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Name _____________________________________

Ms. Campbell
Antigens, Antibodies, & Vaccines
1. Cells of the immune system are able to respond to
the presence of invading organisms because they
recognize the

DNA pattern in the nuclei of viruses

antigens present on the invaders
antibiotics released from microbes
antibodies present in invading pathogens

2. A new vaccine was developed and then tested on a

large sample of individuals. This new vaccine will
be considered effectice if it helps prepare the body
to fight future invasion by

inhibiting the action of immune cells

inhibiting the response of red blood cells
stimulating the production of antibodies
stimulating the reproduction of microbes

Student # ________
Regents Bio.

4. The immune system of humans may respond to

chemicals on the surface of an invading organism
(A) releasing hormones that break down these
(B) synthesizing antibodies that mark these
organisms to be destroyed
(C) altering a DNA sequence in these organisms
(D) secreting antibiotics that attach to these
5. The diagram below represents one possible
immune response that can occur in the human

3. The diagram below represents a microscopic view

of blood.

The structures that are part of the immune system

are represented by
(A) B and C, only
(B) A and C, only
Cell A protects the body by producing specific
chemicals in response to pathogens. Cell A is

a white blood cell

a bacteria cell
a red blood cell
an insulin-producing cell

(C) A, B, and C
(D) A, only

6. Which activity is not a response of human white

blood cells to pathogens?

removing carbon dioxide

engulfing and destroying bacteria
producing antibodies
identifying invaders for destruction

7. When getting a vaccination, which substance is

injected into the body?

bacteria to combat a pathogen

white blood cells to engulf a pathogen
antibiotics to kill a virus
a weakened form of a virus

8. A vaccine for the viral disease known as chicken

pox would contain

a small number of white blood cells

several different antibiotics
a large amount of live virus
a dead or weakened form of the pathogen

9. The human immune system fights infection by

(A) antigens
(B) ATP's

(C) antibodies
(D) antibiotics

10. An individual recovers from the common cold,

which is caused by rhinovirus A. The person then
becomes infected with the avian influenza virus,
which causes the bird flu. Which statement best
describes what will most likely happen to this
(A) He will have the symptoms of the common
cold because he is not immune to the avian
influenza virus.
(B) He will have the symptoms of the bird flu
because he is not immune to the avian
influenza virus.
(C) He will not have the symptoms of the
common cold because the avian influenza
virus causes it.
(D) He will not have the symptoms of the bird
flu because he is immune to rhinovirus A.
11. Drugs to reduce the risk of rejection are given to
organ transplant patients because the donated
organ contains

DNA molecules
pathogenic microbe
foreign antigens
foreign antibodies

12. In 1995, during an Ebola virus outbreak,

approximately 80% of the infected individuals
died. Which statement is an inference that could
be made based on this information?
(A) The individuals who survived were not
exposed to the Ebola antigens
(B) Eighty percent of the population had a
natural immunity to the Ebola virus.
(C) Eighty percent of the population was
infected with a viral antigen.
(D) The individuals who survived were able to
produce antibodies against the Ebola virus
13. The use of a vaccine to stimulate the immune
system to act against a specific pathogen is
valuable in maintaining homeostasis because
(A) the body can digest the weakened microbes
and use them as food
(B) the body will be able to fight invasions by
the same type of microbe in the future
(C) once the body produces chemicals to
combat one type of virus, it can more easily
make antibiotics
(D) the more the immune system is challenged,
the better it performs
14. The diagram below represents what can happen
when homeostasis in an organism is threatened.

Which statement provides a possible explanation

for these events?
(A) Cloning removes abnormal cells produced
during differentiation.
(B) Antibiotics break down harmful substances
by the process of digestion.
(C) Some specialized cells mark and other cells
engulf microbes during immune reactions.
(D) Embryonic development of essential organs
occurs during pregnancy.

15. A person who is given an injection containing

only antibodies would most likely develop

sickle-cell anemia
passive immunity

16. An individual who has had chicken pox rarely

gets this disease again. This situation is an
example of

active immunity
biological control
passive immunity
negative feedback

17. An organism develops active immunity as a result

(A) receiving an injection of a dilute glucose
(B) producing antibodies in response to a
(C) receiving an injection of antibodies
produced by another organism
(D) manufacturing its own antigens
18. An activity that occurs in the human body is
shown below.

This activity helps to


eliminate harmful gene alterations

regulate production of ATP by the cell
provide protection against pathogens
produce antibiotics to control disease

Base your answers to questions 19 through 21 on the question below and on your knowledge of
Describe how a flu vaccine protects the human body.
19. State one reason the flu vaccine does not protect a person from other viral diseases, such as

20. State how the human immune system reacts to the vaccine.

21. Identify what substance is in a flu vaccine that stimulates immunity.