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Chemical risk assessment

Chemical risk assessment

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Published by: 4gen_5 on Jul 08, 2010
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The model presented is currently undergoing a validation operation. Regions that , in different ways, have participated in this trial are, in addition to Emilia- Romagna, Tuscany, Lombardy, Veneto, Marche and Piedmont.

Alternatively, the measurement of the chemical agent is possible and widely prac
ticed, the use of risk assessment systems based on mathematical relations (or gr
aphical models) known algorithms (literally calculation procedures). Algorithms
(or models) are procedures that assign a numeric value to a number of factors or
parameters involved in determining the risk weighting for each of them differen
tly, the absolute importance and mutual evaluation on the final result. Obviousl
y, an algorithm (or model) is more efficient as the factors identified and their
"weight" are relevant to the type of risk Treaty. The factors identified are th
en placed in a simple mathematical relationship (or in a graphical model), which
provides a numerical index which gives not so much an absolute risk, as it allo
ws you to insert the value found in a "numerical scale of risk" identifying, for
the situation discussed the importance of a graduation index value calculated.
Thus assumes importance in the construction of an algorithm: the identification
of precise parameters that determine the risk, the identification of "weight" of
compensation factors against the risk, the identification number of the report
linking parameters between them ( factors additive, multiplicative, exponential,
...) the identification of the scale index values in relation to risk (eg very
low, low, medium, medium-high and high....). The proposed model is a mode of an
alysis that allows for risk assessment in accordance with Article 72-quater of L
egislative Decree no. 626/94 (a Title VII "Protection from chemical agents") in
the model is in fact expected identification and the weight to be assigned to th
e parameters set out in Article of the law and which can not be ignored. The mod
el identifies a path simple, as simple as possible, to perform risk assessment b
y small craft enterprises, Industry, Commerce and Services without signing, at l
east at this stage, evaluations with measurement of the chemical. Finally, the m
odel should be understood as a process of "facilitation" which would allow small
and medium enterprises, the classification above or below the threshold of mode
rate risk. Should emphasize that prevention and protection of a general nature,
such as those provided by DPR 303/56 (General Norms for the Hygiene), DPR 547/55
(Rules for the prevention of accidents at work) and Article 72-d of D.Lgs.626/9
4 must be taken before the risk assessment.

2The model for assessing the risk from exposure to hazardous chemicals
The risk R for risk assessments resulting from exposure to hazardous chemicals i
s the product of hazard and exposure to P (Hazard x Exposure).

The danger P is the rate of intrinsic hazard of a substance or preparation that
the application of this model is identified with the risk phrases that are used
in classification according to EU Directive 67 / 548/CEE amended. Each sentence
is assigned an R rating (score) taking into account the criteria for classificat
ion of substances and preparations, indicated in Legislative Decree 52/97, 65/20
03 and Ministerial Decree 28/04/1997 and 14/06 / 2002. The danger then P is the
potential hazard of a substance regardless of the levels at which people are exp
osed (intrinsic hazard). The exposure E is the exposure of individuals in specif
ic job. The risk R determined according to this model, takes into account the pa
rameters of Article 72-quater of Title VII bis of Legislative Decree no. 626/94:

The danger P are taken into account the hazardous properties and assignment of a

limit value professional, by the score awarded to them for the display and were taken into account: type, duration of exposure, which is how the ' exposure, th e amount used, the effects of preventative and protective measures taken.

The risk R in this model,€can be calculated separately for inhalation exposure a
nd dermal exposure:

Rinal = P = P x x Einal Rcute Ecute
Where a chemical agent are provided both routes simultaneously absorbing the cum
ulative risk R (Rcum) is obtained by the following calculation:

Rcum =

The ranges of variation of R are:
Rinal2 + Rcute2
0.1 <Rinal <100 1 <Rcute <100 1 <Rcum <141

3Hazard Identification Index P

The transposition of Directive 98/24/EC and the subsequent imposition of Title V
II-bis of Legislative Decree no. 626/94 has confirmed that in the presence of ch
emical risk to the health of the general measures of protection under Article. 3
Leg. 626/94 and Articles. 9, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25 and 26 DPR 303/56 should in
any case always be strictly observed, of course together with the measures subs
equently identified with special art. 72-d Leg. 626/94 and that is:
a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

design and organization of systems of work at the workplace, the provision of ap propriate equipment for specific work and its maintenance procedures, minimizing the number of workers who are or might be exposed, the minimization the duratio n and intensity of exposure, the appropriate hygiene measures, minimization of t he number of agents present in the workplace as required processing; suitable wo rking procedures including provisions which ensure the safe handling, in 'storag e and transport in the workplace of hazardous chemical agents and waste containi ng such chemical agents.

From this consideration of technical and legal consequence that a Title VII-Leg. 626/94 in no way lead to attenuation of general measures of protection of worke rs at work, no matter what the application of Statement former, so that measures of prevention and protection of a general nature referred to above must be appl ied even before assessing the risk from chemicals. In other words, any model / a lgorithm applied to the thorough assessment of chemical risks can not ignore the preliminary implementation and priority of the principles and general measures to protect workers. Is also useful to reiterate that if the risk from chemicals, the health protection of workers from exposure to chemicals is increasingly tie d to research and development of less hazardous products to prevent, reduce and eliminate, where possible, the danger as a priority at source. The EU policy is aimed at facilitating this vital process for the protection of human health and in this context should be added to Title VII-bis of Legislative Decree. 626/94, where it requires the employer to assess the risk for chemical health and safety of workers in the selection of substances and preparations used in the producti on process, and replace, if there is an alternative, what is dangerous with what is or is not less dangerous. Do not forget that the use of carcinogens and muta gens in the presence of risk from hazardous chemicals above the threshold assess ment due to moderate, the substitution is a measure of protection mandatory and failure to comply (artt.62 and 72 - e 1.D.Lgs paragraphs. 626/94) is penalized w ith a default precision art. 89 paragraph 2. A) Leg. 626/94.

4The use of models / algorithms for chemical risk assessment is also useful as a

tool that, from information equally available to all, to make choices between po ssible chemical hazard that possess different, having the same function of use a nd serve similar purposes, may be used in an equivalent manner. Able to discrimi nate between chemicals with the same result of use, but different hazard means b eing able to replace what is dangerous with what is not or has not, and then ful fill the general measure of protection under Article . 3 paragraph 1. Lett. e) L eg. 626/94.

Thorough assessment of chemical risk with Models / Algorithms
Confirmed and reiterated that the measures of prevention and protection of prior
ity over the general adoption of any model / algorithm for risk assessment, to p
erform in depth the process of risk assessment for health workers without making
measurements of ' agent or chemical agents in the production process is essenti
al to make the path planning to identify the intrinsic hazards of chemicals that
are used,€according to the terms and quantity of the chemical that is used and
therefore consumed in the production cycle, and exposure times of each employee.
This will make it possible to assess the chemical risks for each worker in rela
tion to their specific duties, which must be precisely identified by the employe
r and made known to the employee himself. The methodology that is proposed must
be able to assess the risk in relation to chemical hazard assessment for workers
' health and that based on the knowledge of the toxicological properties inheren
t in the short, medium and long term effects of hazardous chemicals used or shed
in the workplace according to the exposure of workers, which in turn depend on
the quantity of the chemical used or produced by the method of use and frequency
of exposure. The method indexed to be proposed will be a tool as simple as poss
ible, in which the toxicological properties of chemicals present in productive a
ctivities are evaluated and studied in order to give to any property, single or
combined graduation of danger therefore a score expressed in numbers from 1 to 1
0 (score) representing the danger P. In other words, the hazard index P aims to
synthesize a number of the health hazards of a chemical agent. It states that th
e toxicological properties valued between there are carcinogenic and / or mutage
ns, which are considered only under Title VII D.Lgs.626/94, because, legally, an
d for carcinogens or mutagens can not identifying a risk threshold below which t
he risk is moderate. Also confirms that, for carcinogens and / or mutagens, when
it comes to risk assessment in reality there is always linked to an exposure as

5Methods for assessing the intrinsic hazard to the health of a chemical agent. Cr

iteria for identification of the index P
The method of detecting a hazard index of P is based on the classification of da
ngerous substances and preparations established by Italian law, which, of course
, comes from directives and regulations of the EEC (67/548/CEE and following add
itions and modifications). Currently the last in our system of national legislat
ion transposing the general requirements for the classification of dangerous sub
stances and preparations is represented by Annex VIII to the Decree of the Minis
try of Health June 14, 2002, N.197 published in the ordinary supplement to Offic
ial Gazette No. 244, October 17, 2002. In the same decree was published the upda
ted list following the transposition of Directive 2001/59/EC laying XXVIII ° ada
ptation to technical progress Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 3686 hazardous sub
stances officially classified by their labeling that summarizes all hazardous pr
operties (toxicity, physico-chemical and ecotoxicological). Even the Legislative
Decree 14 March 2003, n.65 transposition of Directive 1999/45/EC of 31 May 1999
the European Parliament and Council, such a conventional method for assessing t
he health hazards of preparations of extreme importance to give proper grading t
he risk classification for health, whether official provisional tends to identif

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