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Triangles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Circle 1. Radius is the distance from the center to any point on the circle. 2. Chord is any line segment joining any two points on the circle. 3. Diameter is a chord that passes through the center of the circle. 4. Arc is a portion of a circle. 5. Segment is the figure formed by a chord and the arc subtending the chord. 6. Sector is the figure formed by two radii and the included arc. 7. Tangent is the line that intersects the circle at a single point. 8. Secant is the line that intersects the circle at two distinct points. 9. Circumference is the length of perimeter of the circle. 10. Central angle is the angle whose vertex lies at the center of the circle and whose sides are two radii. 11. Inscribed angle is the angle whose vertex lies at the circle and whose sides are two chords. 12. Concentric circles are circles with a common center. 13. Annulus is the region bounded by two concentric circles. Polygon Types of Polygons 1. Triangle is a polygon containing 3 sides. 2. Quadrilateral or Tetragon is a polygon having 4 sides. 3. Pentagon is a polygon of 5 sides. 4. Hexagon is a polygon of 6 sides. 5. Heptagon is a polygon of 7 sides. Scalene triangle is a triangle with no two equal sides. Isosceles triangle is a triangle with two equal sides. Equilateral triangle is a triangle with all sides equal. Right triangle is a triangle which contains a right angle. Oblique triangle is a triangle with no right angle. a) Acute triangle is an oblique triangle with three acute angles. b) Obtuse triangle is an oblique triangle with one obtuse angle.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Octagon is a polygon of 8 sides. Nonagon is a polygon of 9 sides. Decagon is a polygon of 10 sides. Undecagon is a poygon of 11 sides. Dodecagon is a polygon of 12 sides. Pentadecagon is a polygon of 15 sides. Icosagon is a polygon of 20 sides. Chillagon is a polygon of 1000 sides. N-gon is a polygon of n sides. Regular polygon is a polygon having all sides and interior angles equal.

Other Plane Figures Trapezoid is a quadrilateral with two parallel sides. Trapezium is a quadrilateral with no two sides parallel. Parallelogram is a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel. Rectangle is a parallelogram with each interior angle measures 900. Square is an equilateral rectangle. Rhomboid is a parallelogram whose adjacent sides are unequal. Rhombus is a parallelogram whose all sides are equal.

AREAS OF PLANE FIGURES

a) (s .h b b h A= 1 bh 2 A= a b 1 ab sinθ 2 θ Heron’s Formula: A = s (s .c) a c a b where the semi perimeter s = (a + b + c)/2 a A = a2 l w A=lw h A = bh .b) (s .

.. 2 -abcd cosθ where s = a+b+c+d 2 A+C B+D θ= = 2 2 1 d1 d2 sin θ 2 d1 θ d2 A= isosceles trapezoid a h b A = ½ (a+b) h .b Rhombus d1 d2 A= 1 d1 d2 2 a B b C D C Trapezium d A A= (s-a)(s-b)(s-c)(s-d) .

Regular pentagon s a θ A=½ans where n is the number of sides and a is the apothem a = ½ s cot (θ/2) θ = 3600/n r θ r sector s 1 2 r θ 2 where s = rθ 1 or A= rs 2 r = radius θ = angle in radian A= r θ r Segment A= 1 2 r [θ .sinθ] 2 .

Secant Theorem A D .R r annulus A = π (R2 – r2) b a A = π ab l d A= 2 ld 3 Some Theorems on Circles 1. Cross – Chord Theorem If two chords intersect within a circle. ( AE) ( EB) = ( CE) ( ED) C E B 2. then the product of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the segments of the other chord.

A straight line perpendicular to a radius at its endpoint on the circle is tangent to the circle. The diameter that is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord and its two arcs. Tangent-Secant Theorem If a tangent line and a secant line are drawn from a circle to a point in its exterior. the diameter that bisects a chord is perpendicular to the chord. Conversely. Central angles of the same or equal circles have the same ratio as their arcs. then the product of the secant line and its external segment is equal to the product of the other entire secant line and its external segment. then the product of the secant line and its external segment is equal to the square of the tangent line. ( AC) ( BC) = ( CD) ( EC) A B C D E 3. The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the center of the circle. 5. ( BA) ( CA) = ( TA) ( TA) = ( TA) 2 C B T A 4. C r T . B 7.If two secant lines are drawn from a circle to a point in its exterior. A O D C 6.

The measure of a central angle is the angular measure of its intercepted arc. The line of centers of two tangent circles passes through the point of contact. An inscribed angle is measured by ½ of its intercepted arc. An angle inscribed in a semi-circle is a right angle. c1 c2 c1 c2 9. A C B . The intercepted arc is measured by its central angle.8. A θ C 10. β = S θ 2θ 11.

Regular Polyhedron or Platonic Solid is a solid whose faces are identical regular polygons. 5. In a cyclic quadrilateral. OF EDGES 6 12 12 30 30 NO. Edges of a polyhedron are the intersection of the bounding planes. the sum of the products of the opposite sides is equal to the product of the diagonals. 6. Vertices are the intersections of the edges. Section of a solid is the plane figure cut from the solid by passing a plane through it. Faces are the portions of the bounding planes included by the edges. POLYHEDRON Tetrahedron Hexahedron Octahedron Dodecahedron Icosahedrons FACES Triangle Square Triangle Pentagon Triangle NO. Polyhedron is a solid bounded by planes. 4. b a d1 c d2 d Definitions: 1. 2. OF FACES 4 6 8 12 20 NO. Solid is any limited portion of space bounded by surfaces. OF VERTICES 4 8 6 20 12 .12. 3. 7.

b b L h Ar Ab L Ar Ab h Truncated Prism is a portion of a prism included between the base and a plane that is not parallel to the base. h l w Prism is a polyhedron of which the two parallel faces are equal polygons and the other faces are parallelograms.Cube is a polyhedron whose six faces are all congruent squares. Right Prism is a prism whose lateral faces are rectangles that are perpendicular to its bases. a a a Rectangular Parallelepiped is a polyhedron whose six faces are all rectangles. h Ab h Ab Oblique Prism is a prism whose lateral faces are not perpendicular to its bases. h4 h2 Ab h3 h1 h1 Ab h2 h3 .

r A A’ Section AA’ Right Circular cylinder is a circular cylinder whose elements are perpendicular to its base. r h Pyramid is a polyhedron of which the base is a polygon of n number of sides and the other faces are triangles with a common vertex.Rectangular prism triangular prism Circular Cylinder is a cylinder with a circular right section. h b b . Ab l Ab b h Regular Pyramid is a pyramid whose base is a regular polygon and the other faces are isosceles triangles.

b Frustum of a Regular Pyramid is a 1portion of a regular pyramid included between the base and a section parallel to the base. c1 B1 l c2 B2 r1 h r2 . B1 l h B2 b2 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone is a portion of a right circular cone included between the base and a section parallel to the base.Cone is a solid bounded by a conical surface and the plane intersecting all the elements. l Ab h r Right Circular Cone is a circular cone with axis perpendicular to its base.

B2 h r Sphere is a solid bounded by a closed surface where every point is equidistant from a fixed point.Prismatoid or Prismoid is a polyhedron whose parallel bases are polygons and the lateral faces triangles or trapezoids. B1 B m h Cylindrical Wedge is a prismatoid obtained by passing an inclined section through a cylinder that passes through the center of the base. Spherical Segment is a solid bounded by a zone and the planes of the zone’s bases. Spherical Zone is a portion of the surface of a sphere included between two parallel planes. . called the center.

h r Spherical Sector is a solid generated by rotating a sector of a circle about an axis which passes through the center of the circle but which contains no point inside the sector. b a Ellipsoid or Spheroid is a solid formed by rotating an ellipse about its axis. . ` Spherical Triangle is a portion of the surface of a sphere bounded by arcs of three great circles. A B C Spherical Pyramid or Spherical Polygon is a portion of a sphere bounded by a spherical polygon and the plane of its side. A D B C Torus is a solid formed by rotating a circle about a line not intersecting it.

Y have the same ratio. respectively similar and similarly placed. Oblate Spheroid is a solid formed by rotating an ellipse about its minor axis.Prolate Spheroid is a solid formed by rotating an ellipse about its major axis. . and y. Formulas: 1. 2. X . a a b a b a b Paraboloid of Revolution is a solid formed by revolving a b parabolic area about its axis. The areas of similar plane figures or similar surfaces have the same ratio as the squares of any two corresponding lines. In similar figures of any kind. The volumes of similar solids have the same ratio as the cubes of any two corresponding lines. r R b h h Similar Figures r Similar polyhedrons are polyhedrons that have the same number of faces. pairs of corresponding line segments such as x. Corresponding lines of similar figures are proportional. 3. and have their corresponding polyhedral angles are equal.

the lateral area is the sum of the areas of the LSA = e pk = h pk remaining faces. Rectangular Parallelepiped 3. Right Prism . TSA = 2 (lw + lh + wh) The opposite lateral faces V = (lw) h are equal and parallel. V = Bh Where: The intersections of the lateral = Area of polygon x e = lateral edge faces are called lateral edges. height = height (for These lateral edges are equal right prism) and parallel.Formulas I. a2 = area of one face The parallel edges are equal. Cube Solids for which V= Bh Base area x height SURFACE AREA TSA = 6a2 VOLUME PROPERTIES The three dimensions of a cube are equal to each V = Bh = (a2) a other. The bases are the equal polygons. Every section made by a plane parallel to the base is equal in area to that of the base. SOLID 1. The sections made by parallel pk = perimeter of 2. = a3 All the faces of a cube are congruent squares. Any two opposite faces may be taken as the bases. All edges are equal.

A right prism is a prism whose lateral edges are perpendicular to its bases. Truncated Triangular .planes cutting all the lateral edges are equal polygons. A right section of a prism is a section perpendicular to the lateral edges. The altitude of a prism is the perpendicular distance between the planes of its bases. 4. Oblique Prism right section TSA = 2B + LSA V = Ab h = Ar L V = Ab (h1 + h2 + h3)/3 S = Pr L S = Pb (h1 + h2 + h3)/3 Prism5. its lateral faces are rectangles.

The center of any section of a right circular cylinder parallel to the base is the axis. Right Circular Cylinder V = Bh = (πr2 ) h LSA = 2πrh TSA = 2B + LSA TSA = 2πr2 + 2πrh TSA = 2πr ( r + h) . and is therefore also called a cylinder of revolution. The axis of a right circular cylinder is the line joining the centers of the bases.Prism6. Rectangular V = Ab (h1 + h2 + h3 + h4)/4 S = Pb (h1 + h2 + h3 + h4)/3 Every cross-section of a circular cylinder is a circular region congruent to the base. Any element of a right circular cylinder is equal to its altitude. Every cross-section of a circular cylinder has the same area as the base. The volume of a circular cylinder is the product of its altitude and the area of its base. A right circular cylinder may be generated by the revolution of a rectangle about one side as an axis. Every section of a right circular cylinder made by a plane 7.

II.containing an element is a rectangle. Solids for which V=1/3 Bh 1/3 X Base area x height .

The lateral edges of a regular V = 1/3 Bh pyramid are equal. If the regular pyramid is cut by a plane parallel to its base. The altitude is the distance between the vertex and the center of the circle which forms its base. The slant height of a right circular cone is the length of an element. A section parallel to the base is a 9. The lateral faces are congruent V = 1/3 x (area of LSA = (1/2)nbl isosceles triangles. the pyramid cut off is a regular pyramid. polygon) x (height) The altitudes of the lateral faces TSA = B + LSA are equal. The altitude is equal to the length of the perpendicular dropped from the vertex to the center of the base. B= πr2 It is a solid generated by rotating a right triangle about one of its legs as an axis. The slant height is the altitude of a lateral face. and the area of the base of the cone is the surface generated by the leg which is not the axis of rotation. All elements are equal. Regular Pyramid . Right Circular Cone 8. the surface LSA = πrl V = (1/3) πr2h generated by the hypotenuse of the triangle is the lateral area of TSA = LSA + B the cone.

All the elements are equal V = (h/3) [πr12 + πr22 + πr1r2] LSA = πl (r1 + r2) . and the faces are equal isosceles trapezoids. Frustum of a Right Circular The altitude is the perpendicular distance between the two bases. Frustum of a Regular Solids for which V = (mean B) h V= mean base area x height V = (h/3) [B1 + B2 + √B1B2] The slant height is the altitude of a face. A section which contains the vertex and two points of the base is an isosceles triangle. LSA = b2/2)nl (b1 + Cone11.circle whose center is on the axis of the cone. III Pyramid10. The lateral edges are equal.

V = (h/6) [B1 + B2 + 4Bm] IV 15. Sphere 14. Cylindrical OTHER SOLIDS Volume V = (2/3) r2 h Surface Area V = (πr2h)/2 V = (4/3) πr3 S = 4πr2 16. Spherical Zone S = 2πrh . Conoid Wedge13.Prismatoid12.

Ellipsoid or Spheroid V = (4/3) πabc .17. Torus 20. Spherical Pyramid or Spherical Polygon V = 2π2Rr2 or V = (π2/4) ( a + b) (b – a)2 22. Spherical Segment V = (πh2/3) [3r – h] 18. E=(A+B+ C) − 180° V = [πr3 E/540°] A =[πr2 E/180°]. Spherical Sector V = (2/3) πr2 h 19. Spherical Triangle A = [πr2 E/180°]. E=(sum of angles) − (n − 2) 180° A = 4π2Rr or A = π2 (b2 – a2) 21.

Prolate Spheroid Spheroid V = (4/3) πab2 V = (4/3) πa2 b 27. If a regular polygon has 27 diagonals. a. 533. 12 b. then it is a ____________________.10 km 1997 NOV ECE BOARD EXAM 3.24.01 km c. . Oblate 23. 13 c. 353. Assuming that the earth is a sphere whose radius is 6400 km. 353. then the length of the secant is _______ inches.10 km d. The tangent and a secant are drawn to a circle from the same external point. 14 d. If the tangent is 6 inches and the external segment of the secant is 3 inches. Paraboloid of Revolution w/ Revolution w/ two bases one base V =(1/2) πr2 h V = (πh/2) (R2 + r2) Board Problems 2001 APR ECE BOARD EXAM 1. a.10 km b. 15 1999 APR ECE BOARD EXAM 2. 335. find the distance along a 3° arc at the equator of the earth’s surface. Paraboloid of 26.

pentagon c. is folded once perpendicular to diagonal AC so that the opposite vertices A and C coincide. 6 c. 0. Find the number of sides. 5 and 11 d. The sum of the interior angles of a polygon is 540°. 1. 64π units2 d. 3 and 9 b. 5 d.577 b. a. 0. 5 b.28 cm d. Two triangles have equal bases. 4 and 10 c.1. 4 c. The ratio of the volumes of the two spheres is 27:343 and the sum of their radii is 10. a.414 d. Find the ratio of the radius of the cone to the radius of the cylinder. 22.074-inch d.028-inch b. 16π units2 b. a. The distance between the centers of the three circles that are mutually tangent to each other externally are 10. 0. which measures 18 cm by 24 cm. A rectangle ABCD. Find the altitudes if the areas of the triangles differ by 21 units2 .082-inch 1999 NOV ECE BOARD 10.43 cm 2000 NOV ECE BOARD EXAM 8. 23. hexagon d. A metal washer 1-inch in diameter is pierced by a ½-inch hole. 21. The area of the largest circle is _________. 0.5 cm b. A cone and a cylinder have the same height and the same volume.56 cm b. a. 20.866 c. 5. Determine its radius. The lateral area of the right circular water tank is 92 cm2 and its volume is 342 m3. The altitude of one triangle is 3 units more than its base while the altitude of the other is 3 units less than its base. What is the volume of the washer if it is 1/8-inch thick? a. 3 b. 6. 8 d. Find the radius of the smaller sphere.05 cm c.a.732 1999 NOV ECE BOARD 9. 6 and 12 1996 MAR ECE BOARD EXAM 5. nonagon b. a. 0. 7.047-inch c.5 cm d. 6 1998 APR ECE BOARD EXAM 11. a. 23π units2 c. heptagon 1997 NOV NOARD EXAM 4. 0. 12 and 14 units. 72π units2 . 7.5 cm 2000 NOV ECE BOARD EXAM 7. 11 1995 NOV ECE BOARD 6. a. Find the length of the fold.5 cm c.

the bigger tank is full of water.3 x3 in3 1996 NOV ECE BOARD EXAM 15. radius b. 0. A regular hexagonal pyramid has a slant height of 4 cm and the length of each side of the base is 6 cm. (50)1/4 b. Neglect the volume of water in the pipeline. (200)1/3 . Find the approximate change in the volume of a cube of side “x” inches caused by increasing its side by 1 %. a. 0. bases 16. frustum d. It is a polyhedron of which two faces are equal polygons in parallel planes and the other faces are parallelograms. conjugate arcs c. Find the lateral area. angles 1999 MAR EE BOARD EXAM 19.02 x3 in3. a. At this moment.1 x3 in3 d. Initially. length 1997 NOV ECE BOARD EXAM 14. two circular arcs that together make up a full circle are called ___________.03 x3 in3 c. 82 cm2 1998 NOV ECE BOARD EXAM 13. circumference c. half arcs d. a. a. The pipe valve is open to allow the water to flow to the smaller tank until it is full.2000 APR ECE BOARD EXAM 12. The apothem of a polygon is the __________ of its inscribed circle. a. a. diagonals b. Polygons are classified according to the number of _________. 62 cm2 c. 467. sides c. b. In plane geometry. 519. diameter d. 52 cm2 b. The smaller tank has a diameter of 6 feet and a height of 8 feet. diagonals d. congruent arcs 18. Determine the area of a regular 6-star polygon if the inner regular hexagon has 10 cm sides. prism c. prismatoid 17.64 cm2 c.66 cm2 b. 0. vertices d. 493. (25)1/3 c. sides c. 441. a.60 cm2 1996 APR EE BOARD EXAM 20. a. Two vertical conical tanks are joined at the vertices by a pipe. Prisms are named according to their ___________.62 cm2 d. coterminal arcs b. a. vertices b. (50)1/3 d. 0. tetrahedron b. 72 cm2 d. how deep is the water in the bigger tank? The bigger tank has a diameter of 6 feet and a height of 10 feet.

168 m2 26. 378. 2 b. 24 d. a.5 cm3 d. 102.25 29. 383. 13503.25 d. A circle having an area of 452 m2 is cut into two segments by a chord that is 6 m from the center of the circle. 20 c. 104.1999 APR ME BOARD EXAM 21. 150° d.47 m2. what is the ratio of the slant height to the radius? a. find the area of the quadrilateral. 158 m2 d.32 cm3 b.25 b. 5:3 c. 2211. 180° 1998 MAY CE BOARD EXAM 23. The lower base is an equilateral triangle with an edge of 9 m.7 cm3 c. Compute the area of the bigger segment. a. 1122.6 cm3 c.5 cm3 27. 90° b. The area of a circle circumscribing about an equilateral triangle is 254. How many sides are in a polygon if each interior angle is 165°? a.44 cm3 1997 NOV CE BOARD EXAM 25. a. 8 m and 16. Find the volume of a cone to be constructed from a sector having a diameter of 72 cm and a central angle of 150°. 4 d. 100. If the altitude is 15 cm. The bases are 12 cm apart. What is the volume of the prism? a. 120° c. a.2 cm3 b. 1212. 7710. The volume of the frustum of regular triangular pyramid is 135 m3. 1211. in m? a.89 m2 b. 100 m2 b. A circular cylinder with a volume of 6. 6622. 12367. 105. 3 c. 124 m2 c. a.25 c. 5533. Find the area of a quadrilateral having sides 12 m. What is the upper base edge.4 cm3 d. 5 31.68 m2 c.82 cm3 d.6 cm3 b.54 m3 is circumscribed about a right prism whose base is an equilateral triangle of side 1. 8866. What is the area of the triangle in m2? a. 5:6 30. The ratio of the volume to the lateral area of a right circular cone is 2:1.64 m2 24. What is the altitude of the cylinder. 20 m. Find each interior angle of a hexagon. 13232.42 m2 d. 14682. 5:4 d.97 m. Find the volume of a cone to be constructed from a sector having a diameter of 72 cm and a central angle of 210°. 354. in m? . The upper base is 8 m above the lower base. The bases of a right prism is a hexagon with one of each side equal to 6 cm. 12 b. If the sum of the opposite angles is equal to 225°. 363.25 m. 48 22.4 cm3 1995 NOV CE BOARD EXAM 28.44 cm3 c. 5:2 b.

00 d.25 .75 c.50 b. 3.a. 4. 3. 4.

Notes in Solid Mensuration

Notes in Solid Mensuration

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