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CAMTECH/S/2002/SSI/1.

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SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING

1. Introduction

Indian Railways with a network of approximate 62,000


route KM, have approximately 130 RRI (Route Relay
Interlocking) and 1450 PI (Panel Interlocking)
Installation. These systems requires considerable time in
installation, require considerable space and a large no.
of relays which makes the system considerable
complicated.

With the advancement of computer and


communication technology it has become possible to
incorporate the logic in Electronic Interlocking System
which is more compact and easy to adopt frequent
changes. Various railways are slowly adopting different
types of Electronic Interlocking Systems (SSI) all over
the world. Indian railways also have installed Electronic
Interlocking System at more than 12 stations including
3 stations developed indigenously. Electronic
Interlocking System with object controller has
additional advantage of reduced signalling cable
requirement with higher overall availability.

Various Zonal Railways have already taken up


replacement work of existing interlocking system with
Electronic Interlocking System.

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2. GENERAL REQUIREMENT

i) SSI system provides all the interlocking, control


and indication functions as per approved
interlocking plan, selection table and
Panel/RRI diagram of the station.

ii) System comply with the specification No.


RDSO/SPN/148/98 for safety and reliability
requirement of electronic equipment with the
following options:

a) On line data logging facility


b) Equipment is meant for indoor use
c) Operating voltage as per specification

iii) System is capable for working in non air-


conditioned environment, temp. Range
between 0° C to 55° C and relative humidity
up to 95% at 40° C.

iv) System is having user friendly graphic based


design.

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3. ADVANTAGE OVER RELAY


INTERLOCKING

 Approx. 60% reduction in relay used.

 50% reduction in space required.

 Initial commissioning and changes due to yard


remodelling can be carried out in negligible time
i.e. less manpower for traffic management
during blocks as well as less detention to trains.

 30% reduction in power consumption.

 Reduction in wiring and interconnections.

 Same equipment is suitable for AC electrified


area.

 No relays are required for interlocking function.


Only interface relays are required.

 No air –conditioning is required.

 SSI has got self-diagnostic features. Any failure


in the system is located and enunciated. Faulty
module can be immediately replaced by spare
module hence the down time of installation is
reduced.

 Reduction in no. of fuses

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 Less prone to short cut method, total system


goes to shut down if point/ signal is even wrong
feed.

 Less possibility wiring fault.

 The conventional block and intermediate Block


system circuit can be incorporated in the SSI
system circuitry.

 More reliability due to less relays and


accessories.

 Less man power requirement due to high


reliability components and self-diagnostic
feature.

 More safety.

4. INTERLOCKING REQUIREMENT

System consists of the following:


 Microprocessor based interlocking equipment to
read the yard and panel inputs, process them in
a fail-safe manner as per selection table and
generate required output.
 System consists of processor module, vital input
and vital output modules, communication
module and power supply module. System has
facility of hot standby modules for better
availability.

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 Control-cum-indication panel (domino type)


with panel processor having stand by processor
or VDU control terminal as required by
purchaser. Control-cum-indication panel shall
confirm to CL.3.0 of IRS: S 36. It shall be
provided with push buttons/control switches for
individual operation of points, clearing of
signals, releasing of crank/ ground lever frame/
gate controls, cancellation of routes and other
functions as covered by IRS:S36. Arrangements
for route setting shall be provided

 Maintainers terminal with display, keyboard,


printer and event logging facility for mini.
100,000 events.

 Relay rack along with required no. of approved


types of relays or object controller.

 Object controller to directly operate the field


equipments like point machine, signal etc or
relay interface to drive the existing field
equipment.

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5. DESIGN FEATURE

One of the following architecture may be employed


in the system.

i) Single hardware architecture with diverse


software(s). In addition hot standby processor/
system may be provided with facility of
automatic changeover in case of fault in working
system without affecting train operation.

a) Without any Standby

Panel SSI Field

Fig No. - 1

b) With Standby ( Two SSI connected in


parallel)

Panel SSI 1 SSI 2

Relays

Fig No. - 2

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ii) Two out of two hardware architecture with


identical or diverse hardware and common or
diverse software. In addition hot standby
processor(s) /system may be provided with
facility of automatic changeover in case of
fault in working system without affecting
train operation.

Dual Hardware (2 out of 2) with similar


software

a) Without Stand by

CPU 1 I/
Panel Panel Processor O
CPU 2

Relays

Fig No. – 3

b) With Warm Stand by

CPU 1 CPU 2
Panel Panel Processor
CPU1 CPU 2

I/O

Relays

Fig No. - 4

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c) With Hot Stand by

CPU 1 CPU 2
Panel Panel Processor CPU1 CPU 2
I/O I/O

Relays

Fig No. – 5

d) With Object Controllers

Panel CPU 1 CPU 2


Panel Processor CPU1 CPU 2
Communication Communication

OC2 OC1

Fig No. - 6

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iii) Two out of three hardware architecture with


identical or diverse hardware and common or
diverse software.

2 Out of 3 Architecture

a) With Relay Interface

Pane Panel CPU 1 CPU 2


l Process CPU 3
or

Relays I/O

Fig No. - 7

b) With Object Controller

Panel
Panel Processor

CPU1 CPU 2
CPU 3
Communication

OC OC OC

Fig No. - 8

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6. FAIL SAFE FEATURE

 The system is designed on fail safe


principles. In case of any failure whether in
the hardware, software or any part of the
equipment, the system and the equipments
controlled by fails on safe side and the
system change over to a more restrictive
state.

 Any single failure results in an unsafe


condition then the system changes to a safe
state as soon as failure occurs.

 The design of the equipment is cater for


detection and restoration of system to a safer
state in case of following faults if these are
likely to results in unsafe condition.

i) Variation in power supply beyond its


tolerance limits, including momentary
failure of the power supply system.
ii) Spikes in the power supply system,
stray fields caused by traction vehicles
or standby diesel generator sets.
iii) Insertion of PCBs in wrong card slots
iv) Earthing of any component of wire or
a combination of such earthing faults.

v) Broken wires damaged or dirty


contacts, failure of a component to

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energise loss of power supply or


blown fuse etc.

 The equipment is constructed to prevent


unauthorised access.

 Optical isolation of inputs.

7. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

 The following SSI system may be used.

7.1 Single processor system- MICROLOK

MICROLOK is microprocessor-based logic


controller designed specially for rail road vital
interlocking applications. Its basic function is to
process various inputs according to a programme
designed by the application engineer and create
the appropriate outputs. Input and outputs may
be through direct interfaces with MICROLOK or
through serial communication with other vital or
non-vital controllers. Direct inputs include track
circuit occupancy, state of switch point machine
contacts. Outputs eventually interface to control
signal mechanism drives, signal lamp drives,
switch control contractors and traffic line control
circuits.

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MICROLOK incorporates two types of software:

One is the special application programme


developed by the user. The second type of
MICROLOK software is the standard, executive
logic common to all MICROLOK systems. This
software contains routines designed to:

a) Verify the states of vital inputs and


outputs
b) Insure that all vital outputs are fully
controllable
c) Remove power to vital outputs in all
cases where system failure has occurred.
More than one MICROLOK unit can be linked through
serial communications to from a single system, using a
Master/Slave communication protocol. Up to 16 slave
units may be controlled by a master MICROLOK unit.

 The Microlok II system consists of following


modules

♦ Hardware
♦ Design
♦ Installation
♦ Hot standby
♦ Maintenance
♦ Fault finding & Troubleshooting

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Hardware:

Basic Microlok-II equipment consists of:

 Card file
 CPU PCB
 Power Supply PCB
 On-vital input / output PCB
 Vital Output PCB
 Vital Input PCB &
 Vital Cut Off Relay (VCOR)

Card file Each Card file consists of:

 20 slots to accommodate various cards that


are used in the system
 A mother board connecting all the 20 slots

CPU PCB

 Each card file will have one CPU Board and


it is placed always in slot No. 18 & 19.
 The processor used in CPU is Motorola
68332 chip.
 The processor is working at a speed of
21Mhz.

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 Each CPU is having 5 serial ports to connect


the MLK-II to other MLK-II or other
equipments such as Computers. Port 1 & 2
are RS 485 type, Port 3 is RS 432 type, Port
4 is RS 232 type & port 5 is used for
Maintenance tool.

The following are the functions of CPU:

 Continuous monitoring of Vital board status


 Continuous Diagnostic test to check system
healthiness
 Processing the equations based on the inputs
received
 Storing the Datalogging information

Power supply PCB

 Each card file will have one PS PCB and it is


placed always in slot No. 16 & 17.
 The PS PCB is basically a DC-DC converter,
which converts the 12V DC supply of system
voltage into +12V, -12V & 5V to provide
the supply required for various boards used
in the system.
 Based on the diagnostic test done by the
CPU and receipt of 250Hz pulse from the
CPU, PS PCB extend the voltage to VCOR
coil and energise the relay.

Non vital input/ out put PCB

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 Each Non-Vital I/O PCB is having 32 inputs


& 32 outputs.
 The inputs are connected normally to the
Panel buttons.
 The outputs are connected normally to the
Panel indications, counters & buzzers.
Vital Output PCB

 Each Vital Output PCB is having 16 outputs.


 Each output is assigned to the final relay
which is driving the outdoor signalling gears
such as HR, DR in case of signal & WNR,
WRR incase of points.
 Since the output boards are driving outdoor
gears, they are continuously monitored by
the CPU and any abnormal voltage present
in the output will lead to system reset /
shutdown to ensure safety.

Vital Input PCB

 Each Vital Input PCB is having 16 outputs


 Each input is assigned to the detection of
outdoor gear status such as ECRs in case of
signal, WKR incase of points & TPR in case
of Track circuit.
 Since the vital inputs are dealing with the
detection of outdoor gears they normally
configured with double cutting arrangement.

VCOR Relay

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 Each card file will have one VCOR to ensure


the healthiness of the system.
 The pickup condition of the relay ensures the
healthiness of the system.
 The power to the vital output boards are
extended through the VCOR front contact
and incase of any error in the system will
make the VCOR to drop and in turn will cut
the power to the Vital output boards and
ensure safety.
 The VCOR relay is having 6 sets of
dependent contacts and each contact rating is
3 amps.

MLK-II wiring hardware

The following are the wiring materials of MLK-II:

 48 pin Address select PCB


 96 pin Address select PCB
 48 pin Connector Assembly
 96 pin Connector Assembly
 EEPROM PCB
 Keying plug
48 & 96 pin address select PCB

 Each address select PCB consists of 6 Nos.


of jumpers.
 Each slot will have its own jumper setting
and each one is different from others.
 The address select PCB ensures the type of
board used in the slot as defined in the
application logic.

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 48 pin address select PCB is used for vital


boards & 96 pin address select PCB is used
for non-vital boards.

EEPROM PCB

 The EEPROM PCB is placed on the 48 pin


connector assembly of the CPU PCB.
 The purpose of the EEPROM PCB is to store
the temporary data that are entered through
the system configuration of Microlok-II
maintenance tool package.

Keying plug

 The purpose of the keying plug is to avoid


insertion of wrong type of board in any slot.
 Each slot requires 6 Nos. of Keying plug and
is to be inserted according to the type of
board to be used in each slot.
 In principal the keying plug is similar to the
index pin of relays.

Design

 The Microlok-II design consists of 2 parts


namely:
♦ Interface design, which consists of
complete wiring details and drawings
♦ Application logic, which consists of
complete interlocking program.

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Inter Face Design

To prepare the interface design, the following inputs /


drawings are to be provided by the customer to firm:

 Approved SIP (Signal Interlocking Plan).


 Approved panel front plate drawing
 IPS scheme.
 Relay room building plan.
 CTR, Block & Axle counter cable
termination details.
 The SIP gives the clear picture of outdoor
gears that are involved in the station such as
signal, point, track, etc. to calculate the vital
input and output bit requirement and relays
requirement.
 The panel front plate drawing gives the clear
picture of number of controls and
indications that are available in the station to
calculate the non-vital input & output bit
requirement.
 Based on the calculation of vital, Non-vital
I/O boards & relays, IPS scheme to be cross
verified for the capacity & power
distribution is to be made accordingly.
 Based on the calculation of vital, Non-vital
I/O boards & relays, the number of racks to
be calculated and placement of rack is to be
made as floor plan to accommodate the racks
with in the building area.
 The CTR, Block & Axle counter termination
details gives an indication to designer to plan

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the interconnection between various racks


and panel without any crisscross in wiring.

The following are the steps to be followed in Interface


Design:

 Calculation of vital & Non-vital I/o boards


including relays and its type
 Calculation of MLK-II materials
 Configuration of SSI
 Floor plan
 Complete wiring drawings

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Example of I/O calculation


Gear V. O/p V. I/p NV.I/p NV.O/p Relay
Signal 3 DR. R DECR GN DGKE ECR-3
HECR HGKE QNN1-1
RECR RGKE
POINT WNR NWKR WN NWKE QNNA1-1
RWKR
TRACK - TPR - TKE-W QNNA1-

Calculation of Boards & Relays

 As per the above example, the complete calculation


of Vital & Non-vital I/O calculation is to be made
for the station from the SIP & Panel front plate
diagram.
 The total number of vital input bits is to be divided
by 16 and number of board to be calculated.
 The total number of vital output bits is to be divided
by 16 and number of board to be calculated.
 The total number of non-vital output bits is to be
divided by 32 and number of board to be calculated.
 The total number of non-vital input bits is to be
divided by 32 and number of board to be calculated.
 Since each non vital board is having 32 inputs & 32
outputs, whichever board is coming at higher side
only to be considered for slot requirement.
 The total number of vital & non-vital boards are to
be added and divided by 16 to determine the number
of card files required.
 Based on the number of relays calculated and the
capacity of the relay rack decided, number of relay
rack required to be calculated.

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Calculating other materials of MLK-II

 The 48 pin connector assembly required is the sum


of vital I/O PCB + CPU + PS PCB
 The 48 pin address select PCB required is the sum
of vital I/O PCB.
 The 96 pin connector assembly required is equal to
number of non-vital I/O PCB
 The 96 pin address select PCB required is equal to
the number of non-vital I/O PCB
 Each card file will have one CPU, one PS PCB &
One VCOR
 Each CPU will have one EEPROM PCB

Configuring MLK-II

 The configuration of single MLK-II with VDU,


Maintenance PC is shown in the fig no. 9.
 The boards are to be placed in the card file as:
♦ Non-vital I/O PCBs as first set
♦ Vital output PCBs as second set
♦ Vital input PCBs as third set
♦ PS PCB in slot 16 & 17
♦ CPU PCB in slot 18 & 19
♦ Empty slots are to covered with 1” wide blank
plate for dust proof.
SM room Relay room

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Panel P1 P2
P1 P2
MLK-II P5 M.PC
P1
VDU P3 P4

RELAYS

Fig No. - 9
 The VDU will be connected to MLK-II through
CPU serial port
 The Maintenance PC will be connected to MLK-II
port 5 to access the MLK-II maintenance tool
package.

Floor plan

 After doing the calculation & configuration the


number of racks to be calculated to draw the floor
plan for accommodating the racks
 The following are the racks used:
♦ Microlok-II Rack: 2100mm X 800mm X
600mm – Capacity to fit 2 card files
♦ Relay rack: 2100mm X 1120mm X 300mm –
Capacity to mount 96 relays
♦ Panel termination rack: 2100mm X 700mm X
300mm – Capacity to wire 11 Non-vital boards

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Inter face circuit design

Based on the above details prepared the interface


circuits will be designed. The interface circuit drawing
consists of:

 Index
 Signalling layout plan
 Panel front plate drawing
 Control table
 Floor plan
 Configuration
 Serial port wiring details
 Address selection, Jumper setting & Keying plug
details.
 CPU & PS PCBs wiring.
 I/O bit chart.
 Non-vital & vital boards wiring.
 Signal lighting, Point driving, Axle counter, Block
wiring.
 IPS scheme & Power distribution
 Fuse chart
 Racks assembly drawings
 Inter connection details
 Contact analysis

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Application Logic Design

 The application logic contains the complete


interlocking of the station.
 The input required to design the application logic is
control table.
 The Application logic is written in Boolean
equation.
 The application logic is divided in to 4 parts:
♦ Non-vital section
♦ Vital section
♦ Timer section
♦ Serial section

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Comparison of PI vs SSI circuit

SEQUENCE
TPRS GN+UN GNR +UNR GNCR,UNCR NRR NNR WNR/WRR

FROM
STATUS UP PANEL
UP DOWN UP DOWN TO FIELD

SEQUENCE INDICATION HECR HR WLR ALSR UCR WKRS

STATUS FROM FROM


TO PANEL FIELD
TO FIELD DOWN DOWN UP FIELD

PI CIRCUIT

SEQUENCE
TPRS GN+UN INSIDE SSI WNR/WRR

FROM
STATUS UP PANEL
TO FIELD

SEQUENCE INDICATION HECR HR INSIDE SSI WKRS

STATUS FROM FROM


TO PANEL TO FIELD
FIELD FIELD

SSI CIRCUIT

Fig No. - 10

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 From the above, it is clear that the number of relays


required for PI is more & MLK-II is less.
 MLK-II requires only field detection relays such as
TPR, WKR & ECR as input & driving relays such
as HR, DR, WNR,WRR as output.
 The other internal interlocking relays are stored in
side the memory of MLK-II CPU and are called
Boolean bits.

Non Vital Section

 The non-vital section consists of button relay


circuits & indication circuits.
 The names of relay used for this section will be
defined in non-vital I/O boards / NV Boolean bit
section in the application logic.
 The equations for non-vital circuits will be written
in logic as Nv. assign statement.
 The vital section consists of all other interlocking
circuits.
 The names of relay used for this section will be
defined in vital I/O boards / Boolean bit section in
the application logic.
 The equations for vital circuits will be written in
logic as assign statement.

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Timer Section

 The time delay required to pick-up / Drop the relays


will be written in this section.
 This similar to condenser, resistor circuit in PI
circuit.
 For slow to pickup the time will be defined as Set &
for slow to release the time will be defined as Clear.

Serial Section

 The relay conditions used in one MLK-II will be


transferred to other MLK-II or to VDU computer
will be defined in this section.
 The input bits of one section is to be written as
output bits of other section and order of bits should
be one to one matching.

Symbols used in application logic

 The following are the symbols used in application


logic:
 * - Series
 + - Parallel
 ( - Start of Parallel path
 ) - End of Parallel path
 ~ - Back contact
 , - Separation of bits
 ; - End of statement / section

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PI circuit Vs MLK-II Logic

PI circuit

A B C E

D
Fig No. - 11

 The above circuit will be written in application logic


as:
Assign A * B * (~C + D) To E;

Compiling the application logic

 Once the application logic is completed, using


MLK-II compiler the application logic will be
converted into machine language.
 This will be loaded into the CPU of MLK-II through
MLK-II maintenance tool using software upload
command.

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Installation

 Once the number of MLK-II equipment & Relays


are calculated, number of racks required to be
calculated.
 The racks are to be placed in such a manner that the
relay racks are to be kept nearer to power supply
room side & panel termination rack nearer to SM
room side.

Wiring

 The Non-vital boards wiring are to be terminated to


panel termination rack. The panel is to be connected
to panel termination rack through inter connection
cable.
 The vital boards wiring are to be terminated to
Relay rack and then to relay coil / contact.
 The CT Rack functions are taken to Relay rack
through inter connection cable.
 The various supplies available on IPS are brought to
Relay rack, MLK-II rack, etc. according to the
requirement and provision made on each rack
through power wire.
 Serial cables are used to connect between MLK-II
equipments, VDU & Maintenance PC with MLK-II
equipments.

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Testing

Once the wiring is completed, the following test are


conducted before commissioning the station.

 Bell test – to ensure the correct continuity


 Wire count test – to ensure unwanted wires are not
present in the system.
 Simulation test – to ensure the interlocking is made
as per the control table requirement.

Commissioning

 Once the simulation test is completed and ensured,


the indoor equipments are connected to the outdoor
gears directly and tested from the panel for proper
working of station interlocking.
 Once the operations are found satisfactory, the
equipment is handed over to traffic for regular
operation and ensures commissioning is completed.

Hot stand by

The purpose of Hot standby is to increase the


availability of the system for traffic during the failure of
indoor interlocking in one of the equipment.

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MLK-II Hot standby system


Hardware
 In MLK-II for each station two sets of equipments
are used to achieve hot standby function and named
as System A & System B.
 MLK-II hot standby uses 100% hardware redundant
including I/O boards.

All Vital & Non-vital both inputs & outputs are


connected in parallel to the common equipments to
achieve when one equipment fails the other system to
retain the interlocking status without any interruption to
the signalling. (smooth changeover)

 All vital inputs, Non-vital I/Os are connected


through 1 in 2 out terminals to take the same inputs
& to drive the same indications on the panel.
 All vital outputs are connected through diode
terminals to common output relay coil to avoid any
reset happening due to other system output voltage
available in the terminal.
Software
 The interlocking portion of application logic is
common for both Systems A & B.
 All the Vital & Non-vital inputs received by both
systems get compared using serial bits for input
status at all the time to ensure both systems
receiving same inputs and to avoid any processing
of wrong outputs.

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 Similarly, the outputs processed are also get


compared using serial bits before delivering the final
output to avoid any mismatch in output.
 The standard configuration for an hot standby
system is shown in figure below.
MLK-II Hot standby configuration

Operator Maintenance
SYSTEM A SYSTEM B
VDU VDU

Panel

Vital Input & Output (Output via Diode terminal)

Relay Rack
Serial

Parallel

Fig No. - 12
Factors considered

 Being as physical inputs and wiring, any wire cut in


one system will made to behave in the following
manner:
 Vital Input : In case of wire cut in one system, the
equations are made to kill the other system and to
retain failure for the particular input related routes.
 Non-vital Input: In case of wire cut in one system,
the equations are made to kill the same system and
to make the availability of interlocking through
healthy system.

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CAMTECH/S/2002/SSI/1.0 33

 Any physical wire cut in outputs will not lead to


system shut down / kill.

The vital output contacts are read back on the non-vital


input through relay contacts to detect that the false feed
given to any vital output related relays. In case of false
feed, both systems will reset and reason for reset will
be recorded in the system error log.

Maintenance

 MLK-II based SSI contains standard windows based


Microlok-II Maintenance tool package loaded in the
Maintenance VDU.
 The various facility available on MLK-II
maintenance tool and its purposes are below.
♦ Free run variable : By selecting this, user can
visualize all the relay names that are used in the
application logic and their status.
♦ User Data Log: The relay names that are entered in
the Log bits section of User data log to monitor its
changes will be stored in the memory. User can
down load the information from CPU and can
analyze the cause of failure.
♦ System Event Log: By selecting this option, user
can see the events that are happened in the system
such as Reset, Serial communication establishment
time, etc.
♦ System Error Log: By selecting this option, user can
see the errors that are present in the system such as
Board failures, system killed by application
logic,etc.

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♦ Merged Events Log: This will provide the


combination of all the 3 logs information in
graphical manner.
♦ Set time of Day clock: Using this option, the present
date & time of MLK-II can be set to monitor the
Logs with exact date & time.
♦ Software upload: The compiled version of MLK-II
application logic is to be uploaded in to the CPU
through this option.
♦ Reset Microlok-II: Using this, the MLK-II can be
reset. In case of MLK-II is gone to sleep mode due
to hardware failure, the CPS can be made up by
using this option.
♦ System Configuration: This option is required to
disable the boards to test the hardware, adjust time
delays during testing, etc.
♦ Serial Message Monitor: By selecting this option,
the communication ports status can be checked for
their healthiness.
♦ Software down load: From the CPU compiled
version of present working application software can
be down loaded.

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Other Maintenance related to SSI

 The equipment should be kept clean from dust.


 All wires that are terminated on the terminals are to
be checked visually and any loose connection that
are found to be tightened.
 The batteries that are used with IPS are to be
maintained properly, as per Railway practice.

 The User Data log information is to be down loaded


from CPU & to be stored in Hard disk atleast once
in a week. After checking that file is saved properly,
the data log is to be cleared.

7.2 Two out of Two SSI system

In two out of two systems, two processors


receive the command and process it for output
generation. The output command is compared first and
if matches then only output is energised. There are so
many systems available world-wide which has different
architecture and modules depending upon manufacturer
to manufacturer.

Here we are describing the indigenous system


developed jointly by RDSO, DOE and IIT, Delhi.

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Indigenous system consists of following -

 CPU card ( 2 nos.)


 Relay read interface card (RI)
 Voltage monitor card (VM)
 Comparator card (COMP)
 Relay driver card (RD)
 Panel processor
a) CPU Card
b) Relay read interface card
c) Indication driver card
 Data logger Maintainer’s terminal
 Operator’s panel.

Panel Operators Field Inputs


Processor Panel

CPU 1 CPU 2 Read


Interface

System Bus

Voltage Comparator
Monitor

Relay Driver

Field Inputs

Fig No. - 13

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CAMTECH Handbook No.ST-34
space Empty card space Empty card space Empty card

RICARD– 4 COMP – 1 RD – 1

RICARD-1 COMP – 2 RD – 2

Solid State Interlocking


RICARD-2 COMP - 3 RD - 3
CAMTECH/S/2002/SSI/1.0

PRO-1 COMP – 4 DC-DC CONVERTOR RD – 4

CAMTECH Handbook No.ST-34


PRO-2 COMP – 5 RD – 5

Fig No. - 14
VKCARD COMP - 6 RD - 6

EMPTY SPACE
EMPTY SPACE
EMPTY SPACE

RICARD-3 spaceEmpty card spaceEmpty card

RICARD-5 spaceEmpty card spaceEmpty card


MULTI OUTPUT DC/DC CONVERTOR

MULTI OUTPUT DC/DC CONVERTOR UNIT


Empty card spaceEmpty card spaceEmpty card

August’2002
37

+5v 0.75 A
SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING SYSTEM

+ 10 V

Empty slot Empty strip Empty strip


CAMTECH/S/2002/SSI/1.0 38

Hardware details

CPU card

This is the main processing card of the system and uses


Intel 8086/8088 microprocessor. There are two type
CPU cards in the system. Processing is done
independently in each of the two cards. The system
follows two out of two logic.

Read Relay interface Card

This card acts as an input interface to the system from


the input relays. The input to the system comes from
various fields relays like track circuits, point status
relays, signal lamp proving relays, button inputs from
the operator’s panel and read back of output relays. This
card also isolates the system from the field relays
circuits. Provision has been kept for testing of
malfunctioning of the system in reading the status of the
relays. Each card can read 48/64 input relays. Inputs are
isolated using opto couplers.

Comparator card

This card is use for executing the two out of two logic.
The main function of the card is to compare the output
of the two CPU cards and give appropriate signals to the
relay driver card. Each card caters 8 channels.

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Relay driver card

This card acts as an output interface of the system to the


field gear controlling relays for points,
signals, level crossing, crank handles etc.
are driven by this card. Each card can drive
8/12 relays. In order to isolate electronic
circuitry from field equipment, transformer
isolation is provided.

In new design relay driver card incorporate comparator


card function itself.

Voltage monitor card

The purpose of this card is to monitor various voltage


levels in the system. There are 4 Vcc supplies in the
system. Change in the operating voltage of the ICs can
severely affect the performance of the system. VM card
detects any deviation from the allowed safe operating
condition. In case of any fault in the system, SSI is
brought to a safe shut down by switching off shut down
relay thereby withdrawing power from relay driver
output.

Software details

The Solid State interlocking consists following:

a) System software is universal and


independent of yard layout.
b) Yard data derived from the locking table /
selection table of the given yard. The SSI system

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software can be broadly divided into following


parts.

Input Read Module

This part of the software reads the input information


coming from the interface relays and operating panel.
After proper debouncing, the data is stored in the
memory.

Panel Processor module

This part of the software reads the panel command


coming from the operating panel and decides the action
to be taken for these commands, e.g. Route setting,
point operation etc.

Route controller module

This part of the software receives commands from the


panel processor and decides the action to be taken for
these commands, e.g. route setting, point operation etc.

Signal controller module

This part of the software receives commands from the


route controller for the signal clearance. It checks the
signal aspect chart, condition of the signal ahead and
decides the aspect for the particular signal. Depending
on the decision taken, command for picking up the
aspect control relays viz., HR, HHR, DR is given by
this software. This part of the software is also
responsible for checking the reconciled status of the

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signal viz-a-viz last command given for signal


clearance.

Point and Slot Controller Module

This part of the software accepts the commands coming


from the panel processor as well as from the route
controller (in case of automatic route setting facility),
examines whether the point operation is permitted by
the interlocking and issues command for picking up of
the point operation relays i.e. WNR/WRR.

Track locking of the point is also checked. This is also


responsible for logical locking of the point in the route
and makes the reconciled status of the point viz last
command given to the routine. The controlling relays
WNR/WRR are energised only for the required time and
after setting of the point these relays are de-energised.

Ground frames, crank handles and level crossings are


also controlled by this routine.

Supervisory Routine Module

In this hardware, two microprocessors have been used


for safety reasons. The supervisory routine ensures
safety of operation by self-checking of the CPUs and
other associated hardware. CPU self-checks include
RAM/ROM check. The other hardware is checked for
proper addressing / accessing of the data and correctness
of the data. In case of a major failure is detected in the
CPU / associated hardware, safe shutdown of the whole
system is performed. The failure is indicated on the

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display panel, so that the maintainer can take up


corrective action such as replacement of a card.

Thereafter, the system can be re-started after rectifying


the fault and pressing the reset and restart button.
Counter have been provided for registering resetting
operations.

7.3 Two out of Three SSI system

The system consists of following sub system

 Central Interlocking Unit (CIU)


 Panel processor module and operator’s control
cum indication panel
 Object controller (OC)
 Central Interlocking Unit (CIU)
The central interlocking unit consists of processor (3
nos.), power supply modules ( 2 nos.), communication
module as under:
a) Processor module (3 nos.)

System is designed with triple redundant processor


modules, which is normally work in 3 out of 3
mode. Processor modules continuously check its
own health as well as health of other modules and
ensure proper working of all components used in the
card. It also check the voltages to various modules.
In case of fault in one CPU module, concerned
module is isolated and system work in 2 out of 3

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mode. In case of fault in two CPU modules then


system will shutdown.

b) Two powers supply modules (DC DC Converter) to


ensure high availability.
c) Two vital communication modules working on two
different communication cables in hot standby mode
for failsafe communication with object controller
(s). The communication protocol shall meet the
requirement of CENELEC specification EN 50159.
d) Non vital communication module for
communication with panel processor.
e) Power supply for CIU 24 volts DC +30% - 20%

The equipment is a processor based working on 2 out of


3 architecture with sufficient ports for interfacing with:

a) Panel processor(s) with in 800 meters.


b) Object controller(s) up to 15 kms radius
c) Other EI equipments for block working block
equipments of suitable design kept up to 15 kms.
d) Data logger
e) CTC
f) ETCS (AWS)
g) Printer
h) Maintainer terminal

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 Panel processor & control cum indication panel

♦ Panel processor

a) Panel processor is to be kept near the


operator’s panel. It is processor-based
equipment to process operator’s control
commands in the form of potential free
contacts of panel button(s)/switch (s)/
key(s) and transmit to CIU on serial
communication. The input reading
mechanism is isolated from equipment
supply and operate on an isolated 24VDC.
Whenever an input is found present, it is de-
bounced twice before accepting it as valid
input and before transmission to CIU. The
transmission of serial communication is on
request from CIU. At any given time not
more than two button contacts and 3
contracts( in groups) is required to be
transmitted from panel processor.
b) Receive indication for field gears from CIU
and drive respective indication lamp
(LED’s) on local control panel.
c) Display health and error indications related
to itself, CIU and object controller.
d) Following modules is provided in the panel
processor:
Processor modules
i) Input modules
ii) Indication driver modules
iii) Power supply DC DC converter

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iv) Communication module for


communication with CIU
e) The panel processor have ports to interface
with
i) CIU
ii) CTC

 Control cum indication panel:

Control cum indication panel is to be domino type


with push buttons. It is provided with push buttons
for operation of points, clearing of signals, releasing
of crank handle/ ground frames/gate controls,
cancellation of routes and other functions as covered
in RDSO specifications clause 3.0 of IRS: S36.

 Object Controller

i) It is a processor based equipment with 2 out of 2


architecture. The equipment work as a slave unit
of CIU through duplicated serial communication
and placed within 15 Kms radius from CIU. It
drives the field gears and take feed backs from
various field gears. Object controller is normally
provided in the field locations, however at small
stations it may be provided near the CIU. In case
of communication failure between CIU and OC
(Object Controller), all the outputs are
withdrawn to safe state with in 500 milli.sec.

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ii) Object controller consists of following modules:

a) Point modules
b) Signal modules
c) Relay modules
d) Input modules
e) Dual communication modules
f) Power supply modules

 Output functions of object controller

a) to directly drive the colour light signal(s)


b) to directly drive point machine(s) and
c) to directly operate electromagnet relay(s) of
QN type ( for ground operated points, level
crossing and slotting)

 Input functions of object controller

a) Serial communication from CIU to receive


the command to drive the required field
equipment( Signal/ Point/Relay and or health
signal).
b) Transmission of status of the field gears to
CIU.
c) To read external inputs.
d) The following parameters are to be ensured
for reading an external input;
 It should sense potential free contacts
through an isolated supply of same
voltage as the working voltage of the
system.

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 The input detection mechanism should be


optically isolated to have a physical
isolation to internal circuits.
 The system should be able to read the
DC Positive and Negative from an
external input to have a double cutting
feature.
 Whenever an input is found present, it
must de-bounced a minimum of 3 times
or more @ 20 milli-seconds before
accepting it as valid input and onward
transmission to CIU.
 Once an input is accepted, it should be
treated as absent when it is not available
twice @ 20 milli-seconds (min.) and 50
milli-seconds (max.) for onward
transmission to CIU.
 A fail safe test should be performed on
every input to test the performance of all
components used in detection mechanism
by any one of the methods:-

 Using a toggle test on each input which is found


present, by turning it to absent internally at input
level or
 Using a short circuit test on each input that is
found present, by turning it to absent internally
at input level. The short circuit should not
directly come across input potential and should
be through a protection mechanism or
 Removing the bus bar supply to read the
potential free contacts and reading the input as
absent or

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 Any other method acceptable to purchaser to


ensure the fail safety.

e) The following parameters are to be ensured


while reading a feed back of an output for signal
controller-

 The AC current to each lamp should be


perfectly sensed through a current
transformer for aspect to be lit.
 The DC current may be measured by
resistance drop method.
 In both the cases the potential should be
transformed in to a digital input using
Analog-Digital converter or voltage to
frequency converter and fixing the
acceptance or rejection of input through
software as per the working ranges given in
signal controller.

 Advantage of Object controller

a) Saving of cable
b) Reduces no. of relays
c) Reduces power consumption

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 Supervisory function

Supervisory module checks/ check proper levels of


system voltage(s) at critical points to ensure proper
working of all components used in the system. It
also checks the health of compete object controller
system. Any error in system or hardware fault
leading to unsafe conditions, will withdraw all
output commands and remove the source supply to
outputs modules.

 Features of Signal Module

It is possible to operate two signals by a signal


module. It is capable to control 8 electric signal
lamps. Two of these lamps are designated as ON
aspect lamp and others as OFF aspect lamp(s).

 Output

i) A LED electric signal lamp operating at 110 V


AC and current of 125mA nominal subject to a
maxi. 200mA.
ii) The circuits for ON aspect is so designed that
due to any failure of object controller or
communication failure between CIU and OC
concerned, ON aspect lights up and power
supply to all OFF aspects should withdrawn.
iii) The circuit for OFF aspect is so designed that
it should remain lit till processors are active
and getting command from CIU continuously
in each cycle. OFF aspect should extinguished
without fail in case of any

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♦ Processors getting faulty


♦ No communication from CIU
iv) Whenever an OFF aspect is not lit due to any
reason, ON aspect must light up without fail.
The overload protection is provided for each
output and if output current is beyond the
specified limits then overload protection
circuit comes in action an alarm is generated in
CIU.
 Input
a) Each aspect has taken as lit at 90 mA and
once taken as lit and as not lit when current
drops below 60mA.When the current exceeds
200 mA the command to the lamp is withdrawn
and lamp of next more restrictive aspect will lit
up. This fault will be reported to central
interlocking unit.
b) The facility to read back the potential @ 12-
24 V DC from actual signal head condition is
provided.

 Cascading of aspects

Whenever the lamp of an OFF aspect is not lit after


the specific command or over current is detected,
the power to output circuit is withdrawn and
information sent to CIU as well as generate the local
command to switch on the ON aspect till command
to lit another aspect is received.
 Point Module

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It control the power to 4 different point machine for


each of them with two different settings i.e. Normal
and Reverse. On completion of operation end of
operation feed back is received from point machine
and communicated to CIU, which in turn withdraws
point operating command.

 Output

i) Each point machine operates at 110 V DC and


maxi. Current 7.5 amps. It is presumed that a point
machine may take a momentary current of upto 15
amps. for a short duration of 100 milli. Seconds.
ii) For safety reasons every point command consist
of:
a) First command for either Normal or Reverse
setting to actuate solid state contactor
followed by
b) Second command to operate the point motor
by operating a common electromagnetic
relay(contactor relay, WR). This command
will be transmitted from CIU on getting
feedback for the first command.
iii) The overload protection is provided for each
output and if output current is beyond the specified
limits, overload protection circuit comes in action an
alarm is generated in CIU.
 Input

The feed back from a point is always in terms of DC


supply of 24 V DC and each point may have 2 or 3
input namely:

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a) NWKR for normal setting of point


b) RWKR for reverse setting of point
c) ZWKR for end operation of point

In addition to above the contactor relay's (WR),front


contact feed back is provided.

 Relay Module

To derive 8 nos. of 24VDC relays each with coil


load between 215 Ω to 400 Ω isolated 24 V DC is
use to energise output relays. Each such relay will
be read back in to the system by reading external 24
V DC Power supply over its front contacts.

 Input Module

It reads 12 nos. of external input from 24 V DC


power supply.

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8. Maintenance of SSI system

Maintainer must have a thorough understanding of


these systems, general operating system.

Maintenance must be performed by properly


qualified and trained persons. However a detailed
knowledge of microprocessor based logic and
system is not required.

8.1 General Maintenance

i) Make sure that all the equipments are


properly fixed in rack with the help of
screws.
ii) Ensure that earth is properly connected
with SSI system rack and thick wire used
for earth connection.
iii) Ensure that power supply to DC DC
converter is given through fuse and rating
of the fuse is between 7-10 amperes.
iv) Ensure that power supply at DC DC
converter end is between 21.6 to 31 volts
DC when charger is in OFF condition.
v) Ensure that AC ripple of battery charger is
less than 50 mV.
vi) Ensure that all relays are fixed and
clamped properly.

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9. Do’s and Don’ts

9.1 Do’s

i) Before any types of maintenance, make


sure that there is no train in the section.
ii) Before removing any card ensure that DC
DC converter is off.
iii) Before inserting any card, ensure that you
are putting the card in its correct slot.
iv) Connect the 24 volts +ve and –ve supply as
per the power requirement stipulated and
specified units.
v) Externally accumulated dust must be
removed with vacuum cleaners.
9.2 Don’ts

Replace any card when the system is ON.


i) Use any kind of solvents, detergents or
abrasive cleaners on the card file or
internal components.
ii) Use vacuum cleaners inside the card file.
iii) Switch on the supply without ensuring the
correctness or input or the respective
LED’s are glowing.

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10. Error Coding

The system has unique feature of self diagnostic


by which any discrepancy in the system is
displayed in the form of Alarm / Error. In the
case of ALARM the system displays the alarm
code but continued to function in normal mode.
In the case of ERROR the relevant error code is
displayed and the system is automatically
brought to a safe shutdown.
ERROR/ALARM codes are differs manufacturer
to manufacturer. Some of the typical
ERROR/alarm codes are given below:
ALARM
ALARM Description Remedy

1. A 201 Output relayCheck the cabling to the


expected to be distribution mother board.
picked up but it Check whether the concerned
is actuallyout put has actually picked up.
dropped. Then the problem is with the
relay input card or read back
input may not be reaching.
Refer the stations input /output
map chart for the faulty input
card. Replace the same.
2. A 300 A push button is Check if any push button is
stuck up in the stuck up in the panel. Check
pressed whether the RI cards are
condition. outputs in the right slots. If not
then replace the card .

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ERROR
ERROR Description Remedy

1. E503 Power supply Check the +24 v power supply.


to 505 failure Check whether the VM relays
are mounted properly. If error
repeats replace the VM card.
2. E 480 Restart push Check for the cabling from the
button stuck up push button to the nine pin D
type connector. If the error still
persists replace the concerned
CPU card.
3. E 507 Faulty safe shut Check for proper mounting of
down circuit in VM card. If error still persists
VM card unable replace the VM card.
to switch off
power supply to
VM card
4. E 508 Faulty safe shut Check for proper mounting of
down circuit in VM card. If error still persists
VM card unable replace the VM card.
to restore power
supply to VM
card

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Failure statistics :

Failure statistics of SSI microlock on SC Railway as on


31.07.00

Name of Total Service Failure/ Failure/


station failure months month year
KYZ 111 72 1.54 18.05
SVPM 53 66 0.803 9.636
TTU 15 58 0.25 3.103
UPD 21 55 0.38 4.581
VTM 8 41 0.195 2.341
TNR 11 40 0.275 3.3
SDM 12 37 0.324 3.89
KRV 5 27 0.185 2.22
SKM 3 13 0.230 2.76
OGL 2 5 0.4 4.8

NO OF STATION=10

FAILURE PER MONTH=241/414


= 0.882

FAILURE PER YEAR = 6.98

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11. Comparison of various SSI architecture

Architecture Known world wide Software World wide


su ppliers Standard/ installation
validation
Single a) US & S (MLK- US MIL USA,
hardware II) 882 C Australia,
b) Alstom (VPI) ORE Sweden,
India
Malesia,
Bangladesh
Dual a) Bombardier
hardware (EBILOCK 950)
redundancy b) AZD Phara CENELEC Zech Rly
(ESSAII) CENELEC Japannes ,
c) Nippon Signals RTTI/Japa turkey
(EI32) n -do-
d) Kayosan German Germany
e) Siemens (SICAS Standard China
S-5) DIN Thialand
f) Alstom 9Safe V-19250 Korea
lock) RDSO India
g) CGL SSI RDSO India

Triple a) Alcate (Estwl- Romania


modular 90) Cenelec Nietherland
redundancy b) Simens (SIMIS) Germany UK
c) Simens (SICAS) Cenelec China
d) Alstom SSI standard Thialand
e) Alstom (ASCV) BRS Korea
f) West race BRS India
g) Geologic SIL4 India



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