by Pablo de Felipe recently been reviewed in this journal the book The Secret Co de of the Bible (fourth), which purports to explain the recent discovery of a my sterious "code" in the Bible that would "learn" from past to future. Such claims have continued to cause some concern. Here we examine these assumptions startin g from its history. Bible and Kabbalah The Hebrew people did not stand out in an cient times for their interest in mathematics. But in the Bible, it reflects a s trong interest in numbers and their symbolic use, in particular Goal 7, continuo usly used, but without explaining its meaning or interest to attribute this to a nything in particular. Kabbalah means tradition and initially called all entries received with the exception of the Torah (Law or Pentateuch). In the Middle Age s, began to restrict their use to refer to all Jewish secret doctrines intended to explain the universe based on a complex theosophical philosophy which was att ributed to the prophets or patriarchs. While the Kabbalists were based on tradit ional Jewish elements, their ideas were not accepted by everyone. The basic book s of Kabbalah is the Zohar (thirteenth century) and the Jezirah (IX), but its or igins date back to the complex interplay of mystical and occult philosophies whi ch were fashionable at the end of the Roman Empire and especially in the famous Alexandria. However, its heyday was in the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance, its influence extends to Christianity, as many thought they saw reflected in Kabbala h Christian truths (the Trinity, Messiah, etc.), And some became Christian Kabba lists. The interest in these studies reached the potatoes (2 / 17). The Hebrew l anguage Hebrew, ancient Semitic language akin to the Canaanite, Phoenician, has an alphabet of 22 consonants (vowels are not written). As in other ancient langu ages, each letter has a numeric value. Until the Middle Ages, Hebrew was written continuously, without separating words or paragraphs. Like other ancient langua ges, has a limited vocabulary (about five hundred roots and five thousand words) and a high polysemy (each word can have multiple meanings.) In a text, it is es sential to take into account the context provided. Hermeneutical traditions and Kabbalistic Kabbalah methodology is in connection with a particular way of seein g the biblical text, without which the Cabalistic methodologies that apply to th eir study, they would not make much sense. For the Kabbalah, the Bible is a grea t mystery code on how important or more than the text message is the same, words , letters, shapes of appendices of letters, etc. Therefore, the Kabbalist can no t simply read the Bible, you have to decode, unravel its mysteries hidden by a h ermeneutic and esoteric initiates. A. Modern Kabbalist D. Grad said: - the tradi tion teaches that the order of the paragraphs of the Bible is the true order, as it only knows the Master of the Universe, because otherwise everyone who read i t could create a world, give life to the dead and do miracles, [...]. (3 / 68, 6 9). Hence there is only one step to the elitist conception of two levels of Bibl e reading, the surface of ordinary people and the depth of the initiated and tea ches the Zohar (4 / 35, 36). Thus, we have the two fundamental ideas to understa nd the work Kabbalist: The Bible is a great code and that code is hidden, messy and interspersed in the text. The latter further reinforced the idea that the in itiatory character code produced by itself. The attention of the Kabbalist is no t limited to reading the biblical text to a deeper level, but read another text that is hidden within the Bible. To this end, the Kabbalist uses various procedu res Gematria (numerical value calculation of words), Notaricon (formation of acr ostics or final letters of words of text) and Temoura (changing the order of the letters of a word or decomposition of it into new ones) (5/XLIX-LXII).
One of the things that attracts the attention of this form of hermÃ©utica is tha t, unlike the usual hermeneutics, do not take into account context, or text, or the books of the Bible, not the entire
2 Bible. The context is completely neglected. In the background is the great ene my, referring to the direct reading of the text and orderly. But the Kabbalist d espises the ordinary structure of the Bible as the structure "real" is hidden. T hus, the Kabbalist is not that does not respect the contextÂit destroys it for new meanings: the sages said: "When Moses was born the whole house was filled wi th light. It is written, it was good [Ex 2:2] and is written: And God saw the li ght was good [Gen. 1:4]. " (6 / 81). The wise interpreters did not have many qua lms about handling the biblical text and used as the Gematria methods to suit th eir own ideas: [...]. Thus, in Nm. 12:1 we read that Moses was married to an "Et hiopian woman" (in the original, "Cushith"), Onkelos put in place that, by "Gema tria", the words "beautiful appearance" being the numerical value of both Cushit h as "a beautiful part 'of 736. With this substitution was removed while the obj ectionable idea that Moses had married an Ethiopian. [...]. (7 / 299). Kabbalist ic Philosophy Kabbalists also created a philosophy that was a hodgepodge of bibl ical ideas and Greek philosophy in vogue in the medieval period. In general, the scheme was pantheistic and emanating Kabbalist. Everything comes from God throu gh fumes, so that God will not have direct contact with the terrestrial world, a s this profane perfection (it is interesting to note the similarities of this wi th the Aristotelian cosmology as popular in the Middle Ages.) In this process te n "intelligences" intermediate called Sephiroth, which hierarchically from one a nother from the same God. In other schemes are attached great importance to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which, with the Sephiroth, are the 32 ways of Wisdom (2 / 15, 16). Kabbalah degenerated into a syncretic religion away from t he biblical doctrine contained in the "superficial reading" of Scripture. Not su rprisingly, after the initial boom in the Middle Ages, had just being away from mainstream Judaism, especially in recent centuries when not only his theology wa s suspect, but the cosmology in which he leaned was ruined by science modern.
A collection of articles and magic Occult Kabbalists Kabbalists's interest goes beyond the decoding of the text, for them the language, particularly the Hebrew language, not a media without more. If the Bible was a mystery full of deep and hidden meanings, the Hebrew, the language of Adam, too (3 / 15). As the above qu otation from A. D. Grad explains clearly this is not just theoretical, the Kabba list is eminently practical and uses his knowledge to act as a magician and gain power. This took the central idea of magic: to do something "natural" in this w orld, to get something "supernatural" is activated from another world into ours. Thus, the magician is one who knows the secret "leverage" in this world can mov e to force the supernatural world to act in favor of the Magician on Earth (in t he Bible this is called "tempting" or "put to the test God, "Mat. 4:5-7, Lk. 4:9 -12; is something besides forbidden, absurd, since God can not be controlled by humans): According to Kabbalah, everything that exists on Earth is formed on the model of the world above. "There is not the smallest object in this world," say s Rabbi lacks Ytsjak-equivalent to the top of the world is governed. " Also, by placing objects moving down here, are made to move the forces that govern top. ( 3 / 34). The Cabal "practice" intended to do miracles: healings, exorcisms, etc. ., Invoking God's name or writing it on amulets. The most famous and most fright ening, magical legend of the golem is Kabbalist (clay figure which was given wit h special spells life). Finally, the Kabbalah was used to predict the future and the coming of the Messiah. Kabalism computerized or secret code of Michael Dros nin's Bible Unfortunately, the cabalistic mania did not end in the Middle Ages o r the Renaissance. Still alive today. We saw as the kabbalistic extended to both Jews and Christians. If the medieval Kabbalists sought a deep knowledge in Kabb alah in the Renaissance it became fashionable among Christians to try, just agai nst the Jews, the truth of the Christian message. In recent centuries, to the cr iticism of the Bible, the main objective of many growers of these ideas is apolo getic. Intend to use these "discoveries" to "demonstrate" the doubters, divine i nspiration
of Kabbalah. It is because it was believed that the text was sacred and divinel y inspired, by what was sought in him a superior knowledge, not vice versa. Rabb is, mathematicians, and journalists and we got to the computer age. Computers an d technology have revolutionized everything and Kabbalists have been modernized. ÂBut they have not changed the claims of greatness, as in the past, dream of ac quiring influence. The last episode (so far) of this story is about a book calle d The Secret Code of the Bible, the American journalist Michael Drosnin (8). The title says it all, as the ancient Kabbalah, contains the three key words: "code ", "secret" and "Bible." How do I get this code? It converts the text of the law in a continuous strand of 304 805 points. Then he tells the computer to look fo r names, words, etc. we provide. The computer starts the search by the first let ter and is trying all the possibilities, forming words by steps of 1, 2, etc. ch aracters. After the search is repeated starting with the second letter, and so o n until the last of the 304,805. By finding a keyword formed by the joining of l etters with the minimum fixed separation possible, the computer rearranges the t ext so that word can be read vertically and make a "two-dimensional array" of le tters, whose ranks have as wide the distance between the letters of the keyword. Following are looking around other related words in any possible management (ve rtical, horizontal, diagonal, etc.).. The combination of this procedure are exor bitant, as one of its inventors, the mathematician Rips: Ten or twenty billion m inimum. [...]. (8 / 44). In the eighties, the group of physicist Doron Witztum, with the participation of the mathematician Eliyahu Rips, it was decided to stud y this idea with the help of statistics and computer science. This sought in Gen esis matches between the names of a list of Jewish characters and their dates of birth or death. The surprisingly successful results were published in the journ al Statistical Science (9). Drosnin Although not mentioned, we must not lose sig ht of the main protagonists of this story, Doron Witztum, Eliyahu Rips and Drosn in that as an independent, Harold Gans, are related (especially the latter) with the Jewish religious organization Aish HaTorah , using the "code of the Torah" as part of his apologetics (11). Witztum's followers maintain several pages on t he Internet (12). With this group, especially with Rips, had contact at the begi nning of this decade, Drosnin, who became a fan of the "code of the Bible: The B ible is shaped like a giant puzzle. Is encrypted from start to finish with words that connecting one another, reveal a hidden history. [...]. There is a Bible u nder the Bible. "(8 / 24, 25). As in the best Kabbalistic tradition, not just to seek some kind of more or less esoteric wisdom and mysterious. Applications" pr actices "are around the corner: Rips took a volume of his library and I read a q uote from an eighteenth-century sage called the Genius of Vilna: 'It is a rule t hat everything that was, is and will until the end of time is included in the To rah, from first to last word. And not only in a general sense, but every detail of each species and each of its members, and even the detail of every detail of what happens to it from birth to which ceases to exist. "(8 / 18). Drosnin he cl aims that do not yet know if all the past and all the future of every one of us are contained in a higher level and for now inaccessible password of the Bible. This would make, in effect, in the Book of Life. [...]. (8 / 45). The book begin s by presenting a simple case and spectacular, a matrix in which the name "Yitzh ak Rabin "vertical is crossed horizontally by" murderer who will assassinate ". This figure appears on the cover of the book and is explained in great detail in the interior (Fig. 1). Then, and to support confidence in the" code the Bible " , are matrices containing the announcement of recent international events or his tory. Posted this basis, Drosnin passed to the central idea of the book, what is the object of his main interest: the announcement of Armageddon. In the matrix where he announced the assassination of Rabin on "murderer who murdered," reads the phrase "all his people into war." Subsequently, Drosnin found other matrices which speaks of "holocaust of Israel" and the date of the Jewish year 5756 ( 19 95 / 6). However, a shadow slips as early as page 56, the letters
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