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Practice Test

1. Which of the following statements about political parties in America is true?

A) Parties today are relatively strong, but they are not strong in all areas of the
B) Parties in this country are relatively new, having emerged only after the Civil War.
C) Parties in this country have traditionally plated a larger role than they do in
D) Parties today are relatively weak compared to earlier periods in our country's
E) Parties are stronger at the local lever than in the past, but not at the national level.

2. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison expressed the view that political
A) Are necessary to control the masses in a free nation.
B) Are undesirable but inevitable in a free nation.
C) Should play a minor role in any free election.
D) Should be nutured by a free nation.
E) Are central to the creation of a free nation.

3. Given that Wyoming has only one Representative in the House, we know that it
has _____ electoral college vote(s).
A) Two.
B) Four.
C) One.
D) It is impossible to know given this limited information.
E) Three.

4. James Madison
A) Believed that American society would be best served by a relatively small number
of powerful groups.
B) Believed that public interest lobbies were dangerous because the common man
was not qualified to speak for the public interest.
C) Had no demonstrable opinion about groups in politics.
D) Favored a wide-open system in which many groups would be able to participate
to counterbalance one another.
E) Wanted the Constitution to forbid the growth of groups and factions.

5. A "cloture motion" passed in the Senate does which of the following?

A) Brings a bill directly to a vote without formal committee approval.
B) Cuts off debate on a bill.
C) Returns a bill to committee.
D) Removes a president who has been impeached by the House.
E) Criticizes a senator guilty of improprieties.
6. Which of the following is not an essential part of the group theory of politics?
A) Groups are extremely unequal in power.
B) Groups compete.
C) Groups weak in one resource can use another.
D) Actually, all of these are part of the theory.
E) Groups usually play by the rules of the game.

7. Which of the following most accurately describes the legislature created by the
Connecticut Compromise?
A) A unicameral legislature selected by popular vote
B) A bicameral legislature, with the Senate chosen by the House
C) A bicameral legislature, with the Senate appointed by state legislatures and the
House selected by popular vote
D) A bicameral legislature, with bouth Houses chosen by popular vote
E) A unicameral legislature selected by state legislatures

8. The theory that argues that just a few groups have most of the power is
A) The pluralist theory.
B) Weber's theory of bureaucratic power.
C) Group theory of politics.
D) Elite theory.
E) Hyperpluralist theory.

9. Which of the following factors is probably the most important determinant of an

individual's political party affiliation?
A) Religion
B) Family, particularly his or her mother and father's party affiliation.
C) Social Class
D) Ideological Conviction
E) Gender

10. The complexity of the procedure for enacting a law gives the advantage to the
A) Congressional sponsors.
B) Party supporters.
C) Supporters in the executive branch.
D) Opponents.
E) Conference committee.

11. Voters at the Iowa Democratic caucus, compared with other Democrats from
Iowa, tend to be
A) More conservative.
B) More rural.
C) Younger.
D) Less educated.
E) More liberal.
12. The Republicans have a small majority of seats in both the House and the Senate.
In which body do they have a greater chance of legislative success?
A) The Senate.
B) It depends on whether the vice-president is present, to break tie votes.
C) It depends on how close we are to the next election.
D) The House.
E) About equal chances in both bodies.

13. Compared to Federalists, the Antifederalists tended to favor a

A) Weak decentralized government as a protection against political privilege.
B) Weak decentralized government as a protection against social inequality -
differences in wealth.
C) Strong national government as a protection against political privilege.
D) Return to monarchy.
E) Weak decentralized government as a protection of liberty.

14. The legislative process at the national level reflects the intent of the framers of
the Constitution to create a legislature that would
A) Ensure that all demographic groups be equally represented.
B) Allow majorities virtually unlimited control over policy.
C) Be less powerful than the executive.
D) Involve as many citizens as possible.
E) Be cautious and deliberate.

15. An open primary is one in which

A) Voting is limited to members of one party or the other.
B) Voters can vote for either a Democrat or a Republican, who are listed on the same
C) Voters must listen to speeches from each candidate before they make their
D) Voters from either major party may participate.
E) The outcome does not determine the state's choice of delegates.

16. If you wished to study the real leadership office in the Senate, you would most
likely focus on the
A) President pro tempore.
B) Vice President of the United States (the President of the Senate).
C) Party whip.
D) Chair of the Appropriations Committee.
E) Majority leader.

17. Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination begins with

A) An arrest.
B) Criminal sentencing.
C) A trial.
D) An appeal.
E) Prosecution.

18. If a House bill has just been reported out of committee and its sponsor is worried
that floor amendments will substantially change it, he or she would most likely
request a(n)
A) Closed rule from the Rules Committee.
B) Restrictive rule from the majority leader.
C) Discharge petition from his or her colleagues.
D) Amendment from one of the select committees.
E) Closed rule from the Speaker.

19. The general trend in power distribution in the evolution of Congress has been
A) It is hard to identify any pattern in this regard.
B) Centralization - more power for individual members.
C) Centralization - more power for leadership.
D) Decentralization - more power for individual members.
E) Decentralization - more power for leadership.

20. Which of the following statements about the current cloture rule is correct?
A) It requires half of the entire Senate membership to sign a petition to move cloture.
B) It requires three-fifths majority of the entire Senate membership to pass.
C) Two of these answers are correct.
D) It is used more frequently by the House rather than the Senate.
E) It sets a time limit on debate of five minutes per speaker.

21. The Federal Election Reform Act of 1974 included all of the following reforms
A) Allowance of federal matching funds for major presidential candidates.
B) Elimination of all PACs and "soft money" contributions.
C) Creation of a Federal Election Commission.
D) Prohibition of foreign contributions.
E) Limitation of individual contributions to candidates.

22. The War Powers Resolution of the early 1970s was designed to
A) Assure congressional involvement in decisions committing military forces for
extended periods of time.
B) Allow the Pentagon to advise the President during periods of conflict.
C) Require a congressional declaration of war before any American troops can be
used overseas.
D) Allow Congress to suspend certain civil liberties during times of war.
E) Ensure funding for military operations lasting for extended periods of time.

23. Which of the following best describes the influence of the news media on public
opinion in the United States?
A) They alter the public's view on issues.
B) They are most able to influence the urban sectors of society.
C) They affect which issues the public thinks are important.
D) They determine how citizens will vote.
E) They are most able to influence people with the highest level of education.

24. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were

A) Muckraking reporters during the Progressive era.
B) Developers of the "party press."
C) Presidential candidates in the 1900 election.
D) Turn-of-the-century newspaper magnates, who fought for higher readership with
questionable stories.
E) Strong opponents of yellow journalism.

25. During most of the 19th century, appointments to the civil service were based
primarily on
A) Political patronage.
B) Family connections.
C) Education.
D) Merit.
E) Wealth.

26. National party conventions were developed as a reform of

A) Direct elections.
B) Party caucuses in Congress.
C) The parliamentary system.
D) Primary elections.
E) The electoral college.

27. The most important single reason why the U.S. has a two-party system is
A) The winner-take-all system of voting.
B) The decrease of voter turnout over the years.
C) The variety of access points to policy-making institutions.
D) The efficient organization of both major political parties.
E) Voting by proportional representation.

28. The original purpose of the Constitutional Convention was to

A) Draft a Declaration of Independence.
B) Revice the Articles of Confederation.
C) Negotiate a settlement to the conflict between New Jersey and Virginia.
D) Adopt a model constitution for individual states to follow.
E) Prepare a new constitution.

29. A federal grant for a specific purpose defined by federal law is called
A) A categorical grant.
B) An unfunded mandate.
C) A block grant.
D) Federalism.
E) Revenue sharing.

30. Parties enjoy what decennial political advantage?

A) The census taking.
B) Redistricting.
C) Changing campaign finance rules.
D) The franking privilege.
E) Reapportionment.

31. Amicus curiae briefs

A) Two of these are correct.
B) Are most often used by PACs.
C) Consist of written arguments submitted to the courts in support of one side of a
D) Enable a group of similarly situated plantiffs to combine similar grievances into a
single suit.
E) Are required before an interest group can sue for enforcement of a particular piece
of legislation.

32. Which of the following countries has the lowest voter turnout of the electorate?
A) Australia
B) Italy
C) Great Britain
D) Canada
E) United States

33. Until the passage of the _____ Amendment, Senators were chosen by state
A) 10th.
B) 14th.
C) None of these.
D) 22nd.
E) 17th.

34. The Freedom of Information Act allows members of the media to

A) Criticize one another in an effort to get higher ratings.
B) Be protected from frivolous lawsuits.
C) Obtain information from government officials.
D) Broadcast material critical of the government.
E) Have regular press conferences with the president.

35. The concept of "divided government" refers to

A) A president of one party, the vice president from another.
B) Elected officials versus appointed officials.
C) The majority party of one house is different from the majority party in the other.
D) Division of power between the state and national levels
E) Congress being controlled by a different party from the party affiliation of the

36. Impeachment of a president requires a

A) Two-thirds vote of the Senate.
B) Majority vote in the Senate.
C) Supreme Court ruling.
D) Majority vote in the House.
E) Popular referendum.

37. In the midterm election 2006, voters will choose: I - a president. II - 1/3 of the
Senate. III - 2/3 of the Senate. IV - All of the house. V - 1/3 of the House. VI - 2/3 of
the House. VII - 2/3 of the House. VIII - a vice president.
A) I, VIII, IV, and II.
B) II and IV only.
C) V and VI only.
D) IV and VI only.
E) I, II, and IV.

38. A "discharge petition" passed in the House does which of the following?
A) Criticizes a representative guilty of improprieties.
B) Brings a bill directly to a vote without formal committee approval.
C) Returns a bill to committee.
D) Cuts off debate on a bill.
E) Removes a president who has been impeached by the Senate.

39. A major difference between presidential campaigns and congressional campaigns

is that
A) There is no public money involved in presidential campaigns.
B) Presidential incumbents can more easily avoid responsibility.
C) Fewer people vote in presidential elections.
D) Presidential incumbents can better serve their constituents.
E) Presidential races are generally more competitive.

40. The term "sophomore surge" refers to the tendency of

A) Newly elected House members to make foolish (sophomoric) decisions on key
B) The popularity of newly elected House members to increase in their second year
in office.
C) Freshman House members to be reelected.
D) Reelected House members to gain key power positions.
E) Second year House members to switch parties.

41. The federalist system goes a long way toward explaining why U.S. political
parties are __________ than in Europe.
A) More ideological.
B) Less decentralized.
C) Less ideological.
D) More decentralized.
E) Much stronger.

42. The "rule of four" refers to

A) The number of Supreme Court justices required to decide to hear a case.
B) The number of jurors needed to hear a civil case, like Mr. Kummer's in Texas.
C) The number of reindeer that must be present for a spectacle to be indicative of the
seasonal festivities.
D) The first four presidential primaries.
E) New campaign finance regulations.

43. Which of the following is not true of electoral mandates?

A) They are powerful symbols in American politics.
B) Actually, all of these are true of electoral mandates.
C) They give legitimacy and credibility to new presidents.
D) They change the premises of decisions.
E) They are guaranteed by large electoral majorities.

44. "It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to what the
law is ... a law repugnant to the Constitution is void." This quotation summarizes the
principle of __________ and was written by __________.
A) Natural law, John Locke.
B) Economic self-interest, Charles Beard.
C) Federalism, Alexander Hamilton.
D) Judicial review, John Marshall.
E) States' rights, John C. Calhoun.

45. Which of the following statements about the two-party system is correct?
A) It exists because of certain provisions in the Constitution.
B) Most democracies have such a system.
C) The United States is one of the few countries with such a system.
D) It has existed in the United States only since the early 1900s.
E) It exists in the United States because of the absence of local party organizations.

46. The priciple of the tenth Amendment would best reflect the political philosophy
A) Thomas Jefferson and John C. Calhoun
B) George Mason and George Washington
C) Actually, none of these men would really agree with the principle of the tenth
D) Abraham Lincoln and George Bush
E) Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
47. A mark-up session is one in which
A) The Rules Committee determines the conditions under which floor debate will be
B) The party leadership assigns priority ratings to numerous bills.
C) Two of these answers are correct.
D) A conference committee makes key compromises in resolving differences
between House and Senate versions of a bill.
E) A committee or subcommittee makes changes in the original version of the bill.

48. The "motor-voter" bill was favored by which group of people in Congress?
A) No particular group.
B) The senior members.
C) Representatives, more so than Senators.
D) Republicans.
E) Democrats.

49. Compared to electronic media such as radio and television, print media are
A) Regulated to about the same degree by the government.
B) Becoming less regulated by the government, after decades of being regulated to
about the same degree.
C) Less regulated by the government.
D) Only regulated if they print material that constitutes a "public nuisance."
E) More regulated by the government.

50. The president's cabinet

A) Must be consulted before executive orders can take effect.
B) Can veto the president on matters of executive policy.
C) Was provided for by the Constitution.
D) Has increased over the years with newly established executive departments
approved by Congress.
E) Serves as the president's board of directors.

51. Which of the following is the best description of the relationship of black
Americans to the Democratic party?
A) Blacks supported the Democratic party from the 1950s through the 1970s, but are
now more likely to be Republicans.
B) Blacks supported the Democratic party until the 1950s, but are now more likely to
be Republicans.
C) Blacks are no more likely to support the Democratic party than are other major
racial groups in the U.S.
D) Blacks supported the Republican party until the 1970s, but are now more likely to
be Democratic.
E) Although the relationship has occasionally shown signs of weakening, black
Americans are the most consistently supportive of the Democratic party.
52. This right is implied, but not directly stated, in the Bill of Rights.
A) Right to counsel.
B) Right to privacy.
C) Right to assemble.
D) Right to keep and bear arms.
E) Right to property.

53. Lobbyists can help a member of Congress in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A) Providing important information.
B) Writing and introducing bills.
C) Helping to formulate campaign strategy.
D) Providing ideas and innovations.
E) Providing campaign contributions.

54. Which of the following explains why so few congressional districts are marginal?
A) Fewer and fewer poeple are interested in running for public office.
B) The public is generally content with the direction of the nation.
C) States have made rules that make it very difficult to get your name on the ballot.
D) Congress has made rules for the elections that discourage challengers.
E) Congressional districts have been drawn to favor incumbents.

55. Solidary parties are based on

A) Commitments to a common set of beliefs.
B) The support of an outside group.
C) Rigid adherence to ideological purity.
D) Employment benefits to participants.
E) Members' enjoyment of party activities.

56. Right-to-work laws are generally supported by

A) The Democratic party.
B) Labor unions.
C) Public interest groups.
D) All of these.
E) Business groups.

57. This 1973 Supreme Court case attempted to clarify the meaning of obscenity by
spelling out what would and would not be obscene.
A) Miller v. California.
B) None of these.
C) Roth v. United States.
D) Rust v. Sullivan
E) Barnes v. Glenn Theater.

58. The War Powers Resolution

A) Is part of the Constitution.
B) Two of these are correct.
C) Provides for a legislative veto to end American involvement in overseas
D) Limits congressional powers during times of war.
E) Strengthens presidential powers during times of war.

59. Which of the following is usually the most important reason that a presidential
hopeful drops out of the race?
A) Poor health.
B) Lack of support from party leaders.
C) Poor performances in debates.
D) Lack of money.
E) Family reasons.

60. The term "substantive representation" refers to

A) The correspondence of legislators' opinions and those of their constituents.
B) Educational grants and other pork won by an American's congressmen.
C) The representation obtained by citizens of the home districts of major
congressional leaders.
D) The correspondence between the demographic characterists of representatives and
those of their constituents.
E) Astroturf lobbying on behalf of a constituency.

61. Which of the following best describes the organization of the two major political
parties in the United States?
A) Separate and largely independent party organizations exist at the national, state,
and local levels.
B) Parties are organized much like a large corporation, in that decisions flow from
national to state and local levels.
C) Parties have no organization except at the national level.
D) Local and state parties have virtually no power in the party system.
E) Parties are centrally organized to provide a smooth transition from one national
campaign to the next.

62. A discharge petition is used in the House to

A) Make revisions and additions to a bill before it is voted on.
B) Amend a bill that has already passed one house but not the other.
C) Allow open rule debate.
D) Get a bill stalled in committee onto the floor.
E) Override a presidential veto.

63. During which period in history did the Democratic party first advocate a strong
central governmental role in the economy?
A) During the Progressive era of the early 19th century.
B) During the 1930s, with FDR's New Deal.
C) Never; the Democratic Party has never been in favor of a strong central
governmental role in the economy.
D) During the 1960s, with LBJ's Great Society.
E) During the era of Hamilton, with his concerns over a central bank.

64. The progressives favored all of the following EXCEPT

A) Strict voter registration requirements.
B) Better relations with business.
C) Nonpartisan elections.
D) Progressives favored all of these ideas.
E) Civil service reform.

65. To win a presidential nomination, as opposed to a general election, candidates

generally present themselves as
A) More conservative.
B) Moderate.
C) More liberal if Republican, more conservative if Democratic.
D) More liberal if Democratic, more conservative if Republican.
E) More liberal.

66. Which of the following is true of the electoral college system?

A) It requires that a candidate win a minimum of 26 states to obtain a majority in the
B) It ensures that the votes of all citizens count equally in selecting the President.
C) It tends to make presidential elections appear closer than they really are.
D) It encourages the emergence of minor political parties.
E) It encourages candidates to concentrates their campaigns in competitive, populous

67. Perhaps the greatest source of influence a president has is

A) Party leadership.
B) Public support.
C) Ability to parcel out favors.
D) Constitutional powers.
E) The line-item veto.

68. According to the text, Ronald Reagan, the "Great Communicator," was especially
successful in mobilizing public support for
A) Increasing defense spending.
B) Building relationships with the Soviet Union.
C) His 1981 tax-cut bill.
D) Aid for the Nicaraguan contras.
E) Deregulation.

69. Malapportionment differs from gerrymandering for racial purposes in that the
A) Involves population, the latter involves shapes.
B) Involves shapes, the latter involves population.
C) Occurs only after Supreme Court decisions, the latter occurs every ten years.
D) Is illegal, the latter is legal.
E) Is legal, the latter is illegal.

70. Until the twentieth century, and during some periods since, the major struggles
for national political power have been struggles within Congress rather than between
Congress and the President.
A) True.
B) False.

71. The president's clearinghouse for agency ideas is the

A) Cabinet.
B) Vice president.
D) Press secretary.
E) Office of Management and Budget.

72. Lobbying
A) Is confined to the legislative branch.
B) Two of these answers are correct.
C) Is most effective in converting legislators.
D) Is aimed at influencing decision-making.
E) Was made illegal by the Federal Regulations of Lobbying Act.

73. One advantage that incumbents always have in congressional races is

A) Strong name recognition.
B) Their use of the franking privilege.
C) Their freedom from FEC regulations.
D) Their larger share of campaign money.
E) The political advantage of riding the president's coattails.

74. All of the following are consequences of the federal system in the United States
A) A strict division of power among levels of government.
B) Multiple points of access for interest groups.
C) Opportunities for experimentation in government programs.
D) Inequality in government services among the states.
E) Decentralization of political conflict.

75. James David Barber suggests that presidents can be examined by looking at their
A) Leadership.
B) Power.
C) Roots.
D) Character.
E) Myths.
76. Retrospective voting involves
A) Basing your vote on future expectations.
B) Voting for the best candidate.
C) Splitting your ticket.
D) Basing your vote on past performance.
E) Voting consistently for the same party.

77. The primary means by which the Senate is kept moving in times of a filibuster.
A) Division vote.
B) Double tracking.
C) Simple resolution.
D) Vote for cloture.
E) The "nuclear option."

78. A committee chair in the House of Representatives is always

A) A member of the majority party in the chamber.
B) The member with the longest service in the House.
C) Someone with strong ties to the Senate.
D) An ally of the President.
E) The member with the longest service on the committee.

79. Considering all elections at all levels of the government, which of the following
best describes the electoral behavior in the United States?
A) Voters with strong party identifications vote less regularly than do independents.
B) Primary elections tend to elicit a higher turnout than do general elections.
C) The majority of the electorate does not vote in most elections.
D) Voter turnout plays an insignificant role in election outcomes.
E) Adult citizens under the age of 30 tend to have the highest rate of voter turnout.

80. Which of the following is not a constitutional power of the president?

A) Nominate federal judges.
B) Receive ambassadors.
C) Grant repreives and pardons.
D) Commander in chief of the armed forces.
E) Actually, all of these are constitutional powers of the president.

81. The late 19th and early 20th centuries are often considered the heydey of the
A) Political machine.
B) Sponsored party.
D) Party based on personal following.
E) Ideological party.

82. The famous series of essays that appeared in support of the Constitution during
the debate over its ratification was called
A) Common Sense.
B) The Spirit of the Laws.
C) The Federalist Papers.
D) Two Treatises of Government.
E) Democracy in America.

83. Interest groups differ from political parties because

A) The group's main arena is the electoral system.
B) Parties tend to use technology more effectively.
C) Parties seek many access points in government.
D) Groups tend to be policy specialists while parties tend to be policy generalists.
E) More people identify with interests groups than with parties.

84. The first goal of an individual planning to run for office is to

A) Hire a paid staff of advisors.
B) Get mentioned as a possible candidate.
C) Be nominated by one of the two major parties.
D) Raise money from individuals and PACs.
E) Develop a strategy for the campaign.

85. The most infrequent event in the criminal justice systems is a

A) Arrest.
B) Prosecution.
C) Crime.
D) Plea bargain.
E) Trial.

86. Arrange the following groups in the correct sequence of attaining the
constitutional right to vote. I - women. II - black Americans. III - residents of the
District of Columbia. IV - 18-20 year olds.

87. Prior restraint.

A) Means government prevention of publication.
B) Was allowed in Hustler v. Falwell.
C) Is frequently exercised by the United States government.
D) Allows a newspaper to print libelous materials.
E) Was allowed in Near v. Minnesota.

88. An interest group would likely have the greatest influence on policy matters
A) Broad, highly visible national issues.
B) Major constitutional issues on topics such as abortion.
C) Broad foreign policy issues.
D) Areas in which members of Congress have considerable expertise and
E) Narrow issues and technical information.

89. The Supreme Court has one-by-one done this to the Bill of Rights.
A) Changed the language of Amendments.
B) Incorporated Amendments.
C) Applied parts of it to the states.
D) Two of these.
E) Declared parts of it to be null, void, and repugnant to the Constitution.

90. Which of the following types of groups has not resorted to litigation as a strategy
for affecting policy?
A) Groups interested in equality.
B) Public interest lobbies.
C) None of these.
D) Groups with business or economic interests.
E) Groups interested in the environment.

91. How can the differences between the two major parties of the United States best
be characterized?
A) The two parties' differences are growing more dramatic all the time.
B) There are differences on social issues but not economic issues.
C) There are very large differences in policy views.
D) There are large policy differences among activists and smaller ones among the
rank and file.
E) There are only trivial differences.

92. Political parties were seen as factions motivated by ambition and self-interest in
the eyes of
A) The Founders.
B) The "stalwarts."
C) Early twentieth-century reformers.
D) Nations around the world.
E) Most voters in the 1980s.

93. For a public figure to win a libel suit against the press, he or she must prove
A) The material was untrue and was printed maliciously.
B) The printing of the material in question has done "substantial harm" to the public
C) What was printed was untrue.
D) The printing of the material cost them financially.
E) His or her privacy was violated.

94. Voters in Virginia voted on whether to spend lost of money on things like
schools, roads, and dog catchers. These ballot issues are known as
A) Initiatives.
B) Mandates.
C) Categorical grants.
D) Referenda.
E) Federal questions.

95. A meeting of party followers at which convention delegates are picked is known
as a
A) Nominating committee.
B) Caucus.
C) Primary.
D) Preconvention.
E) Party commission.

96. Which of the following statements regarding religion in the United States in
recent years is false?
A) Conservative Republicans have pushed for a constitutional amendment permitting
school led prayer.
B) Many school districts have ignored the Supreme Court's ban on school led prayer.
C) All of these statements are true.
D) Religious issues and controversies have assumed much greater importance in
political debate.
E) Fundamentalist religious groups have shied away from political action due to
recent controversies.

97. Which of the following is not among the three main policy-making bodies in the
Executive Office of the President?
A) Actually, all of these are part of the Executive Office.
B) The National Security Council.
C) The Federal Reserve Board.
D) The Council of Economic Advisors.
E) The Office of Management and Budget.

98. Most criminal cases are settled through this process.

A) Recusal.
B) Plea bargaining.
C) None of these.
D) Jury trials.
E) Execution.

99. The boundary lines of congressional districts are drawn by

A) None of these.
B) The United States House of Representatives.
C) The Republican and Democratic National Committees.
D) The Supreme Court.
E) Unites States district courts.

100. A political party's platform is typically voted on

A) By voters in the general election.
B) By state legislatures.
C) By delegates at the nominating conventions.
D) By participants in primaries and caucuses.
E) The platform is actually devised by the president and the vice-president.

101. The Libertarian and Socialist parties in the United States are examples of
A) Factional parties.
B) Single issues parties.
C) Ideological parties.
D) Economic protest parties.
E) Coalitions.

102. In the supreme court decision Buckley v. Valeo, the court

A) Upheld the right of members of Congress to set their own salaries.
B) Limited the amount of money an individual can contribute.
C) Two of these answers are correct.
D) Limited the amount of money a PAC can contribute.
E) Upheld the right of individuals to spend unlimited money on their own

103. A term used to describe an issue such as economic prosperity is

A) Valence.
B) Realignment.
C) Retrospective.
D) Position.
E) Value.

104. Party conventions today

A) Do almost nothing and will almost certainly be soon eliminated from the election
B) Are held state by state, but not on a national level.
C) Nominate candidates for senatorial and representative positions.
D) Formally nominate the candidates for president and vice-president.
E) Select the electors for the party to the electoral college.

105. If people have a sense of political efficacy, then they believe they
A) Are entitled to a large array of freedoms.
B) Would rather live in the U.S. than elsewhere.
C) Trust the government to do what is right.
D) Feel alienated from public policy.
E) Have a say in what the government does.
106. The largest portion of "uncontrollable spending" in the federal budget is
designated for which of the following?
A) Defense spending.
B) Entitlement spending.
C) Salaries of federal bureaucrats.
D) Interest on the national debt.
E) Environmental programs.

107. This case extended the exlusionary rule to the states.

A) Humphrey's Executor v. United States.
B) Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
C) Mapp v. Ohio.
D) Gitlow v. United States.
E) None of these.

108. In the case of Dennis v. United States, the Supreme Court permitted the
government to
A) Conduct random drug tests on students.
B) Prohibit all forms of symbolic speech.
C) Exercise prior restraint over certain publications.
D) Jail some American Communist Party leaders.
E) Use wiretaps to spy on American citizens.

Matching I: Who's Who

A - Speaker of the House

B - House Majority Leader
C - House Majority Whip
D - House Minority Leader
E - House Minority Whip
F - President Pro tempore
G - Senate Majority Leader
H - Senate Majority Whip
I - Senate Minority Leader
J - Senate Minority Whip
K - Secretary of State
L - Secretary of the Treasury
M - Secretary of Defense
N - Attorney General
O - Secretary of Homeland Security
P - Senior Political Advisor to the President
Q - Head of the Republican National Committee

109. Steny Hoyer

110. Harry Reid
111. Ted Stevens
112. Tom Delay
113. Dennis Hastert
114. Donald Rumsfeld
115. Roy Blunt
116. Richard Durbin
117. Alberto Gonzales
118. Nominee Michael Chertoff
119. Nancy Pelosi
120. Condoleezza Rice
121. John Snow
122. Mitch McConnell
123. Karl Rove
124. Bill Frist
125. Ken Mehlman

Matching II: Supreme Court Cases

A - Roe v. Wade
B - Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District
C - Bethel Schools v. Fraser
D - Gibbons v. Ogden
E - Baker v. Carr
F - Presser v. Illinois
G - New Jersey v. TLO
H - Mapp v. Ohio
I - New York Times v. United States
J - Engel v. Vitale
K - New York Times v. Sullivan
L - Red Lion Broadcasting v. FCC
M - Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
N - McCulloch v. Maryland
O - Reno v. ACLU
P - Marbury v. Madison
Q - Westbury v. Sanders
R - Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
S - United States v. Miller
T - Abingdon Schools v. Schempp
U - Wallace v. Jaffree
V - Miller v. California
W - Furmann v. Georgia
X - Gregg v. Georgia
Y - Griswold v. Connecticut
Z - Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections
126. The Supreme Court strikes down the Communications Decency Act, citing
concerns over vague language and difficulties over implementation.
127. The Supreme Court establishes the exclusionary rule in this case when illegal
pornographic material is improperly seized by police who had no warrant for such
128. The Supreme Court finds that Congress is properly applying its right to regulate
interstate commerce, even in intervening in the localized discriminatory practice of
this case.
129. The Supreme Court establishes that states cannot ban first and second trimester
abortions outright, but does not preclude them from making abortions difficult to
130. In this case, where the Supreme Court found that Congress has a wide range of
implied powers according to the "necessary and proper" clause, Daniel Webster
successfully argued to John Marshall that federal law supercedes state law.
131. The Supreme Court rules in this 1939 case that an individual having a registered
shotgun less than eighteen inches in length is not protected by the 2nd Amendment
as this is not "necessary to the security of a free State."
132. The Supreme Court creates a de facto "right to privacy" in this ruling, striking
down a state law prohibiting the use of birth control products.
133. The Supreme Court rules on libel, which against public figures it stipulates must
be published maliciously and with "reckless disregard for truth."
134. The Supreme Court strikes an Alabama law which stated that "students should
spend time meditating, praying, or engaged in some other silent activity," finding
overt religious motivation in the chamber which first promulgated the legislation.
135. The Supreme Court rules that questions based on the 14th Amendment
regarding legislative apportionment merit judicial evaluation.
136. The Supreme Court strikes down a state law that enforces poll taxes, citing the
equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
137. The Supreme Court "kicks God out of school" saying that there can be no
school led prayer.
138. The Supreme Court upheld students' rights in the language "Students do not
shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate."
139. The Supreme Court, citing a school's "educational mission," rules that the first
Amendment does not prevent a school district from disciplining a high school
student for giving a lewd speech at a school assembly.
140. The Supreme Court distinguishes between material that is paramount to the
security of the United States and material that is merely embarassing to the United
States; here, the court allows for the publication of the "Pentagon Papers."
141. The Supreme Court judges that local zoning laws prohibiting the distribution of
adult materials half of a mile from a school are valid, citing the phraseology
"eminent domain."
142. The Supreme Court holds that a school may bypass students' 4th Amendment
rights in an effort to maintain a "safe learning environment."
143. The Supreme Court, citing Article I Section 8 clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution,
rules that federal government has the right to regulate interstate commerce.
144. The Supreme Court, clarifying an earlier suit, finds that a student leading bible
verses at the end of announcements is acting on behalf of the school and strikes this
145. The Supreme Court rules that freedom of the press does not extend to school
newspapers, identifying such paper as a curricular device.
146. The Supreme Court rules in this 1886 case that the parading on public streets by
groups of armed men is not protected by the 2nd Amendment.
147. The Supreme Court allows for the execution of a convicted felon as scheduled,
easing the hesitance of the states to pursue such acts.
148. The Supreme Court rules that capital punishment is acceptable, but cannot be
employed in an "arbitrary and capricious manner."
149. The Supreme Court, in a major power grab by John Marshall, establishes for
itself the principle of judicial review.
150. The Supreme Court establishes "one person, one vote" rule; each district must
be within 15 percent of average population for a district in that state.
151. The Supreme Court allows for the federal regulation of electronic media ruling
that the government is responsible for the "public" airways; in this case, it upholds
the fairness doctrine.

Multiple Choice II: My Notes

152. "The distinctive aspect of the American Creed is its antigovernment character.
Opposition to power, and suspicion of government as the most dangerous
embodiment of power, are central themes of American political thought." These
words, illustrating the American opposition to concentration of power, were written
A) Richard Neustadt.
B) James David Barber.
C) Garry Wills.
D) Alexis de Tocqueville.
E) Samuel Huntington.

153. In "Cliffhanger," John Ferling writes all of the following of the election of 1800
A) Jefferson felt that the Ultras had overreacted to the French militarism.
B) Presidential candidates exploited the political fray, making stump speeches to
rouse the public in support of their respective causes.
C) Federalist Ultras created a provisional army, levied heavy taxes, and passed the
Alient and Sedition Acts.
D) "Electioneering" began more than a year before the convenor of the Electoral
E) Adams felt that the Ultras had overreacted to the French militarism.

154. Which of the following entities employs a majority of the federal workers?
A) The Department of Agriculture.
B) Actually, none of these.
C) The United States Postal Service.
D) The Department of Veterans Affairs.
E) The Department of Defense.

155. The primary obstacle to presidents obtaining support from Congressman of his
own party is
A) Diversity of political views in various constituencies.
B) The lack of public responsiveness to new policy initiatives.
C) Internal power struggles.
D) A lack of direct means of influence.
E) There is no such obstacle.

156. In his Washington Post article "To Break the Stalemate, Give Judges Less Than
Life" Norman Ornstein argues in support of all of the following points about federal
courts EXCEPT
A) Staggered 15-year terms for Supreme Court seats would eliminate variability in
the power of the executive branch.
B) Reducing the tenure of justices would dilute a president's efforts to project his
views onto future generations.
C) Lifetime appointments insulate the judicial branch from political influence.
D) Under the current system, there exists a temptation to pack the court with young
E) The lifetime guaranteed income is a financial disincentive.

157. Indentify the president who wrote that "nothing in a newspaper is to be

A) Richard Nixon.
B) George Washington.
C) Abraham Lincoln.
D) Harry Truman.
E) Thomas Jefferson.

158. According to Hugh Heclo, issue networks are

A) Responsible for the decline of iron-triangles.
B) Dynamic, amorphous "shared-knowledge groups" that facilitate widespread
dissemination of political materials and influence bureaucratic agendas.
C) Subgovernments.
D) News media which focus specifically on substantive material.
E) Two of these.

159. Which of the following is not a major policy-making independent executive

A) National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
B) Federal Communications Commission.
C) National Science Foundation.
D) General Services Administration.
E) None of these.

160. The "football" is

A) A term for legislative initiative within Congress.
B) A term for the president's budget as originally presented to Congress.
C) A nickname of former president Richard Nixon.
D) A briefcase that contains codes needed to activate the United States' nuclear
E) A synonym for the microphone at presidential press conferences.

161. All of the following are a part of the Weberian model of bureaucracy EXCEPT
A) Actually, all of these are part of the Weberian model.
B) The merit principle.
C) A hierarchical authority structure.
D) Task specialization and extensive rules.
E) Impersonality.

162. When the Supreme Court remands a case, it

A) Overrules the previous decision.
B) None of these.
C) Places the case on an indefinite hiatus.
D) Sends the case to a lower court for additional consideration.
E) Affirms the previous decision.

163. The president can try to influence bureaucracy by all of the following means
A) Reorganizing agencies.
B) Actually, the president can employ all of these strategies.
C) Appointing leadership of similar ideology.
D) Issuing executive orders.
E) Reviewing agency budgets.

164. All of the following are always basic components of the implementation of a
legislative act, judicial decision, executive order, or promulgation of a regulatory rule
A) Creation of a new agency or appropriate designation of new responsibility.
B) Actually, all of these are such components of implementation.
C) Translation of policy into guidlines and operational rules.
D) Coordination of resources to enact these goals.
E) Appropriation of ample funds by Congress.

165. The "fourth branch of government," the independent regulatory agencies,

A) Are typically governed by a commission with members appointed for fixed-terms
by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
B) Two of these.
C) Oversee various economic sectors, judging disputes over rules.
D) Have leaders that can be arbitrarily fired by the president as a result of the
Supreme Court's ruling in Humphrey's Executor v. United States.
E) Are specifically ordained by the Constitution.

166. In his Washington Post article "Congress-s-s-s" Robert Kaiser argues that the
Congressmen of today's recently unified government have not, but ought to
A) Forgo oversight in favor of producing legislative results.
B) Allow the federal budget deficit to compound as part of a modern version of
C) Assert their constitutional prerogatives and independence from the president in an
effort to return Congress to its proper policymaking role.
D) Forgo bipartisan friendships and exhibit greater loyalty to their parties.
E) Fall in line behind the president.

167. In terms of regulation, Charles Schultze favors __________ over __________.

A) Incentive systems...command-and-control policy.
B) Command-and-control policy...incentive systems.
C) Laissez faire...command-and-control policy.
D) Incentive systems...laissez faire.
E) Command-and-control policy...laissez faire.

168. Which of the following is an accurate statement about presidential vetos?

A) Two of these are correct.
B) They are usually upheld in instances of unified government, but often overriden
when Congress is controlled by the opposition party.
C) They are upheld most of the time.
D) They are used more often by presidents faced with a House and Senate controlled
by the opposition party than those in unified government.
E) Their use has increased dramatically in recent years.

169. An issue on which the chief executive successfully appealed to the public was
A) Vietnam.
B) The Iran-Contra affair.
C) No president efficaciously appealed to the public on any of these issues.
D) The tax cuts of 1981.
E) Watergate.

170. According to William Niskanen, who takes the contemporary, acquisitive-

monopolistic view of bureaucracy, all of the following are accurate statements about
government agencies EXCEPT
A) The self-interest of the agencies is a large factor in the continued growth of the
government bureaucracy.
B) Their administrators take pride in running large, well-staffed agencies.
C) Their respective budget sizes reflect the perceived value of their policies.
D) Agencies take actions to maximize their budget and sell their respective agency
policies, just as private corporations seek to maximize profit.
E) Actually, all of these reflect Niskanen's views.

171. The American economy is a "free enterprise" system unfettered by government

A) False.
B) True.

172. Presidential appointments to the highest positions in which of the follwing are
EXEMPT from Senate confirmation?
A) Two of these.
B) Cabinet Departments
C) White House Office
D) Independent Agencies
E) Executive Office of the President

173. Which of the following is NOT a typical source of difficulty in policy

A) Lack of clarity.
B) Actually, all of these are sources of difficulty.
C) Fragmentation.
D) Lack of resources.
E) Administrative routine.

174. Interests groups boast various incentives that foster support for their cause,
A) All of these.
B) Solidary incentives.
C) Purposive incentives.
D) None of these.
E) Material benefits.

175. Which of the following elections presented the president-elect with a mandate
that changed questions regarding the premise of government from whether it should
act to how it should act?
A) 1800.
B) 1896.
C) 1964.
D) 1980.
E) 1932.

176. Which is these is the chief reason that the Court is political?
A) Its membership is appointed by the President, who is the highest figure in
American politics.
B) Because it can be lobbied via amicus curaie briefs.
C) Congress, which pays attention to and holds powers over the Court.
D) It makes important decisions on major issues.
E) Actually, the Supreme Court is not a political institution.

177. In Munn v. Illinois, the Supreme Court

A) Struck numerous Occupational Health and Safety Administration provisions.
B) Two of these.
C) Upheld the right of the government to regulate business practices.
D) Abridged the regulatory rights of the government.
E) Mandated the formation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

178. The "rule of three" refers to

A) None of these.
B) The number of years between automatic promotions as prescribed by General
Schedule rating.
C) The process by which hiring in most federal agencies is guided by the Office of
Personnel Management.
D) The number of members of the Senior Executive Service required to hire a job
E) The number of tests that must be passed before a prospective employee may be
hired in a technical field.

179. According to James David Barber's studies of "presidential character," those

who are both __________ and __________ are likely to be dogged by tragedy.
A) Active... negative.
B) Passive... positive.
C) Active... positive.
D) Passive... negative.
E) Actually, Barber argues that all presidents endure tragedy.

180. Which of the following is an accurate description of nuclear power throughout

the 20th century?
A) The American public has been consistently wary of nuclear power.
B) Nuclear power plant construction has resumed since the Reagan administration's
heavy emphasis on deregulation.
C) Environmental groups have categorically prevented the use of nuclear power in
the United States.
D) Since the formation of the Atomic Energy Commission, the use of nuclear power
has fallen precipitously.
E) Though once touted as a potential source of energy "too cheap to meter," nuclear
power has faded from power due to widespread safety concerns triggered by Three
Mile Island and Chernobyl.

181. Congress can attempt to control bureaucracy with all of the following strategms
A) Holding hearings.
B) Actually, Congress can use all of these means of influence.
C) Influencing appointments.
D) Revising legislation.
E) Tinkering with agency budgets.

182. Which of the following is an important difference between Congress and the
Supreme Court?
A) The Supreme Court makes decisions within a legal framework whereas Congress
is free to craft new legislation.
B) Both institutions are subject to lobbying.
C) Unlike Congress, the Supreme Court is not involved in politics.
D) Two of these.
E) The Supreme Court does not establish national policy.

183. The Congressman known as "the hammer" for his ability to effectively represent
business interests in Congress is known more formally as
A) Bill Frist
B) Roy Blunt
C) Dennis Hastert
D) Ted Stevens
E) Tom Delay

184. All of the following are reasons that the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was
successful EXCEPT
A) It was backed by authorities.
B) Actually, all of these facilitated its implementation.
C) Its implementation was straightforward.
D) It was a popular reform.
E) Its goal was clear.

185. The _____ Amendment limits the president to two terms; the _____
Amendment establishes protocol for presidential disability and succession.
A) 22nd...25th.
B) None of these.
C) 22nd...24th.
D) 21st...25th.
E) 21st...24th.

186. Which is the most accurate statement regarding diversity in the federal
A) To within a few percent, diversity in the bureaucracy is representative of the
demographics of the American public.
B) It is impossible to identify a trend.
C) Due to a preponderance of political patronage, the civil service is still
misrepresentative of the American public.
D) The permanent bureaucracy is better representative of the American public than
are legislators, judges, or presidential appointees in the executive.
E) Due to recent increases in affirmative action, the majority of government
employees are female.

187. Of the following, the best definition of public policy is

A) The dominate view of how money should be spent on public works and in the
maintenance thereof.
B) The collective majority opinion of Congress.
C) The subset of government policy which is declassified and available to the public.
D) The sum total of authoritative rules by which government institutions influence
government operation and society as a whole.
E) The dogmas with a plurality of support in public opinion polls.

188. The loose wording "he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed" that
implies a wide range of powers granted to the president can be found in
A) Article 2, Section 2.
B) Article 1, Section 8.
C) Actually, this language is nowhere present in the Constitution.
D) Article 2, Section 1.
E) Article 2, Section 3.

189. Government corporations differ from the rest of the government in the sense
A) They offer stock on Wall Street.
B) They are monopolistic in that they eliminate private competition.
C) They usually charge for their services.
D) They provide service(s) that could be handled by the private sector.
E) Two of these.

190. The Supreme Court overruled a form of executive privilege in all of the
following cases EXCEPT
A) Clinton v. Jones
B) Clinton v. City of New York
C) Two of these.
D) Nixon v. Fitzgerald
E) Nixon v. United States

191. The Supreme Court has heard just four cases treating the second Amendment,
including all of the following EXCEPT
A) Miller v. United States
B) United States v. Cruikshank
C) Korematsu v. United States
D) Presser v. Illinois
E) Miller v. Texas

192. In the 1995 case U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton, the Supreme Court
A) Struck state-imposed term limits on Congress.
B) Imposed term limits on all judges serving on federal courts.
C) Imposed term limits on all judges serving on state courts.
D) None of the above.
E) Struck the Contract-With-America proviso that House committee chairs serve no
more than three consecutive terms.

193. When the Supreme Court rules in favor of an individual's right to free exercise
of religion, it has typically considered all of the following EXCEPT
A) Whether the belief is held sincerely.
B) Whether the religion is popular.
C) Actually, the Supreme Court checks for all three of these before upholding free
D) Whether the state has an overriding, compelling interest in public safety.
E) Two of these.

194. Which of the following statements is a reason that, in times of crisis, the power
and responsibility to react usually devolves upon the president and not Congress?
A) Congress is too decentralized to provide a unified authority.
B) Congress is too large to keep secrets.
C) All of these.
D) Congress is too generalist to respond quickly to a specific incident.
E) Congress moves too slowly to react effectively.

195. In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court

A) Held that Nixon had abused his powers in Vietnam.
B) Ruled that President Nixon must produce his tape recordings in court.
C) Formally impeached the president.
D) Upheld Nixon's defense of executive privilege.
E) Ruled that the War Powers Resolution of 1973 constituted legislative veto, and
was therefore unconstitutional.

196. The president can influence legislation by all of the following EXCEPT
A) Agenda setting.
B) Introducing legislation.
C) Vetos.
D) Building public support.
E) Party leadership.

197. In response to Nixon's impoundments, Congress passed the Budget Reform Act
of 1974, which does all of the following EXCEPT
A) Requires the president to notify Congress of funds he does not intend to spend.
B) Requires the president to notify Congress of delays in spending.
C) Congress must agree in 45 days to delete the offensive item.
D) Allows Congress to pass resolutions requiring the immediate release of funds.
E) Limits the dollar amount of appropriations the president can delay spending.
198. Which of the following best characterizes the views of political scientists,
historians, and commentators with regard to presidential power?
A) None of these is accurate.
B) Throughout the 20th century, "strong" meant good and "weak" meant bad.
C) In the 1950's and 60's stronger presidents were viewed more favorably, but in the
70's and since these analysts have viewed presidential concentration of power more
D) Concern about tyrnnical presidents has dropped in deference to the growing need
for a powerful executive.
E) Throughout the 20th century, these pundits consistently criticized overly assertive

199. All of the following are subdivisions of the Executive Office EXCEPT
A) Office of the United States Trade Representative.
B) Actually, all of these are subunits of the Executive Office.
C) Office of Management and Budget.
D) Council of Economic Advisors.
E) National Security Council.

200. Which of the following pieces of nineteenth century legislation worked to

eliminate the role of politics in the federal bureaucracy?
A) Equal Employment Opportunities Act
B) The 17th Amendment.
C) Two of these.
D) The Pendleton Civil Service Act.
E) The Hatch Act.

201. The only president to have been formally impeached was

A) Richard Nixon.
B) Andrew Johnson.
C) Andrew Jackson.
D) Millard Fillmore.
E) Calvin Coolidge.

202. In his Washington Post article "Realignment-Or a Tilt?" John F. Harris writes of
the 2004 election all of the following EXCEPT
A) Bush and Mehlman successfully focused on activating their conservative base
rather than moderation.
B) The argument that November 2 was a realignment election is clearly stronger than
the argument that it was a comparatively transitory anomaly.
C) Kerry carried the independent vote by nearly 20 percent in Florida and Ohio.
D) Bush cut into historically Democratic groups, particularly the Hispanic bloc.
E) For the first time in decades, as many voters indentified themselves as
Republicans as did Democrats.

203. "Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail; without
it nothing can succeed." These are the words of
A) Abraham Lincoln.
B) Harry Truman.
C) Richard Nixon.
D) Thomas Jefferson.
E) George Washington.

204. Bureaucracies are essentially policy __________.

A) Designers.
B) Manipulators.
C) Crafters.
D) Actually, bureacracies are not so easily pigeonholed.
E) Implementors.

205. Which of the following describes the relationship between interest groups and
independent regulatory agencies?
A) Two of these.
B) Interest groups often comprise agency members and vice-versa.
C) Interest groups pay little or no attention to these agencies.
D) Interest groups devote considerable resources to tracking and influencing these
E) Interest groups frequently ignore rulings issued by these agencies.

206. Which of the following models depicts bureaucratic policy making as capricious
trial-and-error dominated by an eclectic bundle of solutions in search of problems?
A) None of these.
B) Two of these.
C) The acquisitive-monopolistic model.
D) The "garbage can" model.
E) The Weberian model.

207. The Budgeting and Accounting Act of 1921 requires that the president outline a
budget to Congress early in each year.
A) False.
B) True.

208. All of these are facets of Supreme Court policy-making EXCEPT

A) Interpreting legal issues involved.
B) Reversing earlier decisions.
C) Actually, the Supreme Court uses all of these means of policy-making.
D) Giving opinion on the policy questions raised in the case.
E) Passing a judgement on a specific dispute.

209. Which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between
the American and Mexican executive? I - they are based on similar Constitutions. II -
the American executive enjoys a wider range of de facto powers. III - the Mexican
executive exerts greater control over its printed media.
A) I only.
B) I and II only.
C) II and III only.
D) I and III only.
E) II only.

210. The popularity of president tends to

A) Be relatively high just after an election before dropping later in a term.
B) Remain constant throughout a term.
C) Reflect how well the public perceives the president to handle major issues.
D) Two of these are correct.
E) Be relatively low after an election before increasing as the executive fulfills key
campaign promises.

211. Which of the following is an accurate description of public responses to

presidential appeals?
A) With a few exceptions, the public is generally unresponsive to political appeals
outside of national crises.
B) Two of these are correct.
C) Public knowledge of and opinion of the president's policies are primarily based on
presidential statements.
D) Although the public may be unaware of policy nuances, it always bases its
judgements on accurate, basic facts.
E) Presidential efforts to build support for policy usually succeed in converting
public opinion.

212. The plum book is a list of top federal jobs available for presidential
appointment. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding the roles of
appointees to these positions?
A) They are dependent on senior civil servants.
B) Two of these.
C) They always exercise substantial powers in an efficient manner.
D) They usually establish lasting marks in policy.
E) Once in office, they become isolated from politics due to long tenure and minimal
leadership oversight.

213. "Scarcely any political question arises in the United States that is not resolved,
sooner or later, into a judicial question." These are the words of
A) Abraham Lincoln.
B) Alexis de Tocqueville.
C) William Jennings Bryan.
D) Franklin Roosevelt.
E) Theodore Roosevelt.

214. All of the following are powers and rights that are eplicitly and solely delegated
to the president by the Constitution EXCEPT
A) The ability to receive ambassadors.
B) The right to appoint members of a cabinet.
C) Actually, all of these are rights of the president.
D) The power to convene Congress.
E) The option to pardon

215. Which of the following is NOT a myth about bureacracy in America?

A) Americans dislike bureaucrats.
B) The federal bureaucracy is growing each year.
C) Most federal bureaucrats work in Washington, D.C.
D) Two of the these.
E) Government bureaucracy is as effective as private bureaucracy.

216. In her Washington Post article "The Trouble With Unity" Juliet Eilperin writes
of the House Republican Conference that
A) The more powerful the GOP becomes, the more the diversity of views which won
the seats is neglected.
B) Moderates such as Zach Wamp of Tennessee are more commonplace than the
media would seem to suggest.
C) The "Contract With America" has worked admirably to curb pork barrel spending
and improve the fluidity of the committee chair positions.
D) Dennis Hastert, Tom Delay, and Roy Blunt have created a fractious and unruly
E) House proceedings have become stalled by the unwillingness of the GOP
leadership's to compromise with Democrats.

217. Identify the most powerful lobbying group in the following list:
A) American Association of Retired People.
B) Chamber of Commerce.
C) American Pain Association.
D) Americans for Responsive Government.
E) Sierra Club.

Matching III: More Supreme Court Cases.

A - Chadha v. Immigration and Naturalization Service

B - Clinton v. City of New York
C - Texas v. Johnson
D - Korematsu v. United States.
E - Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
F - Lynch v. Donelly
G - Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
H - Nixon v. Fitzgerald
I - Nixon v. United States
J - Humphrey's Executor v. United States
K - Munn v. Illinois
L - Gitlow v. New York
M - Barron v. Baltimore
N - Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.
O - Acton v. Vernonia School District
P - Near v. Minnesota
Q - Fletcher v. Peck
R - Betts v. Brady
S - Miranda v. Arizona
T - Gideon v. Wainwright
U - Buckley v. Valeo
V - Clinton v. Jones
W - U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton
X - U.S. v. O'Brien
Y - West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette
Z - Minersville School District v. Gobitis

218. The Supreme Court reverses its earlier deference to federalism and states' rights
by incorporating 6th Amendment rights to counsel in all criminal cases.
219. The Supreme Court strikes a law that prohibits flag burning, saying that the act
is a form of speech and not just a provocative demonstration.
220. The Supreme Court strikes an early progressive income tax on high incomes,
arguing that such taxes constituted unconstitutional attacks on property.
221. The Supreme Court strikes the pro-segregation ruling from Plessy v. Ferguson
when applied to schools, saying that separate schools are inherently unequal, and
declared that the situation should be rectified "with all deliberate speed."
222. The Supreme Court rules that a Christmas Nativity scene, along with Santa's
house and sleigh and other non-relgious symbols, on public property do not
constitute benefit to a religion and are indicative of seasonal festivities.
223. The Supreme Court establishes that the bill of rights as originally written
applies only to the federal government and Congress.
224. The Supreme Court, under Chief Justice Earl Warren, establishes the right of the
accused to remain silent, ruling further that "prosecution may not use statements,
whether exculpatory or inculpatory, stemming from custodial interrogation of the
defendant unless it demonstrates the use of procedural safeguards effective to secure
the privilege against self-incrimination."
225. The Supreme Court expands judicial review to cover state legislatures, voiding
an act to rescind land grants on the grounds of the contract clause and "general
principles which are common to our free institutions."
226. The Supreme Court rules that the President cannot invoke executive privilege to
withold materials that have been subpoenaed by the courts.
227. The Supreme

Court partially clarifies its earlier ruling from Powell v. Alabama, finding that whether a
lawyer is required in a case depends upon the state's judgement regarding
circumstances specific to that case.
228. The Supreme Court, in an 8-to-1 decision, finds that the American flag is an
important symbol of unity and that compulsory flag salutes are acceptable as
legislative initiatives designed "to promote in the minds of children who attend the
common schools an attachment to the institutions of their country."
229. The Supreme Court strikes the use of racial quotas as a means of affirmative
action in college admissions.
230. The Supreme Court rules that random drug testing of students, including those
outside of athletic programs, is not a violation of students' rights.
231. The Supreme Court rules that, because of the unique nature of his office, the
President "is entitled to absolute immunity from damages liability predicated on his
official acts"
232. The Supreme Court, in a 6-to-3 ruling that reverses a three-year-old decision,
holds that "compulsory unification of opinion," is antithetical to the ideals of the 1st
Amendment, and strikes a state regulation that equated refusal to salute the flag with
233. The Supreme Court establishes congressional oversight, ruling that the federal
government may regulate business operations.
234. The Supreme Court strikes state laws it believes amount to "prior restraint" in
violation of the 1st Amendment, finding such regulation acceptable only in extreme
cases detrimental to national security.
235. The Supreme Court strikes the legislative veto.
236. The Supreme Court strikes the line-item veto.
237. The Supreme Court, under chief justice Warren, upholds a law making draft
card burning illegal in the language "a government regulation is sufficiently justified
if it is within the constitutional power of the Government; if it furthers an important
or substantial governmental interest; if the governmental interest is unrelated to the
suppression of free expression; and if the incidential restriction on alleged First
Amendment freedoms is not greater than is essential to the furtherance of that
238. The Supreme Court, basing its decision on 1st Amendment rights to freedom of
speech, revises various facets of the Federal Election Campaign Act, upholding the
right of an individual to spend unlimited money on their own campaigns.
239. The Supreme Court disallows state imposed term limits on Congress.
240. The Supreme Court rules that the heads of independent regulatory agencies
cannot be arbitrarily fired by the President.
241. The Supreme Court cites a clause in the 14th Amendment and incorporates the
parts of the 1st Amendment dealing with the right to freedom of speech; state laws
can no longer usurp this right.
242. The Supreme Court rules that the president cannot invoke executive privilege as
a means of delaying cases stemming from accusations predicated on his unofficial
243. The Supreme Court rules that concentration camps are a war time necessity.

Matching IV: The Constitution

A - 1st Amendment
B - 2nd Amendment
C - 3rd Amendment
D - 4th Amendment
E - 5th Amendment
F - 6th Amendment
G - 7th Amendment
H - 8th Amendment
I - 9th Amendment
J - 10th Amendment
K - 11th Amendment
L - 12th Amendment
M - 13th Amendment
N - 14th Amendment
O - 15th Amendment
P - 16th Amendment
Q - 17th Amendment
R - 18th Amendment
S - 19th Amendment
T - 20th Amendment
U - 21st Amendment
V - 22nd Amendment
W - 23rd Amendment
X - 24th Amendment
Y - 25th Amendment
Z - 26th Amendment

244. The Amendment which protects the right of the people to "keep and bear arms"
as part of a "well-regulated militia."
245. The Amendment that guarantees women the same voting rights as men.
246. The Amendment which holds that powers not vested in the federal government
belong either to the states or to the people.
247. The Amendment that disavows the judicial powers of the United States Federal
judicial system in cases brought against a state by citizens of another state or subjects
of foreign countries.
248. The Amendment which prohibits the forced quartering of soldiers without the
consent of the owner excepting where prescribed by law.
249. The Amendment which limits anyone to two terms as president, counting any
fractional term in which that person served for more than two years.
250. The Amendment that fixed the begining and end of the terms of the president
and vice-president, as well as congressmen.
251. The Amendment that abolishes poll taxes as a means of disenfranchisement.
252. The Amendment which provides for the direct election of Senators by the
people of the several states.
253. The Amendment which holds that the listing of certain prerogatives in the
Constitution does not imply that others are forfeited by the people.
254. The Amendment which grants 18-20 year olds voting rights equal to those of
their elders.
255. The Amendment barring "cruel and unusual punishments," as well as exorbitant
bail and fines.
256. The Amendment the protects the right to trial by jury in cases of common law
where the value in question exceeds $20.
257. The Amendment which revises the method of electing president and vice-
president, namely that electors pick from certain respective pairs.
258. The Amendment that abolishes slavery or any form of involuntary servitude,
excepting where such a state is administered as part of a punishment for crime.
259. The Amendment which upholds our rights to "a speedy and public trial," to "be
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation," to examine the witnesses again
us, to "have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses" in our favor, and the right
to counsel.
260. The Amendment which apportions to the District of Columbia electors in
presidential elections equal in number to that which it would be entitled if it were a
state, but not exceeding the number representing the least populous state.
261. The Amendment which allows Congress to tax incomes "without apportionment
among the several states."
262. The Amendment which ended Prohibition.
263. The Amendment which protects freedom of religion, freedom of speech and of
the press, the right to peacably assemble, and the right to petition for redress of
264. The Amendment which bars unreasonable searches and seizures, excepting in
cases where a warrant, issued with probable cause, identifies that which is to be
265. The Amendment that strikes the denial of right to vote on account of "race,
color, or previous condition of servitude."
266. The Amendment that defines citizenship as "all persons born or naturalized in
the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof," and establishes a disability
for engaging in insurrection.
267. The Amendment which requires indictment by grand jury to prosecute someone
for a "capital or otherwise infamous crime"; outlaws double jeopardy; and protects
an individual's life, liberty, and property.
268. The now defunct Amendment which made illegal the distribution of alcholoic
beverages within the United States.
269. The Amendment which provides the voluntary and involuntary procedures for
the formal delcaration of presidential disability.

Matching IV: Even More Supreme Court Cases.

A - Roth v. United States

B - Barnes v. Glenn Theater
C - Schenk v. U.S.
D - Brandenburg v. Ohio
E - Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire
F - RAV v. St. Paul
G - Wisconsin v. Mitchell
H - Hurley v. Irish American GLIB Association
I - Rust v. Sullivan
J - Wooley v. Maynard
K - De Jonge v. Oregon
L - Everson v. Board of Education
M - Lemon v. Kurtzman
N - Zorach v. Clauson
O - BOE of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens
P - Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo
Q - McCleskey v. Kemp
R - Planned Parenthood v. Casey
S - Zurcher v. The Stanford Daily
T - NAACP v. Alabama
U - Cantwell v. State of Connecticut
V - Wisconsin v. Yoder
W - Katz v. United States
X - California v. Greenwood
Y - California v. Ciraolo
Z - Terry v. Ohio

270. The Supreme Court voids a law in Florida that required space in newspapers for
political rebuttals.
271. The Supreme Court strikes a state law requiring all cars registered in that state
to bear the text "Live Free or Die," finding that the measure required individuals to
"use their private property as a 'mobile billboard' for the State's ideological
message"; the 1st Amendment protects "the right of individuals to hold a point of
view different from the majority and to refuse to foster... an idea they find morally
272. The Supreme Court strikes a local ordinance that made it a crime to commit
crime on the basis of "race, color, creed, religion or gender," arguing that "it prohibits
otherwise permitted speech solely on the basis of the subjects the speech addresses"
and is therefore repugnant to the 1st Amendment.
273. The Supreme Court upholds the conviction of a man distributing anti-draft
pamphlets under the Espionage Act of 1917 in the language "words can be
weapons... The question in every case is whether the words used in such
circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will
bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."
274. The Supreme Court creates the "reasonable expectation of privacy" rule of
thumb for the implementation of the 4th Amendment, finding that "the Fourth
Amendment protects people, not places."
275. The Supreme Court voids a state statute that made illegal criminal syndicalism
which it had defined as "the doctrine which advocates crime, physical violence,
sabotage or any unlawful acts or methods as a means of accomplishing or effecting
industrial or political change or revolution." The Court makes the distinction
between the auspices under which a meeting is held and the speeches given per se.
276. The Supreme Court upholds a state "hate crime" law exacerbating crimes
committed on the basis of hate, finding that the statute was aimed at conduct
unprotected by the 1st Amendment, and also that the evidentiary use of speech to
prove motive or intent is constitutional.
277. The Supreme Court finds that "nonintrusive" observations taken from a "public
navigable airspace" do not violate the 4th Amendment, allowing for the search and
seizure of marijuana plants, which was otherwise based on an anonymous tip.
278. The Supreme Court upholds the Equal Access Act, finding that a school which
permits non-religious clubs the usage of its facilities must offer "equal access" to
clubs with a religious function.
279. The Supreme Court finds that the search of garbage placed at the curbside does
not violate the 4th Amendment.
280. The Supreme Court finds that statistical studies showing disproportionate
execution based on race does not constitute evidence of purposeful discrimination.
281. The Supreme Court finds that "obscenity is not within the area of
constitutionally protected speech or press."
282. The Supreme Court holds that a "third party" search of a newsroom as
prescribed by a warrant is constitutionally legitimate if it has been "satisfactorily
demonstrated to the magistrate that fruits, instrumentalities, or evidence of crime is
located on the premises." Specifically, such warrants are not forbidden where the
press is involved.
283. The Supreme Court rules that a public indeceny statute "furthers a substantial
government interest in protecting order and morality" and is therefore an acceptable
regulation of nude dancing.
284. The Supreme Court finds in a Per Curiam opinion that speech that is "directed
at inciting or producing imminent lawless action" and "likely to incite or produce
such action" is not protected by the 1st Amendment, but overturns the conviction of a
KKK leader as unlikely to produce imminent criminal activity.
285. The Supreme Court holds that the organizers of the St. Patrick's Day Parade
cannot be forced to include groups whose views they do not agree with, and that
forcing such action "violate[s] the fundamental First Amendment rule that a speaker
has the autonomy to choose the content of his own message and, conversely, to
decide what not to say."
286. The Supreme Court finds that federal funds given only to family planning
clinics and not abortion services are acceptable; should government subsidize one
protected right it does not follow that government must subsidize analogous
counterpart rights.
287. The Supreme Court, in a 6-to-1 decision, finds that an individual's interests in
free exercise of religion outweigh the State's interests in compulsory school
attendance beyond 8th grade.
288. The Supreme Court incorporates the free exercise clause, finding that "breach of
the peace" restrictions with a discriminatory religious purpose are unconstitutional.
289. The Supreme Court finds that fighting words or words that "inflict injury or
tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace" are not protected by the 1st
Amendment, in this case upholding the conviction of a man who called a city official
a "God-damned racketeer" and "a damned fascist" in a public place.
290. The Supreme Court, though it hereby incorporates the establishment clause,
finds that busing is "separate and so indisputably marked off from the religious
function" of catholic schools, hence, state reimbursements for such functions under a
"general program" are acceptable.
291. The Supreme Court affirms a de facto right to privacy in association, finding
that a state law mandating names and addresses of an organization's members is
unconstitutional without an "overriding valid interest of the State."
292. The Supreme Court finds that "released time" for voluntary off-campus
religious instruction is constitutional.
293. The Warren Court finds that an experienced police officer, acting based on
previous experience, can conduct unwarranted questioning and search of suspects
believed to be dangerous.
294. The Supreme Court establishes a tripartite examination for determining the
constituionality of laws regarding parochiaid, mandating a "secular legislative
purpose", that the primary effect neither advances nor inhibits a religion, and that the
policy avoids "excessive government entanglement with religion."
295. The Supreme Court creates and applies the "undue burden" test which it defines
as a "substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion before the fetus
attains viability."

Matching V: The last set of Cases.

A - Florida v. Bostick
B - Hustler Magazine v. Falwell
C - Dennis v. United States

296. The Supreme Court finds that a "parody" in which a man was represented as
having a drunken incestuous relationship does not constitute libel because it was not
printed with "actual malice."
297. The Supreme Court holds that evidence obtained on a public bus, pursuant to
non-coercive police requests for a search of private materials, is admissible and not
protected by the 4th Amendment.
298. The Supreme Court allows the government to jail some American Communist
Party leaders under the Smith Act.


1. D
2. B
3. E
4. D
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. B
10. D
11. E
12. D
13. E
14. E
15. D
16. E
17. A
18. A
19. D
20. B
21. B
22. A
23. C
24. D
25. A
26. B
27. A
28. B
29. A
30. B
31. C
32. E
33. E
34. C
35. E
36. D
37. B
38. B
39. E
40. C
41. D
42. A
43. E
44. D
45. C
46. A
47. E
48. E
49. C
50. D
51. E
52. B
53. B
54. E
55. E
56. E
57. A
58. C
59. D
60. A
61. A
62. D
63. B
64. B
65. D
66. E
67. B
68. C
69. A
70. A
71. E
72. D
73. B
74. A
75. D
76. D
77. B
78. A
79. C
80. E
81. A
82. C
83. D
84. B
85. E
86. B
87. A
88. E
89. D
90. C
91. D
92. A
93. A
94. D
95. B
96. E
97. C
98. B
99. A
100. C
101. C
102. E
103. A
104. D
105. E
106. B
107. C
108. D
109. E
110. I
111. F
112. B
113. A
114. M
115. C
116. J
117. N
118. O
119. D
120. K
121. L
122. H
123. P
124. G
125. Q
126. O
127. H
128. R
129. A
130. N
131. S
132. Y
133. K
134. U
135. E
136. Z
137. J
138. B
139. C
140. I
141. V
142. G
143. D
144. T
145. M
146. F
147. X
148. W
149. P
150. Q
151. L
152. E
153. C
154. E
155. A
156. C
157. E
158. E
159. B
160. D
161. A
162. D
163. B
164. E
165. B
166. C
167. A
168. A
169. D
170. E
171. A
172. A
173. E
174. A
175. E
176. D
177. C
178. C
179. A
180. E
181. B
182. A
183. E
184. D
185. A
186. D
187. D
188. E
189. E
190. C
191. C
192. A
193. B
194. C
195. B
196. B
197. E
198. C
199. B
200. D
201. B
202. B
203. A
204. E
205. A
206. D
207. B
208. C
209. D
210. D
211. A
212. A
213. B
214. B
215. E
216. A
217. A
218. T
219. C
220. N
221. E
222. F
223. M
224. S
225. Q
226. I
227. R
228. Z
229. G
230. O
231. H
232. Y
233. K
234. P
235. A
236. B
237. X
238. U
239. W
240. J
241. L
242. V
243. D
244. B
245. S
246. J
247. K
248. C
249. V
250. T
251. X
252. Q
253. I
254. Z
255. H
256. G
257. L
258. M
259. F
260. W
261. P
262. U
263. A
264. D
265. O
266. N
267. E
268. R
269. Y
270. P
271. J
272. F
273. C
274. W
275. K
276. G
277. Y
278. O
279. X
280. Q
281. A
282. S
283. B
284. D
285. H
286. I
287. V
288. U
289. E
290. L
291. T
292. N
293. Z
294. M
295. R
296. B
297. A
298. C