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Principles of Growth and Development

Principles of Growth and Development

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Published by Dark Avenz

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Published by: Dark Avenz on Feb 04, 2010
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05/11/2014

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PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Growth
refers to an increase in some quantity over time. The quantity can be:Physical (e.g., growth in height, growth in an amount of money)Abstract (e.g., a system becoming more complex, an organism becoming moremature).
Development
is used to denote an increase in skill or the ability to function (aqualitative change)can measured by the child’s ability to perform tasks
,
recording the parent’sdescription of the child’s progress or by standardized tests such as
Denver II* Psychosexual development* Psychosocial Development* Cognitive Development* Moral Development
Bullets on the Principles of Growth and Development* CONTINUOUS PROCESSES UNTIL DEATH* ORDERLY SEQUENCE* DIFFERENT CHILDREN PASS THROUGH THE PREDICTABLESTAGES AT DIFFERENT RATES*ALL BODY SYSTEMS DO NOT DEVELOP AT THE SAME RATE*CEPHALOCAUDAL* PROXIMAL BODY PARTS TO DISTAL*GROSS TO REFINED SKILLS*THERE IS AN OPTIMUM TIME FOR INTITIATION OFEXPERIENCES OR LEARNING*NEONATAL REFLEXES MUST BE LOST BEFORE DEVELOPMENTCAN PROCEED*A GREAT DEAL OF SKILL AND BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED BYPRACTICE
FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT1.Genetics1.Gender2.Health3.Intelligence2.Temperament1.Activity Levels2.Approach3.Rhythmicity4.Adaptability5.Distractability6.Threshold of response7.Mood quality8.Intensity of reaction
 
9.Attention Span3.Environment1.Socio Economic level2.Parent Child Relationship4.NutritionFACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT1.Genetics1.Gender2.Health3.Intelligence2.Temperament1.Activity Levels2.Approach3.Rhythmicity4.Adaptability5.Distractability6.Threshold of response7.Mood quality8.Intensity of reaction9.Attention Span3.Environment1.Socio Economic level2.Parent Child Relationship4.Nutrition
BASIC DIVISIONS OF CHILDHOOD NEONATEFirst 28 days of lifeINFANT1 mo 1 yeaTODDLER1 3 YEARSPRESCHOOLER3 5 YEARSSCHOOL AGE6 12 YEARSADOLESCENT13 20 YEARS
THEORIES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENTSigmund freud
-
INFANT:
-
0 – 18 MONTHS
 
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ORAL PHASE :
infants suck for enjoyment or relief of tension as well asfor nourishment
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Nursing implications
-
Provide oral stimulation or pleasure
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Do not discourage thumbsucking
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Breast feeding provides more stimulation than formula feeding
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Conflict
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Weaning away from mother’s beast
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Oral fixation
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Oral receptive
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Oral aggressive
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TODDLER:
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18 mos – 3 yr 
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ANAL PHASE :
 pleasure in retention of feces and defecation
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Interests in self-discovery, exertion of independence
-
 N
ursing implications
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Help children achieve bowel and bladder control without undue emphasison its importance
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Conflict
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Toilet training
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Anal fixation
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Anal Retentive
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Anal Expulsive
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PRESCHOOLER 
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4 TO 6 YEARS
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PHALLIC PHASE :
 pleasure zone to the genital area
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Masturbation is common, exhibitionism
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Child learns sexual identity through awareness of genital area
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 N
ursi ng implications
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Accept child’s sexual interest as normal
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Help parents answer child’s questions about birth or sexual differences
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Conflict
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Oedipus / Electra Conflicts
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Phallic fixation
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Oedipus complex
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Penis envy
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Castration anxiety
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SCHOOL AGE
-
7 TO 12 YEARS

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