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+d +d +d +d

a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d, a+4d, …

EXAMPLE

3, 7, 11, 15 …

Find out the formula form your note.

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

The sum of the first n term: Sn = ______________ or Sn = ______________

a = _______________ d = _______________ l = _______________ n = _______________

Fill in the blank

**1.1 Identify characteristics of arithmetic progression:
**

EXERCISE 1: Complete each of the sequence below to form an arithmetic progression.

g) 2, _____ , 8 , ______ , 14 , 17 b) -2 , -5 , ______ , -11 , ________ c) -4, ______ , ______ , ________ , 2 d) 2x -3 , 2x -1 , ________ , _______ , 2x + 5

1 2

1.2 Determine whether a given sequence is an arithmetic progression EXERCISE 2 : 1. Determine whether a given sequence below is an arithmetic progression.

a) 5 , 11 , 17 , 23 , ……….. b) -20 , -50 , -30 , -35 , ………. c) 1 , 4 , 9 , 16 , ……… d) 2x + y , 4x – y , 6x -3y , ……

( ____________________ ) ( ____________________ ) ( ____________________ ) ( ____________________ )

example

Identify whether the following is an arithmetic progression by calculating the common difference d.

4, 7, 10, 13, …

d1 d2 d3

=7–4 =3 Common difference, d = 3. = 10 – 7 = 3 = 13 – 10 = 3 4, 7, 10, 13, … is an arithmetic progression.

2.

k +3 , 2k + 6 ,8 are the first three terms of an arithmetic progression,find the value of k.

Note: If x,y and z are three terms of an arithmetic progression , y–x=z-y

1.Given that x 2 , 5 x, 7 x 4 are three consecutive terms of an arithmetic progression where x has a positive value. Find the value of x.

1.Given that the first three terms of an arithmetic progression are

2 y, 3 y 3 and 5y+1

Find the value of y.

example

Determine the specific 10-th term for the following AP. -20, -14, -8, -2, …

1.3

Determine by using formula:

a. specific terms in arithmetic progressions b. the number of terms in arithmetic progressions

Tn a (n 1)d

1. Find the

9

th

term of the AP.

2, 5 , 8 , …..

Solution:

a=2 d = 5-2=3

Other method, list out the AP, 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26

Tn a (n 1)d

T9 2 (9 1)3

= _______

2. Find the 11

th

term of the arithmetic prog.

5 3, , 2, ........ 2

3. For the arithmetic progression 0.7, 2.1 , 3.5, ….. , find the

5

th

term.

4. Find the

n

th

term of the arithmetic progression

1 4, 6 , 9, ..... 2

5. Find the

7

th

term of A.P.:

k, 2k + 1, 3k+2, 4k+3,….

6. Given that arithmetic progression 9 +6x , 9+4x, 9+2x, …… Find the 10th term.

**7.Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression a) 4,9.14,….. ,64
**

Tn a (n 1)d

Tn 64

4 + (n-1)5 = 64 4+ 5n-5 = 64 5n – 1 = 64 5n = 65 n = 65 ÷ 5 n = 13

Other method, list out the AP, 4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 29, 34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64 n = 13

**7.Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression (b) -2, -7, -12, ……, -127
**

Tn a (n 1)d

**7.Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression c)
**

1,1 1 1 1 ,1 , ......, 4 6 3 2

Tn a (n 1)d

7.Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression d)

x y, x y, x 3 y,........., x 31 y

**8. For the arithmetic progression 5 , 8 , 11 , ……. Which term is equal to 320 ?
**

Solution:

a= d=

Tn a ( n 1) d = Tn

5 + ( n – 1)(3) = 320 5 + 3n – 3 = 320 2 + 3n = 320 3n = 320 - 2 3n = 318 n = 106

9.

The sequence 121 , 116 , 111 , …. is an arithmetic progression. Find the first negative term in the progression.

Solution:

Tn

< 0

a = 121, d = 116 – 121 = -5

a + (n – 1)d < 0 121 + (n – 1)(-5) < 0 121 - 5n + 5 < 0 126 - 5n < 0 126 < 5n n > 25.2 n = 26 5n > 126

**Other method, list out the AP,
**

121, 116, 111, 106, 101, 96, 91, 61, 86, 81, 76, 56, 51, 46, 21, 16, 71, 66, 41, 36, 11, 6,

31, 26, 1,

-4

n = 26

10.

Find the number of terms of the arithmetic progression

a 2b, 3a 3b, 5a 4b,......, 23a 13b

Solution: a + 2b List all the terms, 3a + 3b 5a + 4b 7a + 5b 9a + 6b 11a + 7b 13a + 8b 15a + 9b 17a + 10b 19a + 11b 21a + 12b 23a + 13b Answer: n = 12 12th term

Tn

11. Find the value of the first term a and the common difference d. Then, calculate the 8th term of the (a) progressions. T2 =15, T5 =36

Solution: a + 4d = 36 a + d = 15 3d = 21 d = 7 from a + a + d = 15 7 = 15 a = 15 – 7 =8

Tn = a+ ( n −1) d

T8

= 8 + (8 – 1)(7) = 8 + (7)(7) = 57

11. Find the value of the first term a and the common difference d. Then, calculate the 8th term of the progressions.

(b)

T3 = 138, T5 = 112

(c)

Tn = 5 − 2n

(d)

T5 = T1 + T2 , T10 = 12

12. Calculate the number of terms in each arithmetic progressions where the last term of the progression is given. (a) 143, 134, 125, 116,…, 62

Solution:

Tn a ( n 1) d

62 = 143 + (n – 1)(-9) 143 + (n – 1)(-9) = 62 143 - 9n + 9 = 62 152 - 9n - 9n - 9n n = 62 = 62 - 152 = - 90 = 10

a =143 d = 134 – 143 = - 9

**Other method, list out the AP,
**

143, 134, 125, 116, 107, 98, 89, 80, 71,

62

n

= 10

12. Calculate the number of terms in each arithmetic progressions where the last term of the progression is given.

(b) (c) (d)

2 5 , 5 5 , 8 5 , 11 5 , ..., 26 5

7, 3, -1, -5,…, -37 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, …, 24

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 = ?

1 + 2 + 3 + …… + 98 + 99 + 100 = ?

1 + 2

101 101

+ 3 + …… + 48 + 49 + 50

101 101 101 101

+ 100 + 99 + 98 + …… + 53 + 52 + 51

50 groups of 101

1 + 2 + 3 + …… + 98 + 99 + 100 = 50 x 101 = 5050

We have more sistematic way to solve the sum, that calls

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION

Find a) the sum of the first n terms of arithmetic progressions. b) the sum of a specific number of consecutive terms of arithmetic progressions. c) the value of n , given the sum of the first n terms of arithmetic progressions.

or

Sn

n = ( a + ), l 2

S = sum n = number a = first term l = last term d = common diference

Exerise 1.4

**1. Find the sum of the first 12 terms of the arithmetic progression -10 , -7 , -4, ……
**

a = -10, d = -7-(-10) =3

S12 =

12 [2(−10) +(11)(3)] 2

= 78

**2. Find the sum of all the terms of the 38 , 31 , 24 , …., -18
**

n S n = (a + l ) 2

a = 38 d = 31 - 38 = -7

Tn = 38 + (n − 1)(− 7) = − 18

38 – 7n + 7 = -18 45 – 7n = -18 45 + 18 = 7n 7n = 63 n = 9

**But Other method You should find value n first. List out all the terms. 38, 31, 24, 17, 10, 3, -4, -11, -18 S 9 =38+31+ 24+17+10
**

+3+(-4)+(-11)+(-18)

Now, you can find the sum. or

= 90

S9 =

9 [2(38) +(8)(−7)] 2

S9 =

9 [ 38 + (−18)] 2

= 90

= 90

3. For the arithmetic progression -4 , 1 , 6 , …….find the sum of all the terms from the 6th term to the 14th term.

sum from the 6th term to the 14th term.

**T6 + T7 + T8 + T9 + T10 + T11 + T12 + T13 + T14 = S14 (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 )
**

= S14

a = -4 d=5

S5

14 [ 2(−4) + (13)(5)] 2

S14 =

sum of all the terms from the 6th term to the 14th term = 399 – 30 =369

= 399

**Other method List out all the terms. -4, 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 26, 31, 36, 41,46, 51, 56, 61 ST 6→T 14
**

= 21+26+31+36+…+56+61

5 S 5 = [2( − ) +( 4)(5)] 4 2

= 30

= 369

**How many terms of the arithmetic 3, 8 , 13 ,18 , …… must be taken for the sum to be equal to 1575?
**

SOLUTION: a=3 , d=6

Sn =

n [ 2(3) + (n − 1)(6)] 2

= 1575

Sn =

n [6 + 6n − 6] = 1575 2

n [6n] =1575 2

3n = 1575

n = 525

Solve problems involving arithmetic progressions.

**The 5th and 9th of arithmetic progression are 4 and 16 respectively. Find the 15th term. Tn = a + (n − 1)d
**

SOLUTION:

T5 = a + 4d = 4

Substitute d=3 into a + 4d = 4

T9 = a + 8d = 16

T9 = a + 8d = 16

T5 = a + 4d = 4

a + 4(3) = 4

a + 12 = 4 a = 4 – 12 a = -8

4d = 12

T15 = −8 + (15 − 1)(3) = −8 + (14)(3)

= 34

d =3

**The 5th and 9th of arithmetic progression are 4 and 16 respectively. Find the 15th term.
**

Other method

**10 7 w, x, y, z 4, ____, ____, ____, 16
**

4 + 10 4 + 16 =7 = 10 2 2

d=3 w = 7-3 -3-3-3-3 w = -8

T15 = −8 + (15 − 1)(3) = −8 + (14)(3)

= 34

The 2nd and 8th terms of an AP are -9 and 3 respectively. Fin the first term and the comman difference. And the sum of 10 terms beginning from the 12th term.

The sum of the first 6 terms of an arithmetic progression is 39 and the sum of the next 6 terms is -69. Find a) the first term and the common difference b) the sum of all the terms from the 15th term to the 25th term.

. The sum of the first n terms is given by

S n 6n 2 3n

Find b)the nth term in terms of n c)the common difference

The first three terms of an arithmetic progression are

k 3, k 3, 2k 2

Find b) the value of k c) the sum of the first 9 terms of the progression

Given an arithmetic progression -7, -3, 1, …. , state three consecutive terms in this progression which sum up to 75

The volume of water in a tank is 450 litres on the first day. Subsequently, 10 litres of water is added to the tank everyday. Calculate the volume , in litres , of water in the tank at the end of the 7th day.

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