Cortes de Cádiz: Setup and Configuration piece of legislation opening session of the Parliament took place on September 24, 1810

in San Fernando today. The comp osition of the courts is difficult to ascertain, because they have not kept accu rate lists of members. At the first meeting gathered more than a hundred. Over t ime there came to be, with later additions, some 300 deputies. Many of them had to overcome many obstacles to get to Cadiz and the resolution was adopted they w ere replaced with those who could not cross the French lines. In total there wer e about fifty deputies, who were chosen among the refugees in the provinces of t he deputies absent. In terms of social origin, had a majority from the urban mid dle classes: civil servants, lawyers, businessmen and professionals. Also a chur ch and a few hundred fifty members of the aristocracy. But the social background did not always correspond to the ideas. From the opening session the initiative was taken by the most liberal. The liberal priest Diego Muñoz Torrero proposed the adoption of a first order, in which the courts themselves were attributed to the sovereign status and representatives of the national will. In addition, it was recognized as king Fernando VII by declaring void his resignation, mainly "d ue to lack the consent of the nation." Courts reserved for themselves the legisl ative power, but acknowledged the existence of a judiciary and an executive who identified with the Regency, naming another when the former presented the resign ation. Piece of legislation: Constitution and ordinary legislation The work acco mplished by the Cortes of Cadiz has two distinct and complementary dimensions. O n the one hand, be conducted through a series of laws and decrees, a typical act ion of any liberal revolution: the settlement of legal and economic foundations on which rested the estate society. Otherwise, with this work of dismantling the Old Regime (though still moderate), the Courts are proposed the development of a constitutional text, which lays the foundations for a new Spanish state. Both work-dismantling of the ancien regime and liberal state building intersect. The set of decrees that are staggered between 1811 and 1813, abolition of estates, c onfiscation, decoupling, suspension controls ...- union with the aim of undermin ing the foundations of the old regime are the result of the needs that arise ove r the drafting of Articles of the Constitution, yet are essential to their imple mentation once approved (remember that the decrees we have developed in class.) Constitution Adopted on March 19, 1812 and popularly known as "La Pepa", the leg al text was the first liberal constitution in the country. The constitution of 1 812 is one of the great liberals of history texts and is very famous in his time . Agustín Argüelles liberal deputies, Diego Muñoz Pérez de Castro Torrero and are the most important figures in its development. The Constitution consists of 10 t itles and 384 articles. It is therefore a very long Constitution, especially the section devoted to the legislature, which by itself accounts for more than a th ird of the total. Title I is entitled "The Spanish and the Spanish Nation," and includes the declaration of national sovereignty, fundamental rights and the sep aration of powers. These are the main features of the Constitution: • National sovereignty. The power resides in the nation, an idea opposed to monarc hical sovereignty. Division of Powers. or Legislative branch: Live in the Cortes -unicameral, with the King. The King may issue, sanction and veto laws, the latt er through a suspensive veto more than twice in a period of three years. After t hat, the decision of the Parliament becomes law. or judicial power: courts or th Your orders must b e executive branch: King, but with significant limitations: e validated by the signature of the Minister concerned. You can not dissolve t he Parliament can not abdicate You can not leave the country without permiss ion from the courts need permission marriage can not take a foreign policy n ot supervised by the House, or impose taxes appoints the ministers, but they m ust be countersigned by the Cortes ("double trust") New right of representation. The nation exercises its sovereignty through their representatives in parliamen t. Courts automatically gather for a minimum of three months per year, from Marc h 1, have a term of two years and members enjoy absolute immunity in the exercis

e of his office.€Complicated electoral procedure by indirect universal male suff rage in fourth grade. Voting rights: all men over 25 years, who chose a few elec tors who in turn elected the deputies. Members must be Spanish and be eligible t o the tax who taxed a certain amount (eligibility based on census) Equality of c itizens before the law. This meant an end to the privileges estates. It omits an y reference to territories with privileges, equivalent to its non-recognition. H owever, provincial regimes of the Basque provinces and Navarre not expressly rep ealed. • • • • • • • • Recognition of individual rights: to education, freedom of the press, inviolabil ity of domicile, liberty and property. The constitution establishes a standing a rmy, whose troops, ordinances and provision shall be governed by the courts. Nex t to it is established the National Militia, organized in the provinces, with tw o objectives: to reinforce the Army in wartime, and to serve as defense corps of the liberal state. Reports directly to the King and the courts, not the militar y chain of command. Catholicism is the only permitted religious denomination. Th e need for collaboration of the clergy in the fight against the French intoleran t that explains this feature clashes with the advanced spirit of the constitutio n. The Constitution had three periods of validity: March 1812-March 1814, 1820novie mbre January 1823, August 1836-June 1837.