or reluctivity of free space.
The reciprocal of the latter is /l ' called the permeability of free space,
I 0
although
whlchwe shall use for convenience and faI?iliarity in preference to
5
JI is the more fundamental. Numerical values are
o
12 9
e =8.854 x 10 farad/meter = 10 /361f farad/meter
o
]/'
o
1
V
o
7
= 411" x 10 henry/meter
(II. 1)
1. Dielectric Constant ( ) ~ ,
...
The complex quantity
..
=

(II. 2)
is called the absolute permittivity or absolute dielectric constant. The
dimensionless complex quantity 6 is called the complex relative permit
~ r
tivity or complex relative diele\.:tric consti:'l.nt and
LI
c;..  J
r
~ I I
r
(II. 3)
2. Permeability ~ )
The complex quantity
11 = ,1 ,J
..v V
o
J:
r
is called the absolute reluctivity of the medium and
(II. 4)
)I  ,,' j 1'" (II.S)
r  Y
r
v
r
is called the relative reluctivity (dimensionless) of that medium. In the
conducting dielectric media of interest, we assume (see below) that JI is
iNr
real. In this case,
(II. 6)
is called the permeability and Ir the relative permea.bility (dimensionles.s)
with IA. = U. 1 =1/ V'.
fi"r I r r
* The tilde sign under a quantity is uSedto indicate a complex quantity,
temporarily.
II  2
3. Conductivity (S[
The constant
Sl:" = c:r' j " (J
(11.7)
is the complex conductivity of the medium, measured in mhos Imeter (vari
1
ously designated (../1.. m) or (1r 1m) ) .
4. Dielectric Factor (5 )
,."
The quantities a, , , and CV often occur in combination and
...., 
the quantity
can be writte'll
(II.8a)
"
=(  .S:I::)j
CU
1
w
( 0:' (II.8b)
1
7i)
and S is called the complex dielectric factor.
",....,.
The real part
e = ';..
e
d' leu = G e. = 6
0
( r'  d' I w Go)
o er
(II.9a)
is called the real effective permittivity or dielectric constant IE, and G
e er
is the real effective relative permittivity or relative dielectric constant. In
the imaginary part of equation (II. 8b), the quantity
is called the real effective conductivity.
In most measurements, it is e (or
e
G ) and
er
(II.9b)
cs: that are
e
determined. A frequertcy variation in is oftened attributed to the presence
e
11 3
of the imaginary part a" of q;. Similarly, a frequency variation in
is often attributed to the imaginary part 6" of .
We shall drop the subscript lie" and the primes and henceforth
let
0 =real effective conductivity
6. =real effective absolute dielectric constant
but will keep in mind the respective definitions of equations (II. 9b) and
(II. 9a) for these quantities.
B. The f(p) and g(p) Functions for Evaluating \fl. fp
Thecomplex factors used in propagation of waves in dissipative
media involve the complex radical 1 1. j p. As shown in Appendix A, the
real and imaginary parts are the functions f(p) and g(p), respectively; 1. e. ,
S = j p = f(p) 1. j g(p)
In polar form, the complex square root may be written as
10)
+ j 0
= lsi e (II. 11)
The f(p) and g(p) functions were first computed by G. W. Pierce
64
and have .been published by King. * Appendix A contains more
tables of f(p), g(p), g(p)/f(p), lsi and 8; the values were obtained using a
digital computer.
g(p)
Values of these. functions and the important ratio f(p) are shown
plotted .on the curves of Figure 11.1 and Figure 11.2 as functions of p. In
* See Reference 4, Appendix II.
114
I. "
I.V
.9 .8 .7 .6
.5 .4 .3 .2 .1
I I I
I I I I
f ( ~ ) I I
I
j
t
.

.
> 
> 
I 
I 
 

..L _"
2J. ...... ~
"'" ........
.
~ .

"'"
0
" " ' ~
~
~
~ g (p)
I
,/
f (p)


/
V

/
/

I I I I I I I I
o
o
.1
.6
.3
.2
.8
.5
.7
.9
1.1
1.0
o
z
ct
0.
...
p
Figure II. 1. The functions f(p} and g(p} used in evaluating\! 1 j P = f(p}
j g(p}. Also shown is ratio g(p} I f(p}. Range ofp < 1. 0
II5
H
H
I
0'
REGION OF SMALL p
10 1 iii Iii iii j I .1 I I I I iii I I I I I I I I I I I. I I I i I I :;;r I I I
Q.
0
a.
01 
tOL 1 ;r=:.... I
lOOO 100 10
THE FUNCTIONS f (p) AND 9 (p) USED
IN EVALUATING ./1 j p =flp) jg(p)
SHOWN ARE APPROXiMATIONS FOR
SMALL LARGE p(p?;6.0)
ALSO SHOWN IS RATIO g(p)1 f(p)
1.0 0.1
0.11 I 7"! I i
0.01 1 v I I I I II I I I I I I I II II I I I I I I III I I I I I I !;! I I I I I I III
0.01
P
Figure II. 2. The functions f(p) and g(p) used in evaluating
VI j P = f(p) j g(p). Also shown is
ratio g(p) / f(p). Shown are approxirna
tionsfor srnallp (P':::O. 6) 0) .
Figure II. 1, the range of p is P ::!E. O. 9, and the plots are linear. In Figure
II. 2, the range of p is 0.0 1 p 200, and the curves are plotted on loglog
scales.
Of importance are limiting ranges of p, for which simplified approxi
ma,te expressions for these functions can be used.
1. Small p (p2 1)
In this case'
. (p2/
8
1)
f (I  p2   ).
1)
(II. 12a)
(II. 12b)
(II. l3a)
(H. 13b)
,., p
=2"
g(p)
f(p)
2
 (l     ) .
2
(!:l).
4
(II. l4a)
(II. 14b)
if p 6 0.6, first approximation accuracies are
g(p) p/2., too high by 4% or less
f(p) 1, too low by 40/0 or less
(II. 15)
.&i!1. = p/2, too high by 8% or less
f(p)
If. p 0.6, second approximation accuracies are
f(p) ; 1 + p2/8, too high by 0.4% or less
g(p) ';{ (1  too low by 0.60/0 or less (II. 16)
II7
L (1  P4
2
) , too low by 1.0% or less
f(p) 2
(II. 16)
In the range 1 O. 6, we use first approximations for sim
plicity and reasonable accuracy, the expressions being those of equations
(II. 12b), (II. l3b), and (II. 14b) f01 f(p), g(p) and g(p)/f(p), respectively, with
accuracies indicated in equation (II. 15).
2. Large 'p (p2 1)
f(p)
::;rp
 'JZ
.rP"
= \f2 '
(1+ 1 + )
"ZP
I
(2j> 1)
(II. 17a)
(II.17b)
g(p) (I
1
zp+)
1)
(II. 18a)
(II. 18b),
g(p) ;(
f(p)
1
1 + _
P
(II. 19a)
= 1
If p 6, first approximation accuracie,s are
(II. 19b)
f(p)
g(p)
.&illJ = I,
f(p)
too low by 8% or less
too high by 9% or less
too high by 180/0 or Ie s s
(II. 20)
II8
if p 6, seconq approximation accuracies are
f(p) Jf (1 + too low by O. ,3% or less
g(p)
(1 
too low by 0.40/0 or less
J
(.II. 21)
g(p)
...,
1
1
too low by O. 10/0 or less
f(p)

p
If p 10, first approximation accuracies are
.R!E) 1
f(p)
f(p)
g(p)
rI'>
'
too low by 50/0 or less
too high by 50/0 or less
too high by 10% or less
(II. 22)
If p.2:: 10, second approximation accuracies are
f(p) ';{ (1 +
g(p) f (1 
g(p) 1 _ 1
f(p)  p
too low by o. 1% or less. 1
too low by O. 2OY, or less r
too low by 0.1% or less J..
(II. 23)
Fot simplicity and reasonable accuracy, the first apprc:>xima
tion forms employed, given by equations (II. 17b), (II. lSb), and (II. 19b)
for f(p), g(p), and g(p)/f(p), respectively. The accuracy is quite adequate
for p::: 10 as indicated in equation (II. 22) and is somewhat poorer if p 6,
particularly for g(p)/f(p), as indicated in equation (II. 20).
The departure of the first approximations from the true values
of the functions are also shown 'graphically in the curves of Figure II. 1 and
Figure II. 2 for the small range of p (p 0.6) and large range of p 6).
1I9
C. Loss Tangent (p)
The loss tangent p is the ratio of conduction current to displacement
current components.. This ratio may be obtained from the dielectric factor,
equation (IL8b), as the ratio of imaginary to real part, i. e.
p =
or dropping the subscript "ell as discussed
(II. 24)
p =
= C)
UJ .. 6
.0 r
(II. 25)
where by 0 we mean the real effective conductivity, by 6 the real effective
dielectric constant, and by
as discussed in Section IIA.
t the real effective relative dielectric constant,
r
We may write equation (II. 2 ~ ) as
60(11
0
p =
i\
(II. 26a)
in which
=
=
4 . 3
1. 8 x 10 0 (10 mhos/m)
f
kc
c
r
(n.26b)
(II. 26c)
Il In
,  free space wavelenQ'th (meter)
.A
o
 c>
f = wave frequency (cps)
. f
kc
= wave frequency (kc)
c:s = conductivity (mhos/meter)
0 (10
3
mhos/m) = conductivity in millimhos/meter
(II. 27)
Values of loss tangent p are plotted as functions of frequency f
kc
on the c\uves of Figure II. 3 with <::> and ~ as parameters.
l'
Two values of
[1' of 5 and 25 should bracket values encountered for a large variety of
rocks and soils. Two ranges of p are plotted (note scales of p and f
ke
) for
small p (p ~ 0.6) and large p (p 2: 10), these limits being shown in heavy
horizontal lines.
Thus, for small p, if
4
6. == 5 and () == 10 mhos Imeter, the
r
frequency must exceed 600 kc, while if == 25 for that same () , the
l'
frequency must exceed 120 kc. Again, for large p (p ~ 10), if t: == 5 and
l'
C) == 10 4 mhos 1m, the frequency must be less than 36 kc,. while if 61' == 25
for that same conductivity, the frequency must be less than 7.2 kc.
For sea water, with cr = 4 mhos 1m and 6 = 81, the loss tangent
l'
~ '
is P =8.89 X 10.:0 If
kc
and will be large (p ~ 10) at all frequencies less than
about 90 me.
D. J'ropagation Constant or Complex Phase Constant (1)
The complex phase constant k is found from the general relation
~
(II. 28)
where a,J = 2rrf, f ::: frequency, J:!; is the permeability and ~ the dielectric
factor, discussed in Section IIA. We assume i ~ is real and that . / ~ is
7
unity so that I);::: /0:: i if x 10 him.
IIII
SMALL P (p SO.6)
0= 10
6
25
'
p
LARGEp .< p ~ . I O )
100 I .............. I / ........ '. I
IOOC r I I \d i I 1\.. i I I i ,I I I i I I I
I' 1 I I I '" I I' I I'\. I I I" I I I
0.1 I 10
FREQUENCY KC
E
r
= 5
E
r
= 25
LOWER LIMIT
OFp=IO 10
1000 100
FREQUENCY KC
25
, "7
'Vo=IO
"
"
"
'\.
p
I"".. ....x I ax 'x I UPPER LIMIT
OF.P =0.6
1.0 Iii '< I I I 1<1 I I I I <:1 iii Ii'
O.QI ~ " ...... I ,), .... ... I
0.001' I I I I I'\"I , I _ I ! '" I I > I ! I
10
H
H
I
...
N
0 = CONDUCTI VITY (MHOS/METER)
Er" RELATIVE DI ELECTRIC CONSTANT
() and E parameters
r
Figure II. 3. Loss tangent (p) vs frequency,
(a) Small p (p ~ O. 6)
(b) Large p ( p . ~ 6.0)
() =effective conductivity (real) in :mhos/meter
! )'
.;
We let*
(11.. 29)
where j3 is the phase constant and 0< the attenuation constant measured. in
radians (or nepers) per meter, and both are real.
With equation (II. 8b) without subscript "e", plus the relations in
Section IIB and equation (II. 29), we may write equation (11.28) as
 A rz r{(p) j g ( p ~
 ro 'J r l: ~
1. Phase Constant (fJ ) and Wavelength in the Medium (.:l )
From equation (II. 30b) with eqq.ation (II. 29)
1= flo Fr f(p)
and with
(II. 30a)
(II.30b)
(II. 31)
2 7T fA
(II. 32)
where A is the wavelength in free space
o
1
F; f(p)
= ~
v
o
(II. 33)
where v
p
= phase velocity and v0 =velocity of light in vacuo. *>,,c The effect of
the magnitude of p on this ratio is discussed below.
* In some texts. the notation "Y =
propagation constant. .....,
** The phase velocity is given by
V
4/ = ev
p  fi ,.6'0
co< + j ;8 = jk is sometimes used for the'
(II. 33a)
P; f(p)
II 13
2. Attenuation Constant (0<')
From equation (II. 30b) with equation (II. 29)
0(= A ~ r g(p)
21T"
K
g(p)
=
A
o
21T
g(p)
=
T
(II. 34)
The effect of the magnitude of p on 0< is discussed below.
Occasionally, confusion in. expressing attenuation losses arises
because of the various units assigned to 0( in practice. The farzone fields
 0(' R
attenuate or vary exponentially with distance, according to e For sim
pIe media, an exponential attenuation (power) loss A may be ascribed to this
R
variation, which is the square of the reciprocal of e ._.. ; 1. e. ,
2c<R
A =e (II. 34a)
where the units are nepers/meter for c:< and meters for R, for consistency.
In practice, it is most convenient to express A as' a logarithm 01 a power
ratio, and the usual.form is the decibel rather than the n.eper. Thus, the
exponential attenuation loss A in decibels is
A(db) = 10 loglO A = 8.686 eX (nepers/meter) R (meter)
{II. 34b)
The relations for c< and R will be expressed in subsequent sections in units
other than neper s 1m Clnd meter s.
0< (nepers/meter) =
=
1114
One has
1 3.261
8.686 eX" (db/m) = 8.686 =
3.281 (db/mi)
8. 686 x 5280
0<" (db/ft)
(II. 34c)
"
Hence.
R(meter) =
1
3". 281 R(ft):.
5?80
3.281 R(mi) (II. 34d)
A (db) = 0<;' (db/m) R (meter)
=CJ'f:" (db/ft) R (ft)
=~ (db/mi) R (mi)
(II. 34e)
To express A in equation (II. 34a) as a dimensionless power ratio. the
logarithmic unit in c< must be the neper and the length unit in ~ must be the
same as that for R.
3. Effect of Magnitude of Loss Tangent (p) on Relations for
~ , ;Sand A
a. Small loss tangent (p ~ 0.6)
When p is sufficiently small, first approximations for f(p)
and g(p) are used, whence
f(p)
..
1
(II. 12b)
g(p)
...,
~
=
a
2
2we
(II. 13b)
g(p)
"'"' ...E..
cr
(II. 14b) =
f(p) 2 24Jti
In this case of small loss tangent, several useful relations result.
(1) Phase constant, phase velocity and wavelength
; J ~
~
K
(II. 35a)
o.
).
1
~ (II. 35b) = =
1
0 ~
V
o
When p ~ 0 as in air (for which 0 ~ 0), A ~ lo' v
p
'=' vo'
II 15
In dielectrics, such as polyethylene in coaxial cables,
0 :' 0 ; p and with r =2.25
.'
1
::: 1.5
= 0.67
giving rise to the "foreshortened wavelength. "
(2) Attenuation constant
In this case
=
A .fr
p 60 '1T" 0
neper /meter
"2
=
fGr
3
er
db/meter
=
1. 637 x 10
oK:
2
0
db/ft.
=
4.990 x 10
~
, 6
0
db/mile (statute)
=
2.635 x 10
Fr
(II. 36a)
(II. 36b)
(II. 36c)
(II. 36d)
Less used is the relation of attenuation per wavelength
,
0<= 1637.3 ). (db/medium wavelength) (II. 37a)
o
=
1637.3 (J
Fr
.l (db/freespace wavelength)
o (II. 37b)
in which, ).0 is the free space wavelength in meters.
It ml.J.st be emphasized that relations of equation (II. 36) are
valid only for small loss tangents (p ~ 0.6) of the medium. Such relations
cannot be used for sea water at frequencies less than 150 me, for example.
From the relations of equation (11.36) one sees that ~ is
II 16
independent of frequency as long as c:r and r are constant with frequency.
The remarks in Section IIA must be recalled to the effect that <S" and f:. as
r
used here a:re the real effective conductivity and real effective relative
dielectric constant, respectively, and thus may be functions of frequenc y (low)
if imaginary parts of complex c and IE: are important .
....., .....r
b. Large loss tangent (p :: 10)  metallic skin depth ("t')
When p is sufficiently large(say p 10), first approxima
tions give
f(p) ;;
g(p) ';t
sJp) 1
f(p)
Accordingly, the following relations develop.
(1) Phase consta.nt, phase' velocity and wavelength
From (II. 31) with equation (II. 17b)
r::. , =Icv .fi20 <J
;8=: J .r \J (rad/m)
2 rr I 2 (meter)
\I' C41ficr
vp = /0'":,.. (meter I sec)
(Z) Attenuation constant  skin depth ("l:')
(II. 22)
(II. 38)
(II. 39)
(II. 40)
,iI'
The skin depth is reciprocal of attenuation constant
(C'<") and when the loss tangent is large (p ? 10), one speaks of the "metallic
Il 17
skin" depth. From equation (II. 34) and equation (II. 18b)
z: = .;, JcVAcr nepero Imeter
Upon comparing equation (II. 41) with equation (II. 38), one notes
t:><'';B= g(p)/f(p)
whence the complex propagation constant.1 becomes
k
A" ./'. 4( 1 ") 1  j
....,= /'"J ...... = I"', J
(II. 41)
(II. 42)
(II. 43)
(II. 44)
For nonmagnetic media = 1),j:he expression for T can
be written variously as
7:
503.2
(meter) (II. 45a)
=
"\'
(J
15.92
= (meter) (II. 45b)
kc
cr
1651
= (feet) (II. 45c)
cr
522.2
(feet) (II. 45d)
=
fkca"
Accordingly,
1. 987 x
10
3
JTO="
nepers/meter (II. 46a)
=
6.283 x 10
2
neper s / meter (11.46b)
=
;0.5458
db/meter (II. 46c)
=
O. 1663
db/foot (II. 46d)
=
16.63
.j"fkco
db/lOO feet (II.. 46e)
II 18
= 878. 3 db/mile (statute) (II. 46f)
One may express the attenuation per skin depth or per wave
length in the medium as
0<' = 8.686 db/skin depth
= 54.58 db/medium wavelength
(II. 47a)
(II. 47b)
One further comment on attenuation: the attenuation 0<: is
the result of exponential damping of the electromagnetic fields in a dissipa
o(R
tive medium. The fields vary with distance not only according to e but
also according to other distance dependent functions (e. g., l/R).
4. Example
As an example of calculations for various propagation constants,
5
consider an unbounded simple medium with
4 /
c::r = 2 x 10 mhos meter
~ = 9
r
which are independent of frequency and somewhat typical for rock. In this
case
400
P =loss tangent = f
ke
, 300
A =freespace wavelength =f ,(kilometers)
a ke
0< = 6.2832 x 10
2
g(p) f
kc
' (nepers/kilometer)
= 0.8783 g(p) f
ke
, (db/statute mile)
,13 =6.2832 x 10
2
f(p) f
ke
, (radians/kilometer)
(II. 48a)
(II. 48b)
(II. 48e)
(II. 48d)
(II. 48e)
II19
). =
d" 1 h 100
(kilometers) (II. 48f) me lum wave engt =
f
kc
f(p)
3.281 x 105
(feet) (II. 48g)
=
f
kc
f(p)
.'
A
v
p
0.333
T
= =
f(p)
(II. 48h)
0
V
o
4
't'
5.222 x 10
(feet) = skin depth (II. 48i)
=
f
kc
g(p)
The pertinent calculations of the above quantities are tabulateq_
in Table II. I for 1 ~ f
ke
~ 1000.
The dimensionless quantities p and ..1 /1. and the values of
o
A
o
(km), jJ (rad/km) and eX (neper /km) are plotted in the curves of
Figure II. 4. The values of 0:: (db/mile), ). (feet) and "t' (feet) are shown
plotted on the curves of Figure II. 5.
In Figure II. 4 it is seen that loss tangent p and freespace wave
length vary inversely with first power of frequency. Small loss tangents are
encountered (op ::!: 0.6) at frequencies exceeding 667 kc; large loss tangents
are encountered for frequencies less than 66.7 kc (p ~ 6); and for the more
accurate limit p ~ 10, the frequencies must be less than 40 kc. The attenua
tion c o n ~ t a n t (0<") and phase constant (PO) are about equal and increase with
, liz
frequency proportional to (f
kc
) ,up to the 40 to 67 kc region. At fre
quencies exceeding 667 kc, o<"approaches the constant value given for the
small loss tangent case of 41T nepers/kilometer, and ;S approaches the loss
less values A.jG;. or 21T" x 10 2 f
kc
rad/km and thus increase,s as f
ke
in
creases.
ll 20
H
H
I
N
l'
TABLE II. 1
Calculations of Pertinent Propagation Constants
CJ = 2 x 10
4
Dlhos /Dleter
t
r =.9
f
kc
p f(p) g(p)
)0 0<:
/1
A/A
o
l'
)..
(kDl) (n/kDl) (db/Dli) (rad/kDl) (it) (it)
  
1 400 14. 141 14. 141 300 0.888 12.42 0.888 .0236 3693 23204
2 200 10.003 9.993 150 1. 256 17.55 1. 257 .0333 2613 16400
5 80 6.364 6.284 60 1. 974 27.60 1.999 .0524 1662 10311
10 40 4.528 4.416 30 2.775 38.78 2.845 .0736 U83 7246
20 20 3.243 3.085 15 3.877 54.19 4.075 . 1028 846.4 5059
50 8 2, 128 1. 878 6 5.900 82.47 6.685 .1566 556.1 3084
100 4 1. 601 1. 261 3 7.923 110.75 10.059 .2082 414. 1 2049
200 2 1. 272 0.786 1.5 9.877 138.06 15.984 .2621 332.2 1289.7
500 0.8 1. 068 0.3745 0.6 11. 765 164.46 33.552 .3121 278.9 614.4
1000 0.4 1. 0 19 0.1962 0.3 12.328 172.32 64.026 .3271 266.2 322.0
o
..<
.....
..<
1.0
o
_
"
"
"
,
,
.....
.....
'"
.....
'"
",...
__ 12.57
(j = 2 xlO 4 MHOS/METER
r = 9
,
,
,
,,'
./
,,"
./
"./
I 7/ I 7'" I ... '" I I O. I
.....
a:
l.l.J
(l.
l.l.J
Z
10
.....
Z
<l:

0
c:(
<n.
H
100. i it .. i I I i'l i i I I I i i i i i I I I i i I i i i i I I i i I i i 10
H
i
N
N

0
..<
0.1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I' " I I I I I I 0.0 I
0.1 10 100 1000
FREQUENCY, KC
Figure II. 4. Propagati9n constants for infinite homogeneous medium
4
IT =2 x 10 mhos/m.eter
E =9
r
"
r
LL
r
LL
<
),>
r I I 119 10
5
(j =2 x 104MHOS/METER
r =9
 1+261.1 FT
,
,
"
"
"
"
"
,. 1+175.6DB/MI
 ,
"
,
,
, ,lAo]
,
,
,
,
,
"
p> 6 +j I 0.6
I f
10' I I I I I I I I 1 I. I ) I III I l. I I, I I I II ! I' I f I I I I I I '102
I 10 100 1000
7'4" J10
3
j::
100l1tI' ......... ""'........ I
<
1000 L ......... I .J . I 110
4
....... I'
.....
CD
o
FREQUENCY, KC
H
H
I
N
v.>
Figure II. 5. Variations of 0::., AO' A and T with frequency
4 /
IT =2 x 10 mhos meter
=9.
r
\
In Figure II. 5 in the large loss tangent region (p:> 6),0<: in
creases as (f
kc
) 1/
2
and in the small loss region (p";' 0.6) approaches the
constant value 175.6 db/statute mile. The skin depth varies as (fkc)l/z in
the large loss region according to equation (II. 45d) and tapers off to the con
stant value for low loss tangents given by the reciprocal of equation (II. 36a) as
4 J ~ km or 261. 1 feet. The wavelength in the medium (A) varies as
1/
(f
kc
) 2, like 1: in the lowfrequency, large losstangent,region; at the higher
frequency, low losstangent; region, A. approaches J.. / rz and thus varies
o VCr
5 .
here as 3.281 x 10 /f
kc
(feet).
E. Characteristic Impedance ('2) of the. Medium
The characteristic impedance of the medium is given by
=rE
~ T
(ohm) (II. 49)
in which the effective impedance 3. is
e
=
UJ /'0

p(lj 0</;6)
=
5
e
ljo<"ip
(ohm) (II. 50)
~ =
e
Using equation (II. 31)
(ohm) (II. 51)
1
IZr f(p)
=
~ f(p)
(ohm) (II. 52)
in which i.. is the impedance of free space
o
II24
.t
o
=
9:jfo ,..., 120 IT
I ~
<'=::' 377.0 ohms (II. 53)
From the above. a useful general relation is
=
(II. 54)
F. Transmission Equation
1. General Expression
In Appendix F, the transmission loss L
t
associated with the
power transferred between parallel linear antennas in dissipative media was
developed. The antennas were assumed to be lossless and situated in the
farzone of each other. For antennas of length 2h, the conditions for the
latter assumption are that
(II. 55a.)
(II .55b)
where R is the distance between the centers of the antennas and k
3
is the
complex phase constant of the medium. * The transmission loss L
t
is the
the power P
T
into the transmitting antenna terminals to that power
"
P
R
availal>le from the receiving antenna terminals. when the antennas are
lossiess. When the farzone conditio'ns in equations (II. 55) prevail, mutual
impedance effects on antenna impedances are neglected and the impedances
at the antenna terminals are the selfimpedances of the antennas. In such
* We use the numerical subscripts appropriate to the 3 coaxial r1egion nota
tion for insulated antennas. Thus subscript "1" denotes the inner conductor.
subscript "2" denotes the insulation which is absent in bare antennas, and
subscript "3" denotes the dissipative region in which the antennas are im
mersed.
II25
From the above, a useful general relation is
::: k  .4..1  J< J
/<   ;0
F. Transmission Equation
1. General Expression
(II. 54)
In Appendix F, the transmission loss L
t
associated with the
power transferred between parallel linear antennas in dissipative media was
developed. The antennas were assumed to be lossiess and situated in the
farzone of each other. For antennas of length 2h, the conditions for the
latter assumption are that
hR
Ik
3
RI
2
'1
(II. 55a)
(II. 55b)
where R is the distance between the centers of the antennas and k
3
is the
complex phase constant of the medium. * The transmission loss L
t
is the
the power P T into the transmitting antenna terminals to that power
,"
P
R
availaple from the receiving antenna terminals. when the antennas are
lossiess. When the farzone conditions in equations (II. 55) prevail, rl'lutual
impedance effects on antenna impedances are neglected and the impedance.s
at the antenna terminals are the selfimpedances of the antennas. In such
* We use the numerical subscripts appropriate to the 3 coaxial region nota
tion for insulated. antennas. Thus subscript "1" denotes the inner conductor,
subscript "2" denotes the insulation which is absent in hare antennas, and
subscript "3" denotes the dissipative region in which the antennas are im
mersed.
II25
case, it is shown in Appendix F that the farzone transmission loss may be
written as
1
Lt=LSA G
G
T
R
where
L
S
= "spreading lo.s" e 2 = (2 fJ3R )2
2 R
A = "exponential damping los s" = .' e . 3
(11.56)
G , G
R
= "modified power gains" for lossless transmitting and
T . . t" 1
. recelvlng antennas, respec lv.e y.
In the above, A is the phase constant, 0( the attenuation constant, and
r3' 3
A
3
the of the dissipative medium, in Section lID.
The "modified power gain Gil for a lossless antenna is given
by equation (F. 24) in Appendix F for the far  zone as
where
. .
G= .
1T"R
o
/3
F
0 (6, kh, k
3
h)
k
3
2
(F. 24)
=
effective characteristic impedance (real) of the dissipative
medium
1126
O.J .
= CV.fl; for media
= radian frequency = 21rf
= permeability of free space = 41r x 10
7
henry/me
= self "radiation resistance" referred to the input terminals
(Appendix F. III)
ca.se, it i:3 shown in Appendix F that the farzone transmission loss may be
written as
1
Lt=LSA G G
T R
where
=
(
4, \ 2 = = "spreading 10,5s" ,,;
(II. 56)
A = "exponential damping los s II =
G ,G
R
= "modified power gains" for lossless transmitting and
T .. t t' 1
recelvlng an ennas, respec lve y.
In the above, A is the phase constant, 0( the attenuation constant, and
/3 . 3
A
3
the wavelength of the dissipative medium, in Section
The "modified power gain G" for a lossless antenna is given
by equation (F,,24) in Appendix F for the far  zone as
where
,
G= ,
1T"R
o
?3
F
0(6, kh, k
3
h)
k
3
2
(F. 24)
effective characteristic impedanc,e (real) of the dissipative
medium
_ a.Ito f . d'
j5'3 or nonmc:gnetlc me la
= radian frequency = 2 Irf
= permeability offree space = 4'li x 10 7 henry1m.
= self "radiation resistance" referred to the input terminals
(Appendix F, III)
1126
case, it is shown in Appendix F that the farzone transmission loss may be
written as
(II. 56)
where
L
S
= "spreading 10,55" = 2 = (2 fJ3R!'
2 c:>< R
A = "exponential damping los s" = e 3
G
T
, G
R
= "modified power gains" for lossless transmitting and
receiving antennas, respectiv.ely.
In the above, A is the phase constant, 0( the attenuation constant, and
/3 3
A
3
the wavelength of the dissipative medium, in Section
The tlmodified power gain G" for a lossless antenna is given
by equation (F .24) in Appendix F for the farzone as
where
. .
G=.
rr R
o
f33F0 (6, kh, k
3
h)
k
3
2
(F. 24)
effective characteristic impedance (real) of the dissipative
medium
_ a.Ito f to d
A or nonmagne IC me la
= radian frequenc y = 21'rf
7
= perme..ability of free space =4lr x 10 henry1m.
= self "radiation resistance" referred to the input terminals
(Appendix F. III)
1126
In equation (F. 24) of Appendix F, the function F0 (9, kh, k
3
h) is the far  zone
pattern factor (complex) given by equation (F. 5) in Appendix F as
1
h jk:tz' cos e
k
3
I(zi) e 
F
o
(9,kh,k
3
h) ="""2" sin 9 ~ . ~  I  (   O  )     dz'
h
(F.5)
and is the pattern factor referred to the input current 1(0), with I(z') being
the current distribution for an antenna lying along the zaxis and Zl the
coordinate along the antenna. The angle 9 is the "stagger angle" between the
axis of an antenna and the line drawn between the centers of the antennas.
The complex phase constant k is that of the current distribution; k is the same
as k
3
for bare antennas but is generally smaller than k
3
for insulated antennas
(Section IV, Appendic\s D, E, and F).
Inpractice, the transmission loss in equation (II. 56) is modi
fit"ld by two effects: one being that the antennas are not lossless and the
\'>the,t" being due to the use of necessarily low frequencies. The consequences
of first may be accounted for by an lIantenna efficiency factor" "I ~ At very
low frequencies;the antennas may be in the "neai:'zone" of one another.
Also, because of finite hole depths into the rock strata, the electrical lengths
of the antennas are small. One is then concerned with the mutual impedance
effects between electrically short antennas.
The "antenna efficiency factor""7 may be defined. as the ratio
of the resistance R
o
when there are no losses to that including losses R
in
referred to the input terminals. The loss resistances are the socalled
II 27
Ilnonradiating" or "deadloss
l
! resistances and in.clude ohmic losses in the
wires and, in the case of insulated antennas, the resistances of input and out
put electrodes. Hence
R. =R + R h . of RId
ln 0 0 mlC e ectro es
(11.57)
where R
DL
is the deadloss resistance. The l'input radiation resistance"
R
o
is used in the sense that
represents the power input to the terminals of a lossless transmitting
antenna and hence the power that "leaves" such an antenna to be dissipated in
the medium surrour ling the antenna. Hence
R
o
R.'  R
DL
R
In 0
"?
= = =
, (II. 58)
Rin
R
in
R
o
+ R
DL
To account for losses, Norton
63
uses the term "system loss" to
describe the power transferred between antennas. We shall use the symbol
L
T
to describe the "total system losses." In the farzone, L
T
differs from
L
t
in equation (II. 56) by antenna efficiency factors "IT and "?R for transmit
ting and receiving antennas, respectively. Thus
1
(II. 59)
where the other symbols have the m'eanings described before.
II 28
The mutual impedance effects may be treated by circuit theory
wherein the coupled ant..::nnas are represented by a Tnetwork. The develop
ment was published by Wait
80
and shortly thereafter by Norton
63
with more
general expressions. For antennas in the farzone, the results lead to the
same expressions for L in equation (II. 55) and for L in equation (II. 59).
t . T
Digressing momentarily to use the notation of Norton, 63 the accessible
terminals of the transmitting antenna a are .AA and those of the receiving
antenna b .are th.e terminals BB in the Tnetwork. The central member of
the Tnetwork is the mutual impedance Z between the two antennas while
m
Za and, Zb are the selfimpedances of the two antennas. The series arm of
the T from the transmitter terminals is Z  Z and that from the receiver
a m
terminals is ZbZm' Thus, the impedance at AA with BB opencircuited is
Za while the impedance at BB, with AA opencircuited, is Zb' The receiver
load impedance connected across BB is ZJ..; The transmitter source imped
ance is ZS' The input impedance at the transmitter terminal AA of the net
work with ZL connected is Z. ; the output impedance at the receiver terminal
In
BB looking towards the T is Zout' The mesh currents are I
a
and I
b
a.nd the
mesh currents flow in the same direction through Zm' The network equations
with no source v ~ l t a g e s in the mesh in which I
b
is flowing may be written as
Z. = Z
1n a
Z 2
m
(II.60a)
(II.60b)
U29
(II.60c)
The ratio of the power P
T
into the input terminals AA to the power P deliv
. L
ered to the load is
=
2
Re Zin I Zb + ZL
Re ZL =I Zm
(11.61)
For a constant power input P
T
, this ratio will be minimized when ZL is the
* complex conjugate Zout of the output impedance. In this case P
L
:: P
L
(max)
= P
R
where P
R
is the available power from the receiving terminals.
except in closelyspaced arrays, I IZa I IZa+Zs I
8,9
(Zm is defined as the ratio of the opencircuit voltage VR(OC) induced in
the receiver antenna at its terminals to the current at the terminals of
the transmitting antenna. An example in a propagation test is described in
Section VI where on a Imile path VR(OC) was of the order of 200 microvolts
at 1 kc for an antenna current of 1 ampere with the transmitter approximately
matched to the transmitter antenna input impedance of 100 ohms. The
receiver selfimpedance was roughly the same value. Hence with IZm\ about
4
2 x 10 ohms, the inequality was satisfied.) Hence Zout =Zb and the match
* . * j
ing condition is ZL = Zout :: Zb If we write Zm :: Zm e then the total
* system loss, ZL =Zb' is
..
II3D
.,..... .....
 2 cos 2 rJ (II. 62)
For the practical case in deepstrata propagation, the first term on the right
in equation (II. 62) is larger than the second and
4 (Rin)T (Rin)R
I
Z
ml
2
::
4 R R
'. oT oR
~ T lJR I
Z
ml
2
(II. 63)
In the far:zone, governed by equation (II. 55j, the electric field
in spherical coordinates has only a acomponent for a transmitting antenna
lying along the zaxis. At the receiver anten.na this field may be written as
in Appendix F, equation (F. 4); the use of the effective length .1 from
e
equation (F. 28) is convenient whence
41t"R
(II. 64)
The opencircuit voltage VR(OG) induced in the receiver antenna at its ter
minals due to E is
6T
(II. 65)
where.e is the effective length of the receiver antenna. Hence
eR
(II. 66b)
(H. 66a;
 O<3
R
= j Wfo e .leT .feR
41rR
=
jl,f
e
=
47TR
rJ =
.,,/2 
(II. 66c)
II 31
'CJ
where we have written the complex effective length f
e
= l.f
e
I e J e with
subscript T and R to d,enote transmitter and receiver antennas, respectively.
With equation (II. 66b) in equation (II. 63)
(II. 67)
Recalling, from equation (F. 28) in Appendix F, the expression for 1... is
, e
deduced from the reciprocal theorem for the farzone and is given by
(II. 68)
the modified power g a , ~ , n in equation (F. 24), Appendix F, becomes
(II. 69) G=
411'"R
o
Substituting equation (II. 69) for the appropriate antenna into equation (II. 67),
the total system loss L
T
reduces t'o that form given in equation (II. 59) for the
farzone.
In the farzone, the calculation of the pattern factor F
b
and
o
modified power gain G
b
for bare dipoles is reasonably straightforward, as
indicated in Appendices D and F. For insulated dipoles, the far field expres
sions reduce to simpler forms if the assumption is made, which is valid in
practice, that'the insulation radius a
2
is small compared with the wavelength
A3 in the dis sipative medium (Appendix E). The far  zone pattern factor s
F ~ C and F:
e
and modified po,;wer gains G
oe
and G
se
then are developed read
ily in Appendix F for insulated dipoles which are terminated in an open
II 32
circuit (OC) and short circuit (SC), respectively.
In the nearzone region of the antennas, the behavior of the
electromagnetic fields for bare dipoles differs formally from that for insula
ted dipoles. We ,shall illustrate the effect of the mutual impedance on L
T
by
reference to bare antennas. Also, since in practice the frequencies will be
low, the antennas are electrically short (!53h ~ 0.3, 0<'3 ~ /3)' The
current distribution in such a case has the triangular form
Izi
I(z) = 1(0) (1  11 ) (11.70)
for both transmitting and receiving antennas. The additional assumptlon is
that
2
h < 1
RZ<
(II.71)
which is less of a restriction than the farzone conditions (II. 55) and is
called the "qua.sifar zone" condition by King. 5 The electric field of the
. 51
transmitting dipole then has components in spherical coordinates given by
(II. 72a}
I
(l  j k R ) cos e
3
(II. 72b)
Note that E
e
has essentially farzone form except for the quantity in paren
'I'
. b
theses. This follows from the farzone pattern factor F for electrically
. 0
s h ~ r t bare dipoles which is the value given by equation (F. 5) when Ik
3
h I is
small and is then given by equation (F. 13a) in Appendix F as
II 33
k h
3 ain e
2
(F. 13a)
(II. 73)
One then may write equation (II. 72a) as
. E
a
(nearzone) = E
e
(farzone) (1 j I _ I)
T ., k
3
R k; R2
where EaT (farzone) is given by equation (II. 64) with..1 =.!.. F: = h
T
sin a.
eT k
3
iJispection of equatlons (ro. daj and (II. 72a) 5hows that as e is varied, maxi
mum valut:tt 0: and E
OT
occur when 9 = 90
0
, at which the losses L
T
and
4 should have values.
To evaluate L
T
ano L
t
, consider that the electrically short,
bare dipoles are perpendicular to the line joining their centers. The open
S 9
circuit voltage induced in the receiver antenna at its terminals is '
E
ZT
IR(z) d;/;
IR(O)
(D. 74)
where EZ
T
is the component of the field due to the transmitting dipole along
the axis (zaxis) of the dipole of length 2h
R
and IR(z) is the current
distribution along the receiving antenna as though it were transmitting with
input current (O). Now fOl e near 90
0
,
As long as h
R
satisfies equation (II.7I), the second term in the parentheses
is small compared with unity, and E
ZT
;  EST sin a
II 34
=
Hence
V
R
(OC) =E
9T
(9 =90
0
) ..feR where L
eR
= ,loR
J h
R
e= 90
0
, 1
e
has its maximUIn value = h and the pattern factors have
T eT T
b
maximum values (F) = k
3
h/2. As in equation (II. 66), the mutual imped
o max
ance Z is
m
z =
m
 o(3
R
J 1
Z (nearzone) = 4 R . (<e) (.1. ) (A  j B) e 3
m 11 T M eR M
(II. 76a)
Jl 1
. rJ = .rr/2  /3R  tan BfA
iJ:!. which
A j B=( j  k/RZ)
o(R
c.Jj,(e 3 Lie ) )
\
Zml (farzone) = I 0 T M R M
411"" R
(II. 76b)
(II. 76c)
(II. 77)
(II. 78a)
(II. 78b)
Subject to the conditions for deducing L
T
in equations (II. 62) and (II. 63), plus
 the conditions on dipole length in equation (II. 71), the total syste!U loss for
. 0
electrically short bare dipoles may be written for 6 =90 in a form like
equation (II. 67)
4R
o
R
T OR
_1
2
2
+B
2
J (II. 79)
11 35
or in the form like equation (II. 56)
= LS A
?
(II. 80)
where the "M" indicates a maximum value at e = 90
0
In the last
equatio:t:l we have introduced the symbol G
N
to indicate the "nearzone enhance
ment gain." For dipoles, subject to equation (II. 71), which are electri
N 2 2. N
cally short, G =A + B where A J B is given by equation (II. 77). G may
be considered as the enhancement of the electric field (magnitude squared)
over and above that field which would be calculated by using farzone formula
tions, for parallel dipoles. >:< For bare dipoles which are electrically longer
and perpendicular to a line joining their centers, the mutual impedance could
3
be calculated as for antennas in air... The exponential sine and cosine inte
grals of 'complex argument are involved in the formulation. for Z
m
For insulated dipoles, an equation for L could be written which
. .T
is formally like equation (II. 80) with appropriate modified power gains G for
the antennas, but the evaluation of G
N
would differ from A
2
+B
2
where A and
B are given in equation (II. 77). This is because the cylindrical components
E
z
and Ef vary with the radial distance f according to a .zeroorder Hankel
function of the second kind of complex argument k
3
(, as shown in Appendix E.
For purposes of calculation, we shall assume that the dipoles
are identical and perpendicular to the line joining their centers spaced a
,
* For bare dipoles which are arranged coaxially so that e= 0
0
, equation (II. 72b)
would be used. Such arrangement was used in the depth attenuation method
described in Section VF. Calculation of L
T
for coaxial dipoles in air is given
by Norton. 63
II 36
distance R, that the dipole.s are electrically short and that the dipoles are
inunersed in an unbounded, homogeneous, isotropic dissipative medium.
Further, we assume that input impedances of the antennas are their self
impedances, i. e., mutual impedance has negligible effect on their in
,put impedances. Then the'total system loss L
T
in equation (II. 80) may be
written
= L
S
A
G
N
o /{JC. 22
(8 = 90 , r h .3, h <.< R ) (II. 81)
where G
M
is the maximum modified power gain for the lossless dipole
occurring at e= 90
0
It is convenient to consider L
T
in equation (II. 81) as the product
of two terms: the first containing terms which depend upon the distance R
and called the "propagation loss L
p
" and the second consisting of terms which
do not depend upon R and called the "antenna coupling loss LA." Accordingly
where
(11.82)
L  L A
p  S
1
eN
(II. 83a)
where
It is to use decibel notation so that in decibels
Lp(db) = 10 L
p
= LS(db) + A(db)  GN(db)
(II. 83b)
(II. 84)
(II. 85a)
11 37
R
21. 98 + 20 log
A
3
and
LS(db) =20 log (\J=
= 6.02 + 20 log (t33R)
ZO<R
A(db) = 10 log e 3 = 8.69 0( R
3
N N
G (db) = 10 log G
(II.8Sb)
(II. 86a)
(II. 86b)
(II. 86c)
The types of antennas being discussed are sketched in Figure
II.6. ' The electrically short dipoles have current distributions which are
,triangular for the bare d,ipole, in A of Figure II. 6, and the ins ulated dipole
which is terminated in an opencircuit, in B of Figure II. 6. For the insulated
dipole which is terminated in a shortcircuit, in C of Figure II.'6, the current
amplitude is practically constant along the dipole.
The antenna coupling loss LA will be evaluated first. After a
discussion and calculation of the propagation loss L
p
' the total system loss
L
T
will be evaluated and discussed. The calculations will be limited prin
cipally to the case where the loss tangent P32: 10 i. e.', for given values of
CS":3 and . of the medium, the freq' uency f
k
in kc is limited ,to
r3 'c'"
ike 18 x 10
5
CJ31 r3
Z x 10
5
cr:;( ,= 9)
3 1'3
Z. Antenna Coupling Losses LA  Short Antennas
We shall use superscripts on quantities to denote values of those
11 38
h h
(A) BARE DIPOLE
BALANCED
FEEDER
h
IE
l
h
(B) INSULATED DIPOLE
"()PEN CIRCUITED"
h
BALANCED
FEEDER
h
~ T P U T
ELECTRODE
BALANCED
FEEDER
) ~ ( C ) INSULATED DIPOLE
OUTPUT " SHORT CIRCUITED"
ELECTRODE
Figure II. 6. Bare and insulated dipoles in infinite simple medium
A. Bare dipole
B. Insulated dipole, opencircuited
C. Insulated dipole, shortcircuited
II39
quantities for three types of antennas; "b" designates the bare dipole, and
"OC" or "SC" apply to insulated dipoles terminated in an opencircuit or
shortcircuit, respectively.
a. Modified Power Gain
The various maximum modified power gains G
M
become
(Appendix F)
G OC =
M
=
ge 3
2 2
.:0
Ah
4irR
a
~ e 3
;&..2 2
41/ R
O

C
3 h
a
f)
!Je3
;82 h
2

4TrR SC
( 3
a
(II. 87a)
(II. 87b)
(II. 87c)
where..g =
e
3
is the effective characteristic impedance (a real quantity)
of the medium. The resistances R are the input resistances of the antenna
. a
with no ohmic losses. From Appendices D and E, for a medium with large
loss tangent,
b !;e3 9l
R =

0
4fT;93h
OC
2x
010
h
GJfoh
R
o
=
24
=
12
; .i
SC
CUjioh
evfoh_
R = 2x ..... =
0
8 4
(II.8Ha)
(II. 88b)
(II. 88c)
51
in which If is King's expansion parameter given by 1p = JL  3.386 and
II40
.It is the thicknes,s parameter ../l.
equation (11.87)
= 2 1n 2h
a
With equation (II. 88) in
b ( 13
h
)3
OM =
"'
OC 3
(,,83
h
) OM =

7T
SC
4
OM =
(j93
h
)
."..
(II. 89a)
(II. 89b)
(II. 89c)
Let us compare the gains G
M
for the same length h such that
f33h :S 3. The shortcircuited insulated antenna has small theoretical
advantage over the opencircuited form according to the ratio 4/3 =1. 2 db.
The opencircuited coaxial antenna is superior to the bare antenna according
to
(11.90)
OC
For modestly thin antennas, withiL ~ 13 for example, this means G
M
b
exceeds G by more than 20 db.
'M
Moreover, while the formulas for the bare antenna assume
!33h ~ . 3, those for the electrically short coaxial antennas assume that
f'h ~ .3 where;S is the phase constant of the cur:rent and is typically smaller
than ~ 3 ' This means a larger length of coaxial antenna can be tolerated and
still be subject to the condition Ih ~ .3 Consequently, the insulated antenna
for the same small electrical length of antenna can have an advantage over the
II41
tenna, the RG8/U type was assumed with
bare antenna even laJ."ger than the 20 db just .cited as an example.
Calculations were made to illustrate the comparisons of G
M
given by equations (II. 89). The dissipative medium is assumed to ha.ve
4
<:r
3
= 2 x 10 mhos/m and. values of G
M
were calculated for frequencies
f ~ 10 kc., for which P3'::> 10. The halflength of the a.ntennas is h and is
assumed to be 100 m, and thus the conditions fJ3h ~ . 3 and j1h ~ . 3 are
fulfilled. The antenna conductor radius a 1 is assumed to be 10 3 m, approxi
mately that for #12 wire. Accordingly,.1l. = 24.411. For the insulated an
G
r
(polyethylene) = 2. 25, and
Z .
aZ/a 1 = 3.49. The results of the calculations are shown in the curves of
GM(db) vs frequency (log scale) from O. 1 to 10 kc in Figure II. 7. The gains
i:lr the dipoles in the medium are all less than unity, and the relative advan
tages of each typ.e discussed above can be seen graphically.
b. Antenna Efficiency
The antenna efficiency 71 was given in equation (II. 58) with
the input selfresistance given in equation (II. 57) as the sum of R , R h .
. 0 0 mlC
and RId . In most cases, the values of R 1 t d exceed those of
e ectro es e ec ro .e
the radiation and ohmic loss terms. The evaluation of these terms depends
upon the current distributions ih th'e appropriate part of the antenna circuit.
We have found linear conducting cylinders as practical forms of terminating
electrodes for insulated monopole antennas (see Sections III and IV) . In
computing the gains of i,nsulated antennC<.s, we neglect radiation from such
electrodes. A crude idea of relative radiation may be seen in comparing
II42
10
10 5 3 0.5 0.3
GMb(FREE SPACE)
  ...  l I

\ N SU\..ATED

'G OC
 OIPO\..ES
\ SC M
G
M
2
/. = 3.49
E
r
2 = 2.25
3
a. = 10 M

0
0

(7"3 =2 x10
4
P3
h = lou M
er.?e. O,=10
3
M
{3h :s 0.3, (NO. 12 WIRES)
n = 24.411
o
60
0.1
30
10
50
40
20
Cl
iii
o
FREQUENCY (KG)
H
H
I
l!>
V>
Figure II. 7.
Maximum powe.r gain (modified G
M
for 1. assless, cen
ter fed dipoles, short th =100 m, h.:s 0.3,
and #12 wires) <T 3:: 2 x 10 mhos/m, P3 10.
G b with G SC in Figure II. 7, for example, for the conditions assumed there.
M M
As an illustration, consider the antennas used for Figure II. 7,
i. e., h= 100 m,
3
a
l
= 10 m (#12 wire). For the ohmic loss in the wire, we
assume the internal resistance per unit length r
i
to be its d .. c. value r
o
'
which for #12 copper wire is
3
5.49 x 10 ohm/m (II. 9 1)
which is valid for frequency less than 3 kc and approximately so for fre
quenciesless than 10 kc.
The ohmic loss Rohmic depends on current distributions. For
the electrically short antennas one obtain!?
=
2 h ri
3
(II. 92a)
(
IOC
Rohmicl =
(
R )SC =
ohmic
(II. 92b) _
(II. 92c)
With R given by equation (II. 88) and R h . given by equation (II. 92) the
o . 0 mlC
efficiencies gi:ven by equation (II. 58) were calculated over the range 0.1 == f
kc
~ 10. For the shortcircuited case the terminating electrodes were assumed
to have zero resistance and to be nonradiating. Other values of terminating
electrode resistance R
T
for the dipole were assumed at R
T
= 10, 20, and
167.3 ohms. (The last value of R
T
assumed would be that for electrode ter
minations each made of 100 m of #12 wire.) The calculated values of,? are
shown plotted in the curves of Figure II. 8, with if given in db (= 10 loglO"7 ).
II44
I
1']b

L
~
I

"
~

 



 _ ~

~
r
_ ~ I ' "

1""
 
~
 
~
 

.....  ..... 

"7
SC
IRT"O)



... 
 





0





1']SCI R
T
= 10il) r ~







 r









.... 








1

I\1']SCI R
T
=20il)




r



G
3
=2 x I0
4
MHO/M
  "fC_"7
SC
IRT= i67.3Jl)
,
P3 ~ 10
h = 100 M
0, = 103 M
I
I
o
10
50
40
30
20
CD
o
~
60
0.1 0.3 0.5 I
FREQUENCY (K C )
3 5 10
H
H
I
~
01
Figure II. 8. EfficiencI iJ of various electrically short dipoles, (f 3 =
2xlO mhos/m, P3.::l0, h= 100m, a
l
= 10
3
m.
a.
The efficiencygain product (Yj G
M
) was next obtained. froITl the
curves of Figure II. 7 and Figure II. 8, and resulting values of '? G
M
in db
were plotted on the curves of Figure II. 9. It is seen that for the conditions
assuITled, values of (1GM) for the insulated antennas exceed those for the
bare wire dipole. The slight advantage for the shortcircuited insulated
dipole for R = over that for the opencircuited insulated dipole disappears
T
when R
T
has a small finite value (e. g., R
T
= 10 ohITls).
OC
ITluch less than (1'( G
M
) as R
T
increases.
The advantage of opencircuited insulated dipoles, indicated
by (I( G
M
)OC over that for shortcircuited dipoles, indicated by PZ GM)SC
when R
T
0, again disappears when there are misITlatch losses between the
dipole and feeder. These losses occur because the input impedance of the
opencircuited dipole is a very large capacitative impedance when electri
cally short, whereas the shortcircuited dipole presents a better ITlatch to
the feeder. In the opencircuited case, insertion of a lowloss inductor
matched to the antenna capacitative reactance at the operating frequency
should preserve the advantage of the insulated dipole with ter
ITlination.
3. Propagation Los ses L
p
Near Zone EnhanceITlent Gain G
N
The value of G
N
to be used in equation (II. 81) for the total
systeITl loss L
T
depends upon the type of antenna. For illustration, we COITl
N
pute G for an electrically short, bare,. dipole using equation (II. 77), subject
II46
0, I I I I I I
..... 




 
 





0"3 =2 xIO
4
'''HOI M
P32: 10
h = 100M
G.= 103 M INO.12 WIRE>
I'7'lG ,SC
\
" MIl.R.r =0)
........

_.
I G .SC TJ MJ __
Rr=167. 


201 I 1 _" $ ............... 1 _1 _.,... r I
SC 
ITJGM> _ 
T=IOf1.>  
 

_ 1::(TJG
M
l
SC
IRr=20fi>
 101 I I . I I ::::::::t=;;,.....:=
10 5 3 0.5 0.3
L
I I I . 70 I.
0.1
FREQUENCY (KC>
I
"""
.J
Figure II. 9. EfficiencyGain Product (TjG
M
) for electrically short dipoles, (J3 =
2 x 10
4
mhos/m, P3 10, h = 100 m, a
l
= 10
3
m(#12 wire).
to the condition h
Z
< < R
2
and jCJ
3
h 3.
= v (1  j u). Then with equation (II. 77)
.,1....... \2 =
k 2 R
2
3
u
1  u
2
A = 1 + 
v(l+u
2
)
v
Z
(1+u
2
)2
[1 + 2u J
(II. 93)
1
B =

u
2
) ..
v (1 + u
2
)
u =
,P3'
v= pR
, 3
When the loss tangent of the medium is large (P3? 10), then
u 1. With u = 1, then
c:><
3
0' and
A = 1 +
1 .
 ,
2v
(II. 94)
Calculations of GN were made first for f = 1 kc and 6. = 9,
, r3
5 4 3 /
and for Q
3
= 10 ,10  and 10 mhos m. At such a frequency 20 for
0
3
'?; 10
5
mhos/m, and the relations in equation (II. 94) apply. A plot of
GN(db) vs ,P;R (= v) results inthe single curve shown in Figure II. 10. Cor
responding plots of G
N
vs R are shown in the three curves of II. 11 for
the three assumed values of <J'3.
The condition h Z/R
2
1 for which the field expressions were
developed may be written
(II. 95a)
II48
..
10
\
f = IKe
fir3 = 9
\
(:>3 10
5
mho/m
..P3 20
\
\


8
o
0.1
4
12
16
20
24
28
z
'"
.a
"'C
v = f33R (RAD)
.....
J<
I
..0
Figure II. 10.
enhancement gain (G
N
) vs Center fed
dlpole (f33h < .3), f = 1 ke, =9.
 r
3
1\.
100 10
CT
3
P3
/3
3 u =a:3fi33
h
MAX
mho/m rod/Km ft
105
20 .2038 .9513
'8" j
104
200 .6285 .9990 1566
10 3
2000 1.9869 1.0 495
I
R(kml
1.0,
f = 1KC
E  9
I " '( I '( r 3  I I
H
H
I
\JI
a
24
22
20
/8
16
14
G
N
12
(db)
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.1
Figure ~ I . 11. Nearzone enhancement gain (G
N
) VB R. Center fed
dipole (133h < .3), f =1 kc, =9.
.  r
3
The condition for the antenna to be considered electrically short is
(H. 95b)
The farzone condition may be written
(II. 95c)
4
Jl + u
2
Conditions (II. 95a) and (II. 95b) govern the ranges of fl3R or R which may be
used to determine G
N
For Figure II. 10 where u = 0<3/ A'; 1, if A R ~ 3.0,
/""'3 3
farzone conditions prevail and G
N
is only.2 db or less. For smaller values
of ~ 3 R , nearzone conditions prevail, but' subject to condition (II. 95a). If
1l
3
h =0.3, the curve in Figure II. 10 may be used for G
N
if f33R:? 1. 2,
according to condition (II. 95a). Values of G
N
. at still smaller values of 113R
can be used only if ;33 h""is smaUer than 0.3. In Figure II. 11, the insert
contains tabular values of loss tangent P3' phase constant A, the ratio
0<3/ ;6'3 =u and maximum values of h for the three values of <J3 assumed.
(The tables .in Appendix A were used for calculations.) The maximum value. of
h is that for which the antenna may be considered electrically short, condition
5 A 11
(II. 95b). Thus, for 0
3
=10 mhos/m, P3 =20, u = ~ / ' 3 ~ .9513 =1.0,
A = 0.2038 rad/km.. For the antenna to be electrically short, the maximum
/3
value of h is 0.3/ A= 1472 m = 4831 ft. Distances R less than 20 km are
in the near  zone. If h =4831 ft, values of aN on the curve maybe us ed if
R ~ 5.9 km. However, if h = 1200 ft, values of G
N
on the curve may be used
N
where R ~ 1. 5 km and G ~ 18 db.
II51
Similar calculations n1ade but for a frequency of 10 kc.
The results are shown in the curves of eN vs f33R in Figure II. 12 and eN vs
5 /
R in Figure II. 13. In one case of conductivity, c:r: = 10 mhos m, the loss
3
tangent is smaller than 10 (p = 2) so that 0<3 is less than A (u = 01 / A
. 3 . 3
=.6179). The curve of eN vs P'3R for 03 = 10
5
mhos/m in Figure II. 12
differs from those for OJ = 10
4
and 10
3
mhos/m where u = A ,; 1.
There is one other restriction on the inclusion of eN in the
expression for total system loss LT' In the simpler expression for L
T
,
equation (II. 63), it is assumed that Iz 4 R R /n 11 , which for
m 0T oR {T orR
identical antennas "means IZml 4 R;' Now the effect of eN is included
in IZmI2, and let us call the resulting total loss L
T
(nearzone), meaning
that we have included eN in the calculation of LT' One form of L
T
(near
zone) is given in equation (II. 79). For identical antennas perpendicular to a
line joining their center s, another form is given in equation (II. 81) in terms
of antenna gains. Let us interpret the limitation on IZml2 as
10
2
[4 R:q7
2
] " . (II. 96)
This means that L
T
(nearzone) itself in equation (II. 82) must exceed 20 db or
(II. 97)
The quantity in parentheses is the value of L
T
assuming that farzone con
ditions prevailed, for which we may use the symbol L
T
(farzone). Suppose
for a given path that a calculation of L
T
(farzone) had been made and yielded
a value of 30 db. If reexamination indicates that nearzone conditions did
iI 52
J=IOKC
r3 =9
41 I I I
81 I I I 1
12 I I '\:\ I . I I
16 I I '\: \ I I I
2
4
1 ,,\ I I I I
28 I "" \ I I I (
20 I " \J I I
iii
o
z
(!)
10 3.0 1.0
V=,83 R (RAOl
0.3
0
'
0.1 I
I ,=
. I
......
......
J
\)l
v.>
Figure II. 1Z. enhancement gain (G
N
) va 133R. Short
dlpole(13
3
h <.3), f=lOkc, r=q.
 3
11
11
U
U1
"'"
0
3
mho/m
10
5
10
4
10 3
P3 /3 3
(RAtKM)
2 .799
20 2.037
200 6.299
a3
/33
.618
.951
.995
h MAX
oFT
1232
483
156
f =10 KC
Er 3= 9
51 I I" I " I" I I
15 I  I .. I .. I .. I I I
20
III
o
Z 10
C>
o I I I I I I I
0.01 0.03 0.1 0.3 I 3 10
R(KM)
Figure II. 13. Nearzone enhancement gain (G
N
) VB R. Short di
pole (133h.::: .3), f = 10 kc, r = 9.
3
100
..J
120
~
I
01
00
160
R=5800 FT
180
o 5 /0
FREQUENCY (KC/S)
/5 20 2S
Figure II. 14. Spreading loss (L
S
) and exponential attenuation (A) vs frequency.
.'
..
III
o
10
o
'0
20
30
o
10
20
'30
\
:
,
,
'!
("7GM)SC
::
h=475 FT
RIN (TO'TAL) = 100 OHMS (CONSTANT)
Er3=9
I(
(7'3=10
3
5XI0 4 (GM)SC

104
/
@I 
..
 '
,...
""....
/
I
o 5 10
FREQUENCY (KC)
15 20 25
.....
Il
I
\Jl
.0
Figure II. 15. Nearzone enhancement gain (G
N
), antenna modified power
gaill (lossless) {G )SC, and radiation efficiency l1
SC
for
center 'fed, dipole, shortcircuit termination.
h =475 ft, R. (total) =100 ohms (constant), f. =9.
111 r
3
10 i I I I I I
H
H
I
0"
o
o
20
40
iii
Q
~ 60
..J
Q
Z
et
m 80
o
~
Q.
..J
100
120
140
160
R=5800 FT
h=475 FT
cr=9
Lp (OB)= L.(OB)+ A(08) GN(08)
LACOB)=2 [(7JGMSC) DB]
ILA(OB)I
   ~      ~ 1   ~ ~


+CT3=104 MHO/M
CT3=10HO/M_
 5ii0=4
10=4 
, ~ _ I
o !5 10
FREQUENCY (KC/S)
15 20 25
Figure II. 16. Propagation losses (L ) and antenna coupling losses L for
center fed electrica11y short, insulated dipole, short..cir
cuitterrnination. R=5800ft, E =9, h=475 ft.
r
3
~
25 20 15
FREQUENCY (KC/S)
10 5
V
(7"3=/0
4
..,; 

'"
I
R=5800 FT
h=475 FT
MISMATCH LOSS = 0 DB
TOTAL ANTENNA RESISTANCE= 1001\. (CONSTANT)
INFINITE, SIMPLE MEDIA
"'
"
..............
.................
80
110
90
120
160
130
170
o
100
150
140
lD
Q

...
..J
t:::
I
cr
t'
Figure II. 17. Total system loss between center fed, parallel,
insulated dipoles with shortcircuit termina
tions. R =5800 ft, E =9, h =475 ft.
r
3
...
values of CS.) Thus, if one assumes an antenna power input P
T
and values
of P
R
. for the receiver, one calculates the maximum allowable total trans
min
mission loss LT(max). For example, P T = 100 w = 20 dbw. For the
receiver, a.ssume noise figure NF =14 db a.nd a noise bandwidth B =1 kc.
The available noise power P
n
, in dbw, is Pn(dbw) = 14  204 + 30 = 160 dbw.
If the required carriertonoise ratio at the receiver is 15 db, then the rnini
mum detectable receiver signal power P
R
' must be 145 dbw. Hence
min
LT(db) = 20  (145) = 165 db. A readily detectable signal should be
max
found at frequencies much higher than 25 kc if CJ"3 =10
4
mhos/m. On the
other hand if u
3
is as high as 10
3
mhos/m, frequencies lower than 13 kc
must be employed.
Reference to the curves shows that for a given medium environ
rnent, the only components of loss under the control of the designer are the
antenna system losses, and these are the more important the lower the
frequency. For hole dpeths which limit the anterma lengths to electrically
SC
short values (fh 6.4, say), not a great deal can be done to improve G
M
itself. Outside of the obvious minimizing of mismatch losses (L
m
), this
SC
leaves only the improvement in the low "radiation efficiency ('r; )", which
means lowering the deadloss resistance R h . + R
t
. t' This
o mlC ermlna ions
parallels the problem of VLF antenna systems in air, but here the worst
offender seems to be the resistance of terminating electrodes. For mono
poles, there appears to be advantage in considering opencircuit insulated
types depending upon length because the deadloss resistance is
II62
slUaller than shortcircuited types; however, their input ilUpedance is higher
and lUislUatch to coaxial feeders lUust be reduced by lowloss lUatching
circuits if this advantage is to be realized.
The previous curves can be used for predictions for othel:' ranges
for the salUe antenna configurations. One observes the behavior of the
distancedependent propagation loss terms individually that cOlUbine to lUake
up Lp(db). The "spreading loss" L
S
varies as R
2
and thus LS(db) varies as
20 log R. The exponential attenuation in decibels varies directly with R, 1. e. ,
A(db) varies with R (for the salUe frequency and lUedium characteristics).
The near field enhancelUent G
N
at greater distances becolUes lUuch less than
the values at 5800 feet used in the curves, and as an approxilUation we lUay
N
neglect G Suppose we consider the cases for
4 4  3
~ =10 ,5 x 10 and 10 lUhos /lU.
Further it is assumed that the antenna is the salUe as previously used, so
that total antenna coupling losses LA(db) = 2 [("1GM)SC db] are those on
the curves of Figure U. 16. The propagation losses, neglecting G
N
, are
4
values given on the curves of Figures II. 18, II. 20, and II. 22 for C"53 = 10 ,
4 3
5 x 10 ,and 10 lUhos/lU, respectively. The final values of translUission
loss L
T
are those on the curves of Figures II. 19, II. 21, and II. 23, respec
tively, where it is assulUed that lUislUatch losses L = a db. For the pre
lU
viously assume d experilUental systelU LT!f. 165 db, if the receiver sensitivity
is limited by "receiver noise" and not by "attenuated atmospheric noise. II
Thus, for a threelUile p a ~ : , . , frequencies less t.han 2 kc lUUSt be elUployed
if <:13 =5 x 10 4 mhos /lU.
II.. 63
o
9 8 7
(7'3= 10
4
MHO/M
P
3
l: 10
Lp{DB);; LS (OB)+A(DB)
6. 4 5
R(MIl
3 o
20
40
60
80
160
180
140
100
200
220
240
III
o 120
II.
oJ
. Figure II. 18.
N
LE(db) vs R for various frequencies (G neg
lected). (J 3 =10
4
mhO/m.
II64
9 8 1 6 4 5
R(Mil
2 o
0"3= 104 MHO/M
10 ASSUMED I I
Lp l PROPAGATION L0SSES AS IN FIG. IIFIB, GN=O DB
LA: ANTENNA COUPLING LOSSES AS IN FIG. 1[F16
1__ __I
LM=O DB
80
120
180
100
160
200
CD
o
I 140
....J
Figure II. 19. Total system loss L
T
vs distance R for various
frequencies. () 3 = 10
4
mho/m.
II65
o
20
40
60
80
100
120
til
Q
lL
..J"
140
160
180
200
220
240
:::xr.HO/i
(NEARFIELD ENHANCEMENT GN NEGLECTED.
LOSS TANGENT ASSUMED SO LARGE THAT ct3Gl'
1/t"3) I
1\\
T I
LS(DB)+ AiDB)
1\\."".
1\
KC/S
1\ \
"'
'"
""
\\ \
"
.........
'"
\
\
\
"
..
K
\
\
"
\
'"
\'\
\\
\
",
\
1\
\\ \ \
1\\'
\
\
1\
\ \ \ \ '\
o 2 3 4 5
R(M!)
6 7 8 9
II66
Figure II. 20. Propagation losses Lp(db) vs distance
R(mi) at various frequencies.
" 4
(J3 =5 x 10 mho/m. =9.
r
3
CT3= 5X10
4
10
PROPAGATION LOSSES GIVEN BY FIG. IIF20
ANTENNA LOSSES GIVEN BY FIG. II'F'IIS
(ELECTRICALLY SHORT (h=475'l, SHORT
CIRCUITED, INSULATED, DIPOLE WITH TOTAL
ANTENNA INPUT RESISTANCE:: 100.n.)
LM =0 DB
180
100
120
140
200
1II
o
....
J 160
9 8 7 6 4 3 2
220 ____L.. L..''....L.'__'I_Ul1......Ll.__4...J
o
R(Mil
Figure II. 21.
Total system loss L
T
vs distance R at various
frequencies. (J3 =5 x 10
4
, P3 =10.
II67
. 0
0"3" 10
3
mholm
Er3" 9
I .
9
40 I'...+_++___i
80
160
200
240 L__l........L_........__ __.........+___+_ .L.._>,_......... .....
I
iii
9. 120
j
Figure II. 22. Propagation los se s L
p
vs distance R at various fre
quencies. cr 3 = 10
3
mho/m, E = 9.
r
3
II68
8 6 4
R(MI)
2
8
180 j++++\/\+....
120 1;\\\;++'+
100
0"3 =10
3
mho/m
E
r3
=9
Lr(db) =Lp(db)+LA(db)
Lp GIVEN BY FIGURE I!.22
LA GIVEN BY FIGURE I!.16
140 1\H\tTT++t
200 f++t+fJI\f+
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Figure III. 1. New Hampshire  Location of Drill Hole Sites
POND
HARWICH
MAIN ST.
MIDCAPE HIGHWAY
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I  HARWICH
2BREWSTER
3TUBMAN
Figure III. 2. Cape Cod  Location of Drill Hole Sites
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Concord, New Hampshire Site
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shown in Figure III. 4. The prefabricated building was about 12
1
x 12' with a
modest attempt at shielding made by stapling copper around the inside of the
building. The site was about 18 miles due south of the Concord site. Com
mercial power, 220/110 v. 60 cycle, single phase, was made available plus
a telephone. The site was used for signal reception and for signal trans
mission using the ART13 transmitter.
3. Goffstown (N. H" ) Drill Hole
About 6 miles north northwest of Bedford and 13 miles south
southwest from Concord was located a 400ft. drill hole in Goffstown. The
use of the hole and site was arranged under a lease with Karanikis Brothers,
Goffstown. A photograph of the site is shown in Figure III. 5, showing the
12
1
x 12
1
prefabricated building. The site was used for signal reception and
for Signal transmis sions using a second GRN6 transmitter on loan from the
Department of the Army. Preliminary path transmission tests were made
between here and the other sites, prior to more extensive work on Cape Cod.
Early Impedance measuremel.?ts on bare and insulated antennas were also
made here, the holes being waterfilled.
4. Swenson's Quarry (Concord, N. H.)
This granite quarry is operational and located west of Concord.
Permission to use the site was arranged with Mr. Swenson. The quarry was
used for antenna measurements imbedded in slots in granite, see photograph
Figure III. 6.
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5. Harwich (Mass.) Drill Hole Site
The location of three drill holes on Cape Cod is shown in the
map of Figure III. 2.
97
Seismic,
.97
IT1agnehc, and gravity surveys were con
ducted over the area (see Section V). All holes were 1000 feet in depth; the
first two being larger in diameter (7 1/2 inches) and drilled at Harwich and
Brewster by R. E. Chapman and Company, Oakdale, Massachusetts. Various
views of the drilling operation at the Harwich site are shown in the photo
graphs of Figures III. 7, III. 8, and III. 9. The holes penetrated through 400
to 450 feet of overburden, thence into rock. The overburden portions were
lined with iron casings extending into the rock about 25 to 30 feet and sealed
off to prevent overburden soils from filling the rest of the hole. The pipe
also served as a "ground return" for excitation of various antennas.
Views of the completed Harwich site are shown in the photo
graphs of Figures III, 10, III. 11, III. 12, and III. 13. The site was used
through permis sion of the Harwich Board of Selectman. A prefabricated
14
1
x 18 I building (see Figure III. 10) housed a standard Ace Engineering
Company screen room and a Gar Wood/H 24 Beebe cable winch located out
side the screen room (see Figure III. 11). The coaxial feedline with an
antenna at the bottom was raised and lowered by this winch, the feedline
being passed through an aluminum shield connected physically to a pulley
.arrangement over the casing (Figure III. 10). Connection from the cable on
the winch to feedthrough cables on the equipment in the screen room was
made by a coaxial rotary joint (ScientificAtlanta: <?ompany).
1II9
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Figure III. 7. Drilling  Harwich Site
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Figure III. 8. Drilling  Harwich Site
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Power was supplied by an external Onan 5 kw, 220/110 v.
60 cycle, single phase, gasoline driven generator installed in a prefabricated
4' x 6' shelter (see.photograph in Figure III. 12).
The site was used extensively for antenna testing, signal and
noise reception and for transmission and propagation rneasurements. For
the latter an ART13 transrnitter permitted measurements at frequencies
200 to 500 kc and 2 to 18 rnc. A view inside the screen room is shown in
the photograph in Figure III. 13, made during antenna irnpedance tests. On
the top shelf, to the left, is a bridge osc;:illator (General Radio) and to the
right, a surplus BC221 Frequency Meter. On the middle shelf, to the left,
is a receiver (Harnmarlund) being us ed as a bridge detector, and cen trally
located is an impedance bridge (General Radio). To the right are cornponents
of a "substitution box, " parts of which were constructed by the Raytheon
Cornpany, CADPO Labs and others by the USAF CRL Comrnunication Sciences
Lab. To the rear is the ART13 transmitter. On the floors are various
power supplies for the ART13.
6. Brewster (Mass.) Drill Hole Site at Town Dump
A view of the second site, at Brewster near the town durnp, is
shown in the photograph of Figure III. lId:, A prefabricated 14
1
x 18' building
houses a sornewhat larger screen room than that at Harwich, the screen
roorn being furnished as GFP. Shielding arrangernents were improved in
that the cable winch was installed inside the screen roorn and. the complete
feeder systern was shielded by very thick copper piping and boxing around
III17
III18
the pulley over the casing (not shown in Figure III. 14).
The site was used extensively for signa'! propagation, depth
attenuation of the field, reception and antenna impedance tests. One trans
mitter is shown in the interior view in the photograph of Figure III. 15. This
was one of the two GRN6 transmitters on loan from'the Signal Corps and
moved from New Hampshire. Other transmitters used were a selfexcited,
60 cps modulated, oscillator and a high power AF amplifier arrangement
used in the successful propagation tests to the Tubman Road site described
below.
The work was phased so that results of antenna measurements
being conducted at Harwich could. be applied to experiments at other sites
which. required a knowledge of antenna performance, e. g., attenuation with
depth measurements at Brewster and transmission tests between Brewster
and Tubman Road. Surface measurements of the azimuthal field patterns of
buried antennas and variation of such patterns with range were performed at
Brewster.
The site was used under permission of the Brewster Town
authorities, and supplied with commercial 220/110 v. 60 cycle, single
phase power, plus a telephone. Intercommunication with all sites and field
personnel was accomplished here and at other sites via PRC6 and PRClO
radio sets loaned and maintained by AFCRL Com.munication Sciences Lab.
7. Tubman (Brewster, Mass.) Drill Hole Site
This site was located on Tubman Road (formerly Poverty Lane)
III19
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in Brewster and its use was arranged under a lease with R. Tubman, Brewster.
The smaller diameter hole, about 2 3/8 inches in the rock, and again 1000 ft.
deep was drilled under contract with E. J. Longyear Company, Minneapolis,
Minn.
This last site is equipped with a large aluminum trailer with
added arrangements for shielding. P o ~ ~ r is supplied by external gasoline
driven generators. The tra,iler and other site facilities, maintenance, and
operation were furnished by AFCRL Communication Sciences Lab.
This site was used principally for signal reception measure
ments on transmissions from the previous site, conducted principally at
lower VLF frequencies. Some depth attenuation measurements were also
made. Measurements on core samples from the drill hole were made by
M.I. T. (Professor Cantwell) as weU as ourselves. Deep resistivity meas
urements on the surface .between Tubman and Town Dump sites. were made
by Geoscience, Inc., for AFCRL.
There were various other locations used for very brief periods for
special tests, descriptions of which are not given here.
III 2.1
B. Antennas
1. General Description
.The antennas used for tests in vertic:al drill holes have been of
the linear type. Designs for loop antennas have been made but tests have
.not been accomplished with this type of antenna.
Linear antennas made of bare wires or aluminum tubes were
used initially a couple of years ago but since most holes contained water and
the surrounding rock media were conducting dielectrics, insulated (or coaxial)
types were studied. more extensively (see Appendices D, E, ano F).
Insulated linear monopoles with opencircuit terminatiop at t1)e
"output end" were used extensively more tha,n a year ago in the New Ha!ppshire
drill holes. The effect of the "ground" plane (overburden) is discussed in
the next subsection.
As better information developed about the electrical character
istics of the rock, principally on Cape Cod, it became theoretically obvious
(Section IIF) that operation at frequencies in the lower VLF range would be
.;.
required to obtain a useful signaL For limited hole depth into the rock (500
feet) and frequencies lower than 20 kc, coaxial antennas of practical types,
such as that made by stripping RG8/U cable, would be electrically short.
For electrically short,coaxial antennas with opencircuit termination, the
input impedance is highly capacitative and presents a large mismatch loss
to a typical coaxial feeder (Appendix E). Electricallyshort, coaxial antennas
with shortcircuit termination were then studied and employed sin.ce their
lII 22
, .
input impedance presented a better match to the feeder cable over a wider,
:r;ange of frequencies. The short circuit usually consisted of a piece of bare
wire, #12 or #14 AWG, 20 to 50 feet long, connected electrically to the inner
conductor of the coaxial element at its output end. A rough estimate of the
terminating impedance would be' that of the bare wire in the dissipative
medium (Appendix D) and was generally much lower than the "characteristic
impedance" of the coaxial insulated antenna (Section IV).
The theory of the performance of bare antennas is given in
Appendic.es D and F, and measurements are discussed in Section IV. The
theory of the performance of insulated antennas is given in Appendices E'
and F and measurements are discussed'in Section IV. Tht;! insulated antennas
used were mostly of the RG8/U type, with the outer neoprene Jacket and
outer braid stripped off for the length of antenna desired. Some measurements
were made of the impedance of vinyl covered wires. Teflon covered wires
were purchased or furnished but have not been tested. (Teflon insulation h a ~
the advantage in that it has less water absorption than the polyethylene of
RG8/U cable. )
Z. The Input "Ground Cage" and "Input Electrodes"
The problem of the "ground plane" arises when using a coaxial
feeder connected to a vertical linear antm I1La. the latter being immersed in
the rock medium situated below a more highly conducting overburden. For
excitation or detection of waves travelling in the rock, an idealized "ground
plane" would be a large, horizontal sheet of metal or ground screen located
IIl 2 ~
along the rockoverburden interface .ant.el1;ua. This idea.lized arrange
ment was not feasible in practice. Th,e effe,ct of the ,overburden can be
, :1'
viewed as that of a somewhat lossy plane for immersed in
the rock if there is an appropriate connection to the feeder. For monopole
antennas c.onnected to the bottom end of the inner conductor of the coaxial
feeder, then the bottom end of the outer conductor of the feeder should be
connected to the overburden, particularly for HF measurements. In drill
holes, a casing pipe penetrates through the overburden and the outer braid
of the feeder may be connected to the casing pipe. This is accomplished by
st:Idpping off the outer neoprene jacket or' covering of the feeder cable for a
convenient length kom the bottom end and relying on friction contact between
the exposed braid of the cable and the casing pipe.
To ensure more positive contact between the outer braid con
ductor of the feeder and the casing, a "ground cage" was devised which
clamped over the exposed outer braid of the feeder and provided several
positive sliding contacts with the inner surface of the casing. The "ground
cage" was positioned on the feeder near the bottom of the casing when using
a monopole antenna whose input feed point was just flush with the bottom of
the casing. The driving voltage the coaxial feeder is then applied
between the "base" or input point of the monopole (connected to the inner
conductor) and the overburden via the casing and "ground cage" (connected
to the outer braid conductor).
III 24
; . "
For monopole antennas having their "base" or input point flush
with the casing, the antenna input impedance may be determined from a
measurement of the input impedance of the feeder or by a substitution method.
The former requires an accurate knowledge of the transmision line constants;
the latter method may be used under many conditions, as discussed in the
next subsection. If the overburden were perfectly conducting, the measured
monopole impedance would be half of that of a dipole in an unbounded rock
medium ,(the correction for coaxial line terminal zone effects is
negligibly sman*). For an overburden of finite but high conductivity compared
with the rock, the input impedance of the monopole would include terms
attributable to losses in the overburden which would depend presumably upon
antenna type, i.e., bare or insulated wires.
If the ",ntenna is lowered into the drill depths
below the overburden, i. e., below the casing, analytical difficulty is
encountered in interpreting measured impedances because of the effect of
the extended coaxial feeder. For studying the effects of variation of antenna
depth upon a.ntenna impedance and radiated field, it would be desirable to
carry a' "ground plane" along with the antenna. This was not feasible. A
compromise may be achieved by stripping off the outer neoprene jacket of
the feeder cable and having the exposed braid outer conductor in contact with
the medium (via the conducting water in the drill hole). Antenna currents
flow on the outside of this exposed braid back from the "monopole" input
* See Reference 6, Chapter V, Section 22.
1II25
point at the end of the feeder. At 8F, but where the los s tangent is still
large, such currents atten,uate with the distance d back from the end
of the feeder because the skindepth is small. At a distance.d slightly
greater than 2 skindepths, the antenna current amplitude has fallen t,o O. 1
of the value at'the end of the feeder. Considering the driving voltage to be
that at the end of the coaxial feeder, the antenna system may be
to be crudely that of an asymmetrically driven dipole; the drivingpoint
impedance is then the sum of two components, one the impedance 10okinJt_
down' of the antenna proper considered as a monopole and the other that of
the "input electrode, " 1. e., the exposed outer braid of the feeder, looking.
up. As d is further increased, the impedance of the latter should not change
markedly (Appendix D and Section IV). The situation at LF and VLF needs
further examination becaus e there the braid input electrode, if grounded to
the casing, would be more ngarly at the same potential as the overburden and
questions arise as to what type of antenna is a proper probe at such. fre
quencies for measurement of the variation of field intensities and properties
of the medium with depth.
Photographs of the "ground cage" device are shown in the dis
assembled view of Figure III. 16 and the assembled view of Figure III. 17. In
the figures an insulated monopole antenn<;t is shown at the extreme right,
connected to the inner conductor of the feeder (RG8/U here) whiGh has the
neoprene. cover jacket peeled off to leave the braid exposed. The device
was fabricated from beryllium copper spring stock screwed to copper collars
III26
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and sleeves. Rubbing contactors of brass were soldered to the spring stock.
The whole assembly was split in two down the middle to afford ease of assem
bly and disassembly. The assembled view is shown in Figure III. 17 for
measurements of antennas whose input was flush with the bottom of the casing.
Adjusting the tension on the springs by spacing the collars contacting the
feeder braid varied the amount of friction contact as desired. Adjustments
were necessary in each hole due to variations in casing pipe diameters and
were required after every assemblydisassembly operation.
All antennas were weighted with. counterweights of lead or iron
principally cylindrical in form, such as window sash weights.
3. The "Substitution Box" for Impedance Substitution Method
It was necessary to use long feedlines to the antennafl when the
antennas were immersed in rock deep below the surface. If one knows
accurately the electrical characteristics of the feeder (characteristic imped
ance, t o ~ a l attenuation and total phase shift), one can obtain in principle the
antenna impedance terminating the transmission line from a measurement of
the input impedance of the line, A useful device for such purposes is the
Smith Chart transmission line calculator. When making a series of measure
ments over a wide range of frequencies on various antennas, the Smith Chart
can reduce the time required to obtain antenna impedances. However, from
many measurements made ear.lier in New Hampshire the accuracy of the
result leaves much to be desired, particularly when trying to l o c a ~ ~ resonant
and antiresonant frequencies and the impedances at such frequencies. This
11129
is because the antenna impedances very often were very and exact
knowledge of line parameters was not available . ,The points on calculator
were then in high standing wave ratiq,.less accurate, areas.
A substitutionmeth.od was for measurements in
New Hampfihire in the Spring of 1961. The method and the "substitution box"
are described here rather than in Section IVan antennas, to round out the
description of equipment employed. The "box" was simply a series or par
allel arrangement of variable R, L, and C components. The des.cription of
the employed follows. The input impedance of the line was measured
noting carefully bridge dial settings. The antenna was removed and the "sub
stitution box" connected in its place at the end of the transmis sion line. The
components of the "box" were varied to give the same input impedance as
obtained with the antenna was affixed. Then the impedance of the sub box
was rrleasured and called the "antenna impedance." In practice, full fre
quency runs would be made with the antenna in the hole, measuring line input
impedances throughout and noting carefully all pertinent bridge dial settings .
..
Then the antenna and line would be removed from the hole, the antenna dis
connected and "substitution box" connected in its place. Then all data for
the run would be obtained as antenna impedance vs frequency for example
for a given antenna conf iguration.
A photograph, showing a closer view of the equipment at Harwich
mentioned earlier, is shqwn in F.igure Ill. 18. The substitution box (not con
nected in the photo) is shown on the right to the front in a metal box with its
III 30
1II31
cover removed. Auxiliary,.stepvariable Rand C cOlnponents are in a larger
box just to the rear. The bridge on the same shelf here was the General
Radio Company Type 916A, with General Radio Company Bridge Oscillator
on the top shelf. The BC22l Frequency Meter was used to set initial line
impedance'measuring frequency and to reset the oscillator for substitution
measurements. The detector in use here is the Hammarlund SF600 VLF
shown to the left of the RF Bridge.
An example of antenna impedal1ce obtained by Smith Chart
calculator and substitution box methods is shown in Figure IlL 19. Measure
ments were made in the Spring of 1961 at Goffstown, N. H., on a 123foot,
insulated. (RG8/U type), opencircuited, monopole. Results are shown on
the complex plane (XR) spiral plot, which shows up rather sensitively the
frequency dependent parameters. The plot with substitution box data is
smoother, more accurate and locates resonances reasonably quickly (of
course, plots of X vs f are the better for the determination of resonance but
a smooth XR spiral plot indicates useful data will result).
Another example of the comparison of more recent data is
shown in Figure III. 20 for an antenna in the Harwich drill hole. A 475foot,
opencircuited, insulated monopole (RG8/U) terminated a 759foot length
of coaxial feeder of the RG9 Iu type. Better knowledge of the RG9 Iu feeder
characteristics was obtained, but still the phase shift seems to be off a bit
(note antiresonance at f slightly greater than 250 kc by sub box data vs
slightly less than 235 kc via Smith Chart data).
IIl 32
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Figure III. 19a. Antenna Z plot (X vs R)  Goffstown
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1II33
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The substitution box method appea r s to be well suited for deter
mining the impedance characteristics of the antenn<1S vs frequency at MF and
IIF. However, there is another limitation at ELF over and above that men
tioned regarding the "input electrode" (Section HIB 2). The assumption is
that the electrical characteristics of the feedline when immersed in the hole
do not change when substitution methods are being used, e. g., when the
feeder is wound up on the winch. The difficulty has shown up when measuring
'high antenna impedances at frequencies less than 20 kc when using RG8/U
feedlines. This is attributed in part to the fact that at such low frequencies
the skin depth of outer conductor of the feeder is comparable with or may
exceed the thicknes s of that conductor. Then the effective characteristic
impedance for the line down in the hole will depend upon. characteristics
and will differ from that when the line is wound up on the winch for substi
tution box measurements. This effect was uncovered most recently upon
line parameters computed from "open" and "short" circuit imped
ance measurements with the' coa.xial feeder cable wound on the winch with
similar computations from measurements with the feeder down the hole.
Then a fur'ther comparison was made of feeder characteristics computed from
measurements using known resistance terminations of 10 and 1000 ohms.
The line input impedances with these te:l."minations were measured with the
feeder wound up on the winch and then with the feeder down the hole. The
resistors were heavily'shielded by thick, cylindrical shield containers,
epoxied, and measured alone on the bridge. Line impedances with 10ohm
III 39
terminations were practically the same under all conditi'ons at frequencies
from 1 kc and higher indicating the series impedance of t h ~ cable per unit
length (1000 foot length of RG:8/U) remained unchanged. The i ~ p u t imped
ance with lOOOohm terminations varied markedly from that obtained with
the cable on the winch from that obtained with the terminated cable at va.rious
depths in the hole and the input impedance of the terminated line differed
markedly at different depths, particularly at frequencies lower VLF and
ELF ranges. This indicated that the shunt admittance per unit length varied
with surrounding environment, and accordingly both Smith Chart and sub box
methods for obtaining antenna irnpedances for the greater depths were limited
in utility.
The full effect has not been analyzed but there are obvious
remedies such as employing jackets or braids of magnetic material on the
cable, or using triaxiq.l cables. Some lengths of the latter type of cables are
now on hand but have not been tested or used. Abe, from the standpoint of
probe antennas to measure depth variations of fields there m.ay be merit in
u,sing shielded twin conductor cable like RG 22/U with each conductor con
nected to the electrode ends of the probe antenna. A reel of this cable is on
hand, to be tested first for any variations of line parameters with depth with
known resistance terminations and then for use with probe antennas (separated
linear electrodes or loops).
1II40
C. Transmitters
The following transmitting units have been used for various phases
of the project.
ART13 surplus transmitter, frequency range
200500 kc and 218 me, nominal 100 w output,
CW, MCW or voice.
GRN6 beacon transmitters (2) on loan from Signal
Corps to Raytheon Company, nominal 190500 kc
(operational down to 150 kc, and down to 100 kc with
tninor modificiition), power 300400 watts, CW, MCW
or voice.
Selfexcited oscillator, Ultrasonic Industries, Inc.,
"Disontegrator System" 320. Halfsine wave 60 cps
pulses, nominally ,at 75 kc carrier frequency.
Audio amplifier, constructed by AFCRL (Comm. Lab),
frequencies up to 30 kc nom.inal 75 watts maximum.
Audio frequency generator, Comm. Measurements
Lab 1420B, power 300 watts up to 30 kC
Il
reduced
power at frequencies 30 to 50 kc.
The ART  13 and GRN 6 units ar e shown and identified in various
photographs of Section IlIA. The last three units were employed in the latest
phases of the project, particularly for rock propagated. signals on Cape Cod,
w h ~ c h were not detected until frequencies lower than 15 kc were used.
D. Receiver and Preamplifier
1. Noise Figure of Hammarlund SP600 VLF Receiver
Preliminary work on deep strata signal reception measurements
was done entirely with the Hammarlund SP600 VLF receiver covering the
range of 10530 kc. Early communication attempts were done in the range
o
1II41
of 200 kc and up, 200 kC' being the lower limit of the ART 13 transmitter used
as a source of reasonable power, i. e., 100 watts. Ordinarily the atmospheric
;
noise at these frequencies obviates any necessity for extremely low Jlqlse:
figure values of the receiving equiplTIent. However, for rock propagated
signals and vertical antennas ilTImersed below the earth's surface, and with
the receiver equipment located in a well shielded room plus other additional
shielding safeguards, internal receiver noise may be the limiting factor for
detecting the signals. Preliminary tests at the Cape Cod Brewster site
indicated that at frequencies less than 50 kc the less effective overburden
"shielding!" allowed attenuated atmospheric noise to be detected on the antenna.
deep in the hole. (Any reduction in effectiveness of the screen room and
other shielding safeguards on the surface at the lower frequencies is disre
garded at this point. )
Later work was done with a GRN6 beacon transmitter which
allowed operation on frequencies as low as ISO kc and with minor modifica
tions to 100 kc. The preamplifier e v o l v ~ d for use with the SP600 VLF
receiver could be operated over the range of 200500 kc, a later 1TI0dification
reducing its lower frequency capability to 100 kc.
PrelilTIinary noise measurements were made on the sp600
VI,.F receiver over its frequency range and at several bandwidths to determine
its capabilities. Measurements were conducted with a Rohde and Schwarz
type SUF noise generato"r (see E igure III. 21 for block diagram). The noise
figure of the receiver under test, in decibels, was derived from the standard
III 42
ROHDE a SCHWARZ
75n I 50n. ATTEN BOX
I
SP600 VL F
I
VTVM I
NOISE GENERATOR I 20 DB IN
I
RECEIVER
I
Figure III. 21 Noise Figure Measurement Setup
noise level KTB of  204 dbw/ cps minus the output noise voltage of the noise
generator (E;) x receiver bandwidth x SUF calibrate number corresponding
to the noise bandwidth output of the unit. A noise bandwidth spectrum of
30 cps to 600 kc was used as the output of the noise generator, requiring a
correction multiplying factor of 22 x 10 9 w / cps. Image rejecti<:m of the
receiver in question was sufficient to disregard any possible increase in
apparent noise figure due to this factor. The results of measurements are
shown in Table III. 1.
TABLE III. 1
Noise Measurements on VLF Receiver (SP600 VLF)
f
kc
Noise figure at SP600
VLF IF' bandwidth equal to
1. 3 kc 6.0 kc
15
50
100
200
350
500
6.9 db
1l.0 *
6.5
6.2
8.9 *
6.0
7.0 db
9.0*
6.2
6.0
12.0*
6.5
*Differences with bandwidth unresolved
lII43
0< where k is the oC: cutoff fre
o .
These noise figure measurements were in an open labora
tory area. The same measu"rements conducted in a shielded room gave lower
values of noise figure py approximately 1 db. The shieldirig of the input
circuits of the itself considered adequate as noise measurements
in the test area using a Stoddart NMlOA noise and field intensity meter with
a short vertical whip gave noise levels of 20 db> 1 /v at 500 kc to 56 db
> I .tv at the lower frequencies of 150 to 200 kc.
2. Transistorized and Tube Preamplifier"
Consideration was given to use of solid state circuitry, its
potential sznall size and the feasibility of battery operation being attractive
for c<:>nteznplated installation at antennas in drill holes as well as on the sur
face. of the configurations tried some time ago improved the noise
figure of the overall receiving system. The problem at the time was prima
rilyone of state of the art for the coznponents. Some transistors investi
gated had adequate noise figure ratings but with a degradation of 6 db/octave
at frequencies higher than f = fo(" 1 
quency and c::< is the lowfrequency current gain. In general, there Was
o
conflict between the necessity of low current to satisfy the low noise require
ment and the high frequency requirement where the 0<: cutoff frequency is
inver sely proportional to the eznitter current,_ in general being lower at low
emitter currents than the typical data sheets would indicate. The best tran
sistor tried had a noise figure rating of 3 db with adequate high freq uency
performance but results not satiSfactory. None of the circuits tried
III  44
resulted in any improvement in the overall receiver noise figure.
Tube circuits were investigated with more satisfactory results.
One suitable configuration is the conventional cascode circuit where the first
stage functions as a conventional groundedcathode amplifier in turn feeding
a groundedgrid amplifier. This circuit allows maximum power gain from
the first stage with resulting maximum reduction of secondstage noise. The
groundedgrid second stage presents a high conductance to the plate of the
first stage and this heavy loading severely reduces any tendency toward oscil
lation. The following basic approximations indicate the approach employed
for obtaining the c i r ~ u i t parameters:
Noise figure ~ 1 + R . G
equlv s
where Requiv is the equivalent gridnoise resistance in ohms of the tube
selected and G
s
is the source admittance in mhos. This formula assumes
G
l
> > G
s
where G
l
is the Input admittance of the stage. Also,
R . =
equlv
(for triode amplifiers), ohms
where g is the transconductance in mhos.
m
A triode with a high value of g is necessary for low noise
n;J..
applications. Accordingly, a 417A was used as the input amplifier of the
unit. The 417A has a g =30,000 micromhos, whence R . is about
m eqwv
75 ohms which would indicate that noise figures below 2 db could be achieved
for expected values of G. The low impedance of some of the antennas
s
employed in deep strata reception would require coupling circuitry to estab
lish G
s
at a suitable value.
1II45
Figure III. 22 is a schematic of the unit evolved which performed
satisfactorily.
Noise figure measurements were made on this unit using the
same technique outlined earlier and results are given in Table III. 2.
TABLE III. 2
. Tube Preamplifier Noise Figure vs Frequency
f
Noise figure (db)
kc sp600 VLF B. W.
=
1.3 kc
500 2.56
400 1. 72
300 1. 58
200 1. 40
The preamplifier input impedance Z. was measured using a
III
916AL impedance bridge ancl results are given in Table III. 3.
TABLE III. 3
Tube Preamplifier Input Impedance Z. vs Frequency
In
f
kc Z. (ohms)
In
500 15.5+ j 65
400 20.5  j 10
300 20  j 35
200 18.4  j 12.5
(All reactances could be tuned
out)
Ill .:tb
..
INPUT i
@H
OUTPUT
E@
Figure III. 22. Low noise preamplifier
NOISE
OUTPUT
TO MATCH
LOAD 50
300 OHMS
R
~ B +
r+oB
FILAMENT
VOLTAGE
CONTROL
Figure III. 23. Diode noise source
1II47
Noise figure measurements were also made with a conventional
noise diode generator; its primary advantage being that the calculation of the
noise figure does not require knowledge of the noise bandwidth of the noise
source and that of the receiver, which data are required when using the
Rohde & Schwarz noise generator. With this noise diode
N.F.(db) = 10 log (20 IR)
R being the generator resistance in ohms and I the diode plate current in
amperes. The circuit diagram of the diode noise generator used is shown as
Figure III. 23. Results of noise figure measurements of the tube preamplifier
with the diode noise generator are given in TabIe III. 4.
TABLE III. 4
Tube Preamplifier Noise Figure vs Frequency (Diode Noise Generator)
f
kc
Noise figure (db)
SP600 VLF B. W. = 1.3 kc
500 2.55
400 1. 76
300 1.76
200 1. 46
100 2.55':'
':'After modification of pr eamplifier to allow operation
onlOOkc.
In the frequency range 200500 kc, comparison of Tables III. 2
and III. 4 shows that either noise generator can be employed.
1II48
Figure III. 24 shows a comparison of the calibration of the
receiver alone with that of the receiver plus preamplifier" the original data
being obtained by engineers at AFCRL. The calibration is that of IF output
voltage as a function of RF signal input voltage.
3. HP302A Wave Analyzer
This instrument which is basically a highly selective tuned
voltmeter, bandwidth l: 3.5 cycles, was used as a VLF receiver from 20
cycles to 50 kc; Sensitivity is in the order of 0.5 microvolt. The unit is
transistorized with provision for AC or battery operation. The input imped
ance is very high, the resistance component being approximately 100,000 ohms.
The wave analyzer was the only device used for signal reception
measurements at frequencies below 10 kc.
E. Recorder s
EsterlineAngus, Brush recorders  Used for instrumentation experi
ments with the receiving equipment, preparatory to continuous recording of
atlnospheric noise field intensity. The recorders with d. c. amplifiers were
not used extensively up to pre.sent.
F. Bridges
1. G/R 9l6A  Used primarily for antenna impedance measurements
above 400 kc (range of bridge 400 kc  60 me). Also used for measurement
of impedance of test cell dielectric sample holders, such as Balsbough
2TN50 and 1001'3 liquid test cells.
III49
I<
H
I<
I
\Jl
o
+60
+40
+20
>
::l
11
0
GI
0
I
~
c:> 20
en
40
60
I
t= 200 KC, B.W. = 200''U, RF= 6
I+il+tI CALI BRATION  SP600 VLF
~ RECEIVER AND PREAMPLIFIER
~
I
MARCONI ATTEN BOX PREAMP SP600 VLF I SATURATION
_ SIG GEN I I RECEIVER
L .J J ~
I
1/
~ . 
~ ~
~
~ : : .;
,,"'"
I
,
V
 SP600 VLF AND PREAMP
/  SP600 VLF ALONE
.001 .003 .005 .01 .03 .05 .3 .5 1.0
"
Figure III. 24.
IF OUTVOLTS
Calibration of SF600 VLF receiver and
preamplifier f =200 kc
2. G/R 916AL  Used primarily for antenna impedance measure
ments be10\,,, 400 kc (range of bridge 50 kc  5 mc) and for dielectric sample
measurements.
3. G/R 16S0A  Used for antenna impedance measurements below
50 kc and measurements on solid dielectric samples.
4. G/R 716C Capacitance Bridge, G/R 716p4 Guard Circuit, and
G/R 1960A Dielectric Sample Holder  These three units were used as one
system for the measurement of solid and liquid dielectric samples.
5. G/R 1603A Z Y Bridge  Used principally for feedline and
antenna impedance measurements in the frequency range of 20 cps to 30 kc.
6. Boonton 160A QMeter Used to obtain electric constants of
solid dielectric samples such as rocks by a Q variation technique.
G. Field Intensity Meter s
1. Stoddart'" 20B (150 kc  25 mc)  Used for field strength
measurements and surveys within its frequency spectrum.
2. Stoddart NMlOA (14 kc = 250 kc)  Same application as NM 20B.
3. Hewlett Packard 302A Wave Analyzer plus loop or whips  Used
in combination particularly at ELF and lower VLF. Required calibration
for antenna impedance loading mismatch at ELF and VLF.
III 51
Section IV. ANTENNAS
A. Introduction
Be_cause of the physical confines of vertical drill holes used for access
fr.om the earthI s surface into the rock media below, the antennas studied for
the research conducted to date were single linear radiators, bare or insulated.
The theory used for obtaining the impedance properties of bare an
tennas immersed in a dissipative medium is given in Appendix D and that for
insulated antennas in Append'ix E. The radiation properties of thes'e types of
antennas may be cornpared by comparing their "modified power gains G, "
the theory for which is given in Appendix F. The c.omparison of theoretical
values of G was given in Section lIF.
This Section considers the impedance properties of bare and linear
antennas including the use of antffinas as probes to obtain the electrical con
stants of the surrounding dissipative medium. A comparison of theory with
experiment is given where feasible.
In comparing the performance of bare wire with insulated wire an
tennas., we use the three coaxial region notation applica.ble to the latter. Thus,
region 1 is the inner conductor; region 2,the insulation; and region 3, the
surrounding dissipative region. The region is indicated by. a subscript. For
bare wires, subscript 2 is omitted.
B. Bare Antennas
1. Review of Theory
IVI
a. General
The first assumption in the theory given 1I1 Appendix D is
that the conductivity of the metal cylindrical conductor is so great that the
complex phase constant k of the current is extremely close to that value k
, 3
for the dissipative medium for media of interest.
The solution for input impedance is based upon variational
Inethods used for antennas in free space, but where k
3
is substituted for the
real phase constant ~ for space and ,the complex characteristic impedance
1
3
of the Inedium is substituted for the real value j ~ 12011 ohms for
o
space. ,For reasons of convenience discussed in Appendix D, our treatment
70 68
follows the development of Tai rather than that of Storer.
The calculations of the input impedance Z and of the con
0,
stant A which appears in the current distribution depend upon evaluation of
three factors Y 11'
]I ,and:V each of which are long expressions in
12 22
volving sine and ~ o d i f i e d cosine integrals of complex argument z = k h =
;Sh  jo<"h where h is the halfle'ngth of the center driven antenna. Because
we lacked tables of these functions, we had to resort to series expansions
for the exponential integral of complex argument to obtain approximate values.
Corrington30 has shown how the sine integral Si(z) and the cosine integral
Ci(z) may be obtained from tabular values of the exponential integral El(z)
which exist. 19 The function desired in evaluating JIll' 1/ ,and']/ is
12 22
the function L(z) given by
L(z) =Cin(z) + j Si(z)
IV2
(IV. 1)
where
Cin(z) =In "f'z  ei(z) =.5772 + Inez)  Ci(z)
and where In(z) means the natural logarithm of z.
(IV. Z)
Writing z =x  j y where y S x, the values of L(z) deduced from the series
expansion for small z give good agreement with values of L(z) deduced from
tabular values when the series use but two terms and x 15 6. The asymptotic
expansion for large z may be used when z 3; the error in approximate
values of L(z) is small, being the larger for y :;; 0 than for y =x =3, and re
duces as x increases further. Since the factors based upon Tai's expressions70
involve L(2z) and L(4z) but not L(z), the impedance for the iJilteresting case
for the antEnna where fih = ""11.. =x may be well approximated by
using the asymptotic series for complex argument, for the whole range of
loss tangent such that .c /.
b. IIlput Impedance Zo and Admittance Yo
Values of Zo and Y derived from the zeroorder variational
. 0
method, or the 'socalled EMF solution, are denoted by Zoo and Y00' They
are based upon an assumed sinusoidal distri.bution of current
I(z') =1(0) sin k.Ch IZII>
.In kh
(IV. 3)
where Zl is the position coordinate for an antenna centered and lying a,long
the zaxis and 1(0) is the input current.
Fo!' an antenna having a equal to a half.wavelength
in a dielectric, = lr/z. The values of Zol and Y
ol
deduced by
IV3
the variational method for p =(7'(' = 0 agree very well with the King Middleton
5
second order values and thus agree with Value s d,educed
52,51
by King using a simplification to his iterative. procedure differ but
. ". . . "\
slightly more. values Zoo and Y00 differ greatly from. Z 01. and Yo 1 for
antennas with modest (see,. Table D. 2 of
For the halfwave antenna immersed in a medium of small
.' . .' ..
51 '53
loss tangent with p .4, King and King and Harrison have obtained values
of Zo and Yo for.;o/'L::; 10. Values of Y01 using .the ap'proximate relations
may be in Figure IV. 1 tog.ether with KingHarriso
ll
values
in the region p ,4,. The conductances agree very well and are small
differences in susceptance.
When the. loss is so.large that 0<::; ;S and the antenna
lel1gth is still a halfwavelength in the mediurn, an interesting new result
occurs. It is that for practical purposes the input impedance may be calculated
using. the sinus,ojdal current distri1;>Ution (EMF method). The values of Y01
differ but little from Y for.practical purposes. This is due to the fact that
. " . . 00 ". "
when the loss tangent, is very large, the currel1t amplitude JI(z') I
rapiqly with distance along the antenna so contributions near the ends
become less significant. This also' resuitsfrom the ,distribution,
.. ..
equation (IV. 3), used to obtain the values of Z and Y .
00 00
When the antennas are electrically short so that jSh . 3 and
. '.; 51
a parameter t' used by King is convenient to use, where
'.
1f ::; ./l..  2 2 In 2 =..IL  3. 386
IV ... 4
<:[1 t I ] I
.971'
o
<I: .871'
Q:
.c
en. .7 71'
.671'
."
.."
REGION OF
fKH THEORY
100 rl,,,,.........,,,,
80
0
60 .c
E
I"l
12
III
I
40
CXl
Cl
2 3 4
P=a'/WE
6 7 8
Figure IV. 1. Bare antennas  comparison of theory with
experimental data of Iizuka and King.
f =l14mc, r2= 10 ..
IV5
andJL is the thickness parameter. The current distribution used for the
trial current in the firstorder variational method reduces to the simple tri
angular distribution
[
'1 khZ"]
I(z ') =1(0) (IV. 5)
which is the same as that deduced from the sinusoidal distribution in' equation
The nor (IV. 3). Hence for kh sufficiently small Z = Z and Y = Y
01 00 01 00
malized admittance is given by equation (D. 36) of Appendix D; and resulting
expressions for G 1 (G ) and B (or B ) for any value of loss tangent (or
o 00 01 00
0(" ) are quite long. Rather simple expressions result for 0< = 0 and
0( = j3. These are
4 4
(IV
2,: ;3
h
0<: = 0 (IV.6a)
.5 G 1=
I
e 0
3 "If
,
I
2 IT .'.7h
0< = 0
..1.
B
01 = +
(IV.6b)
.!Je
,
and
j G =
:Je 01
4 7T /5h
if'
(IV.7a)
j B =
e 01
3 3
8 "iT /3 h
3'1'
F'
.. )
, 0<: = /':J (IV.7b)
Equations (IV. 6b) and (IV.. 7a) are identical to corresponding expressions of
1 In equation (II{. 6a), King has the factor (1_"3) in place of our
factor = (..J1.. :}:386) . In equation (IV. 7b), we have a factor F' and
King has the factor F where
F' = 1 + F' =
1. 081
1 + ..12.. 3
(IV.8)
IV6
and thus .equation (IV.6,a) and equatlOl"\ (IV. 7b) agree well with King's results
for thin antennas, agreement being the better the thinner the antenna.
The significance is that, for practical purposes, the input impedance and ad
mittance for a thin, electrically short, bare antenna may be derived from the
simpler EMF method,. for any loss tangent of the medium, using series ex
pansions of the exponential integral if tabular values are not available.
Z. Comparison of Theory with Experimental Measurements
of Admittance at VHF of Iizuka and King
There are' experimental data for the input admittance of an an
tenna immersed in a lossy dielectric of known electrical constants which
afford a comparison of theory with experiment. The experimental data are
those obtained at VHF (114 mc) by Iizuka and King48 for a monopole driven
over a l<!rge ground plane in contact with a liquid solution housed in a rec
tangular container, the monopole being immersed in the liquid. The relative
dielectric constant r and conductivity (S of the solution were varied and
measured, from which the loss tangent p was calculated. The monopole had
a fixed length such that ./1.. =10 and electrical. length j3h =rr /2 when p was
very small (p =.0356). The resulting dipole values of conductance G and
susceptance B were determined as p varied up to values of p =8.8 in several
steps. The susceptance was negative (inductive reactance) and the
48
mental dipole values of. G and (B), read from the curves, are shown on
the curves of Figure IV. 1 as functions of loss tangent p. The values were
determined from coaxial line measuring methods and included any terminal
zone reactive effects, the effects of the step discontinuity at the base of the
IV 7
antenna which had to be IIc'lipped on" the larger. diametermner conduct.or of
the measuring coaxial line, and .pos sible effects, of. from the walls
of the finite sized tank.
The experimental values of read from the curves of Iizuka
r
and King48 are also shown on the curve labeled" E. (experimental)" in
r "
Figure IV. 1. important feature is the variation of electrical (half) length
;S h as p varies. Knowing e and p of the medium and halflength h of the
, r '
antenna, it is a simple matter to compute !h if one has tables of f(p), as in
Appendix A, and uses the relations of Section II. Thus
(IV. 9)
The known fixed value of h may be used in' equation (IV. 9). But it was known
, that h was such'that ;8h = Tr/2 when p was so small that f(p) 1, and .that
e =78 for such low values of p. Hence equation (IV. 9) may be rewritten
r
for this case as
;8h = ; J f(p) (IV. 10)
where the value of e;. to be used is that corresponding to p according to the
r
curve" 6
r
" in Figure IV. 1. Using equation (IV 10), we calcqlated Jh as a
function of p and results are shown in the curve labeled "fh" in Figure
IV. 1. Note that ;.3h increases from 1f /2 (halfwave antenna) to values ex
I
ceeding 7f (fullwave antenna) as p increases from 0 to 9. It is important to
realize then that G and (B) are the values for a halfwave antenna,
!h= V/2, except for those values where p is small. Note that, for the
IV8
experiments, ;1 h increases with p. slowly at first and then almost linearly
with p. Note also that (3 h differs from Ti' /2 by 2% or less for 0 0.5 for
the experiments. These observations result from the experimental variation
of .Jr and f(p) with p in equation (IV. 10).
Knowing r and 'ph as functions of p, the theoretical input imped
ance and admittance may be calculated according to the variational methods
given in Appendix D. Our calculations assumed the validity of asymptotic ex
pansions for ;1h Tr/2, the accuracy of which is discussed above and illus
trated in Appendix D. The resulting approximate zeroorder (EMF) values
Goo and (B ) and first order values Gland (B 1) so calculated are shown
00 0 . 0
plotted in Figure IV. 1.
For large loss ten gents, with ;fih. near Tr the zero and first
order susceptance differ but slightly and the conductances differ by about 10%.
is in accordance with the observation above and in Appendix D. for large
loss tangent p where eX jJ , that zeroorder (EMF) are adequate
for practical purposes for stich electrical lengths.
For small loss tangents, p O. 4 say, the first order values agree
51 53
with the KingHarrison values ' . particularly for the conductance. When
p = 0.5 the susceptance (B) for the zeroorder method is twice the first order
value.
There are differences between the theoretical values Y and
'. 01
experimental values for large loss tangents near p =8 and small loss tangents
near 'p = O. For large loss tangents the experimental values of G are quite
IV q
a bit lower than the theoretical values; experimental values of (B) are but
slightly larger than the theoretical ones. When p =0, it is known that the
firstorder theoretical values agree well with experimental data for antennas
in air. The error in the experimental values in Figure IV. 1 for the smallest
loss tangent used (p = .0356) may be attributed to a combination of effeets due
to reflection from the walls of the tank, the step discontinuity at the base of
the antenna, and the reactive end effect on the transmission line, all of which
are included in the expe:rimental values plotted. Reflection effects due to
walls become negligibl;!, for the tanks used, for large loss tangents due to
increased exponential damping in the media.S'ome difference is expected for
any value of p due to the effect of the stepdiscontinuity discussed by Iizuka
. 48
and King. The trends of theoretical and experimental values with increas
ing p are generally in good agreement, in that the conductance and the (nega
tive) susceptance decrease with p quite sharply for low values of p, reach
minima, and then increase. *
3. VLF and LF Measurements in Drill Holes Into Rock
Measurements were made on bare wires in an attempt to ascer
tain the electric constants of the surrounding medium when using the wires
as probes and values of input impedance for such wires when used on insulated
.* We have just received a copy of a report by' Iizuka and King49 on more ex
tensive measurements following their previol,ls work. 48 Time has not per
mitted comparing the new measurements with theory under the present con
tract, but will be reported upon at some f u t u ~ . e date.
IV 10
antennas as terminating, shortcircuiting, electrodes.
While data were obtained for wires immersed in the Brewster
hole, the more consistent set of data was that for the measurements at
Harwich. Various lengths of #12 wire were connected to the end of a coaxial
feeder (RG8/U) about 564 feet long; about 150 feetof the neoprene jacket were
removed from the feeder back from the point to which the bare wire was con
nected, exposing the braid outer conductor for contact with the casing pipe.
The "ground cage" (Section IIlB) used for antenna mea.surements at a later
date was not yet available. The substitution method described in Section lIIB
was used to obtain the antenna input impedance. The wire antenna with
counterweight and coaxial feeder was lowered into the drill hole so that the
wire was exposed to the rock but the feeder was not (antenna input f lush with
the bottom of the casing). The feeder was connected to an RF bridge and the
feeder impedance was measured as a function of frequency, carefully noting
all pertinent bridge dial settings, for a given wire length. The assembly was
withdrawn from the hole, the wire rernoved, and the effective antenna input
impedance obtained by the substitution box method. The pro\.'.ess was repeated
for other lengths of wire.
The resulting values of input resistance R'
n
and reactance X.
1 ln
are plotted on the curves of Figure IV. 2, for lengths ranging from 5 to 200
feet and frequencies 50 to 500 kc. It is seen that X. is positive indicating
ln
a large loss tangent. Values of R. at first decrease with length to a minimum,
ln
then increase and tend to taper off at large values of h. To date, however,
IVll
100
81++jf+
/6 I++I+++}HIIfc</
10 1I+jf+J4I+fN4l1
f KC:
20
500
300
250
III
200
150
/4
50
en
~
x
2
12
g
Q:
61+
500 200 100 50 20
h (FT)
10 5 2
4l.__L. ~ L__...L_ __l______L .L______J
I
Figure IV. 2a. Input impedance of bare wire vs length
h of #12 wire  Harwich  R.
In
IV12
1000 !l00 200 100 20 10 !I 2
f KC.
/
!l0
/
h
':V
100
~ 1!l0
if~
200
2!10
~
V
/
..uu
!lOO
l/)
V

'U"J

~
~ W
!l00
~
300 ~
~
WX'V 2!10
~
200
!l0
~ r 'ff?
I!I
~ r.J
100
I
2
4
6
o
e
10
en
E
.r:.
o
......
c:
x
h(ft)
Figure IV. 2b. Input impedance of bare wire vs length
h of if 12 wire  Harwich  X.
In
IV13
it has not been pos sible to analyze these data to determine 0 and G. of the
r
.'
medium surrounding the wire. The difficulty lies i:n the effer:t of the "ground
plane, " in this ca:se the overburden below which is suspended the wire. One
might crudely estimate the input impedance Zin to consist of the sum of two
components, one being the impedance of the wire considered as a: monopole
over a perfect ground and the other being the impeda:nce of the pipe immersed
in the overburden. If this picture were approximately true, then knowledge
o<:r for the overburden might help, but we did not know this value.
The data may be used to indicate an upper bound to the values
of the impedance when the wire is used as a shortcircuit termination lor an
insulated antenna. Since the characteristic impedances of insulated antennas
should be about 150 ohms for the types employed, then wire lengths 50 feet
or less should provide a reasonably good (conductive) shortcircuit for con
ditions similar to those for the Ha:rwich drill hole (see next subsection for
results of measurements).
Measurements were made at ELF and VLF but difficulties with
leakage through the feeder preclude the utility of such data; measurements
with a better shielded coaxial (triaxial) feeder or with a balanced feeder plus
dipole should be performed.
C. Insulated Antennas
1. Review of Theo'ry
a. General
The theory for insulated antennas immersed in a dissipative
medium is given in Appendix E. Assuming radial dimensions are small
IV14
compared with the wavelength 1.
3
of the dissipative medium surrounding the
insulation, the complex phase constant k differs from that value k
3
for the 'dissipative medium for practical antennas, and simpler relations
result.
In this Section, the input impedance properties of the insula
ted antenna are considered. The aspect of "modified power gain Gil is con
sidered theoretically in Appendix F and discussed further in Section IIF.
Comparison is made between the values of G for the insulated antenna, open
and shortcircuited terminations, vs the bare wire. A qualified comparison
of G from path transmission measurements is discussed in Section VI w.here
it is .shown that G for the bare antenna.,:tIlust be quite low compared with the
shortcirc,uited coaxial antenna (by the order of 30 db or so), for the Cape
Cod path.
b. Complex Phase Constant k of the Current
An essential result, under the various assumptions which
are valid for the antennas employed, is that the phase constant k ha:s a small
imaginary component. With k =j3  j =I (1  j t:J<If:J ), one has
2
P
Jln a2/al
31
=Cr
Z)/
 9
3
+
't"l 2
(VLF value)
ar P31
in which
'.
2 2
P 31
=
In
y
Ik
3
1
a
l
(IV. 11)
(IV. 12)
(IV. 13)
IV 15
and where
(IY,14a:)
9
3
= tan
1
 1
= tan (IV. 14b)
(IV. 14c)
c. QuarterWave Resonant Lengths, h , and of ",
l'
The insulate'd antenna behaves as a coaxial line insofar as
the input iInpedanc.e is concerned, the "outer conductor" of which is the dissi
pative Inediunl. If the termination is an open circuit, the antenna will be
resonant where (/h) l' = 7T" / 2. Calculations were given in Appendix E, Section
,VII showing the effect of varying the radius a 1 of the inner conductor'upon the
resonant frequency f for an antenna of fixed length h (600 feet), air insula
r ,
tion of fixed radius a
2
(6 inches), lInInersed in a InediuIn of constant conduc
tivity (5":;3 (2 x 10
3
mhos/In) and relative dielectric constant (= 40).
1'3
If the loss tangent P3 is large, then in equation (IV. 14a),
Ik
3
1 = where is the skin depth, and 9
3
= Tr/4.. The expression
2 '
for P 31 becomes dependent on. 03 but not G
r3
The effect of 03 upon the
resonant length h
r
as a function of frequency for which f3 hI' = 7T /2 is shown
in the curves of Figure IV. 3 for ,;;tn RG8/U type antenna where hI' is plotted
vs frequency on a loglog plot with cr: as a paraIneter. For comparison,
3
curves are shown dashed for the resonant lengths fora wire in air and for the
normal RG8/U cable; the difference is due to the dielectric constant = 2.25
1'3
TV  16
1000
1000 700 !l00 200 300
FREQUENCY (KC)
2001
100 L ...L.. I ___l
100
l
I.
Figure IV. 3. Required quarterwave resonant lengths h for insulated
r
monopole antenna vs frequency. RG8/U type insulated
monopole antenna, opencircuit termination (2a
2
= 0.285",
2a
l
=0.0816", E: =2.25)
r
2
er 3 = conductivity of surrounding mediUln, = 9
r
3
IVI?
t
for the polyethylene insulation. Throughout the range of frequency !tor
<;:5":;3 = 1, 0.1, a.nd O. 01 m.hos/m, the loss tangent is large if  is assumed
r3
to be 9. For <Y'3 =0.001, the loss tangent is large up to 300 kc and the curve
is shown dashed at higher frequencies. It is shown in Appendix E,. Section II
that for a typi.<,al coaxial antenna (RG8!U type) AlA is of the order of 0.2,
o
whereas for the usualRG8/U cable, All is about 0.67. This is attributed
o
to the logarithmic term P 31 discus sed below; for the media being employed
P31 varies as [In ( 1 / ~ ~ 3 ) ] and AI A
o
varies as I/P
31
.
The curves for Figure IV. 3 were used to predict resonant
lengths for RG8/U type insulated antennas in known n:ledia and were used for
the earlier measurements made in New Hampshire. The results for input
im.pedance shown in Figure III. 19 are discussed in Sections VG and IVC be
low with reference to the resonant length predicted. (Curves for vinyl covered
#12 and #14 wire similar to those in Figure IV. 3 were prepared for purposes
of predicting resonant lengths for such antennas intended for use in 'New
Hampshire drill holes; they are not reproduced here but successful results
were also achieved. )
The curves for h
r
vs desired resonant frequency in the range
100 ~ f
kc
~ 1000 do not show great sensitivity to values of 03' It was desired
to examine this effect m.ore closely for lower frequencies being contemplated
for use in Cape Cod drill holes, first for predicting h and second, having
r
m.easured the resonant frequency, for determining the electrical constants of
the medium. Contemplating the use of polyethylene covered wire antenna
IVI8
(made from RG8/U coaxial cable), the curves of Figure IV.4 were p:repared
for the range 100 ~ f k C ' ~ 170 kc. The curves are plots of <J
3
vs the resonant
frequency f with the length h as a parameter on the curves. The curves are
r
based on the simpler relations for;B in equation (IV. 11) when the loss tangent
is large. The lower limit for determining <J: assuming p ~ 6,
_ 3 3
f. = 9 is
r3
shown. Note that 03 is plotted on a log scale.
Figure IV.4 was used first for predicting h for a desired
r
resonant frequency,. assuming a knowledge of 6: and f , and results are
3 kc
discussed in Sections VG and IV. C below. Conversely, knowing f and h for
kc
(IV. 15)
resonance the val ue of 03 can be determined. For an estimate of CJ3 of
m@,dest accuracy, accurate ITleasureITlents of f and h are required.
d. Characteristic Impedance Zc
The insulated antenna is considered from the iITlpedance point
of view to behave as a coaxial line. It has a " c haracteristic impedance" Zc
given in Appendix E as
L (1  j ;;) = RC (1  j 7)
/ ~
where A and 0< are given in equations (IV. 11) and (IV. 12) and R
C
is the
A ~ 0
characteristic resistance of the insulated antenna with metallic onter conduc
tor, e. g., a norITlal coaxial line. For a high quality coaxial line of the
RG8/U type, R
C
is about 52 ohms. For a coaxial antenna made from
o
RG8/U cable by stripping off its outer conductor braid. and neoprene jacket,
R
C
is typically about three tiITles R
C
,i.e., of the order of 150 ohms (for
. 0
IV19
MINIMUM Cl
3
FOR
10. r3 =9, FOR USE IN
SIMPLER EQUATIONS
 .L
ftr, I
I
I
TYPICAL
DESIRED
IFREQUENCY
I
1.0,...,,
104L l.II...LL.L_I.L. I' ' l ' '
I 0
10
2
fIfff,f/III+fjj_j
I 0
1
6'"
100 110 120 130
fr ( K C)
140 150 160 170
Figure IV. 4. RG8/U coaxial antenna  effect of conductivity (0 3) on
quarterwave resonant frequency (f
r
) for various
monopole lengths (h). e: =9.
r
3
IV20
4 I
a: = 10 mhos ro,
3
Section II, to be 3. Z).
=9, f  10 kc, the ratio is shown in Appendix E.
r3
e. Input Impedance Z. for Antennas of Finite Length h
in
The input impedance of a coaxial antenna depends upon its
complex phase constant k, length h, and the output terminating impedance ZT.
It also depends upon the nature of the "input electrode." If the input electrode
is the ideal perfectly conducting ground plane of infinite extent and in intimate
, contact with the dissipative medium,the input impedance Zin is considered to
be that of. a monopole d,riven over a ground plane. The input impedance of a
symmetrically driven dipole would be twice that value for the monopole an
tenna. The values of Zin for a monopole in a dissipative medium driven over
a large ground plane of finite conductivity are assumed to be approximately
those with a perfect ground plane, if the relative refractive index (conductivity
contrastfor large loss tangents) of the two media is large. the difference
being principally in the addition of a "ground resistance" term.
Expressions for the input impedance of a monopole antenna
were developed in Appendix'E. Values were calculated for a typical case with
opencircuit termination in Appendix E, Section VII, the results showing be
havior quite similar to those for an opencircuited coaxial transmission line.
, , At quarterwave resonance the ,resistance is small and at antiresonance the
resistance is large. At frequencies below.i:rst resonance. Zin is highly
The effects of yarying the ratio of the radii aZ/a I for a fixed
insulation radius a
Z
and length h were illustrated and discussed.
IVZl
(IV. 16)
For ZT  O. the input impeddnce is like that of a short
circuited coaxial line, denoted by Z, (SC) and given by
In
Z, (SC) =j Zc tan kh = Z tanh (j kh)
In C
When ZT = 00, the input impedance is like that of a coaxial line which is
terminated in. an open circuit, denoted by Zin(OC), and given by
Zin(OC) =  j Zc cot kh = Zc coth (j kh) (IV. 17)
Here, with k = j3 (1  j 0</;8), ;3 and are given by equations (IV. 11)
and (IV. 12), respectively, and Zc is given by equation (IV. 15). At frequencies
for which; h 1T /2, h A/4, the shortcircuited antenna. is
and has a high input resistance,the value of which depends inversely upon
0<:/;1. When h; 'A/2, the shortcircuited antenna is with a small
value of input resistance which is proportional to 0<: /jl. For frequencies be
low first antiresonance, Z. (SC) has an inductive reactance which becomes
. 'In
smaller the lower the frequency. Resonant and antiresonant frequencies for
Zin(OC) correspond to antiresonant and resonant frequencies, respectively,
for Zin(SG). Resonant and antiresonant frequencies are not harmonically
related for the insulated antenna in a dissipative medium due to the logarithmic
dependence on frequency of the P31 term: in the expression for;8 , equation
(IV. 11).
In practice,. for "shortcircuited" antennas, ZT is not zero
but IZT/ zcl
2
<<. 1, so that a good short circuit may be achieved. The prin'
cipal effect of a finite but small ZT on Z. (SC) is to reduce the antires'onant
In
IVl'>
The principal effect is to reduce the conductance G. (OC)
1n
resistance; for electrically short antennas, the effect is to add the value of
ZT to the value of Zin(SC) obtained when ZT = O. Similarly, for "open
circuited" antennas, in practice ZT is not infinite but is so high that
IZTI Zc IZ 1.
at resonance; for electrically 5 hort antennas, the effect is to add the value of
YT to the value of the input admittance Yin(OC) obtained when YT =O.
Z. VLF and LF Measurements in Drill Holes into Rock
a. Apparatus and Techniques
The antenna systems comprising an insulated monopole con
nected to a coaxial feeder are described in detail in Section lIIB. The con
nection at the feed point to the monopole was waterproofed. The opencircuit
termination was provided by additional polyethylene insulation beyond the end
of the inner conductor; the shortcircuit termination was usually a length of
#lZ or #14 wire soldered to the inner conductor. The outer neoprene cover
on the coaxial feeder was stripped back from the antenna feed point a distance
variously 1.50 to 450 feet for several different tests. When it became avail
able, the "grounding cage" described in Section lIIB was affixed tothe ex
posed braid portion of the coaxial feeder, assuring more positive contact be
tween the outer conductor of the feeder to the casing pipe in the, overburden.
The grounding cage was not available for t he measurements on antennas in
New Hampshire holes and friction contact between the exposed braid and the
pipe was relied upon to provide a "ground" connection. For the impedance
measurements to be described, the monopole input point was at a depth below
IVZ3
and within a foot of the bottom of the casing (depth referred to as "flush with
the casing").
The substitution method described in Section IIIB was used
to obtain the itnpedance observed at the monopole input point.
b. Insulated Antenna, OpenCircuit Termination,
Goffstown, N. H.
The earlier measurements were made in New Hampshire
at frequencies in the LF to HF spectrum. On one series of tests it was de
sired to have an antenna resonant at 500 kc. Highly conducting water in the
holes (see Section VD) which was expected to be present in the f;urrounding
rock precluded the use of bare antennas. Practical antennas made from
RG8/U cable and vinyl c o v e r e ~ wires were suggested. Using the curves of
Figure IV. 3, a length of RG8/U type insulated antenna 123 ft. long was
estimated to obtain first input resonance for an opencircuited antenna. The
resulting impedances are shown plotted in Figure III. 19, including spiral
plots in the complex XR plane and rectangular plots of R and X vs frequency.
Input resonance occurred near 480 kc, which result is discussed in Section VG.
c. Insulated Antennas, OpenCircuited Termination,
in Two Holes on Cape Cod
It was desired to compare input impedances of the same
antenna inserted into the rock in two different drill holes on Cape Cod. The
sites used were at the Brewster Town Dump and at Harwich which are des
cribed in Section IlIA. The antennas were RG.. 8/U type, 472.75 feet long,
with opencircuit termina.tion. The ground cage was employed and the
I V { ~ 4
monopole input was flush with the casing. Frequencies of observation were
varied from 30 to 0500 kc., The input impedances are plotted on the curves of
Figure IV. 5 and Figure IV.6. The curves, although differing in detail, show
the impedance variation to be smooth and the values to pass through two
resonances and two as frequency varies. Resonances and
antiresonances are not harmonically related. Maximum' resistances near
antiresonances are larger and minimum resistances near resonances are
smaller for the Harwich antenna. Impedances below first resonance becomes
the more capacitative the lower the frequency. These observations are in
qua.litative agreement with theory. Frequencies at resonance are slightly
lower for the Brewster antenna.
d. Insulated Antenna, Openvs Short Termination, Harwich
The input impedances Z. (SC) and Z. (OC) for an RG8 lu
ln \In
type (polyethylene covered #12 wire) insulated monopole 475 feet long were
measured in the Harwich drill hole. The input depth was flush with the casing.
The open circuit was provided as aforementioned. The short circuit was a
50foot piece of #12 buss wire. The results may be compared by reference
to the curves in Figures IV.7 and IV. 8. At frequencies below first anti
resonance, Zin(SC) remaills inductive; thi.s is as opposed to the capacitative
reactance behavior for Zin(OC) at similar frequencies. The maximum. resist
ance near first antiresonance (approximately 120 kc) for Z. (SC) iE but
, ln
slightly higher than the maximum .reslstance near antiresonance (approxi
mately 250 kc) for Zin(OC), attributed in part to the frequency dependence m
IV25
Il
<
I
N
0'
INSULATED OPENCIRCUIT MONOPOLE INPUT IMPEDANCE
IDENTICAL ANTENNA IN DIFFERENT HOLES
RGS/U TYPE, 472.75 FT. LONG
FEEDERRGS/U, LENGTH 1000'CBREWSTER), 525"{HARWICH)
INPUT ELECTRODE PIPE, ABOUT 450 FT. LONG, CONNECTED AT BOTTOM
TO OUTER CONDUCTOR OF FEEDER VIA GROUNDING CAGE
HARWICH BREWSTER
0
FREQ.Kb
300 .1
.....
N
i
0
t'... '\
I
V
.
\
I I
100
,
IS1 /50/ V t>(p

250
I r I
100 1001
200 300 400 500 o 100 200 1
5
300 400 500 250
R(OHMSj
100. <0
R(OHMS)
I
90 \
'IS'
J
I:?O
)
'l;)'l0
100
'70 "'I
V
I"e.. ,
6'0
50 '0 0 N
50 'OJ
0
)
0 200
""'.
q,0
0
CV
lh 30
..j
, 300
1!130
0 300
'00
300
, 200
100
til
:i:
:I: 0
g
X
, 200
R(OHMS)
R (OHMS)
Figure IV. 5. Input iInpedance of an insulated Inonopole, opencircuit
termination. COInparison of iInpedance for saIne
antenna in two different lOOOft. drill holes on Cape
Cod, and barely inserted into rock below overburden.
Frequency in kc is paraIneter' on curves. COInplex
plane, spiral plot.
INSULATED OPENCIRCUIT MONOPOLE INPUT IMPEDANCE
IDENTICAL ANTENNA iN DIFFERENT HOLES
ANTENNA: TYPE, 472.75' LONG
FEEDER: RG8/U COAX (BREWSTER 1000'
HARWICH 525')
INPUT ELECTRODE: PIPE, 7fDIAMETER,
ABOUT 450' LONG, CONNECTED AT
BOTTOM TO OUTER CONDUCTOR OF
FEEDER VIA GROUNDING CAGE
500 f(KC/Sl 50 70 100 150 200 300 30
)
BREWSTER...,/
I
REACTANCE (X) //
#
V
f
)
V
b"""
/
I
I
I
\I
) /.
,I
v
)

a
100
20
100
200
300
500 f(KC/S)
300
59 70 100 150 200 300 a
0
1_ HARWll
)
\
o
RESISTANCE (R)
I
I
0
I
i
"
t
0
I
BREWSTER... JJ
if
0
;/
...
.... iC
......
0
20
500
30
10
60
40
Figure IV. 6. Input resistance (R) and reactance (X) of insulated, open
circuited monopole vs frequency. Conditions are those
of Figure IV. 5. Solid curves (Harwich), dashed
curves (Brewster)
H
<:
I
N
.l
H
<:
I
N
00
700 600 500 300 400
R (OHMS)
200 100 o 700 800 500 300 400
R (OHMS)
200 /00
FREQUENLKC
FIREQUENCY+,k
100
,
V
;7
215 240
'fe
".
205
21
'\.
\,5
:f
\45 ;:j 60
19
11!50 320 180. 460  480
:aK:k
'\
\
280'
140/:r
O
260 /30 400 510 250
250 530
, 240J 380
120
230 i!500
./
il
/
460
90 I 530
.340
200\ 440 80 I
420
'100
/25
70 320
/255
180
060
/7(3
"
50
290
,
/
150
'
/
'10
265.
.
i"
135 270 .260
30 KC
100
+300
200
+400
+100
+200
300
400
o
;;;
:J::
9
X 0
SHORT CIRCUIT ANTENNA OPEN CIRCUIT ANTENNA
ELEMENT 475' POLYETHYLENE ELEMENT475' POLYE.THYLENE
COVERED 12 WIRE, SHORT COVERED NO. 12 wiRE .
CIRCUIT 50' NO. 12 BUSS WIRE
Figure IV. 7. Comparison of input impedances of insulated monopoles with
short circuit or open circuit terminations (complex im
pedance plane, spiral plot). Frequency in kc is para:meter
on curves.
HARWICH
SHORT CIRCUIT ANTENNA.
ELEMENT 475' POLYETHYLENE
COVERED NO. 12 WIRE. SHORT
CIRCUIT 50' BARE NO. 12 BUSS
 OPEN CIRCUIT ANTENNA.
ELEMENT 475' POLYETHYLENE
COVERED NO. 12 WIRE
1000 100 FKC
I
II'>
1/
,...
I
/ 1\
II
I l
,
//
! I
'"
./
/1
I
r
0
V
/'/'
111
f
/ ~
'0
.I
. I t
/1./
I
r I
I
0
I
/
tJ
\ I
I r.
f
, / J!
I
I ,
_..  ._
.,.20
+'00
+300
30'
+200
40
10
~
9. 10'
x
'000 '00
FKC
o
'0
600
100
.00
200
400
o
'"
~
~ ~ O O
Figure IV. 8.
Input resistance (R) and reactance (X) of an insulated monopole
vs frequency, lI open circuit
ll
(dashed curves), and It short
circuit
lt
(solid curves) terminations. Conditions as for
Figure IV. 7.
H
<
I
N
.0
'\.
0<"/;8 in equation (IV. 12). Similar remarks apply to maximum values of
\Xin I The various resonant and antiresonant frequencies for Zin(OC) agree
quite well with the cor,responding antiresonant and resonant frequeocies for
Zin(SC), The input impedance of the shortcircuit termination ZT7' a is like
that for a travelling wave along the shortcircuiting wire. A crude approxi
mation of the value of the value of ZT would be half that of a centerdriven
bare dipole. If we assume the values for Figure IV. 2 apply, then
IZTI~ c t Zc 1
2
and Zin(SC) should have an antiresonance occurring at a
frequency near that obtained for a perfect short circuit ZT =O. The fre
quency for r"onanee for Zin(OC) being cia," to this indicates IZTI :;>Izc/
2
,
We had no means at the time to measure the impedance ZT for the " open
circuit" as used. (A technique was being investigated, with preliminary data,
for obtaining ZT (open circuit) by use of the input admittances of two electri
cally short antennas, one having exactly twice the length of the other and each
having the same physical shape of the desired finite open circuit. )
. For practical application note that the values of Zin(SC) for
an electrically short antenna, i. e., for frequencies much 10",:er than those
for antiresonance,. provide a better impedance match to a 50ohm coaxial
feeder than those for an opencircuit antenna (RG8/U type antenna).
3. Comparison of Theory with Experimental Data
It would be desirable to have input impedance data for insulated
"1 h f b " b ' db I' k d K' 48,49
antennas SImI ar to t ose or are wIre antennas 0 talne y lZU a an. Ing
at VHF for antennas immersed in dissipative medip. of known electrical
IV3D
constants. It was suggested to Profes SOl' King that this might be a useful
research using their experimental setup. The results are being made the
subject of a report. ':<
With regard to our fullscale VLFLF measurements for an
tennas immersed in the rock below an overburden as in Cape Cod holes,
several comments made above indicate agreement in the gross features of
the theory with experimental measurements:
The trend of measured input impedance Z. (OC)
1n
and Z. (SC) with frequency.is in accord with
1n
theory;
The measured resonant and antiresonant frequencies
for Zin(OC) are in good agreement with corresponding
antiresonant and resonant frequencies for Z. (SC)
1n
with IZTI :c I
z
cl
2
and IZTI ~ ~ : 7 I
Z
cl
2
and
in accordance with theory;
Predicted resonant frequencies for the quarterwave
antenna of fixed length are in good agreement with
theory for reasonable assurna d values of constants
of the medium. Values of f are, however,. not too
r
critically dependent upon a knowledge of <J: for
large los s tangents P3 in the range of c o n s t ~ n t s
encountered.
Finally, a curve of Z. (OC) vs frequency was computed for an
1n
opencircuited coaxial antenna of the RG8/U type, 475 feet long. The theore
ical curve, assuming ZT = 00, is shown in Figure IV.9 in which the experi
mental curve for the Harwich antenna from Flgure IV.8 is shown for compari
son, for frequency 50 to 300 kc. The frequency range covers first resonant
':< Dr. K. Iizuka, private communication.
IV31
250
1000 300 200 100
FREQUENCY (KC)
50 30
f
R1N
RG8!U TYPE ANTENNA
h 475 FT
'"
EXPERIMENTAL R IN (.) AND XIN (0)
I
I
FROM HARWICH DATA
I
THEORETICAL CURVES ASSUME
I It
a) NO OHMIC LOSSES IN INNER CONDUCTOR
f
b) PERFECT INSULATION
f
c) Z T =(I)
I I
d) 03' 8X 10
4
MHO!M AND
e.l P 3 ~ 1 0 THROUGHOUT ~ ~
'10
 THEORETICAL
RIN
I c I

THEORETICAL
XIN
l
I
o I
! 1
0
I
I
!CO
~ i
/0
\ ... ,.
/O J
V
~
,
~ ..~
10
~ I i
I
/8
L
r''1' I
t
\0
~
I
0/ ~
'/
I
V
I
I
10
1
Il
i I
II
ten
II I I I I I I I I I
50
o
150
250
350
550
450
50
650
350
10
150
Ul
::E
X
o
Figure IV. 9. Comparison, of theoretical with measured input impedance
Z. (OC) for insulated monopole, open circuited.
In ,
IV32
and antiresonant impedances. Further assumptions regarding the antenna
are that the inner wire was perfectly conducting and of radius a 1 = 0.0408"
a2
= 1..036 mm, that In  = 1. 250, and that the insulation was a perfect di
al
electric with e
rz
=2.25. The medium was assumed to have the electricai
constants shown on Figure IV. 9. The theoretical and experimental curves
agree well in the trends and resonant and antiresonant frequencies. The
theoretical maximum resistance is larger than that measured and is attri
\
buted to the simplying assumptions in the theory, namely, a perfectly con
ducting inner conductor, a lossless dielectric, ZT =00, and a very large,
perfectly conducting "ground plane." In practice, these assumptions are not
all fulfilled. The finite conductivity of the inner conductor and losses in the
waterabsorbing polyethylene insulation would affect c < / ~ , to some extent
expected to be small. The finite though expected large value of ZT would also
reduce maximum values of input resi.stance and reactance. It is expected
that the finite conductivity of the overburden ground plane would also affect
these components of the impedance (maximum. values) without affecting seri
ously the resonant frequency. The measured value also includes the end
effect of the coaxial line but this correction (negative capacitance) is expected
to be small.
IV 33
Section V. TECHNIQUES FOR MEASURING ELECTRICAL CONSTANTS
OF ROCK STRATA
A. Introduction
For ultimate application to radio transmis sion through rock strata,
it is desirable to make measurements of the radio properties of such media
in situ. This is because small amounts of pore water can markedly influence
the value of conductivity deduced from laboratory xneasurements on "dry"
samples of the rock. The values of conductivity for "dry" granite appear to
'.
be more influenced by temperature than pressure, as is the relative dielectric
constant. Both (J and e. for dry granite appear to increase with high tem
r
perature and are somewhat frequency sensitive, in that cr incz'eases markedly
with 'increased frequency and decreases slightly with increased frequency.
r
. 0
Temperaturl':! ranges discussed exceed 200 G. and frequency ranges include
*
the ELF and VLF spectra.
Even if the porosity of the rock is sznall, say less than 1% of the
pore space by volume, the conductivity of the "wet" granite is changed
6
markedly by pore water. If the i'dry" granite has a conductivity, say 10
znhos 1m, a "wet" granite infiltrated by znuch higher conductivity water will
tend to have a conductivity more nearly' that of the pore water. If the rock
depths are of the order of 3 to 10 miles ("shallow" to the geologist) and tem
peratures are of the order of 200
0
C, free water does not form and very low
values of <::5" are anticipated. Our zneasurements have been at depths into
lie A. Orange, AFCRL, private communication.
VI
drill holes only 1000 feet deep and the rock encountered is well fractured;
correlative surface resistivity measurements of deep resistivity indicate
granite conductivity of the order of 10
4
mhos/m may be encountered at
these and slightly greater depths. Such a value is much larger than typical
values for "dry" granite ("dry" in the sense that all free water has been
removed).
In addition to the water content problem necessitating nleasurements
in situ (or a reasonable facsimile thereof in the laboratory), there is a second
major characteristic of nature requiring such measurements. This is that
rock electrical characteristics are anisotropic both with depth and with hori
zontal extent, at practical depths. Suppose one had drilled two holes A and
B deep into the rock, and it was desired to transmit signals between antennas
immersed in the rock portion of those two holes, assumed separated many
miles. Assuming the most careful measurements of rock constants of sam
pIes from each hole under closely simulated in situ conditions, the values
~
deduced represent those for'the area immediately around each hole and do
not necessarily apply to the rock region in between the holes. Values of the
constants for each hole deduced by any of several tech niques to be discussed,
may be assumed to approximate those important to the performance of antennas
imm.ersed in each hole (say radially outward from A or B to a distance of a
few skindepths). As to what the rock properties are between the hole, other
techniques must be employed. Drilling costs would prohibit the use of an
adequate number of holes to deduce the anisotropic effects, and results would
be difficult to analyze except in a gross statistical sense.
V2
From a theoretical point of view for the radio scientist, Wait and
85
Conda have treated the distinction in the anisotropic case between hori
zonta1, vertical, geometric mean, and apparent conductivity for interpreting
measurements of ground conductivity, and developed the theory applicable to
a twolayer model of the earth (say, overburden layer of finite thickness above
a semiinfinite rock medium below).
In Section VB there is a general discussion of techniques which may
be used to deduce electrical properties of rock under two categories: the
first where drill holes do not exist and the second where drill holes do exist.
The measurements in which we have participated and/or actually performed
are described in the ensuing Subs ections VC through VH. In the last Sub
section some proposed employing loops are discussed.
B. General Discussion of Measurement Techniques
It is desired to measure the electrical properties of rock strata in
situ, into which antennas are to be .immersed and through which radio waves
are to be propagated for of communication. The techniques which
may be employed maybe divided into two categories, (1) 'those which do not
..
require direct access into the rock by virtue of vertical drill holes or mines,
and. (2) those which may be employed when such holes or mines exist. Of
course, if the driil holes or mines are electrically ("clean" in the
sense that no electrically disturbing structures are present and that the
drilling has not affected the rock electrically), then techniques in category (1)
to be discussed can be employed whether or not the drill holes exist.
V3
1. Those Not Requiring Direct Access (Drill Holes) Into
the Rock
a. Surface Resistivity Methods
Measurements are made of the mutual impedance between
dipoles on the surface of the earth as a function of dipole spacing. The re
$ults yield values of apparent resistivity of the earth below and interpretation
of conductivity of layers depends upon the model assumed. The technique is
discussed further in Subsection VC with reference to measurements Inade on
Cape Cod by other s
b. Magneto Telluric Methods
In. magnetotelluric methods the source of the fields to be
observed are those such as natural telluric currents. The horizontal electric
intensity Ell and magnetic intensity H
h
are observed. At the earth's surface
the apparent complex impedance of the earth looking downward is'
J' =E IH
h !)a h
(v. I)
assuming plane waves. The observations are made at fractional cps fre
quencies at which the loss tangen1sof the media are large. Then
'5
a
= ~ J CVf ~ cr;. (V. 2)
for nonmagnetic media, where cr: is the a p p ~ r e n t conductivity of the earth.
a
If the earth is assumed to be horizontally stratified, values of 6: in equation
a
(V. 2) may be used to determine the characteristics of those horizontal layers,
depending upon the model assumed. Thus, for twolayer models (e. g.. an
overburden of finite thickness above a semiinfinite rock medium) the equations
V4
and curves of Cagniard, 27 Wait79 and Wait and Conda85 may be used for
interpretation. For threelayer models, the relations of Cagniard
27
and the
, 93
curves of Yungul may be employed.
While we have made no magneto... telluric (MT) measurements
in our program, the results of others serve to indicate the great depths which
can be obtained. Lahiri and Price
57
' and more recently Cantwell and Madden, 28
using MT methods, found that at depths of the order of 100 km, the conduc
tivity increased to values between 0.03 and 1 mho/m, presumably associated
with the Moho. Geophysicists prefer to use active surface measuring methods
I'ather thau M T methods.
c. ' Role of Seismic, Magnetic Fiela and Gravity Surveys
Seismic, magnetic field and gravity surveys are used to
locate and classify various types of rock media and discontinuities. Examples
were those surveys performed on Cape Cod. The results of seismic and
magnetic field measurements and analysis are contained in a report of work
performed by Weston Geophysical Engineers97 under a subcontract. Gravity
surveys were made by the Geophysical Research Directorate, AFCRL, under
Mr. Gerry Cabaniss. The surveys covered several areas on Cape Cod and
were concentrated on regions near Harwich (where the first hole was drilled)
and Brewster (where the second hole at the Town Dump and the third hole off
Tubman Road were drilled). Seismic soundings were carr'ied out at several
points along lines on the surface. Seismic refraction data were used to locate,
a drill hole near Sand Pond in Harwich. Rock media appeared to commence
vs
at depths below 400 to 500 feet from the s ~ r f a c e . In the area in Brewster,
seismic velocities were about 1700 ft/sec at sea level, about 5000 ft/ sec in
the overburden, and 14,500 to 18, 000 ftl sec in the rock strata below, the
higher value probably corresponding to denser and more massive bedrock.
Contours of the earth1s magnetic field showed probable
anomalous areas in the shape of Itfinger s." Most probable areas for a good
rock propagation path are those where seismic velocities are high and mag
netic and gravity contours are relatively free of anomalies. Such surveys
do not give directly the electrical properties of the rock strata, but give
probable rock formations and extent and areas to be avoided.
" These surveys may be used to help interpret measurements
of deep"resistivity from measurements on the surface (surface resistivity
and MT methods). The rock conductivity data deduced from the latter
methods are strictly applicable to the extremely low frequencies employed,
usually in the fractional to a few cps range.
There may be phenomena peculiar to a certain area being
surveyed which are not typical of areas being explored generally for finding
rock strata suitable for radio wave propagation. Thus, for Cape Cod there
was concern that the surrounding sea water might infiltrate the area and
affect some of the conclusions of survey measurements. A study was made
by Rev. J. W. Skeehan, S. J. (Boston College) as a consultant of the possible
effect of sea water infiltration. A previous study had been made of the be
havior of fresh and salt water mixing on Long Island. After the Harwieh hole
v 6
had been drilled, Fr. Skeehan noted the salinity was 340 ppm and, using this
with the previous correlative behavior on Long Island, concluded that the
limited development of clay strata was insufficient to render the underlying
deposi.ts impervious to saline contamination. Rock conductivity would then
be higher than that were such contamination not present. Saline contamina
tion would not be expected for general inland areas.
2. 'rechniques Where Drill Holes Exist
A number of techniques have been used for measurements of
electrical properties of rock when suitable drill holes exist. Our experience
. has been with drill holes which are filled with water and the surrounding rock
is well fractured and porous. The conductivity of such rock is governed more
by that of the water. Techniques which may be used to measure the constants
of liquid media or of sam.ple rock extracted in the' drilling are d e s c r i b ~ d in
14
von Hippel's text.
a. Transmissionline type methods
b. Impedance measurements of samples with RF bridges
and Qmeter
These methods, with results, are described in Subsections
VD and VE, respectively.
When a single hole exists having an adequate depth of pene
tration into the rock, a new method was devised which permits one to deduce
surrounding rock electrical constants from a measurement of
V7
c. Attenuation vs depth into rock media
This method, known" as the "depth attenuation method" is
described in Section VF and includes some results of measurements on Cape
God.
The input impedance of a linear antenna immersed in a
dissipative medium depends upon the constants of that medium and type of
antenna being employed. One then has the method which is that of obtaining
d. Estimates from antenna impedance measurements
The method and some results using bare and insulated line
or antmnas are described in Subsection VG.
When two drill holes exist between which a radio signal has
transmitted, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the intervening rock
conductivity. The method and results are discussed in Subsection VH. entitled
e. Estimates from path transmission"loss data (1 mile 
Cape Cod)
we have made some studies of methods using loops
which might be employed. Measurements have "not been made with these
methods and their propos ed use is described in the last Subsection entitled
f. Proposed methods using loops.
C. Surface Resistivity Measurements  Discussion of Cape Cod
Data (Geoscience, Inc.)
While we have not made measurements ourselves using surface
resistivity methods, we have participated in measurements made by others on
Cape Cod and described below. Because of the relation of the subject to our
V8
program and because of some proposed rnethods which are also discussed
below, the topic is treated further here.
1. Four Electrode Arrangements
The usual four electrode schemes with a variation suggested by
85 .
Wait and Conda are shown from the top schematically in Figure V. 1.
Current is introduced into the earth through the "current
ll
electrodes P and
Q. The potential difference resulting elsewhere is meas ured between "poten
tial
"
electrodes p and q. In the Wenner array in A of Figure V. 1, P and Q
are the outer electrodes, p and q the inner ones. In the Eltran arrangement,
B of Figure V. 1, the electrodes are also arranged on a line, but P and Q
are at one end and p and q are at the other end. In C of Figure V. 1 is shown
the modification to the Eltran arrangement introduced by W a i ~ and Conda85
and called the t1 r ightangle
"
array. An advantage to the last is the absence
of mutual inductance term in the mutual impedance between t1pr imary" PO
and "secondary" pq. The usual arrangements have all inter electrode con
secutive spacings equal, shown as a in the figure.
As discussed by Wait and Conda, 85 one measures the mutual
resistance R
l2
from the measured "primarytl current (II) and induced open
circuit voltage in the ."secondary" (V2). From a knowledge of "electrode
circuit" length and spacing between primary and secondary electrode circuits,
one computes the apparent conductivity 6: for the scheme used. The final
a
geometric mean conductivity 0 is obtained by curve matching to sets of
master curves from data obtained as spacing a is varied. The curves depend
V9
P P q Q
0  ;      e   ;;  B
(A) WENNER ARRA:V
P Q P q
(B) ELTRAN ARRAY
P Q
" !
a', :
'\ I
I
I a
I
<Pq
(C) RIGHT ANGLE ARRAY
Figure V. 1. Four electrode,equi,spaced, arrays for surface resistivity
measurements (A) Wenner array, (B) Eltran array, (C)
Right angle array.
VIO
,"
upon the ITlOdel assumed and the type of electrode array employed. The curves
are plots of vsa/d
eff
with reflection coefficient K as a parameter,
where d
eff
is the effective thickness C<d (of the upper layer of thickness d)
and DC is the anisotropy ratio Oh/ 0; (see Figure V. 2). Curves for the
twolayer model, Wenner array, were developed some time ago and recently
were given for all three arrays in the above notation by Wait and Conda. 85
They show that the Eltran array is more at smaller spacings than
the Wenner array but the latter is better at larger spacings. The rightangle
array is somewhat in between the others for showing up sensitively departures
of with a/def' Master curves have been computed for a threelayer
93
model by Yungul. For the twolayer case, one computes cs from a knowl
a
edge of measured mutual resistance R 12 and array spacing. When a is small,
the measured R
12
is due principally to the upper layer if its conductivity is
larger than the lower region. If homogeneous regions are assumed and the
I
upper layer thickness d is known, the curve of "measured" 0 /cr vs aid
a
gives the val ue of K whence the value of oz of the lower region.
Some preliminary measurement s were made by Geoscience,
94
Inc. , for AFCRL along a single line through the drill holes at the Brewster
DUIT1P site and on Tubman. Road on Cape Cod. The technique employed the
59
improvedphase detector scheme of Madden, Cantwell et al. Insulated
dipoles with special low resistance grounds were employed as the transmit
ting (current) and receiving (voltage) electrodes. The dipole lengths were
mostly: 1000 feet. Dipole centers were spaced from, 2000 to 8000 feet in
1000 ft. intervals.
Vll
V12
P
P
q Q
AIR
0
0
 0
UPPER LAYER a a a
j O"h
d
(J h.... CJ v
t 0"= a
v a = ~ ah!O"v
*
LOWER LAYER
ja'a:' t
/
t K
a a' a h a  ~ a=
h v
=
a + fi'
Figure V. 2. Schematic representation for twolayer ground,
each layer anisotropic. (Sketch shows Wenner
tYl)e 4electrode arrangement. )
Because of the anisotropic behavior alluded to earlier, certain
care is needed in the analysis of the data. Strictly, for the survey of an area
including the desired propagation path, one should make measurements over
lines in several directions to ascertain horizontal anisotropy. The results
are considered tentative because they are based on measurements along one
direction. Even in such case, it is necessary to select data for analysis.
By a simple t.echniuqe of "contouring" the values of apparent conductivity,
Geoscience, Inc., was able to deduce the appropriate values for further
ana,.lysis.
For the spacings so selected,. ~ h e resistivity of the upper layer
was estimated from values for small spacings as 100 to 150 meterohms,
i. e., conductivity OJ. of 7 to 10 millimhos/meter for the overburden. Com
paring the graph of apparent resistivity vs electrode separation with master
On the other hand, if <::h is assumed
1
ft. and oz is then 1. 7 x 10
4
mhos/m.
curves for a twolayer model, the graph agreed fairly well with master
curves; with cr. the conductivity of the rock, the conductivity contrast (J2
2 . ~
I 2
= 39' If 01 is assumed to be 10 mhos/m, then d works out to be 500 ft.
4
and crz is about 2.6 x 10 mhos lm.
3
as 6.7 x 10 ,then d works out to be 700
From seismic soundings the upper layer thickness is more nearly the former
2
value and one deduces <r: to be 10 and
1
4
a: to be 2.6 x 10 mhos/m.
2
The marked distortion of the apparent conductivity "contours"
noted near the Brewster Dump drill hole corroborates qualitatively the vari
ability in earthrock structure as a possible cause for distortion in surface
V13
field pattern measurements at various ranges from the hole when being used
as the location of a transmitting antenna (see Section VI). The overburden
was sand, clay, and gravel. Small scale measurements to obtain a good
estimate of overburden conductivity are apt to be quite variable. Some of the
variability noted near the drill holes may be due to the casing pipe itself.
Following the ideas of Wait and Conda85 regarding anisotropy,
the values ofa deduced above are those for an assumed homogeneous over=
burden and rock layers, i. e., 0<' was assumed unity. The resulting value of
(5"". should be corrected to its' geometric mean value a= ifo<:"were known.
Measurements should be made along other directions and better
estimates of upper laye,r (overburden) conductivity are needed to obtain more
final values of soil and rock constants.
In place of the long electric dipoles, loops placed parallel to
and on the ground may be used, as discussed in the last Subsection.
D. TransmissionLine Type Measurements
Sections of parallel wire or coaxial transmission lines may ' ? ~ . used
for certain types of measurements of the electrical properties of dissipative
media. When such lines are electrically short, they may be considered as
parallel wire or coaxial "condenser s. "
An example of the use of parallel wire lines is that reported by
Kirkscether
S5
for measuring the electrically properties of the ground. Iizuka
and King49 used a coaxial line filled with a dissipative liquid and measured
the properties of that liquid by slotted line and impedance techniques at VHF.
V14
A coaxial condenser was also used. (M'easurernents of the properties of
linear radiators immersed in such liquids were being studied and a knowledge
of the constants of the liquid was required.). Von Hippel
14
has described
such techniques. Concentric cylinder cells are available commercially for
measurements on liquids such as the various two and threeterminal cells
of Balsbaugh Company (Braintree, Mass.).
The measurements using short transmission lines are principally
affected by the constants of the medium between the wires or cylinders when
the spacing is close. Thus, 55 inserted parallel rods into the
ground 'to measure the properties of the ground. In principle, insertion of
lines into a rock sample could be employed but the sample would have to be
large foJ:' measurements at LF. The method is suitable for InJ asurement of
drill hole or well water and is described.
As an example of transmissionline methods, a short section of a
nominal 300ohm parallelwire line was immersed in water in a hole used at
Goffstown, N. H. The line was connected through a section of RG2Z/U two
conductor shielded line to impedance measuring apparatus., The feedline and
parallel wire test line characteristics in air were first measured. by open
anashortcircuit impedance measurements on each line. Because the lines
are "balanced" to ground and the bridge employed (916A and 916AL). was not,
threeterminal measurements were employed throughout. The parallelwire
line was 70 feet long and the RG 22/U feeder was 40 feet long. Well water
characteristics were measured from 100 kc to 10 mc.
V15
The method and analysis is based on extension of relations given
in several texts and we used those given in King
6
(Chapter II). The charac
teristic impedance Zc for a uniform line is given by
(V. 1)
where
Z ::: series impedance per unit length of line
:::
r + j x =. r + J eu..L
y ::: shunt admittance per unit length of line
= g+jb=g+j eve
with
(V.2)
r = series resistance per unit length of line
~ = series inductance per unit length of line
g ::: shunt conductance per unit length of line
c = shunt capacitance per unit length of line
If the input impedance ZSG be measured wnen the output of the line is short
circuited, and the input impedance ZOC be .that when the output i.s open
circuited, then
(V.3)
Let us form the ratios
p
r
:::
c;;:::E
::: L
4.lC
(V.4)
The quantity is the reciprocal of the series Q of the line and p is the loss
tangent of the medium surrounding and in between the conductors, assumed
homogeneous. From the definition's of g and c for conductors in a medium,
for the parallelwire line
p = L =
4Ic
w G
o r
= (V. 5)
where CT' and are the conduc tivity (mhos 1m) and relative dielectric con
r
stant (dimensionless) of the medium. The quantity t. ,';; 10
9
/36;r farads/m
o
'and ::t is the free space wavelength (meters), in equation (V. 5). We desire
o ,
to obtain p and " from which () can be determined by use of equation (V. 5).
, r ,
Forming the square of equation (V. 1) and using equations (V.2) and
(v. 4),. one obtains,
.[1 1 J
J ,tan p  tan '1
e
2
and the square of equation (V. 3) gives value of Zc from measured values of
The parallel line is measured in air. Let this value be Z ; it is
o
found for a well constructed line with very low loss "spreaders" that is
negative. In air, this means that p; for simplicity we assume for the
line in air p O. Hence, denoting by "'0 the value of "'7 so determined in air,
V17
(V.7)
For example, one measurement of the line in air, at 8 mC,gave
170 = tan 1. 3
0
= . 0 23
It is assumed that the medium does not change the value of rand.L
from its value in ail' (a Inajor effect would be to change e if the relative mag
netic permeability ?r greatly exceeded unity). The value of rz for the line
in the medium is therefore assumed to be its value in air, whence 1
2
",< 1.
The line is inserted into the well water, connected to the RG22/U
feeder whose vailles of Zc and propagation constant were previously measured.
The input impedance of the RG22/U so was measured when the
parallel wire line was open circuited and then short circuited. These imped
ances, when inserted into a Smith Chart calculator with known feedline charac
. teristics, gave values of the open and shortcircuited impedances Zoe and
Zse of the immersed test line.
The values of Zse and ZOC' inserted into equation (V. 3),gave values
of Zc for which O. This means that p '7 . It turned out that approxi
mate values 0, p were so large that the assumptions >; and P"p I
. 2
appeared justified. With these assumptions, plus f I, equation (V. 6)
becomes
v 18
=
j 2 II
c
.
e

c
1
j tan p
e (V. 8)
whence
(V.9)
and thus
2\ tV
Zc =
cos (2 f/J )
c
(v. 10)
Thus, from measured values of Z , Iz I and f/J , values of p and E. are
o C c r
obtained from equations (V. 9) and (V. 10), and accordingly, cs from equation
(V.5).
Measured values of IzcI and f/J c were plotted as a function of fre
quency and smoothed curves drawn through the points. From "smoothed"
values of Izel and f/J so obtained, t, p, and \J were computed and are
c r
shown plotted on the curves of Figure V. 3.
The results and trends agree reasonably well with some water sam
pIe measurements made in the laboratory using a short coaxial condenser
and a parallel plate capacitor. Measurements with the latter showed slightly
lower values at lower frequencies. Polarization at the electrodes at low fre
quencies affects the apparent values measured and depends upon electrode size
and shape.
The conductivity of the well water would approximate that of well
fractured granite around the hole. This assumes that a "dried" sample of
5 /
the rock would show a conductivity 10 mhos m or less and that the well
V19
2
.....
81 '..I: I 1
,.,
I 180 0 :::Mf
:J:
2
If)
I
Q
b
61
"""
I I
1
60

0
z
Q.
41 1
......
...... I I 1 1 140
<
I
N
0
14i\
I I I I I 1
140
(GOFFSTOWN, N. H.)
JUNE 1961
12
1 '\ I I
I
I I 1
120
Er = RELATIVE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT
0" = CONDUCTIVITY
10 I
...
I
p = LOSS TANGENT
1 I <
2 I I I I ................. I I 120
o I ! I I ! I 10
0.1 0.3 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.5 10
FREQUENCY MC
Figure V. 3. characteristiCS of drill hole water (Goffstown, N. H. )
June, 1961. Parallel wire transmission line method.
...
water is characteristic of the water in the pores and cracks of the well
fractured granitic rock.
E. Impedan,ee Measurements of Samples by RF Bridges and QMeter
l. Water Samples
Bridge measurements of the impedance of the well water from
holes in New Hampshire were made using cells that were either a coaxial
condenser or of the parallel plate variety. Results agreed with values using
,a section of parallel wire line (Subsection VD) except at the lowest frequencies,
presumably due to differing "poiarization film" effects.
However, we have had less success in such sample measure
ments on water from drill holes at Harwich and Brewster on Cape Cod. Chemi
cal analysis reveals salinity of 35 ppm for one sample of Harwich drill hole
water. The water is quite murky in appearance and gives evidence of some
magnetic material, perhaps rust or ion chips from casings. Samples passed
through filters showed reasonable values of S. and 0 at high frequencies.
A new coaxial condenser was built but. not in time for tests.
2. Rock Samples  Frequency Dependence
Measurements of rock samples were made using a Boonton Type
160A Qmeter for frequencies exceeding 50 kc and a General Radio Type 1650A
bridge for lower frequencies.
To approximate in situ conditions, some of the samples were
soaked in tap water foX' a week prior to measurements. (It is appreciated
that such "soaking" does not always force water into the pore spaces.) The
V21
resulting data from Qmeter measurements are not considered reliable be
cause of the low value of Q. The data are presented nevertheless, giving E. ,
r
cr and loss tangen.t p as a function of frequency.
The measurements were an attempt to ascertain the possible
frequency dependence of the electrical properties of watersoaked sarnples.,
The results are shown plotted on the composite curves of Figure V. 4, for rela
tive dielectric constant ( t ), loss tangent (p) and conductivity (0) for the
r
following four example s
Harwich rock sample (slate)  solid curve
Brewster rock sample (granite)  long dashes
Concord rock sample (granite)  short dashes
Weston rock sample (granite)  dash dots
The frequency dep.endence of 0 may be ascertained from log
log plots of the data on the curves of Figure V.5. It appears for these sam
pIes so treated that when frequency is low" where los s tangent is high, that
c::r is relatively independent of frequency. At higher frequencies, where the
loss tangent is low, it appears that IS" may vary proportional to frequency with
an exponent between 0.5 and 1. O. approximately.
The remarks are apropos values of a deduced for rock samples
from surface resistivity .measurements at d. c. or fractional cps frequencies.
One should not draw the conclusion from the data that <::> in the
whole Harwich drill hole area is less tha.n that for the whole Brewster drill
hole areas. The data are for random sample,s only. An example of variability
of <5"" with depth is discussed below.
V 27
1000
Q METER
10 100
FREQUENCY (KC/S)
I
I I I 111
I I I I I I II


__
::
 .
1',
...
:::::.:
"'::."
r

.:::::: .:::::: 
=
f\
\"0
f \ '

''0,
V
r
 .... /' 

 
I I I I I I I I I I I
,
I i I II II
o
I
0
2
Q.
...
Z
I&J
CI
z
If)
If)
0
..J
50
b
80 1650A BR lOGE
..
1lI 20
40
60
200
o
a:
I&J
150
::!:
"
o
::t:
::!:
CD
1
0
100
Figure V. 4. Frequency dependence of electrical properties of rock
V23
1650A BRIDGE t Q  METER ,
I 000
100
a:
UJ
t
UJ
:E
"
o
::t:
:E
(I)
I
o
b
,/'
/" "
,/'"./
,,//
,,/ ,/_
/
"
J0 f=....=h...;..<=++t
HARWI.CH (SLATE)
BREWSTER(GRANIW
 CONCORD (GRANITE)
  ... WESTON (GRANITE)
10 50 100 1000
V24
FREQUENCY (KC/S)
Figure V. 5. Frequency dependence of conductivity (0:)
for watersoaked rock samples
3. Drill Hole Core Samples  Conductivity vs Depth
An example of the variability with depth is that obtained from
core samples of the Tubman Road (Cape Cod) drill hole. The cores were
measured within a few hours after extraction and care was taken in the handling
and t:ceatment of the cores. Because depths were modest, the measurements
are believed to represent in situ values at extremely low frequencies (1 to
10 cps).
science,
The measurements were made by Cantwell and tabulated by Geo
94
Inc. The results are shown plotted in the semilog plot of Figure
V.6 with identifications of the rock being those tabulated in the report of
Geoscience, Inc. An "unweighted average" conductivity of the core samples
. 4
is about 1. 5 x 10 mhos/m. This is in fair agreement with the surface
4
resistivity value of 2.6 x 10 mhos/m based on the useful data at points a
few thousand feet to the west towards the Brewster Dump drill hole site.
Noted on Figure V.6 are the overburden depths of 310 feet based
on seismic sounding data of the Weston Geophysical Engineers, Inc. 97 in an
easterly direction from the Tubman site and from contour values 1000 ft. to the
east of that site. Also noted is the estimate of lower boundary of overburden
(395 ft.) and casing depth (410 ft.) from drill log information.
F. Attenuation vs Depth into Rock Media
1. Method and Variation
The depth attenuation method is that of measuring the decay of
the field in. the rock media of interest between a separated transmitter and
receiver as a function of. the vertical distance of travel within the rock. One
V25
300
400
500
w 600
u
<t
ll.
a:
::>
VI
l
ll.
:I:
~ 800
w
o
900
1000
+.1. 1 I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I
I. I I I I I I I
OVERBURDEN BOUNDARY
1000 FT TO THE EAST
(SEISMIC)
/ OVERBURDEN AT HOLE
......... (DRILL LOGS)
.,
"
BOTTOM OF

CAS I NG ,
"' "

~
t:;

I

/
I
COAR SE.GRA INED
r
GRANITE 
I
f

I ~
 ' ~
' ...
......
,
,
......
t ............
GREEN

,
...... AL7RATION
' ....
c;>
t   ~
T
t. FINEGRAINED

GRANITE
( ' ~ ~
J
.....
r 
I I I I I I I I I I I f I I I I I I I I I I I I
V26
5
10
Figure V. 6.
I
'.
4
10
(T (MHO/METER)
Conductivity of core samples vs depth 
Tubman Road drill hole (Cantwell)
variant of the method for use in vertical drill holes is shown in some detail
in Figure V. 7. In this case both transmitting and receiving antennas are
located within the rock medium below a highly conducting overburden. The
decay of the axial electric field between an electric dipole source at A and a
receiving probe at B is a function of the axial antenna separation distance R.
The distance R is varied by changing the relative depths of antennas at A and
B.
Variations of the method from that shown in Figure V.7 can be
employed. These include:
interchanging the positions of the source at A and
receiving probe at B;
locating a highpower source at A and, at the surface in
air, measuring the field which penetrates the 0verburd.en
as the depth of the source is varied. (In practice the
transmitting dipole is fed from a highpower transmitter
on the surface; the effect of the feeder must be taken
into account, );
locating a variable dept9 'receiving probe at A and meas
uring the field at A due to attenuation of known source
fields on the surface. (The fields on the surface may
be ground wave fields due to remote transmitters or
atmosphere noise sources. For ready analysis, it must
be known that the field arriving at A is due to such ground
wave fields as attenuated only by the overburden nearby. );
using dipoles other than vertical electric types. (Horizontal
electric dipoles are impractical here principally because
of the small diameters of drill holes, usually 3 to 7 inches.
Small loops might be used but we do not have correspond
ing experimental data to cite at this writing. ).
V27
COAXIAL
FEEDER
IOVERBURDENI
1_4' TO RECEIVER
(FIELD INTENSITY
METER)
CASING
PIPE
NEOPRENE JACKET
REMOVEO
II GROUNDING
CAGE"
INSULATED
ANTENNA
I
\ROCKI
:0
SHORT CI RCU IT
ELECTRODE
I
I
I
I
D R ~ L L
I
HOLE
I
R
I
I
I
I
INSULATED,SHORT
I CIRCUITED DIPOLE __
ENCAPSULATED ANTENNA
TRANSMITTER
Figure V. 7. A depth attenuation method for obtaining electrical constants
rock m.edia. Transmitter at A separated a distance R fran
a receiving dipole at B, with R varied. The receivel' is at
on surface.
V28
2. Theory
Development. of appropriate field expressions for the depth atten
uation' method depends upon the arrangement of antennas being used. For the
particular arrangement in Figure V. 7 wherein a thin vertical electric dipole
source is used (shown at A), it is desired to calculate the electric field as a
function of distance along the axis of the dipole. Consider first that the di
pole source is located at the origin of a rectangular coordinate (x, y. z) system:
and is situated in a homogeneous, dissipative, nonmagnetic medium of in,
finite extent. The centerdriven dipole lies along the vertical zaxis and
carries a current which is constant along its length at the input value IT(O).
The finite dipole length is 2h
T
and is assumed physically and electrically
short. i. e . (hi) ~ < I .andJ.kh
T
I
2
I. Along the zaxis (x = y = 0). the
electric field has only a z component. At a point where z= R. the complex
amplitude of this field may be written
5
as
j kR
e 
(V. 11)
"A/t
and the usual time dependence e
J
is assumed. In the above k is the com
plex phase constant of the medium given
(V. 12)
in which ,,is and 0< are the real phase and attenuation constants, respectively,
and p is the loss tangent (p =(S"/CUe). The constants are discussed in
Section II.
V29
To measure the field given by equation (V. 11) an electnc re
ceiving dipole may be introduced at the point P (O, 0, R) lying along the zaxis.
Its halflength h
R
is assumed such that( ~ ) 2<.< 1 and Ikh
R
I
2
<.< 1. The
opencircuit voltage V
R
induced in receiving dipole will depend upon the
o .
integrated value o ~ equation (V. 11) along its length. It is also assumed that
the receiver antenna current is the same at all points along that antenna.
With the aforementioned assumptions regarding the receiver antenna and for
distances R such that \kRI
2
>"7 1, the voltage V
R
will be proportional to the
o
r.eceiving dipole length (2h
R
) and to the field E
z
(0, O,R) given by equation
(V. 11). We are principally interested in the distance dependence of V
R
Squaring the magnitude of equation (V. 11) one obtains
(V. 13)
where L is the magnitude 11 j _1_\ which is then close to unity.
kR
The real
quantity M is a constant for given dipole lengths, frequency, electrical con
stants of the dissipative medium, and current IT(O). M does not depend upon
distance if IT(O) remains constant with R. For a homogeneous dissipative
medium and for a given. transmitter power, IT(O) is not seriously affected
by the presence (mutual impedance) 01 thereceiver antenna probe when
I k R I ~ ~ 1.
Referring again to Figure V. 7, in,sulated dipoles are located in
the semiinfiI?ite dissipative medium being measured (rock) below a highly
conducting overburden. The effect of the latter on the impedance of the finite
V 30
short dipole source has not been solved precisely for the model shown. It
is expected that the effect will be negligible when I' k RI
2
1. This is be
cause the amplitude of the axial fields will vary at least by 8.7 db per skin
depth, or 55 db per wavelength in large loss tangent media (rock). For a
receiver antenna located in the rock just below the rockoverburden boundary,
variation in receiver voltage V
Ro
with separation distance R should then fol
low that indicated in equation (V. 13). The method so far, then, involves a
measurement of the magnitude of the ,mutual impedance between transmitting
and receiving dipoles, and in particular the measured variation of such imped
ance with distance R.
...
The values of VR across the load impedance of the receiver
antenna will be proportional to V
R
For a given configuration, V
R
is read
o .
as R varies and a relative field decay curve is obtained. Using decibel nota
tion,we may rearrange the relation of VRand R and write
c VR(dbuv) + 40 log 10 R(ft)
2
= M'  8.690<: R + 10gIO L
(V. l4a)
(V.14b)
In equation (V.. 14), VR(dbuv) is the receiver load voltage expressed in db
relative to 1 microvolt, R(ft) is the separation distance R in feet and M' is a
new constant which includes the change in units. Observed values of Care
plotted vs R on a linear scale; the linear portion of the curve observed at
larger values of R has a slope which yields the attenuation constant cX"'(as
written in equation (V. 14b) the quantity 0< R is in nepers).
V31
3. E x a m p l ~ of Measurements and Res'Ilts
a. Location
Depth attenuation measurements have been made in various
drill holes i.n New Hampshire and Cape Cod using several antenna arrange
ments. A typical measlirement was that made in a 1000 foot drill hole at
the Town Dump site in Brewster, Massachusetts, using the antmna configura
tion of Figure V.7. The cast iron casing pipe, about 7 5/8" in diameter, ex
tends downwards 464 feet through the overburden and into the rock where it
was sealed. The drill hole diameter in the rock was about 6". Overburden
thickness was 433 feet deduced from well log data. The rock below was
fJ;actured granite and water filled the hole to within 20 feet of the surface.
b. Equipment
The antennas employed were linear insulated wire types.
The transmitting dipole was made of #12 vinyl insulated wire 25 feet long for
each halflength. The output ends of the dipole were "shortcircuited" by
axially arranged pieces of #12 bare wire, each about 25 feet long. The phase
constant of the current distribution for the insulated antenna is small com
pared with that of the surrounding medium and it turns out that the condition
2
\k hTI 1 is well satisfied. The data analysis indicates that useful separa
tion distances R should exceed 250' feet so that the condition (h
T
1R)2 1 is
then well satisfied. The current distribution for the electrically short, short
circuited, insulated dipole iR constant along its length (resembling a top
loaded vertical whip antenna in air). The actual impedance of the dipole used
V 3l
was not measured in situ but measurements on similar antennas indicated a
low inductive impedance of about 30 to 35 ohms at 150 kc.
The receiving antenna probe was a shortcircuited, insulated
monopole 25 feet long and made of #12 wire covered with polyethylene. (RG
8/u cable stripped of outer conductor and neoprene jacket) The shortcircuited
output electrode was again 25 feet of #12 bare wire. A coaxial cable, about
700 feet of. RG58/U, was used to connect the probe to the receiver on the
surface. The desired large metallic ground plane was not practical. As a
compromise the input electrode was the casing pipe; this was accomplished
via the grounding cage near the monopole input point. The overburden then
acted as the ground plane for the probe antenna immersed in the ro"ck.
Two views of an experimental encaps ulated transmitter':' are
shown in the photographs of Figure V.8.. The assembled device is about 4
feet long and the tube is about 1 1/2" in diameter in order to be accommodated
in the smaller diameter drill holes. It was designed, constructed and tested
at AFCRL Communication Sciences Lab, Transmission Branch. Watertight
end seals were attached with insulated feedthrough connections for the an
tennas. An insulating oil was poured into the tube just prior to use. After
an initial warmup period of about half an hour, antenna current drift was
negligible. Battery life of half a day was typical. Output constancy was
checked by remeasuring received signal levels at the same transmitter depths
during a variable depth run.
':' Earli'er versions suitable for larger diameter drill holes were designed and
used by G. J. Harmon.
V33

. .,..
. tl"'t ' tiMtZh . '. ':" .
. t'.'" .' .
........ .. ' "". ".
l ., ..... 1*. :; " ,
...... \.;;:=====.......i . ,
. . .... '. '. " ; . .
't!lIZ "
::.3L1I E ... = .' .' 
Figure V. 8.
V34
Photographs of experimental encapsulated transmitter. Top
shows complete transmitter plus batteries prior to insertion
into tubular housing. At bottom is the transmitter.
"
The encapsulated transmitter and insulated dipole antenna
were supported by a nylon rope which was calibrated for lTIeasuring trans
mitter depth frOlTI the surface. The receiver coaxial cable was siIT1ilarly
calibrated so that the separation distance R could be determined.
The receiver used was a Stoddard F'ield Intensity Meter,
battery operated, and calibrated several tilTIes during a depth r'un.
Th,e transIT1itter shown in the photograph of Figure V.8 opera
ted at a fundaIT1ental frequency of about 150 kc. Useful signals were detected
at the second harmonic over the full depth range and at the third and fourth
harmonic frequencies for sIT1aller values of R.
c. Data, Analysis and Results
The first lTIeasureIT1ents cited were those IT1ade at 155 kc in
the Brewster hole. The receiver probe input point was maintained at a con
stant depth a few feet below the bottolTI of the casing. The depth of the encap
sulated transIT1itter wasvaried and values of receiver voltage V
R
observed as
a function of transIT1itter depth. Constancy of transIT1itter power output was
checked by reIT1easuring V
R
at several depths during a run,
Values of the quantity [VR (dbuv) + 40 log R(ft)] in equation
(V. 14a) were determined and are indicated by the circled points plotted in
Figure V.9. The curve labeled C, the sum of a linear and an exponential
distance dependence, was fitted to all the data. Interest is confined to the
linear portion where the slope (6.67 db/lOa ft) gives the observed attenua
tion constant OS.
V35
160rrrr.....
BREWSTER. MASS. 15!S KC
o EXFiERIMENTAL VALUE OF C
APPROXIMATION C
I
NORMALIZED
AT R=400 FT. AND BASED UPON
,(1= 6.67 DB/100FT.
E
r
=9
tT= 1.11 X 10
3
mho/m
p =14.4
...
,
120f+f_t::!l"ic1
FOR LEAST SQUARES FITTED CURVE C:
G R
C= 0o+OrR +210 :5 (R IN FT)
GO =146.6
ell =6.67 X 10
2
02 =60.34
140 ... 03 =8.41 X10
3
+1
... ,
... ,
SLOPE
6.6708/100' "
"",
...
... ,
III
o
o
I/O L..::
10
'=0,........=2.l:0=0::3,!0=04l00J
R(FT)
Figure V. 9. Typical plot of C vs R. C =40 log R(ft) + VR
(dbuv). Brewster, Mass. site. 155 kc.
V36
,
Using the relations of Section II, the attenuation constant is
given by
0(::
;g Je
r
g(p)
(neper s /meter) (V. 15)
where
[
1/ J
(l+p2) 2_
1
g(p):: 2 .
(v. 16)
Let 0(1 be the observed attenuation constant in db/ 100 ft. Using equation
(v. 15)
0(1
3
:: 5.544 x 10 f
kc
Jf: g(p), (db/lOa ft) (v. 17)
where f
kc
is the frequency of observation in kc. Rather than calculate and
plot families of curves of, say, 0<1 vs cr with as a parameter for a
l'
given f
kc
' it is useful to plot implied or interconnected values of C) vs
l'
for a given f
kc
and observed 0<'1' Using equation (V.. 16) in equation (V. 17),
the interconnecting relationship between 0 and
give the observed 0) becomes
t: which must combine to
l'
where
(mhos/m) (V. 18)'
A ::
vE: g(p) ::
2
1. 804 x 10

f
kc
0<
1
(V. 19)
B :: e . u ~ A:: 2.004 x 10
5
ot:
o 1
(V. 20)
and where ~ is in db/ 100 ft.
The value of C::O<l is 6.67 db/ 100 feet in Figure V.9 at 155 kc.
The interconnecting values of cr and are shown plotted in Figure V. 10
l'
V37
I I I I

BREWSTER, MASS. 155KC
0(, =6.67 DB/100FT
' ~
~
~ [ B
~
"
"
"
(T

k
TYPICAl I
I RANGE I
I OF E
r
I
I I
I
I
I
.
I
I
I
I
I
I
100
50
30
Q.
I
Z
l.LI
C)
10
z
~
C/)
C/)
0
J
5
0
z
.
E 3
"'
0
.s::.
E
III
0
b
1.0
.5
.3
0.1
I 2 3 5 10
E
r
20 30 50 100 200
V38
Figure V. 10. Dependenct:: of conductivity (0 ) and loss tangent (p) with
assumed relative dielectric constant (e: ) for observed at
tenuation constant (a:i) of rock. Brewster, Mass., site,
155 kc.
on the curve labeled 1'0 ". The consequent values of loss tangent calculated
from the paired values of cr and are also shown plotted on the curve labeled
r
p in Figure V. 10. Note that the 0 curve is not to be interpreted as a depend
ence of <J on . for the rock; the curve is that of paired values of <:r and
r
c. which give the observed value of 0<".
r 1
Referring to Figure V. 10, the curve of C} is relatively flat
over a wide range of values of . From other measurements typical values
r
of , may vary from 7 to 15; over this range, cr increases from L 10 to
r
1. 16 millimhos/m and p is large and decreasing from 18.2 to 9. respectively.
Thus, cr is well determined from 0<1'
Returning to Figure V.9, the curve labeled C
l
is a calculated
.#rst approximation from the data obtained from equation (V. l4b).
::: 6.67 db/lOO ft and a typical value of
For 0<
1
::: 9, then <J::: 1. 11 x 10
3
mhos/m
r
and p::: 14.4. To evaluate k needed in the evaluation of L
2
the quantity
~ l  j p ::: 2.773  j 2.587 as determined from tabular value's of f(p} and g(p)
mentioned in Appendix A. The effect of the constant M' in equation (V. 14) is
included by normalizing the calculated values to the value at R = 400 feet on
the smoothed data curve C. The agreement between observed (C) and calcu
lated (C 1) values is very good for values of R exceeding 300 feet. For
R ::: 300 ft. \ k R\ Z ::: 11. 4.
A second set of data to be cited is that taken from measure
ments in the drill hole on Tubman Road in Brewster, a.t 314 kc. The dimen
sions of this hole are given in Section III. The resulting data, sim.ilar to the
V39
Taking
plots in Figure V. 9, are shuwn plotted as circled points in FIgure V. 11. The
first approximate value of 0<: \\ as estimated in this case by drawing a straight
1
line through the points, giving 0<"1 = 4.03 db/ 100 feet. The interconnected
values of cr and for this value are shown in the curve of Figure V. 12
l'
labeled "0" for the value "\; the corresponding value of loss tangent is shown
in the curve labeled " p " for the value of 0<1' Note that here the values of p
are smaller than those in Figure V. 10 so that 0(1 is not completely dependent
upon 0. For assumed typical val\:les of such that 7 ~ E. ~ 16, the values
l' l'
4 4 >
of c::r must lie in the range 2.6 x 10 ~ C) So 3. 5 x 10 and 2. 14  p Z 1. 24.
4
6 =9 as a typical value, C) = 2.82 x 10 and p = L 795 for the ob
l'
served first approximate value ~ = 4.03 db/ 100 feet. Then the curve C 1 in
Figure V. 11 was calculated, normalized to the observed curve at R = 500 feet.
The curve C 1 departs from the first approximation curve through the data.
Noting the departure at R =300 feet was 0.75 .db, i. e., the slope of C
l
from
R = 300 to 500 was too great by 0.75/2 =.38 db/ 100 ft, the second app:roxi
mate value 0< was determined to be 0< =
2 2
c<  0.38 = 3.67 db/lOO ft. The
1
process was repeated in Figure v. 12 with the curves labeled 0<"2; with
Go
l'
4 __
= 9, . ~ . = 2.69 x 10 ,p = L 713 for the estimated",",
2
These data yielded
the curve labeled C
2
in Figure V. II, normalized to the o'bserved value at
R = 500 feet. The c u r v ~ C
2
is a much better fit to the data points, particularly
for R larger than 250 feet. Accordingly, for the Tubman hole at 314 kc, one
has for an assumed range of
V 40
e such that 7 ~ ~ 16
r r
130 iii i I I r I I I I I I I I I I Iii
Cr ICr :9, (J: 3.05 x10
4
)
>
~
"
CfJ
a

a::
>
120
+

~ 
1.1...
,
a:
Cl
0
...J
0
<t
II
U
cc, :4.03
DB/100FT
!
C
2
lf
r
:9, 0: 2.69x 10
4
MHO/M ,lIC
2
: 3.67 DB/100FT)
FREQ.= 314KC/S
TUBMAN SITE
500 400 300 200
I I I I I I I I I
I I , I , J I
110' I I I .
100
R ( FT)
Figure V. 11. Typical plot of C vs R. C == 40 log R(ft) + VR
(dbuv). Tubman Road site, 314 kc.
<:
I
H:>
.....
~
l
I
I, I I I I
I I I I I 1_
....

f oCI =4.03DB/100 FT

I
"'2= 3.67D8/100 FT

1.

f =314. KC/S
TUBMAN SITE
8
F 

RESULTING
J "
RANGE OF P

I
2 .....

I

l
. ' ..

"".....
...
I

]
,..
RANGE OF a
:
1 ,..
I
: ASSUMED I

RANGE OFcr I
I..
I
I
I I I i I I 1 I I I , I I
10
3
a.
o
z
ct 1.0
2:
......
o
:r
2:
:::: .5
2:
z
b .3
0.1
I 3 5 10 30 150 100
Figure V. 12. Dependence of conductivity (0 ) and loss tangent (p.) with
assumed relative dielectric constant (e: ) for observed at
tenuation constant (0: 1) of rock. Tubrnln Road site, 314 kc.
V42
4
2.5 x 10 S (J
4. Discussion of Results
3.3 x 10
4
The depth attenuation method yields values of the attenuation
constant (0<:') by a measurement of the decay of received signal as the receiver
transmitter antenna separation (R) is increased. Analysis is simplified if
IkRI > 1 for the scheme illustrated in which both antennas were colinear in
. .
sulated elements (physically and electrically short) and both immersed with
in the rock being measured. In such case the axial electric field amplitude
o('R
varies inversely with the square of the distance R and exponentially as e
When the loss tangent (p) is large compared with unity, the
observed value of yields a reasonably welldefined value of () . . When p
is small, 0(' on the ratio (J / I?:"": It is suggested that (5 may be
"r' r
obtained from a knowledge of c<' if cr and G. are independent of frequency.
r
Thus, one obtains an estimate of 0 from <:::iIIC observed at a low frequency where
P is large. A new value of 0<: is observed from measu:rements repeated at a
much higher frequency where p is small. The higher frequency value of 0<:
would then yield . upon substituting the value of C> deduced at the lower
r .
frequency. Homogeneous media are in the analysis.
For the scheme illustrated the simplifying kRI'> 1
limits the lowest frequency for useful observations in holes having limited
penetration depths into the rock. For rock media similar to that for Cape Cod
at the depths investigated, frequencies higher than 50 kc should be employed.
, V43
A complete depth run, using the scheme of Figure V.7 can be
made w.thin one hour, including observations at 20 ft increments in depth and
frequent calibration rechecks.
Measurements have been made using other variations of the
scheme, such as the measurement of the attenuation with depth of the signals
received in the drill hole due to nearby and remote sources. The use of
insulated loop source antennas and receiving probes is under investigation.
G. Estimates from Antenna Impedance Measurements
In principle it was thought feasible to obtain the characteristics of
the surrounding medium from a measurement of the input impedance of an
tennas immersed therein. For bare antennas the agreement of theory with
experimenta.l data using media of known 'electrical constants is good, as dis
aissed in Section IV for model measurements made at VHF. However, the
data we have obtained with bare mon9Poles on full scale measurements at
VLF have not been completely analyzed. The difficulty is that the input imped
ance of the monopole antennas has a comparable component due to the loss in
the ground plane, i. e., the overburden, as discussed in Section IV.
In the case of insulated antennas., the input quarterwave resonant
frequency may be used to estimate the propag,ation constant k
3
of the dissi
pative medium. This is based upon the theory and the curves in Section IV
used for predicting the resonant length (h ) and showing the effect of conduc
t" ,
tivity tr: on the values of that length. However, those curves were based
3
upon the assumption that the loss tangent was large. The modification when
this is not the case is used below.
V4.4
Reviewing the theory for the moment, the complex phase constant k
of the current was developed in Appendix F in terms of the radial dimensions
al (inner conductor) and a
Z
(insulation) and the complex phase constants k
Z
of
the insulation and k
3
of the dissipative medium. Important assumptions are
that a 1 and a
2
are small compared with the wavelength A
3
of the medium and
2 . 2
that Ikl <:.< Ik
3
1. With k= ;8 (lj 0<//1), it was shown for practical
2 2
antennas that 0(" 13' Assuming a lossless insulation, then we may write
(V.21)
(v. 22)
where In 'Y =C =0.5772    =Euler's constant and "Y ;, 1. 7810. Using the
definitions in Section lID and the f(P3) and g(P3) functions of Section IIB and
Appendix A, then one has
and
(V.23)
11 q; (l + P3
2
) 1/
4
/0 V ~ r 3
(V. 24)
in which S3 = Jl  j P3'
Input quarterwave resonance occurs where
). =4h
r
(v. 25)
V45
and when 0("2;32 this condition occurs at a frequency very close to that
for which the input reactance is' zero. Using the latter to determine ) in
r
(V. 26)
equation (V. 25), one may write equation (V. 21) as
(p3
2
l)r = C 1/ f k ~
2
where (P31) r is the value of equation (V. 22) at the observed resonant fre
quency f
kc
(in kc) and C 1 is an antenna constant given by
C. = (3 x: 10
5
_)2
1 4h /
(V. 27)
in which t; is the relative dielectric constant of the insulation and h is the
r2
monopole length (in meter s).
Finally, after substituting equation (V. 24) in equation (V. 26) and
rearranging terms, one has the relation
= C
3
(V. 28)
where C
3
is a constant for a given observed resonant frequency f
kc
and dimen
sions and given by
(V. 29)
In equation (V. 29),
(V. 30).
with a
1
measured in meters.
V46
one has
Rewriting equation (Y. 28)
6
r
3 (l + p ;)l/z = c4 (V.31)
(V. 32)
where (J3 is the conductivity of the medium (in mhos/meter) and where
1
C4 = (In) . (C
3
) (V. 33).
Now C
4
is the constant calculated from the measurements and we
desire to know C and <1:
3
of the medium. It is possible to determine cr::
, . r
3
. 3
if it is known that the loss tangent P3 is large; or it is possible to determine
2
if the loss tangent is sufficiently small so that P3 <<. 1. The analysis is
.r
3
similar to that encountered in the depth attenuation method discussed in Sub
section VF. However, we have found from measurements. yielding resonant
frequencies f
k
in the YLF range that the constant C
4
is such that C Z. (;, 2
. c " 4 r3
for all reasonable values of e whence values of (J result directly from
r3 3
equ.ation (Y. 3Z); the r e l ~ t i v e l y large value of C: is another way of indicating
that P
3
is large.
The results of two sets of data are used for illustration. The first
data were the measurements made in 1961 in. Goffstown, N. H., the site de.
scribed in Section IlIA. The antenna was an insulated monopole of the RG8/U
type so that 6'rz =2. Z5, at =0.0408 in. =1. 036 mm, and In a
Z
/a
l
=1. Z5.
The earlier measurements were concerned with measurements in the MF
range and it was desired to have an antenna quarterwave resonant at 500 kc.
V47
'1
U.sing the predictIon curves of Figure IV. 3 for large loss tangent, it was
estimated that a l.'esonant length of 123 ft. would be required based upon an
estirnated 0:: = 5 x 10
3
mhos/me The.impedance data are plotted in Figure
3
III. 19 and reference to Figure III. 19(a) or Figure III. 19(c) indicates the reso
nant frequency to be 480 kc. Using these data and calculating the various con
stants C l' C
2
, and C 3' the value of C4 worked out to be 48.6. The question
arises as to the value of to be used. Measurements were not performed
r3
on rock samples at Goffstown, but measurements on random samples of rocks
typical of the area and which were watersoaked (Section VEl gave 6 of the
r3
order of 9 to 15 for which 0::, using equation (V. 32), works out to be 1. 3 x
3
3 3
10 and 1. 2 x 10 mhos/m, respectively. These values are much larger
than the conductivities for those "random" samples shown in Figure V.4 but
comparable with the conductivity measured for the water in the drill hole. The
resulting value of ~ 3 will vary markedly from those quoted 1 r3 exceeds
40.
A second series of rneasurements were those made early this year
at Harwich, Mas sachusetts, the site being described in Section IlIA. Again
an insulated antenna o ~ the RG8/U type was desired. It was desired to obtain
quarterwave resonance at 120 kc. Using the prediction curves of Figure IV.4
for large loss tangents, it was estimated that a length of 475 feet would be
required as.suming 03 of approximately 10
3
mhos/me The resulting imped
ance data are plotted on the curves of Figure ~ V . 7 and IV.8. Reference to
the curves for the opencircuit termination indicates quarterwave resonance
V48
.'
occurred very close to 120 kc. The value of C4 works out to be 189.0 which
is very high compared with plausible values of . ,i. e C : ~ " 7 E. 2 in
r3 r
3
equation (V. 32), whence 0:3 = 1.2 x 10
3
mhos/m independent of . . Thus,
r
3
the loss tangent must be large and Figure IV.4 applies. Such curves imply
that accurate knowledge of antenna constants and f
kc
must be had for a modest
accuracy in the estimate of cr: to obtain. An error of + O. 1 kc in the value
3
of resonant frequency near 120 kc and an error of . O. 5 feet in the length of
the antenna near 475 feet means that 0: = 1. 16 + O. 13 mhos/m, approximately.
3 
H. Estimates from Path Transmission Loss Data  (IMile Path,
Cape Cod)
The total system loss equation was developed in ,section II for the
total power loss between parallel linear radiators having the same equatorial
plane. Estimates were given on the power transferred between electrically
short, insulated antenna with shortcircuit termination with a known input
resistanc.e, based on theory of Appendices E and F. The estimated losses
'can be applied to propagation in a rock stratum below a much more conduc
tive overburden, ideally of infinite conductivity.
The curves of Section II for the case of the 6000foot transmission'
path were compared with the measurements made on a similar path length
between the drill hole at the Brewster Dump and that at Tubman Road, de
scribed in Section VL
The measured total system loss, allowing for mismatch losses, is
slightly larger than the theoretical curve for a ~ 10  3 mhos /m, but the
V49
shape of the curve. i. e . mt:asured loss v:: frequency agrees very well with
the theoretical curve for that value. This value is only about 3 to 4 times
larger than that deduced from surface resistivity measurements for the mid
portion of the path for analysis (see Section vel. In view of the distortion in
the profiles of apparent conductivity discussed in Section ve. one concludes
such distortion is due to local irregula.rities, and these were noted near both
drill holes. The effect of large but finite values on conductivity of overburden
have not yet been taken into account in our analysi$, but will be done when
better estimates of overburden conductivity are available. The lower the
overburden conductivity value the more the effect on resulting transmission
loss and hence on the estimate of 0 of the rock medium. The resulting value
is inteTpreted as a gross average conductivity of the rock for the transmission
path for vertical polarization, and for a conductivity contrast which is very
large.
I. Proposed. Methods Using Loops
1. Loops for Surface Resistivity Measurements
About ten years ago, Wait
74
developed expressions for the
electromagnetic fields from an insulated loop located on the boundary (plane)
of two semiinfinite homogeneous dissipative media. In cylindrical coordi
nates \f ' z) at points along the boundary (z = 0) the magnetic field has no
IIcomponent and the electric field has only a We extend the
results where the upper medium, (medium 1) is air and the lower medium
(medium 2) is the ground. At a radial distance f along the ground a second
V50
loop is located, at which the magnetic field zcomponent is H given by
. z
H 
z 
2
21T(Y 
I
(V. 34)
where the transmitting loop (electrically small) has NT turns and area AT'
and carries a c,urrent IT' and A
H
and B
H
are functions to be described. In
equation (V. 34)
Wjl 0 = A e (lj p), (n=1,2)
/n n / u n n
(V. 35)
where n =1 designates the air and n =2 the ground. In equation (V. 35) we
have U and  being the permeability and dielectric constant and " the
Inn Vn
conductivity. of medium n. loss tangent Pn is
]:> =
n
=
(V. 36)
where /; =
'"n
land 6 is the relative dielectric constant of medium
o rn r
n
n, and A is freespace wavelength. In what follows, we aSSUUle non
o
magnetic media (tI = 1)
. / r
. 10
9
/36Tr f/m.
o
so that
7 I
j). = ft. ,u = it! = 4 ".. x 10 h m and
In 10lr /0 .
We assume OJ. (air) =0 = P I' and that the ground has constants at,
the frequency of measurements that lead. to a large loss tangent P2' Then
(V. 37)
V51
In equation (V. 34) the quantity Y ~  Y: becomes  j C</ It, 62 approximately
where 60 oz A.
o
::>:> I which is usually the case of interest. Then equation
(V. 34) can be written /'
(v. 38)
Under the same assumptions, the electric field is in the plane of separation
(z:: 0) and given by
(V. 39)
~ '
The A
H
and B
H
functions for the magnetic field and the A
E
and BE functions
for the electric field are of the form
2 3  x
"H (x
n
) :: (9 + 9 x +4 x + x ) e n
n Ii n
(v. 40)
where
X::Yf
n n
, ,
n:: I, 2 (V.41)
,
At a distance f' ,along the boundary we may place a second loop
whose plane is parallel to the boundary and responsive only to Hz for inducing
an opencircuit voltage V
R
Or we may place an electrically short horizontal
i
wire perpendicular to 'the direction of propagation and responsive to E ~ .
For a secondary consisting of a small loop of area A
a
and turns N
a
,
the opencircuit voltage is V
R
' and
with Hz given by equation (V. 38). The mutual impedance between the loops
is Zm given by
(V.43)
assuming identical loops with N = N, = N and' A = A = A.
T R T R
'In what follows it is assumed that ;c!'f <1. i. e f <. A0 say
. 0 21T
1 4. .
A. = 10 If
k
where f. is the frequency in kc and jO is the distance
r km 30 c kc C km
in kilometers. The evaluation of B (Y f) depends upon the ratio (Il =
H 2 2
12 '1\ ?: and result when this ratio is sman and when it is
L. 2' .
large. Otherwise. it must be calculated using equation (V. 40).
At very short distances compared with the skin depth 't'
2
. where
r = 15.92
2 G./ Cf:" f
., 2 kc OZ
meters (v. 44)
,
and expanding the square brackets out to terms including
that the mutual impedance is
Z ';'O+iX =O+J'''''M
m "m .
4
f'
it can be shown
I
(3
(v. 45)
i. e the impedance is purely inductive where the mutual ind'.'ctance M does
3
depend on 62 and varies as f
V53
At these larger distances, the term B
H
( 'Yf) becomes
2
negligible compared with A
H
('Y1f) because of the lexponential damping in
I
equation (V. 40). Under these conditions, it can be shown that the mutual imped
ance is purely resistive and the mutual resistance R is given by
m
R =
m
9
21T"
(v. 46)
and the conductivity i.s given by
az=
(V.47)
Let IT = 1. 0 amp. We assume a detector capable of determining the open
circuit .voltage V
R
and for illustration assume that the minimum detectable
signal voltage is I microvolt. Then R
m
~ 10
6
ohms. As an illustration,
cpnsider two identical 500turn loops each having a diameter of 3 m ("" 10 ft).
With the assumed limitation on maximum value of R =I megohm, then the
m
detectable. conductivity 'is limited by
mhos/m (v. 48)
and the upper bound on measuring oz varies inversely as the fifth power of
distance.
For these assumptions we may bracket the detecta.ble range
of oz as
V54
6.8 ~ a: (millimhos/m) = 17.9
(f
kc
)5/3 2 (.A )5
, km
(V.49)
or the restriction on the distance may be stated as
o. 10
Jfkc ~
(V. 40)
These expressions are the limits resultIng from the assumptions
of identical loops and distances small compared with the freespace wave
length but large compared with the skindepth of the ground.
The method can be used for measuring the apparent conductivity
a: of a horizontally stratified ground where CJ. above becomes 0:. Tech
a 2 a
niques for obtaining overburden and rock conductivities for a twolayer or
threelayer model were discussed in Section VB.
Loops have the advantage over horizontal dipoles in portability
and freedom from struggles with stringing out horizontal wires through
brambles, brush, ponds and the like. Loop impedances are relatively less
affected by ground electrode resistance compared with horizontal dipoles.
BothToops in the horizontal plane and horizontal electric dipoles will be less
affected by atmospheric noise than loops in the vertical plane or vertical
electric dipoles because atmospheric noise is predominantly vertically polar
ized. Distance limits imposed by signaltonoise ratios require further
study. Actual sizes of loops and number of turns will also be dicta.ted by
. .
circuit considerations of impedance as a load on a transmitter and the receiver
antenna impedance vs its detector impedance.
2. Impedance of a Single Loop in a Dissipative Medium
The impedance of a loop inside an insulating cavity immersed in
V55
a dissipative medium ""'ill depend upon the constants of the medium under
certain conditions. The problem is similar to that encountel'ed in shielded
coils in calculating the effect of the metallic shield can upon the impedance
of the coil in air insulation inside the can. If the coil are small
compared with those of the shield ca.n, the impedance will not be affected
greatly by the presence of the can and will be approximately its value in air.
If the coil dimensions are near those of the shield, the coil impedance will
be influenced markedly the presence of the can and its electrical properties.
Recently, Wait
78
has analyzed the impeda.nce of loop of radius b
inside an insulating spherical cavity of radius a immersed in a homogeneous,
isotropic dissipative medium with electrical constants (J, and1'" Let
l1_z represent the change in the impedance of the coil so immersed from the
(V.4l) 6) ohms
r
impedance Z in air. Since a, then Wait's expressions for a nonmagnetic
o
medium (f= =4iT" x 10
7
'him) may be written
2
Az = I1R + j I1x:!: (c+ jWG
67T" a 0
where S = "IT b
2
is the area of the loop, N the number of turns, and a and b
are given in meters. All other quantities being the same, then. I1z varies
4
as b la. Setting b a, then equation (V. 41) can be expressed as
A # 4 3 f 2 2
uR = 5.349 x 10 (b.) Ncr, ohms
. In mc
(V.42a)
I1x =
!J.R
P
ohms (V. 42b)
V56
in whIch bin is the loop radius in inches, fmc is the frequency in rnc, 0 IS
18 x 10
3
T"
the conductivity in mhos 1m, and p is the loss tangent p =
fmc e
r
If we desire to use Ii Z to determine the constants 0 and .
r
according to equations (V. 41) or (V. 42), the question arises as to the sensi
tivity of the method, i. e. , as to the magnitude of the ratios !1 R/R and !1X/X
o 0
where R
o
+ j X
o
= Zo is the loop impedance in air. In particular, it i.s desired
to determine I1z for an insulated loop immersed in a drill hole into the rock
basement. In such a case, the cavity diameter must be less than the drill
hole diameter, and a typical cavity (or maximum loop) diameter might be 5".
For expected values of CJ, inspection of equation (V. 42a) i n d i ~ a t e s that the
measurement must be accomplished at frequencies in the HF region to give
detectable values of !1R for nominal values of cr. This is illustrated in the
sample calculations below using somewhat idealized a:ssumptions. Limits are
imposed on the minimum or detectable change !1z by the mea.suring technique.
Let us assume that the change !1R I or O. 1 ohm is detectable if R
o
is 20 ohms
or less, but that if R
o
exceeds 20 ohms then the detectable change !1R" =
3
5 x 10 R
o
' An estimate of R
o
may be obtained from the coil reactance
X
o
=tP L and the Q of the coil. For simplicity let us assume that Q is inde
pendent of coil constants and frequency and that the coil inductance L is the
low frequency value L. Further, the coil (spherical) is assumed to occupy
. 0
such a small segment of the sphere that its inductance is close to that for a
thin, singlelayer solenoid. In such case L
o
=F N
2
(2 bin) x 10
6
henry where
F is a function of the ratio of coil diameter to coil length (Nagaoka formula).
V57
For diametertolength ratiOs of 20 to 100, F approaches O. 1 and L :: 2 N
2
o
bin x 10
7
henry. Then
R = CVL
o Q
1. 25 fmc N
2
bin
Q
(V.43)
To further typify the 'Calculations for a loop in a drill hole, let
2b:: 5" and Q = 250. Then if R
o
= 20 ohms,
2
fmc N . = 1600
The conditions on I1R may then be written
(V. 44)
R o ~ 2 0 ohms, f N 2 ~ 1600, ~ R ' = 8.36 x 10
3
f 2 N
2
~ = 0.1
me . mc "'m
(V. 45a)
f 2 N
2
~ = 12.0
mc v
m
R ,. 20 ohms, f N
2
2' 1600, ~ R R " =0.67 f
0 mc o. mC'
(V. 45b)
6: = 5 x 10'.3
m .
(V. 46a)
f
mc
3
~ =7.5 x 10. (V. 46b)
where 6: is the minilnum observable value of the conductivity CS".
m
If the observing frequency is 16 mc, then a 10turn coil will have R =20 ohms
o
according to equations (V.43) and (V. 44). The minimum value ofowhich
could then be measured is 4.7 x 10
4
mhos/meter, according to equations
(V. 45b) or (V. 46b). At this frequency, increasing N does not help in detect
ing lower values of <r because equation (V. 46b) is independent of N. The only
way to detect a lower value of cr would be to use higher frequencies. Under
the assumed limiting conditions for f1R' and f1R" in equations (V. 45) and (V.46),
V58
respectively, it appears that equation (V. 46b) represents the best that can be
done for detecting as Iowa value of (J as possible.
Imposing limiting conditions on Ii. X similar to those for .1R
yields expressions for minimum detectable values of e;" called
r
~
r
m.
Then
Ii. X II
3 Ii. X II Ii.RII R
o
1 .1RII
=
5 x 10 =
7 ) J i J 1 ~ =
X
o
R
X
o
p" 0 R
o 0
1 18 x 10
3
()m
p" = 
=
Q
fmc
e
r
m
(V. 47a)
(V. 47b)
where p" is the maximum allowable loss tangent. With equation (V. 46b) and
Q= 250, then
f 2
me
4
1 ~ 5 Q = 3.375 x 10 (V.. 47c)
To detect (; = 9, then f Z 61. 2.
r me
To summarize sample calculations, let us assume the measuring
frequency to be 64 me, a 5inch diameter coil with 5 turns and Q= 250. Then
R
o
. = 20 ohms and X
o
= 5000 ohms. Suppose the change .1R was such that
U = 10
3
mhos/m, i. e., .11;" =0.86 ohm which should be detectable since
AR" = O. 1 ohm. The loss tangent would then be 0.028/ . If the measured
r
change li.x were such that =9, i. e., if
r
A 3
detectable because uX" =5 x 10 x 5000 =
li.x =27.4 ohms, such a value is
25 ohms.
In practice, our idealized assumptions would be changed if the
measuring apparatus required different detection sensitivities for Ii.R and
Ax from those assumed a.nd if the coil Q differed from 250 at the measuring
V59
frequency. It appears that use of the scheme in drill holes is limited to raeas
urements at HF to obtain values of c:r and to the lower VHF frequencies to
obtain both () and .. In mine shafts or tunnels where much larger diameter
r
coils may be employed, then the measurements may be Inade at much lower
frequencies; this is because the change 8Z is proportional to the cube of
coil radius, in accordance with equation (V. 42).
Somewhat parenthetically, when using coils in drill holes for
other purposes at VLF, the change 8Z should be negligible with
the impedance Zo in air provided, of course, that the insulated coil is im
mersed in a homogeneous medium. If we let k
l
and k
2
be the complex phase
constants of the insulating region within the cavity and of the dissipative region
exterior to the cavity, respectively, then the equivalent dipole moment of the
coil in the cavity is approximately the same as the dipole moment in air,
the cavity radius is so small that Iklal I and Ik2al 1. The cavity
then has little or no effect on external fields. Such conditions are readily
achievable in practice. The power then radiated by the loop, i. e., the power
transferred across the surface of the cavity to be dissipated in the surrounding
d
. 78.
me lum IS
(V.48)
where I is the rms current flowing in the (small) loop and 8R is given by
equation (V. 41) Qr by equation (V. 42a) when b a. Such relations would be
useful when employing loops instead of linear dipoles for transmission experi
inents in deep strata.
V60
.'
3. Loops for Depth Attenuation Methods
For the depth attenuation tnethod described in Section VF, the
lineax' antennas would be replaced by stnall insulated loops. Consider the
transtnitting loop (near or around the encapsulated transmitter) to be arranged
to lie in a horizontal plane at a distance R below a coaxial receiving loop which
is located just below the overburden and connected to the receiver on the sur
face by a balanced, shieldedpair, transmission line. The receiving loop
voltage, i. e., the magnitude of the mutual impedance between the loops, will
be proportional to the axial component of the magnetic field of the transmitting
loop. If IkRI is sufficiently large, the variation of the received voltage with
distance will yield the attenuation constant 0< of the tnedium just like that
when endfire electric dipoles were used. The loops would afford more accu
rate tn.easurement of the separation distance R, and. conceivably could give
greater sensitivity when the induced voltages in the.receiving loop due to ex
ternal noise (atmospheric noise attenuated by the overburden) are smaller .
V61
Section VI. TRANSMISSION PATH TESTS
A. Introductiun
Some earlier transmission tests were performed between antennas
immersed in drill holes at Goffstown, New Hampshire, and Bedford, New
Hampshire. The overburden was so thin (5 to 30 feet) that questions arose
as to whether signals received at LF were transmitted via the direct path in
the rock'or via the upoveranddown mode (Section IB). The preliminary
tests included a phase comparison technique. Initial conclusions were that
a significant component was transmitted through the air. Further tests were
most desirable but efforts were transferred to the Cape God test sites which
were then becoming available.
Attempts were made to transmit signals between antennas immersed
deep in the. three drill holes on Cape Cod, located on the map of Figure III. Z.
The first two holes were drilled at Harwich and at the Brewster Town
Dump (referred hereafter as the Brewster site). Transmission tests between
antennas deep in the two holes (3.8 miles apart) were unsuccessful in that
signals were not detected at Harwich from 100 to 300 watt transmitters
located at Brewster, at any frequency from 1 to 150 kc. Antennas employed
were 475 feet insulated types of the RG8/U variety with open or shortcircuit
terminations. For frequencies below 10 kc, a HewlettPackard 302A wave
analyzer was employed as a receiver, and at higher frequencies a Hammar
lund SP600 VLF receiver was used. The tests were attempted when pre
liminary values of rock conductivity (from samples for each hole) seemed to
VIl
be lower than 10
4
mhos/me Subsequ:mt tes,ts higher values of con
ductivity (Section V). Th'eoretically tile rock conductivity over the
whole path must be,lower than 10
4
mhos/m in order to detect a signal readily,
for the transmitter power and antennas and distances employed (see Section, II,
Figures II. 19 and II. 20).
When the third drill hole at the Tubman Road Site became available, it
was possible to attempt tests on other path lengths. Time did not permit tests
between Tubman and Harwich drill holes. Some preliminary tests were con
ducted with succeS'sful transmissions between antennas in the Brewster and
Tubman drill holes with signals being readily detected at frequencies up to
10 kc. These tests are described below, in Subsection VID.
B. Azimuthal Patterns on the Surface Due to Transmissions from
Antenna in Drill Hole  Surface Field Intensities
I. 150 kc Azimuthal Patterns at Several Ranges
Some abnormal behavior with range and azimuth was observed
in the field intensity measurements of the field in air at the surface due to
signals being transmitted from an antenna immersed in the Brewster drill
hole. It was decided to investigate the phenomena further to ascertain the
extent of anisotropic effects radially and azimuthally in the surface field
intensity.
Measurements were made at 150 kc using the output of the GRN6
. .
beacon transmitter fed through '1000 feet of IG8/U coaxial line to an insula
ted monopole 475 feet long (ltGS/U type) which was terminated in a "short
circuit" consisting of 50 feet of #12 wire. The ground cage was used and the
VI2
monopole input point was just below and within one foot of the end of the casing
pipe 464 feet down. The field intensity meter was a Stoddard NMlOA, bat
tery operated. Antennas in air consisted of the 6" loop or 1 meter whip.
Data was obtained for field intensity receiver voltage as a func
tion of azimuthal bearing about the casing, for each of three radii R ::: SO, 100,
and 200 feet measured from the pipe. Since relative data were desired,. re
ceiver voltages were read in db above 1 microvolt, but were not converted to
field intensities. Receiver voltages were noted when using the loop and also
when using the whip antenna in three positions. The plane of the loop was
vertical and oriented for maximum voltage; the voltage was recorded as was
the orientation of the plane of the loop relative to the vertical plane containing
the hole and observing point. For the 1 meter whip antenna, voltages were
noted when the whip was vertical and when it was horizontal and about 1 foot
above the ground for two orientations, one aimed at the hole (axial or end
fire component) and the other when the whip was transverse to the direction
to the hole (normal or broadside component).
The observations are plotted on polar coordinate paper in
Figures VI. 1 through VI.S. The magnetic bearings were converted to approxi
mate true bearings by assuming the 16
0
W declination indicated on 1940 CGS
maps, plus a compass error. The relative bea:ting plotted is the approximate
true bearing, with the Tubman Road site indicated at a true bearing of 76.5
0
from t ~ e Brewster drill hole.
VI3
220"
140"
330"
30
2/0"
1!l00
350"
10"
TRUE
NORTH
/80"
180
0
/70"
190
0
/flO"
200"
/50"
210
0
40"
320"
/40
220
290"
70
0
80"
280
0
270"
90
270
0 90
0
260"
100
0
Figure VI. 1. Azimuthal variation of maximum vertical loop voltage of field
on surface in air due to vertical radiator deep in drill hole.
Brewster, 150 kc.
VI4
400
320
0
TRUE 400
NORTH
140
220
Figure VL2. Orientation of plane of vertical loop for maximum surface sig
nal vs azimuth due to field from vertical radiator deep in
drill hole. Brewster, 150 kc.
VI5
60"
300
0
120
0
240"
140
220
0
150
0
210
0
160
0
200
0
10
350
0
170"
190
0
0
0
180
0
180
0
190"
170
0
200
0
160
0
210
0
150
0
320"
40
0
250"
110
0
240"
120
0
Z20"
140
0
Figure VI. 3.
VI6
Azimuthal patterns of relative vertical electric field on surface
due to vertical radiator deep in drill hole. Brewster, 150 kc.
320
0
40
0
300
0
60
0
240
0
120
0
230
0
130
0
220
0
140
0
2/0
0
150
0
200
0
160
0
/90
0
170
0
__ j2?00
:::' 90
0
/80
0
180
0
110
0
190
0
160
0
200
0
120
0
240
0
150
0
210
0
/30
230
40
320
0
8
280
0
Figure VI. 4. Azimuthal patterns of horizontal field in air (axial or endfire
components). due to vertical radiator deep in drill hole.
Brewster, 150 kc.
VI7
oOlil
"Olif
ooai
,,003
oOL)
,,061
0091
"Oil
0061
"OLI
0 0 0 ~
,,09;
oOIZ
" O ~ I
001
" O ~
o O C l ~
" O ~ I
.,aSel
"Oil
0001 09el
,,09if
,,001
006 oOLa
oOLil
,,06
oOBa
,,08
006el
"OL
001>
"OilE
oOvl
" 03if
Figure VI. 5. Azimuthal patterns of horizontal field in air (normal or broad
side component) due to vertical radiator deep in drill hole.
Brewster, 150 kc.
VI8
The first two plots refer to the measurements with the loop an
tenna. In Figure VI. I, the maximum loop voltages are plotted as a function
of azimuth for each of the three radial distances. Note that the voltages are
plotted on a decibel scale 0 to 40 db > I microvolt. The patterns show skew
ness and some anomalies. There appears to be a. certain "bulging" to the
south, and a "notching" in the general direction of Tubman. Further at some
azimuths, loop voltages are greater for the larger range.s. The anomalies
are further compounded by reference to the loop orientation plots of Figure
VI. Z which attempts to depict by arrows, on circles of radii proportional to
R, the orientation of the plane of the loop for the maximum voltages observed
and plotted in the previous figure. Note that the plane of the loop for m.aximum
voltage is often at large angles with respect to the vertical plane through the
pipe and hole containing the antenna. The "depolarization" is most severe
in the easterly quadrants but begins to disappear at the larger ranges.
Some but not all of the anomalous pattern and range behavior of
the loop is clarified by reference to the patterns taken with the whip antenna.
Thus Figure VI. 3 depicts the azimuthal patterns for the vertical electric field
voltage as read when the whip antenna was vertical. (Note that the voltage
plotted radially on a db scale runs fromlO to 50 db> 1 microvolt only be
cause the induced voltage was larger for the whip than for the loop.) The
vertical electric field patterns "bulge" to the south and the "notching" towards
the general direction of Tubman appears at the larger ranges. The anomalous
range behavior noted for' the loop voltages is not as severe for the vertical
VI9
whip voltages, although some appears to the northeast arid northwest.
Reference is now made to the next two figul"'es which depict the
relative horizontal electric field patterns. The voltages are plotted on the
same decibel scale as for the relative electric field in the previous figure;
however, the "effective length
ll
of the horizontal whip was not known so inter
comparison of horiz;ontal and electric field intensities cannot be made. The
patterns for the axial component of the relative horizontal field are shown in
Figure VI. 4 and those for the broadside component are shown in Figure VI. 5.
The relative fields in these two cases may be intercompared since the
length, although unknown, remained the same. The axial component is se
verely scalloped in the southeast where there is also a severe range reversal.
Notching occurs in the general direction of Tubman. The normal component
pattern bulges to the southwest and there is severe notching in the pattern at
the lar ',est range.
The relative values of axial and broadsIde components of the
horizontal field (voltages) can be used to explain some of the loop orientation
observations, but only when one is much larger than the other. For most
azimuths, at R =200 ft, the broadside horizontal component is much weaker
than the axial component; for example, at a SE bearing, it is about 25 db
weaker than the horizontal axial component. Hence, the electric field in air
must lie in the vertical through the observer and the casing, and the
plane of the loop should be directed towards the hole, as is seen in Figure
VI. 2. More generally, however, one must know the relative phases as weIi
VIIO
as amphtudes. of all three electric field cOlnponents to make closex correla
tion with loop bearings. The phenomena is like that encountered for loop
bearing errors at HF due to ionospheric reflections and rotation of the plane
of polarization, the socalled "night effect. "
z. Measurements of Vertical Electric Field on the Surface
at ELF and. VLF Close to Brewster Hole
When it was realized that path propagation. tests must be con
ducted at frequencies in the ELF rather than in the VLF spectrum, further
measurements of s'urface field. intensities at VLF ceased and efforts were
concentrated on obtaining ELF data. On the day (6/20/62) and just prior to
the first successful path transmissions to be described,. surface field inten
sities were measured at various ranges from the Brewster drill hole, at
0.5 to 50 kc.
For such frequencies, the only receiver available was a Hewlett
Packard 302A wave analyzer (see Section lIID). The device has an input
impedance of about 100,000 ohms, and'the most sensitive scale is 30 micro
volts fullscale on which we could detect a reading of 1/4 microvolt on the
meter. The bandwidth was about 6 cps.
A 6foot whip (used with the Stoddard NM10A) was used as a
vertical antenna, and a short coaxial cable was used to connect the antmna
with its coaxial fitting to the terminals of the analyzer. The ground terminal
was connected to a 3' ground stake for all readings.
Realizing some of the azimuthal and range anomalies observed
in the vertical field at 150 kc might occur at lower frequencies, a radial run
VIIi
along the same bearing wa.:; made, the voltages vs frequency at each of several
ranges beIng observed. The chosen was roughly of the dri1:l hole,
and several ranges 27' to 750 I were chosen across the rather ratinhabited
dump. At the extreme range of 750' the azimuth was changed to ENE, approxi
mately the direction of the Tubman site, in order to observe any' azimuthal
anomaly at such range.
The resulting wave :tnalyzer voltages are shown plotted in
Figure 6. The solid curves pertain to the NE radial and the dashed one
the ENE radial towards Tubman. The transmitting antenna was the 475' in
. sulate.dmonopole with. shortcircuit termination used before, but the trans
mitter was the high power audio amplifier. The line current was maintained
.as close to 1 ampere and observed voltages we:r'e normalized to'
this Except for possibly small feeder attenuation at these frequenci'es,
the line current is close to the monopole input current.
The values of receiver voltage denoted by VR and in
Figure VI. 6 show two important effects which were evaluated more closely
later. F'il:st, there was distinct range anomaly in that values of V
R
at 100'
were lower than those at 210' and 300'. values of VR showed an
optimum at about 15 kc. By repeated measurements, the range anomaly at
100' could not be reproduced in measurements at a later date, and discussed
below. We must attribute these first observations to an experimental error
or in poor "grounding" of the ground stake at the time. The "optimum values"
of V
R
were not observed in the holetohole measurements to J:>e described.
VI12
70 I I I I I I
" ........

."",.."",..",.. ....
,...
10 I " 
I
 I
 ... ..
.J  _ R:75.0'
, (ENE _
I IUS' 10WARD  
I MAN)
OL..l: ..L ...J ....L.. + .....J
10 20 30 40 50
R:2ir'(NE)
'Q '210' (NE,
 .:.:.:::=:::==:::::.o:
50
;;. ..QQ'lN.,
fI
 '.EQQ'lN)
40
a:
I I < . =
r I i IHI I
20 .,..,
f (Ke)
;:l
I
.....
W
Figure VI. 6. Surface vertical field intensity in air due to transmissions
from hole antenna. Wave analyzer voltage VR at ELF and
LF vs frequency at several ranges Rand beanngs. Brewster
Town Dump site (6/20/62). HP 302A wave analyzer with 6'
vertical whip and grounded with 3' ground stake.
The resistance
In spite of the high impedance of the wave analyzer, it was then realized that
the antenna ca.pacitative reactance might be much larger. In the holetohole
tests using the wave analyzer as the receiver, the receiver antenna imped
ance is very much smaller than the wave analyzer impedance, and in such
case V
R
' read on the wave analyzer, is a better approximation to the open
circuit antenna voltage V(OC) than it is for the 6foot whip. A correction
factor for the whip antenna C =V(OC)/V was derived by measuring the
V R
antenna capacitance. C
A
, the antenna connecting cable capacitance C and
AC
the input admittance of the wave analyzer, YWA' CA was about 30 fff. the
cable CAC was about 10 Frf, and the wave analyzer conductance and shunt
capacitance were about 9 microI:'lhos and 65 frf, respectively.
capacitance divider "network" then yielded values of C
v
which were quite fre
quency sensitive at the lower frequencies, The desired opencircuit antenna
voltage is then V(OC) =C
v
V
R
'
Measurements were repeated, in which the 100' range anomaly
aforementioned disappeared, and the corrected values of V(OC) are shown in
Figure VI. 7 for three ranges R =50, 100. and 210 feet, along the NE radial,
shown as solid lines. Also included are the values of V(OC) obtained from
V
R
in the previous figure for the range R =750' in a direction towards Tubma
Assuming we have properly corrected V
R
to obtain V(OC) and that the effec
tive length of the 6foot whip is about 1 meter, the values of V(OC) in db above
1 microvolt will be the same as the field intensities in db above 1 microvolt/
meter.
VI14
20
30
fiO
80
70
60
>
~
1\ 40
CD
o
o
8
>
R=50 FT
R=IOOFT
R=210 FT
' ..........
0 FT ENE
R=75 TUBMAN)
(TOWARD

10
o 10 20
flKCI
30 40 50
Figure VI. 7. Surface vertical electric field intensity. Corrected opencir
cuit voltages V(OC) in 6' vertical whip at various ranges NE
(60
0
magnetic) of drill hole. Brewster, Mass.
<:
.....
I
,.,..
\J1
\.
Note the slow frequency dependence of V(OC) and the small in
crease in the slope of the curves at the greater ranges. This is contrast
with the very much greater slope of V(OC) vs frequency observed in the hole
tohole tests to be described.
During the later observations recorded in Figure VI. 7. the
noise voltages were observed. The average values of V
R
for noise decreased
from about 0.5 microvolts at 0.5 kc to about 0.25 microvolts at 7 kc. in
creasing slightly at 10 kc and then felloff to about O. 1 microvolt at 50 kc;
peaks of noise to 2 to 3 microvolts occurred at various frequencies through
out, Some of the very low frequency values may be attributed to internal
noise of the wave analyzer.
The observed values of VR were not affected by changing shield
ing arrangements at the transmitter (opening the screen room door. removing
shield can around feeder at casing pipe. interchanging leads on the screen
room filter. etc.). This must mean that leakage fields of the transmitter
proper are small. Measured screen. room attenuations exceeded 40 db at I kc
and 76 db at 50 kc. respectively.
3. Effect of Transmitter .. Antenna Depth on Surface Field
Intensity
The transmitting antenna was changed to be very short electri
cally and so that its depth might be varied while observing the effect on the
vertical electric field in air near the surface. The transmitting antenna was
a 50foot insulated antenna (RG8/U type) with a shortcircuit termination
VI16
consisting of a 50root length of #12 buss wire. We denote by D the depth of
the monopole input point where it is joined to the coaxial feeder (RG8/U
cable) inner conductor and waterproofed. (D = 464' corresponds to the depth
of the bottom of the casing pipe.) The surface field was observed at the
"R = 210 I, NEil point used At each of several depths readings of
V
R
with the 6foot whip. were made as a function of frequency 1 to 50 kc.
Resulting values of VR are plotted vs depth D in Figure VI. 8
for frequencies of 10 and 50 kc. Certain detailed features need further in
vestigation but gros s results are useful. The values of line input current a.nd
voltage were noted, and the values of V were normalized to a constant line
R
current of 1 ampere. (It was noted that line voltages changed with depth
indicating an effective antenna impedance variation with depth, needing further
study.) It is noted that V
R
increases by about 15 to 20 db as depth D is de
creased, depending on frequency. Further when the antenna plus short cir
cuit was completely inside the pipe, no voltage V
R
could be observed above
O. 1 microvolt. This must mean that the a.ntenna, when below the pipe,must
be the source of V
R
observed within a large factor of 50 to 60 db. Further,
the lack of an observed signal when the antenna is completely within the pipe
means that leakage of the transmitter proper within the screen room must be
very small.
Regarding the "p l a teau" for VR for depths exceeding D =464' by
distances up to 150', this may mean that the lower conductivity rock may not
commence until depths beyond 600' are encountered, at this particular drill
VII?
20
40
o
:;
::t
1\
CD
10 ~
0:
>
30
10
20
o
/'v

",P_J.
,
,
, F=IO KC

...c
.) ...
T
'\,
...........
I ,
~
I
''c
,A...
I
... "''''l!
F=50KC
I
,
,
I
\
,
I
T
, \
I
t>"'_ei
I
I
I
I
,
I
I
f
~
I
,
'<',
DEPTH TO
BOTTOM OF CASING
~
,
1
300
r400
500 600 700 800 90
D(FT)
0.1
10
(J)
~
a
>
a
0:
u
:::E
0:
>
100
nol
'
Figure VI. 8. Effect of transmitting antenna depth on surface
electric field intensity (vertical).
VII8
hole. The phenomenon may also be related to the effect of the finite length
(150') of "input braid electrode". It would be useful to reduce the amount of
exposed braid on the feeder to 50 '; when D then exceeds 514 feet, the antenna
behaves as a probe with electrodes at input and output and insulated. The
behavior of the feeder at ELF needs for depth variation tests.
The curves might be used to infer the contribution to a received
signal in holetohole propagation by the upoveranddown mode. This sup
poses that the field at the surface observing point closely approximates that
of the ground wave portion of the already launched upandover component.
Thus, if the field should decrease by IS db with depth at the transmitter and
similarly at the receiver, then the potential upoveranddown mode contri
bution should decrease with depth (simultaneously) of both transmitting and
receiving antenna by 30 db (see reference 40 and Appendix C).
4. Electric Field Intensity for Greater Ranges at
ELF and VLF
I
............
Ten differenct sites were chosen to compare measurements of
the vertical electric field intensity, in particular to explore the anomalous
behavior in that no field was observed on the surface close to the receiving
van at Tubman when signals were received on the antenna in that drill hole,
and further that there was some evidence of anomalous a.zimuthal variation
at shorter ranges. The sites are identified by the symbol "Tn" where n is
a digit running from 0 to 9 to identify the site, somewhat randomly. They are
described below.
VI19
There were two sites at =750' at two different bearings,
referred to in Figure VI. 6. These are
Site # Range Bearing Description
(ft. ) (true)
T:.9 750 NE Edge of Town Dump
T8 750 7'6
0
In woods towards Tubmc.'1
There were next a group of sites along Great Field Road at. ranges 21.00
2400 feet and different bearings. These are
T6
T4
T2
T3
2400
2300
2100
2400
Edge of roaq, 100 yds from
junction with Setucket Rd. ;.
low voltage power line 50
feet away toward transmit
ting
Edge of road
Edge of road, near cran
berry bog towards hole
Off road, about .200 yds away
from high voltag,e distribu
tion line
Finally there were four sites at ranges 4900 to 6100 feet. These aloe
VI20
Tl
T5
TO
4900
6100
6000
. On Tubman property, near
Tubman horne
Off road, north of School
lbuse Pond, ;;I. few hundred
yds south of intersection
with Lower Road, adjacent
to abandoned cranqerry bog
At receiver van off Tubman
Road, about 40 feet south of
the van
Site If
T7
Range
(ft. )
6000
Bearing
(true)
76
0
Description
Near van, but about 200 yds
north, adjacent to stone wall
on edge of property. low power
lines about 20 feet to the north.
For the surface ranges R exceeding .2000 feet. it was decided
to use a taller antenna than the 6foot whip used previously in anticipation of
improved signaltonoise voltages observed. For this purpose, a portable
33
1
whip with telescoping sections was used. This created another calibration
problem similar to that encountered with the 6foot whip, which had to be
solved in order to obtain the equivalent opencircuit induced voltage from
which to obtain the field intensity. A simple expedient of comparing VR read
by the analyzer when using the 33foot antenna with that when using the 6foot
whip at the same location (site T9) yielded a "height correction factor C
h
"
where C
h
= Y
R
(33 foot)/VR (6 foot). This result gave C
h
varying from 18.5
to 20 db. If YR were simply proportional to height. C
h
would be expected to
be about 15 db. But C
h
as measured should include any changes in antenna
capacitance so that one might use the "voltage correction factor C
y
" used
'previously for the 6foot whip. Normalizing the values of V
R
measured with
33foot whip to those that might have been observed with a 6foot whip yields
the final correction factor C
y
=Cy/C
h
to be applied. If the values of V
R
are
expressed in db> I flv. the equivalent opencircuit voltage V(OC) for a ~  f ( ) o t
whip becomes simply V
1
(OC)db = Y 3b + C' Assuming the effective
RCI Vdb
Yl21
height of a 6  foot whip is I meter, then the values of field intensity E in
db:> 1fv/m are the same as V'(OC) in qb> ltv.
The resulting values of E so nQrmalized at those sites where
there were observable values of VR are shown in Figure VI. 9 with E in
db:> fv/m plotted vs frequency for each of 5 sites. Values for the two sites
at R = 750' (T9 and T8), based on data from Figure VI. 6, are included for
comparison. (It was the different azimuthal behavior in these curves, plus
the results at shorter ranges discussed previously, whicn led to the explora
tory measurements at greater ranges discussed here. )
To illustrate the interesting behavior with range and azimuth,
the curves are arranged in two groups, roughly according to bearing. The
solid curves are for three different ranges roughly at bearings NE to NNE.
In particular, there is noted a strong field at 6100 "feet at a8. SO bearing (T5)
in contrast with no observable signals VR on the 33foot antenna at sites at
and close to the van':' (sites TO, Tl, T7). The dashed curves are for sites
generally easterly and towards Tubman (T8, T2, and T3). There gener
ally appears to be a measurable field towards the NNENE at greater ranges
up to 6100 feet, whereas at sites tbward Tubman, the field could be observed
only at ranges up to 2100 feet.
The presence of the field to the NNE at large distances and its
absence at Tubman Road is not understood, but may be attributable in part to
* A minor exception occurred at site T7 near a power line where V
R
(signal
plus noise) was 0.8 db abc;>ye noise (10 ,microvolts), . at 2 kc but atno other
frequencies 0.3 and 20 kc.
VI22
SOLID CURVESAPPROXIMATELY SAME BEARI NGS NORTH OF PATH
.. SITE T9. R= 750 FT, BEARING "NE"
00 SITE T6, R= 2400FT, BEARING 31.5
e<::J SITE T5, R=6100 FT, BEARING 28.5
DASHED CURVES  APPROXIMATELY SAM E EASTERLY BEARI NGS
SITE T8, R=750 FT, BEARING 76 (TUBMAN)
'A8 SITE T3, R=2400 FT, BEARING 119
.... SITE T2. R= 21 00 FT, BEARI NG 89
60 I i I I Iii ii' , i J i ,. I t I I I I I I I I i
o


_ ;:; I T8 I
,.
" [E[]
501 .............................. A I I I I
30 I '"I I .... I I ...............
'\. I
"
I I I
 1"'",
20 I J
""
:>40 9' / r . ..
. . I I
10 I 1 , I I I I I I I I I 1 I , I I , 1 ! I , 1 , I J
o 10 20 30 40 50
f (KC)
Figure VI. 9. Vertical electric intensity on surface due to transITlissions
froITl vertical dipole in drill hole vs frequency at several
test sites. .
<:
H
J
N
\.N
'\.
the irregularities in the overburden alluded to in the surface resistivity meas
urements (Section V). Smith Pond, located near and just north of the paths
to sites T6 and T5 might be an important irregularity in this sense. Power
line reradiation may be a factor but there were sites quite close to low and
high voltage lines where the field was weak (T3, T2) or unobservable (Tl,
T7). It is possibly happenstance that the field on the surface at the van
(TO) was unobservable compared with that at the antenna in the hole for this
would indicate the lack of a potential upoveranddown mode contribution in
the latter.
C. Noise  60 cps Interference
While making signal level measurements on an antenna in the Tubman
hole due to transmissions from an antenna in the Brewster hole, it was often
necessary to vary the transmitted frequency to avoid large interfering signals
and noise. This was the case when measuring signals in the air, and signal
detection was the more difficult at frequencies below 10 kc.
Where feasible, noise levels at the time of a measurement were noted,
but the character of the noise was not always that expected of atmospheric
noise. It was while listening to the transmissions with a wideband audio am
plifier plus tuned filter that 60 cps interference was suspected (Section VID).
Measurements were then made of the 60 cps voltages and its numerous har
monics up to the order of 3 kc, on antennas in the holes at both sites. ,
At the Brewster site, the antenna was 475 feet long, of polyethylene
covered #12 wire (RG8/U type) with a 50:foot shortcircuit termination of
VI24
N12 wire. The receiver was the HewlettPackard 302A wave analyzer. The
analyzer was switched to battery operation. It made no essential difference
in the readings whether the AC main switch was closed or not. However, it
was necessary to shut off the auxiliary AC generator outside the van at the
Tubman site to obtain useful data at some frequencies, but essentially there
was little difference in those readings above a few microvolts whether that
generator was :,on or off.
i
The resulting receiver voltages are shown in Figure VI. 10. The
60 cps harrnonic voltages are indicated by dots and those at Tubman by small
triangles. For comparison the received signal voltages at Tubman are indi
cated by circled points, for two different receiver antenna lengths (h), obtained
at the end of this J.ueasurement phase. Parameters pertinent to the measure
ments are indicated on the figure.
The results indicate the difficulty in ascribing on "atmospheric noise
level" to that indicated when the frequency is close to the 60 cps harmonics.
The amplitudes generally fall off with increasing frequency, the first few odd
harmonics being stronger than the even harmonics. There was an enhance
ment noted ne;3.r 3 kc at Tubman.
It is not believed that the observed voltages are due to internal gener
ation in the receiving instrument due to overload. It is believed rather that
the observed voltages are due to the fields generated by nearby power lines,
t. .......
particularly a high voltage transmission line 1/2 to 1 mile to the south of the
area. Some of the voltages observed may be due to the effects of rotating
VI25
10,000
1000
VI
f
..J 100
o
>
o
a:
o
10
lrA AT TUBMAN ROAD (83162)
"
.....
"
"',"
"'"
.'";' ';"
13 NOISE AT D
A
= 631FT I
El NOISE AT D
A
= 410FT
I!JEJ
I
I,
100
1000
>
10
2 4 5
20
f (KC)
Figure VI. 12, Path propagation tests, Efe:'ct of Tubman receiver
antenna depth DA on receiver voltage 'VR'
VI31
<:
.....
I
W
tv
50
40
30
20
>
::t
1\ 10
III
o
a:
>
o
10
20
30
121 FT RG8/U TYPE, SHORTCIRCUITED, 8/30/62
0 SAME, DAY LATER 8/31/62
=
wave frequency (cycles/ sed
f
=
permeability of the medium =
for
=
complex dielectric factor
(3=
real phase constant
real attenuation constant
The complex dielectric factor g is given by
g = 6  j (J/ev = e (1  j p)
where
G = real effective dielectric constant = '.t;
o r
(J = real effective conductivity
p = loss tangent of the mediurn
The loss tangent p. is given by
(A. 11)
p = =
(A.IZ)
where mks units have been used and
J. =free space (meter)
o
= real effective relative dielectric constant
r
In most cases, the permeabilityI' is real and I.(r is the real effective relative
7 1 . 9
permeability. In the above p = 4 iT" x 10 henry/m and 6 = 6 x 10
10 0 3 iT
farad/me
A9
With l real and upon substituting equation (A. 7) in equation (A. 6), and
using equation (A. I), then one obtains
I
"kl eJ9
k = (iJo(= f(l j o() =
. (3
r; = GJ J/ t.
o
Je; f(p)
c\ = CJJf6
0
K g(p)
eX" = g(p)
(3 f(p)
Ikl= (j)Jflt
o
K lsi
1 __ tan'  19(p)
6 = tan.  0("
~ f(p)
(A. 13)
In many cases in radio propagation, the dissipa,tive media are nonmagnetic
whence j'r = 1. In such case
Zrr
~ =  (rad/meter)
''0 A
o
(A. 14)
is the real phase constant in space.
The tables then provide the quantities needed to compute (3 , ~ ,0("/(1.
I k I and e according to the relations in (A.9). The results of course apply
for a given set of electrica:l constants, of the dissipative medium fr' , , ~ r ~ ~ d
() at the radian frequency u.J of the wave, with p (los's tangent) given 'b;' ,
equation (A.8).
A10
For small and for large values of p, the approximate relations (A.7)
and (A. 9) may be used.
Thus for a no.nmagnetic, dissipative medium with small loss tangent
(p :s 0.6)
(d:' Po K (rad/m)
0( ~ 60 rr (J (neper sl rn)
r
JG
r
but if the los s tangent is large (p ~ 10), then
where?:' is known as the metallic skin depth, in meters.
V. Acknowledgement
(A. 15)
"(A. 16)
The coordination of the computational work and the analysis in Section III
was performed by D. H. Copp, Propagation and Systems Research Department,
Communication and Data Processing Operation, Norwood. The problem
preparation for the computer was written by Miss Carolyn Galante, Applied
Mathematic s," Bedford COlnputation Center.
All
APPENDIX B
Theory of Waveguide Propagation for Very Deep Strata
'By
J. T. deBettencourt
I. Introduction
The theory of waveguide propagation in very deep strata in the earth's
crust aesllmes initially that the guiding walls are horizontal planes of infinite
or finite eonductivity and that there is a sharplybounded propagation medium
(rock) in betwe.en having small or zero conductivity such that the loss tangent*
is small (PZ ~ 0.6).
The field expressions for waves guided between parallel planes can. be
obtained by reference to many texts such as that of Jordan
3
which includes
the effect of losses in planes of finite but h i ~ h metallic conductivity. For
our purposes,. we prefer to follow the VLF propagation mode theory of
Budden
Z5
and Wait, 77 the first assuming a plane earth and ionosphere and
the latter treating more completely the same problem with extensions to the
effects of a spherical earth and ionosphere plus a development and discussion
of mode excitation for the waves in the air. We shall follow Wait's treat
77
ment for plane boundaries but with a modest extension. Instead of the air
we have slightly lossy propagation medium (rock). The ground is replaced
* The subscript "2" on quantities denoting loss tangent. dielectric constant
and conductivity is used to denote the propagation medium in which the waves
are excited and detected.
B1
by the overburden, as one wall. The ionosphere is replaced by a discontinuity
such as the Moho, for the other wall. In our case, the antennas stretch down
ward below the overburden, whereas in Wait's treatment the antennas extend
upwards above the ground into air; the diff.erence is in the value of dipole
moment for the same power input to the input terminals. Regarding effects
of curvature of the walls, wave modes impinging on the Moho would tend to
"diverge" whereas those reflected from the ionosphere would tend to "con
verge." We will not consider curvature effects in any detail.
II. Theory
The field expressions have been developed for vertical electric dipoles.
Assuming perfectly conducting planes, the modes are those of the transverse
magnetic type TM where subscript m if the mode number. The TM
m,o 00
mode (m =0) is the transverse electromagnetic or TEM mode. and is repre
sented in C of Figure 1. 4 of Section I of the Report by the direct ray between
T and R parallel to the walls. Rays for the first order mode m =1 are also
shown and are due to reflections from the upper and lower walls. Excitation
for a given mode depends upon whether the wave frequency exceeds or is less
than the cutoff frequency f for that mode. Let d be the distance between
Crn
the parallel planes. Then for a lossless dielectric of relative dielectric
constant and infinitely conducting walls, the values of.f are given by
r2 cm
B2
f =
cm
2rrd
~  r 2
(m=O, 1,2) (B. 1)
where v 0 is the velocity of light in space, with v and d measured in the same
o
distance units. As an example of the calculation, let d =20 krn,
whence
f =3.75 m, kc
Cm
For a wave frequency f in kc, then
kc
= 4,
r2
(B. 2)
= 3.75 m (B.3)
The p h a ~ e velocity of a reflected mode m down the "guide" is .
(B. 4)
As long as f> f the radical is positive, and one has the guide wavelength
Cm
Aol JG;;
J
l  (f 1)2
em
= (B.5)
~ h e r ~ ).2 is the plane wave wavelength in the dielectric. At frequencies
above c"Ut"off, energy can be propagated down the guide with no exponential
attenuation and the allowable modes of transmission are those with m =0, 1,
2   . The resultant field at a receiver is hen the sum of all the waves with
appropriate phase shifts and amplitudes for each taken into account.
If f is below cutoff f , the propagation constant of the wave mode m
cm
along the guide
0(
gm
(B.6)
B3
(B.7)
becomes imaginary and there is no energy propagated as a wave, only ex
ponential damping with attenuation constant O{. In the example cited, with
equations (B. 2) and (B. 3), a 10 kc excitation could be propagated down the
"g,uide" with'modes m= 0 (TEM), m =I (TM
lO
) and m =2 (TM
20
) but not the
third order mode m= 3. All three II rays " identified by the modes m= 0, I,
and 2 would be combined at the receiver to give the resultant received field.
In Wait's treatment
77
the ratio fcmff for the lossless diGlectric and
perfectly conducting walls is identified with symbol
, f
cm
em = cos 8
m
=
f
where 8
m
is the angle of incidence of the mth ray upon the plane wall. For
m=O ('i'EM), 8=90
0
and this mode propagates parallel to the planes.
There are many other aspects and the reader is referred to the references
cited for further details.
We now consider walls of "finite but very high" conductivity. The ter
minology is a relative matter but refers to the refractive index of the
relative to the diele'ctric, or to the reflection coefficient of the wall to a ray
impinging upon it from the dielectric. For infinitely conducting walls the
reflection coefficient of the wall R
W
is +1. The "finite but very high" conduc
tivity condition is that which when IRwl departs by only a small amount
from + 1. The reflection coefficient of the wall is related to the refractive
index N
W
of the wall relative to that of the rock, for the allowable modes m,
by
B4
where
R
W
=
m
NWC
m
 C
Wm
NWC
m
+ C
W
'
m
(B.8)
k
W
N =::;
W k
Z
G (ljp)
rW W
e (l  J pz)
o r
2
(B. 9)
with k
W
and k
Z
being the complex phase constants, , and ~ the relative
rW r
2
dielectric constants, and p and p the loss tangents, of the wall and rock,
W Z
respectively. The loss tangents are
p =
W
=
(B. 10)
p =
2
=
with
and
<JW and oz being the conductivities of the wall and r o c k ~
A the free space wavelength.
o
respectively,
In equation (B. 8) the quantity C
w
is like the cosine of an angle of inci
o m
dence at the wall but given mathematically by
. 2 ~
Sln " "1"
N
2
W
(B.11)
For subsequent use, we define the symbol
Sm = J1 C ~ ::; sin em
(B. l2)
B5
Now for perfectly conducting walls, crw7 oo , whence CWm....:::r
and R
W
= + 1. The case considered here assumes a lossless dielectric
m
1
cr:; = 0 = p and c:r: so high that p 1. From equations (B. 9) and (B. 10),
2 2 W W
then
J
''. 60  \
vw A
o
J _
e
r2
(B. 13)
If this value of N
W
is very' high, then C
w
in equation (B. 11) is very nearly
m
unity. Hence the reflection coefficient in equation (B. 8) can be writte
R
W
1 2 C
wm
. e
2
(9)
m C
m
where C:. is a small quantity ( Iql ,'Cml Z), with
C
Wm
I
q=
N
W
N
W
(B. 14)
(B. 15)
The allowable modes m are determined from a knowledge of C ,i. e. ,
OVERBURDEN
1000
DEPTH d 1FT)
DIPOLE
SOURCE
===. OJ =81110
4
MHOI M
4
OJ =1.6xl0 MHO 1M
500
2
41":.J'+:...+!L1
14 L L L L... .....J
o
90 85 80 75
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE 8;;
70 65
I DEGREES)
60
Figure C. I. Normalized vertical elect;;c neld IE/E
V
d Iin rock for
vertical electric dipole source and point of observation
located at depth d below overburden.
'C3
(z = 0) of region 2 (overburden). Both media are assumed semiinfinite, homo
geneous and nonmagnetic. It is d,esired to determine the field at another
point in region 1.
The complex phase constant for region n (n =1, 2) is given by
where
~ = complex dielectric factor =
n
(; (ljp)
o r
n
n
l
(c. 1)
~ = relative effective dielectric constant
c'r
n
p, = loss tangent = (),: /(CLl6 (; ) =60 c.r: J / e
n n 0 r
n
n 0 r
n
cr:::: = effective conductivity
n
).0 = wavelength in free space
and mks units are employed.
(C.2)
F or vertical electric dipoles in region 1, the Hertzian potential has only
a zcomponent. The development of expressions for the electric field then
follows that for vertical dipoles in air above ground (reference 5, Chapter VII;
references 62 and 79) except that for region 1 rock with complex phase con
stant k
l
has replaced air with real phase constant A. Of importance is the
relative refractive index N
Zl
of waves incident from region 1 upon region 2,
where
C4
e
rZ
(lj P2)
61' 1 (1  j p 1)
(G.3)
It is assumed that I N
Z1
1
2
will be moderately large. Frequericies of
interest are less than 100 kc, and at such frequencies the loss tangents p
n
given by equation (C. 2) will be large (p ~ 10) for the typical electrical con
n
stants assumed for each medium. N 2 then is essentially real and given
21
approximately by the conductivity contrast ratio crz/O1 (there is a small
imaginary component which is negative when p '> P ).
21
The electrical field in the rock may be considered as the sum of several
components like those of Norton62 for d i p ~ l e s in air 'above ground. The result
ant wave may be terrned the "interface wave" and in the far field it is the
resultant of a. "direct wave" between dipole and point of observation, a "re
fleeted wave" from the overburden, and an "interface surface wave" guided
along the rockoverburden boundary. For the sample calculations; it was
necessary to include higher order correction terms (reference 5, Chapter VII).
The complex numberical distance for antennas on the boundary may "be
written79 in polar form
. pe=IpeIe":j b
1
5,79 f
In the usua expreSSlons or p "
e
(C.4)
complex phase constant k
l
for rock re
places real phase constant Afor adr. With large loss tangents for both
a .
2 .
media, N
21
in equation (C. 3) is practically real and the phase angle bin
equation (G. 4) is close to 135
0
The general complex numerical distance W
for antennas below the boundary may be written as
B
W = P e
J
o 2
and the phase angle B is 135 for N
21
real.
(C.5)
C5
. 4
and cr
1
:: 8 x 10 mhos/m for the rock, and
III. Example of Calculations
P);'opagation over a oilemile path between antennas in drill holes on Cape
Cod was being investigated and physical data typical for such a path were
assumed for calculations:. The electrical constants assumed were 6 :: 10
rr
3
.' :: 20 and rr::: 4 x 10
r2 2
mhos/m for the overburden. {In one case, for 10 kc, a se<::ond computation
was made for (J,:: 1. 6 x 10
3
mhQs/m. )
1
The frequencies of interest were 100 kc and less, at which the loss tan
gents PI and P2 exceeded 10. Values ofl N
Zl
l
2
were about 5. Further, the
depths below the overburden of the dip'ole source and of the point of observa.
tion were assumed identical, of value d. The curves in King (reference 5,
Chapter VII) for the "ground wave" attenuation function F were used
with B:: 135
0
For small values of P it was necessary to compute F using the
series expansion expressions (references 5, Chapter VII; 62 and 79). It was
also necessary to include correction terms in the field equations to account
for conditions, particularly at the lower frequencies.
The vertical and horizontal components of electric field were computed
for several frequencies from O. 1 to 100 kc as a function of depth d. The
resulting amplitudes were normalized to the amplitude IE
V
d Iof the vertical
directwave component the electric field, which component contained addi
tional nearfield co,rrection terms. Only the magnitudes of the normalized
vertical electric field IEz/E
V
d Iat the observing point P are shown plotted
on the curves of Figure C. 1.
C6
IV. Discussion of Results
Referring to the curves in Figure C. 1 for angles near grazing incidence,
the "interface surface wave" predominates, and at frequencies higher than
I kc this component is weaker than the "direct wave" component of the total
field for the assumed conditions. At frequencies higher than I kc, IEzi
increases with depth (angle of incidence decreasing) and approaches the "di
rect wave" value at larger and larger depths. The increase of fEzl with
depth is the sharper the higher the frequency. Such variations are a.ttributed
to the relatively stronger effects of exponential damping in the rock on the
"reflected wave" and "interface surface wave" components than on the "direct
wave" component. The eu rve for O. I kc is suspect because the validity of
the assumptions is questionable for such low frequencies; it is shown. in small
dashes in Figure C. 1. At 10 kc, where curves are shown for two values of
~ ' the general remarks on behavior of normalized IEzi with depth apply,
but for the higher conductivity case the "interface surface wave" component
is less and hence there is a greater relative increase in normalized IEzi with
increasing depth.
Calculations were ;made fo:;: the radial component of the electric field
but are not included here because (a) we have not devised a practicai means
for its measurement in drill holes, (b) the vertical component IE
z
I is the
stronger, and (c) the radial component decreases with increased depth (see
below.).
C7
The measurement of the variation of I E
z
Iwith depth.is suggested a.s one
possible means to deter;mine wht;:ther the received signal is due predominantly
to the rock mode, possible (UOD)
mode. Field foJ' the latter problem are not avail
able. However, for a given sourceobserver separation one would expect the
_20( d
field for the UOD mode to vary with: the depth d according t() e 1 wQere
O<i is the attenuation constant for the rock.
4
Thus at 10 kc with cr: =8 x 10
1
mhos/m, = 1. 5 db/lOa ft. For a 500 foot increase in depth, the contri
bution to the received should decrease by 15 db IEzi should
increase toward the direct wave value according to Figure C. 1, the amount
of increaslil depending upon the starting value of d (e. g., 3 db for the depth
range 100 to 600 feet).
While the th,eory for the vertical electric dipole assumes an overburden
of infinite thickness, the expres sions for the field in the rock should not be
affected seriously by the influence of the airoverburden boundary if the
overburden is several skin depths in thickness. This is principally because
of the exponential damping of 8.7 db per skin depth (55 db per wavelength) of
travel each way in the highly conducting overburden.
With antennas very near the overburden the received field. intensity is
due principally to the "int,erface surface wave" component. At frequencies
above 1 kc a more' effective communication link is achieved by increasing the
depth of the transmitting and receiving antennas.
C8
APPENDIX D
Uninsulated (Bare) Cylindrical Antennas In
Dissipative Media  Theory
By
J. T. deBettencourt
I. Introduction
In what follows it is assumed that the bare antenna is center driven and
is immersed in a homogeneous, isotropic, dissipative medium of infinite
extent. The antenna is assumed to have infinite conductivity; in such case
. 11 h
Stratton has shown that thEl complex phase constant k of the current is t e
same as that of the surrounding medium. The dissipative media with which
we shall be concerned have electrical properties such as those for sea wate:r,
soil, or rocks (see Section IA for typical constants). A discussion of the
complex phase constant of a dissipative medium is given in Section lID, and
the characteristic impedance! of medium is discussed in
Section lIE. For nonmagnetic media, one has
(D. 1)
k
(lj
(D. Zl
. = phase constant = Ii;f(p) (D.3a)
p = loss tangent = ..2: =
cv
t:<=
10=
attenuation constant = K g(p)
phase constant for space =2 ,.,. /,(
o
60 (J).
o
(D. 3b)
(D. 4)
(D. 5)
Dl
in which (J and are the real effective conductivity and relative dielectric
r
constant, respectively, \ is the free space wavelength, and mks units are
used. The functions f(p) and g(p) are disc.lissed in Section IIB and tabulated
in Appendix A.
Th'e antenna is of length2h and radius a such that > > 1. Interest will
a
be concentrated On antennas hc:wing .an electrical halflength 1r /2 3 1f /2
and on electrically sho;rt antennas such 0 .. 3, in which;9 is the
phase constant of the medium for an loss tan:gent and given by equation (D. 3a).
. Formally, the theory is based upon formulations of Tai
70
and
Storer
68
for antennas in free space but where the complex phase constant k
of the dissipative medium is substituted for the.. real phase constant /.l of
. /0
free space, and"! is substituted for the real characteristic' impedance
J ,; 120 TT ohms of free spac,e. Then the formulas contain exponential. sine,
o
and modified cosine integrals of complex argument. Because we lacked appro
priate tables for complex arguments, we resorted to approximations using
asymptotic expansions for large arguments and series expansions.
for small arguments.
68 '
In the formulas of Storer, the argument of some of
the integrals are half as large as the smallest in the integral ex
pressions of Tal. 70 Because of the interest in antennas whose halflength
was equal to or greater than a quarterwavelength in the mediiJm, we based
our equations on the Tai70 since the approximations using the
asymptotic expansions were more accurate.
02
II. Exponential, Sine, and Modified Cosine Ingetrals  Series Expansions
We wished to check our expansions of sine and modified cosine integrals
with values of those integrals calculated roln tabulated values of the exponential
integral. Tables of the latter have been prepared by the National Bureau of
Standards 19 and Corrington30have shown how the sine and cosine integrals may
, be deduced therefrom. For this purpose we use the NBS definition of the
exponential integral.
Let Z I =x +j y =('
The exponential integral is
given by
00
i
1
u
e
u
du (D.6)
(D.7)
n n.
(1). zl
n. n!
and is defined for  lr < eI : ~ '1r. The'tabular value s are given for the angular
range 0 :!:: 9 I :: 1T'
For zl J 0, E
I
(zl) is given by the series
co
L
n=l
where C =0.5772     =Euler's constant. The series(D. 7) is particularly
useful when Izl 1< 1 so that very few terms in the series are required.
(D.8)
When' zl! is large, the asymptotic expansion for E
I
(zl) may be written
zl
e
E
I
(zl) = zl
For a complex variable W, the following integral relations are employed:
Ci(W) = cosine integral = J ~ co," t dt = cl(W) (D.91
D3
Cin(W) = modified cosine integral = i
W
= C + In W  Ci(W)
1  cos t
dt
t
(D. 10)
and
. . . fW sin t, 7r (W sin t
51( W) = sme' 0 . "":t dt = "7 J00 ,t dt
= ::n:.  si(W)
2,
L(W) :: Cin(W) + j si(W)
(D. 11)
(D. 12)
I? the theoretical development, we use the complex variable z = x  jy
jS
= (e and y x so that  1\/4 e fO. For this range of e. zl = z* where
the asterisk denotes complex conjugate.. Denoting by f(z 1) exponential,
sine. or cosine integrals, then
f(Zl *) = f* (z 1) = f(z) (D. 13)
Following then the desired integ.rals may be computed from
the tabulated exponential integral as follows:
Cin(x  j y) = C + 1 n (x  j y)  Ci (x  j y)
Ci(xjy) = ' rl(y+jx) + Ei(y+jx) ]
, ,
.5i(xjy)= [E
1
(y+jX) E;(y+j'x)]
L(x  j y) = Cin (x  j'y) + j 5i (x  j y)
+.1C
2
(D. 14)
(D. 15)
(D. 16)
(D. 17)
in which E.
1
is the tabul,ated valu,e C\.ncl E: is the complex conjugate of the
tabulated value.
D4
The series representation (D. 7) may be used! to obtain approximate forms,
useful for small z, for the integrals in equations (D. 14) through (D. 17). With
z =x. j y, one obtains
zZ
Cin(z) = .
2. Z!
4
z
 +
4.4!
6
z
6.6!
(D. 18)
3 5
z z
Si(z):: z  +
3. 3! 5.5 !
(D. 19)
2
z
4
(1 
Z
z
+
4
) + j z (1 
(D. 20)
The series forms (D. 18) and (D. 19) may be derived readily from the series
expressions in JankeEmdeLosch
Z
for d(W) and si(W) when substituted in
equations (D. 9) and (D. 11).
For large arguments, asymptotic expansions like 8) are substituted
in equations (D. 14) through (D. 17) with the result
Cin(z) =t + 1n z
sin z
z
(1
) + cosl z (1 _ ; )
z z z
(D. ZI)
Si(z) = ..n. _ cos z (1 _ 2
Z
) _ z (1  6
2
)
Z z z z2 z
('D. 22)
L(z) = C+lnz+j J[j
2'
j z
e
z
2 1 6 ]
'2   ) + j Z (1 2"   )
z
(D. 23)
The series (D. 21) and (D. 22) are formally like those derived from asymptotic
D5
expansions for ci(x) and si(x) for real variable x a's given li1" JankeEincle
Losch
2
but where the complex variable z = x  J y is" for the real
variable x.
To illustrate the accuracy of using approximate relations, cal<1ulations
were made for L(z) with z=xjy, for y = 0 and y= x and for x = 0.5, 3.0,
4.0, and 5. O. For y = 0, the tabular values of. Cin(x) and Si(x) were ta;ken
from King's text (reference 5, Appendix) from which the tabular value for
L(z), defined in equation (D. 12), is readily obtained. For z = 0.5. j 0.5 and
z = 3  J 3, tabular of El(y+ j x) and E
1
( y + j.x) exist 19 from which
tabular values of L(z) were obtained using (D. 14) through (D. 17).
The exponential integral for the larger values of z = 4  j 4 and z = 5  j 5 were
obtained from. values 19 of e z E I (z) and proceeding as
above to obtain L(z). For z= 0.5jO.5 and z=0.5 j 0, the approximate
value of L(z) was calculated from expression (D. 20) using two terms in the
parentheses. For the other values of z, approxirm. te values of L(z) were
calculated .from equ;:l.tion (D. 23) omitting the second term.s in the parentheses.
The results of such calculations are shown in Table D. 1 with L(z) written
in' polar form. The error" in percent, between the tabular and approxinlate
v'alues of the magnitude R and, phase rJ are also given"
For the smailest z,. the e'i';ror in the approximations using expression
. .
(D. 20) is quite small and should reduce for smaller values of z. For larger
values of z" using (D. 23) with. Y =.0, the is small and reduces
the larger the value of x.
D6
For y = x, the error is quite small for x 3.
TABLE D. 1
Comparison of Values of L( z) Calculated from
TabulatE;d Values of the Exponential Integral "'lith Those Calculated
Using Series Approximations
Y:: x z=xJY
. ~
,L(z) == Cin(z) + j Si(z)' = R
I!L =Re
J
z L(z) Approx. L(z) Error in %

(deduced from tables (deduced from series)
R ~
of E l(z) )
0.5  j 0.5 0.62419 L ~ . 67211 0.62050 {0.67763 0.59 +0.82
0.5  j 0 0.49697 ~ 4 6 0 l 0.49697 {I. 44601 0.00 0.00
3  j 3 2.1633 /0.37408, 2. 1627 {0.37378 0.03 0.08
,3  j 0 2.4165 /0.87108 2.4221 {0.89196 +0.23 +2.40
4  j 4 2.4409 /0.32884 2.4407 {0.32886 0.01 +0.01
4jO 2.7423 {0.69599 2.7629 {0.70075 +0.75 +0.69
5  j' 5 2.6482 /0.30129 2.6530 /0.30085 +0.22 0. 15
5  j 0 2.8374 {0.57788 2.8492 /0.57580 +0.42 0.36
6  j 6 2.8270 {0.28148 2.8266 {0.28153 0. 01 +0.02
6  j 0 2.8229 (0.52902 2.8236 1.52630 +0.02 0.51
D7
Values of z where y x will be seen to represent the case for bare an
tennas inuner sed in a dissipative medium having a loss tangent p which is
very small. Values of z where y ~ x will then represent that case for large
loss tangent. The quantity x will represent. the radian lengths 2/3 h or 4j9h
in the functions L(2z) and L(4z) used in our modification of Tai's integral
70
expressions. Accordingly, since we lack tables of Cin(z) and Si(z), we
shall use approximations (D. 20) for electrically short antennas and (D. 23) with
x ~ iT, y ~ x corresponding to antennas with jh ~ rr/2.
III. The Variational Solution
The zeroorder va:r;iational, or EMF, method of solution is based upon
a sinusoidal distribution of current. If the antenna lies along the zaxis and
z' denotes the position coordinate, the zeroorder current distribution is
given by
I(z') =1(0) sin k (h I z'I) (D. 24)
sin kh
in which 1(0) is the input current at z 1= O. The complex phase constant of
the current k is the same as that of the dissipative medium given by equation
(D. 1). The distribution given in equation (D. 24) is the same as that used by
51
King to obtain the approximate electromagnetic field due to a bare antenna
in dissipative media and for which Ih~ 3 '''''/2; a different distribution was
used, however, to obtain the i ~ p u t impedance.
The input impedance Zoo for the zeroorder variational (EMF) method
may be written as
D8
(D. 25)
where! is, the complex characteristic impedance of the dissipative medium
given by equation (D. 2). and where
j2z [
]lu= 2L(2z)+e In
, ] j 2Z[ J
i "';  L(4z)+Z L(2z) +e In 2
(D.26)
with z = kh =;Sh (l  j ) and with the thicknes s parameter J1 =2 In 2: .
'The functions L(W) are given by equation (D. 12) and discussed in Section DIl.
The firstorder variational solution is based upon Tai's trial current
70
distribution which may be written as
z'  {Sin k(h I z'l )+ A k(h  Iz'l ) cos k(h  I z'Ll""\} (D. 27)'
I( )  1(0) . kh k h A 'kh
SIn, + cos
The input impedanc.e tnay be written, after evaluating the constant
A, as
2
V
12
1/
11
1/
22

;:::=Z
z2 "V cos
2
z  z 1/ sin Zz + 2/ sin z
11 12 2Z
(D. 28)
,"The constant A in equation (D. 27) is evaluated from the variational method as
A=
;v p'
z 11 cos z  12 sm z
)122 sin zz )112 cos Z
(D. 29)
The paratneter ))11 in equations (D. 28) and (D. 29) is given by t3quation (D. 26).
The paratneters V
12
and ' :JI
Z2
are very long expressions which may be
D9
the real value x =p h in those
obtained from the equatio u of Tai 70 comp!e", z =kh written
IV. The Hal1'W::.vp I ",
'/
1. In Free Spat;c:
 ,... .
, ,
I
Z !rh
In free p =0, e. =I and kh become simply A h =; .
r / 0
The results of sp.ver;:LI methods [or computir.g the input impedance ha'"e
compared previously, gra;thically and occasionally in
Listed below in Table D.2 a::e numerical ':alues for the input :::
r.
and admittance '0 fcr an antenna the length of which is onehalf wavdcurih
in free space, (' .:ainM from seve.:oal methods. The value Qi ..11.. cho5"n vns 10.
The results for' :,e Jirstorder variational method were computed t.';:.:
formulas of Ta; ;rJ and tabulat'ld values ior the sine and modifiet. ..:051 '.e: ,nt.
gral (reference , ,J,ppendix). The KingMiddleton second orde we!. l!
5 51
taken from Kin,.. 's tc:xt. The ',a1ues obtained by KIng using .} :' appr ;.;,1
mation to hi. i: . :oat Ive procedu;'c are als 0 shown. The values d '::'1l' t '.' frnr
S. 51
the EMF are we!) knowr '.
The compariaon of the 'Ial',es of If calcu. by the 10' ;C
o
\ I
methods was db,cued by King. We merely add that the valu.. , ., .
by the variational method but 1"'0 in the conduct. :;: and 3r.r.
in the susceptance Crom the correuponding King .. Middleton value! <i'!' thus
agree.. wit' ..:'xperiment
., . Le Dielectric (e I 1. P =0)
r
!r" .... le dielectric, if the antenna length is aI 'I, t.
D ,,..
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