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Solution Manual Linear Systems and Signals B P Lathi

Solution Manual Linear Systems and Signals B P Lathi

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Solution Manual for B.P.

Lathi

LINEAR SYSTEMS AND SIGNALS

Chapter 1

1.1-1 From Newton's I .........

a1l

I(t)::: Mdt

a.nd

1I(t}::: ~ ['ao f(r)dr= 1 [°00 !(r)dr + ~ l' f(r)dr = fI(O) + ! l' f(r)dT

1.1-2 If I(t) a.nd y(t) are the input and output, reepectively, of all ideal iDtegrator,then

g(t) = I(c)

and

y(t) == Loo 1(1') dr = f_0"" 1(1') aT + l f(T) aT ~ ~ + l' f(T) aT

:I;.t~~_i.pUI '- ....... --

•• ro-.t ... le:

1.2-1 Only (b) and (f) are Linear. All the remaining ue nonlinear. This ca.n be verified by using the procedure discussed in Example 1.l.

1.3-1 The loop equation for the circuit is

3YI (t) + DYl (t) = I(t) OJ (D + 3)VI (t) = 10)

(1)

Also

(2)

Suhst.it.ution of (2) in (1) yields

(D; 3)P'2(t) = f(t) or (D + 3)P'2(t) = D I(e)

(3)

1.3-2 The currents in the resistor, capacitor and inductor are 2fl(t), Dfl(t) a.nd (2/ D)¥J(e), respectively .. Therefore

or

(D + 2 + Is )1'2(t) = I(t) (D2 + 2D + 2)!I~(C) = DI(t)

(1)

Also

1

'1 tt) ::: DI/2(t) or l/2(t) = 15!11 (t)

(2)

Substituting of (2) in (1) yield.

or

(lY + 2D + 2)711(t) = D' f(t)

1,3-3 The u«b9dy di~!I!ID fo~ the IPUII M is shown in Fi~. 51.3-3. From tiWI diagrlUD. it follows that

(3)

MfJ=B(i:-;)+K(,,;-y)

or

(MD2 +.BD + K)p(t) = (BD + K),,;(t)

1

W

-:B(~-Y) K(X-Y)

Fig. 51.3-3

1.3-4

(qi(t) - qo(,)}Ll.t = ALl.h

or

(I)

But

90(t) = Rh(')

(2)

Differentiation of (2) yields

. R

90 (I) = Rh(l) = ::4:[q,(t) - '1<1(1)]

and

(D + ~) 9o(t) = ~q,(I)

or

R

a= -

A

(3)

iUld

II

'I'o(t) = -D ".(t) +a

substituting this in (I) yields

. I( II) D

h(t) = A 1 - D + II 9i(t) = A(D + a) 9,(1)

o[

1

(D + lI)h(t) = AIl,(t)

(4)

1.3-5 The loop equation for the field coil is

(I)

If T(t) ill the torque generated, then

(2)

lubltituting el) in (2) yield.

DL~+ R, f(l) = (JD~ + BD)8(') (JDl + BD)(DLJ + R/llet) == Ktf(t) 1.4--1 The loop equauon for the ndwork ill Fig. Pl. ... l are:

or

(3)

(5 + i) Yl(t) - 3~(t) = f(t)

==>

-3)'I(t) + (.0 + 3)~(t) = 0

[5+! -3] [,.(t)] = [/(1)]

-3 D+3 ~(t) . 0

Application. of the Cramer's rule yields

3D

~(t) "" 5D2 + 8D + 6'(f)

or

(5Dl + 8D + 6»)'1(1) == D(D + 3)l(t) and

(SD2 + 8D + 6)V~(t) = 3D f(t)

2

1.4-2 The loop equations for this network Me

( 18) 18

9+ D 11- D!n=1

_18 VI + (E. + 1+ !!) y, ; 0

D 2· D

(I)

They are expressed in matrix form iUI

[.9 + ~ -f ] [1110)] [/(t)]

-~ (-¥+1+~) Y2(1) = 0

Application of the Cramer's rule yield.

D2 +2D +36

VI (t) = 9{D2 + 4D + 40) I(t)

4

V2(t); D2 + 4D + 40 f(c)

or

(D' + 4D + 40)VI (tl = ~(D2 + 2D + 36)f(,)

ud

1.5-1

(D + 3)~1 (t) - (D + I)JI](t) = I(t) 1

-(D + l)~I(t) + (D + 2 + j)h(f) == 0

or

[ D+3 -(D+l)][Jll{t)]._[/(t)]

-(D + 1) (D + 2 + :if) V;I(t) - 0

Cramer's rule yields

or

and

(D' + 2D + l)r:a(t) = i(D1 + D)f(t)

1.6-1 The capacitor current Ci3 = ii3 is %1 - %2. Therefore

(1)

The two loop equations are

2:tl + 7:1 + %3 = / <=> 7:1 = -2OCI - 2:3 + I

-%3 + ii] + %] = 0 =to %2 = -ls, + 3OC3

EqutiolU (1). (2) &lid (3) are the 1It-.te equations

For the 20 rem.tor: current ill %1, voltage iI 2OC1.

FOI ~be IH inductor: current ill %1, vohage ill il = f(t) - 2:tl - :t3· For the capacitor: current ia :tl - :1:], voltage ia :1:3.

For the t H inductor: current ia :1:2, voltage ill til = -%] + %3· For ~he 10 r~toI: current is %2 ud voha.ge ill :1:2.

At the instant t, :1:1 = 5, :1:2 = 1, %, = 2 &lid f = 10. Sub&tituting th_ nJUIS in the .. bove results yields 20 resinor: current SA, volt*8e lOA.

1H capacitor: curreni SA, voh*8e 10 -10 - 2 e -2V. The capaeitor: current 5 - 1 = 4A, voltage 2V.

The tH inductor: current lA, voltage -1 + 2 = IV. The 10 resistor: current lA, voltage IV.

3

Chapter 2

2.2-1 The characteristic polynomial is ).2 + s)' + 6. The characteristicequaticn is ).~ + 5), + 6 = o. Also ).2 + SA + 6 = (..\ + 2)(>. + 3). Therefore the characteristic roots are >'1 = -2 a.nd >'2 = -3. The characteristic modes are e-J1 an d e -3.. Therefore

and

;o(t) == -2Cle-2• - 3C2e-3.

Setting t = 0, and substituting initia.l conditiolUl ~(O) = 2, ;0(0) = -1 ill thill equation yields

Therefore

c] + C2 = 2 } -2Cl - 3c~ = -1 =:;.

Cl == 5 C:I= -3

io(t) = 5e-21 - 3e-a•

2.2-2 The cbara.cteristic polynomial is ),2 + 4>. + ". The characteristic equation i.! A1 + .u. + 4 = o. Aho A 2 + 4), + 4 = (A + 2)1, SO tb.at the characterisfic roots are -2 and -2 (repeated twice). The charactenstic modes Me e-1t and te -2.. Therefore

&lid

lio(t) ;:: -2ett-a• - 2c2te-2' + C2e-1' Setting t = 0 and llUbstituting miLial condition yields

3:0 CI }

-4. = -2cl + C2 ~

Cl = 3

Therefore

"0(1) = (3 + 2t)e-2•

2.2-3 The characteristic polynomial is ).(A+ 1) = A2 +A. The chu.ct.eristic equation is ),(>.+1) = o. The characrerisuc roots are 0 and -1. The characteristic modes are 1 a.nd e-'. Therefore

and

io(t) "" -C:le-' Setting f = 0, and .ubltituting initial conditioJUI yield.

Cl c 2 ~ =-1

Therefore

ro(t) = 2 - e-'

2.2-4 The cha.ra.c~eristic polynomial ~ )..2 + 9. The ch.a.racteristic equation it J..~ + 9::; 0 or (A'" j3)(J.. - i3) = o. The characteristic root. are ±j3. The ch&raeteristic m.odes are ~~. and e-}3'. Therefere

~(t) == ccot(3t + 8)

and

jo(t) = -3c:IIiD(3t + 8) Setting t = 0, and substituting initial coDditiolll!l yields

0=1;(:089 }

6 = -3CsID (J =*

ec088 = 0 } c.in 1:1 = -2 ==>

e=2

Therefore

4

poet) = 2eo.(3t - i-) = 2fin3t

2.2--5 The characteristic polynomial is ).2 + 4). + 13. The c:han.cterutic equation is ).2 + 4). + 13 = 0 or (>. + 2 - j3)(J. + 2 + j3) = O. The characteristic roots are -2 ± i3. The chuacteristic: modes are clc(-HJJjl and c2e(-2-J3jl. Therefore

yo(t) = ce-2• eos(3t + 9)

and

;ott) = _2ce-2t cae(3f + 8) - 3ce-2• sin(al + 8) Setting t = 0, and substitutiag initial conditions yielda

5::; cCOB8 }

15.98:::: -2c COlI 8 - 3cme ==>

coo.II=5 }

em 8 = -8.66 ====-

c = 10

8 = -r/3

Therefore

1I0(t) = lOe-2• COl (3' - i)

2.2-6 The characteristic polynomial it ),2p. + 1) or ).3 + ).2. The dian.e'en-tic equation i. ).2(>. + 1) ;: O. The characteristic roots are 0, 0 and -1 (0 it repea,ed twice). Therefore

and

~(t) ::; C2 - c3e-' io(t) = C311!-'

Setting t = 0, and substituting initial conditions yields

4 = c) + C3 } C1 = 5

3 = C2 - C3 ==? C2 = 2

-1=c3 c3=-1

Therefore

YO(f)=5+2f-e-'

2.2-7 The characteristic polynomial is (>. + I)().2 + 5). + 6}. The charaderistic equation il (A + 1)(J.l + 5). + 6) :::: 0 or (). + 1)(.\ + 2)(>. + 3) = O. The chua.cteriatie roota are -I, -2 and -3. The cb&Ja.ctenltic modes are c-', e-lt and e -3 •. Therefore

ud

jo(t) = -Cl£-I - 2C2.£-~t - 3C3£-3t ro(t) = C:IC-' + 4C2£-a. + 9c~e-Jj

Setting t = 0, and substituting initial conditions yielch

2 == Cl + Ca + cs }

-1 ... -Cl - 2ea - 3C3 ~

5 = Cl + 4C2 + 9C3

Cl = 6 Ca =-7 C3 = 3

Therefore

lIO(t) = 6e-' _ 7£-2' + 3e-3' 2.3-1 Using the fact tha.t 1(,;)6(:.:) = 1(0)6(%), we have

<a) o (b) ;6(",,) (e) t6(t) (d) -t6(t -1) (e) ~6("" + 3) (1) U(III) (ue L' Hopital'a me)

2.3-2 In these problems remember tha.t impulae 6(%) ill located at % = O. Thu., an impube 6(t - r] wloc&ted at r = t,

and 80 on. .

(a) The impulse is loca.ted at r = t and I(r) at r = t is J(t). Therefore

L: [(r)6(t - r)Gr = J(t)

(b) The impulse 6(r) is at T = 0 ud f(t - T) at r "" 0 is J(,). Therefore

5

i: 6(T)f(t - r) dT = f(t)

Uaing aimilar a.rguments, we obtain

(c) 1 (d) 0 (e) <!:3 (e) 5 (g) f(-I) (h) _e2

2.3-3 Changing the variable t to -z, we obtain

This shows th~t

i: .,(1)6(1) de = I: ~(t)6( -1) df :: ~(O)

Therefore

6(1) = 6( -t)

2.3-4 Letting at = :r, we obtain (for a > 0)

Joo 1/00 1

l/I(t)6(at)de = - ;(~)6(z)d:z: = -1/1(0)

a a· a

-DO -00

Similarly for a < 0, we show that this illtegr~ is - ~I/I(O). Therefore

j_: q,(t)6(t:lt) dt = I~I "'(0) = I!I i: q,(1)6(t) dt

Therefore

1 6(at) ::: j;j6(t)

2.3-5 (a)

1: 6(1)41(1) dt = q,(t)6(t)I~OQ -1: ~(t)6(t) dt = 0 - J ~(t)6(t)dl = -~(O)

2.3-6 The characteristic equation is .\2 + f.\ + 3 = (.\ + 1)(.\ + 3) = O. The cbarllderistic modes are e-' and e-31.

Therefore

ro(l) _ cae-t + .:, e -31 ;aCt) = -cle-I - lc,<!:-3.

SeUing t = 0, and substituting ,(0) ... 0, ,(0) "" 1, we obtain

Therefore

h(t) = [P(D),o(t)J_(f) = [(D + 5),o(1)]_(f) = liv{t) + 5ro(f)j_(t) = (2e-t - e-~I)ttI(t) 2.3-7 The chnderistic equation is.\2 + 5.\ + 6::: (.\ + 2)(.\ + 3) = O. and

~(t) =cle-11 +c,e-3• )ott) ::: -2cle-l. - 3cae-3•

Setting t = 0, and substituting yeO) = 0, ~(O) = 1, we obtain

6

el = 1 C'2 =-1

Therefore

&.lid

[P(D)yo(t)J.(t) = I;o(t) + 7;o(t) + llro(t)Ju(t) = (e-21 + e-3')tr.(t)

Hence

2.3-8 The characterisric equation ia A + 1 = 0 &lid

ro(t) = ce-I

In this case the initial condition is 11;-1 (0) ;0; 10(0) = 1. Setting t = 0, and lUing 110(0)== 1, we aMain c = 1, and

!to(t) == e-I

P(D)IIO(t) = [-~(t) + lIO(t)J,,(I) ::; 2e-',,(t)

Hence

h(t) == bn6(t) + [P(D)lIo(t)]u(t) == -6(,) + 2e-'u(t) 2.3-9 (a) The characteristic equation is ,),2 + S). + 6 = (,), + 2)(,), + 3) = O. Therefore

1I0(t) .== CIC-a• + "e-3• Yo(e) == _2CIC-2r - 3e)e-3r

Setting t "" 0, and substituting 110(0) == 0, Po(O) == 1, we obtain

Cl ::; 1 C2 == -1

Therefore

lIo(') = e-n _ e-3' VD(') :: _2e-2• + 3e-3t

and

(b) The chuaderilltic equ&tion is .\ + 3::: o. Therefore

Jo(t) == ce-3t

Seuing t :: 0, a.nd .ubatituting ;0(0) == 1 [lee Eq. (2.42)], ~ obtain e = 1, and

A(t) = [P(D)Io{t)]u(t) ::; ro(t)II.(t) == e-31,,(t) 2.3-10 The chuacteriatic eqU&tion ill -\2 + SA + 9 == (l + 3)2 == 0. Therefore

ro(t) == (el + e2t)e-3t

VeI(t) == [-3(Cl + C2') + c21e-3•

Seuillg t == 0, I.Dd substituting '0(0) == 1, JirI,(O) = 1, we obtain

a.nd

7

Bence

h(t) = (P(D)JIIl(t)]u(t) = [2iD{t) + 91/O(t)Ju(t) = (2 + 3t)e-~'u(t) 2.3-11 The char acteriatlc equation is Al + lOA + 34 = (A + 5 - j3)(A + 5 + i3) ::;: O. Therefore

yo(i) = ce-~' cos(3t + 8)

rio(t) = -5ee -~, cos(St + 8) - 3ce-51 .m(lt + 8)

Setting t ;;; 0, and. subarituting SlO(O) ::;: 0, ic(O) = 1, we obtain

O=ccoa8 }

.===* 1 ee -5c COlJ 8 - 3ennl

Therefore

( ) 1 _~. ( 1r ) 1 _~, .

Yo t '" -e COl st - - = -r-e SID 3t

l 2 3

a.nd

hIt) = [P(D}yo(t)Ju(t) = [;~(t) + 91/O(t)1u(t) = (coale + i mn lC)e-s,.(C) = ie-~' cOl(at - S:l.13")c{t)

2.3-12 The characteristic equation is (A + 1)(A + 2)(A + 3) ee o. Therefore

Jlo(t) = CIC-r + C3e-1• + Cle-3t jolt) = _c.le-t - 2c~e-~r - lc,c-3• ~o(t) =CIC-' + 4c3C-3. + 9cJc-3t

Setting t = 0, and subatituting 1/0(0) = ;0(0) = 0, ~Q{O) = 1, we obtain

o ;;; Cl + C2 + C3 }

o = -Cl - 2e3 - 3C3 ===*

1 ::;: CI + (C2 + 9cJ

1 q=i

'2::;: -1 1 '3 = i

Therefore

(t) 1 -. -21 1 -31

'0 =:it: - e + 2"1:

and

2.4-1

Because both mncuolUl loll: c~, their convolution is sero for t < O. Therefore

2.4-2 (i)

tI(t) • tI(t):: l' .(T)U(t - T) dT::;: l' ciT == { = t for t ?: 0

=0 £011<0

Therefore

8

(Ii) Because both (unctions are cau.a.l

~-"".(t) .. e-~'.(t) "'" 1t ~- .. ~~-o>(t-r) dT = e-'" l' liT

::: le-<>' I ~ 0

and

(iii) Because both functions are cau."

'.(1). ,,(t)= l'ru(T),,(T-t)dr

The range of integration is 0 S r S t. Therefore r> 0 &D.d T - t > 010 that .(11') = U(T - t) = 1 and

I ,2

tH(t) •• (1) = T liT = -

o 2

2.4-3 (i)

sin 'u{t) ..• (t) ::: ([' lin T U(T),,(' - T) liT) u(t) Because u( T) :; u(t - r) = 1 (~e eltpl&nation in solution 2.'·2)

sin taCt) u(t) = (1' sin TdT) .(1) "'" (1- co.t)u(t)

(ii) Similarly

COIl t u(t) .. u(') :; (1' COIIT lir) u{t) = sin t u(t)

2.4-4 In this problem, we use Table 2.1 to find the desired convolution. (a) yet) = h(t) .. J(t) "'" e-',,(I)" .(t) = (1 - e-')u(t)

(b) yet) = h(')" J(t) = e-'u(t) .. e-'u(t) = fe-'.(t)

(e) y(t):; e,-',,(t) .. e-~Iu(i) == (e-' - e-~t)u(')

(d) ~(t) = lin 3h,(t) • e-',,(t)

Here we use pair 12 (Ta.ble 2.1) wi~h a -= 0, fJ "" 3, 1=-90' and l = -1. TlWc yield.

f == tan-1 [=~] = -108.""

&.lid

. 3 () -, () (COl 18 ... ")e-' - COI(3' + 18 ... ·) ()

IIlD. t. t • e u t = r.n u t

vlO'

;: 0.9486£-' - ;m(3t + 18 ... ·) 1I(i) 10

2.Hi (s)

9

(b)

(c)

2.4-6

,(t) = (1 - 2~)e-2''U(t) .. u(t) = e-2',,(t). aft) - 2te-~'a(t). u(t)

[(1- e-2') (1 1 -2' -2')] ()

= --2- - 2 - 2e - te . u t

= te-l'u(t)

2.4-7 Ca) For vet) = .e-2' cos 3t u(t). u(t), We use p&i.r 12 wHb 0 :::: 2, fJ :: 3, 8 = 0, ~ = O. Therefore tP = l&ll-I [~3] :::: -56.31"

and

(b) For y(t) = 4e-3• cos3tu(t} .. e-'u(~), we UN pair 12 with 0 = 2, fJ = 3, 6 = 0, and A = -1. Therefore

... -1 [-3] "

... = tAD T = -71.56

~nd

I/(t) = • ['01(71.56.)e-' - ~ ca.(3t + 71.560)] .(1) = .!n [0.316e-' - ,-2' cos(3t + 71.56")1_(t) viO

=. [,-' - v;to,-2'COI(3t+7U6.)] aCt}

2.4-8 (a) I/(t) = e-'.(t)* e-lfa(t) = (e-' - e-2')u(l)

(b) e-2(.-3),,(f) = ,.,-2·U(t), and ,(f) = c· [e-'.(I) • e-2·.(t)J = cl(e-' - e-3').(t) .

(e) e-2'.(I_ 3) = e-1e-2(f-3)_(I_ 3). Now from the rawt in pad (a) .. d the.hift property of the eoavolution [Eq. (2.63»):

I/(t) == e-e [e-{'-3)u(t) - ~-2{'-S)] .(t - 3)

(d) jet) = aCt) - u(t - 1). Now rt(f), the system responlle to u(t) is given by

rl(t):::; e-'.(t). u(t) = (1- e-')1£(t)

The system response to u(t -1) i.e rl (t -1) becauR ohime-invariance property. Therefore the ree~oll5e 1/(t) to /(t) = u(t) - u(t - 1) ia given by

lI(t) = "l(t) - 'l(t - 1) := (1 - e-').(t) - [1 - e-{t-l)]u(t - 1)

10

.!J if)

t->

Fia·5U .. 8cl

......... __ .. ~,(of-/)

-. - _-

o

Fic·5U .. '

The reapODR is .bOWD ill Fia. 52 .... 8.

r(I} = [-'(C} + 241-'.(t)] •• '.(_1)

- -'C') •• '.(_1) + 2&-'.(1) •• '.(-1) "" -.'.( -c) + [.-'.(c) + .'.C -c)]

- '-'.(')

2.4-10

1 1- 1

,2 + 1 • ·C') = Tl.CC - r)4r

-- +

Beca_ .(1 - r) = 1 for r < , and is 0 for r > '. _ Deed iatqra&e OIIlyap to r _ c.

1 l' 1 - t -1 lr

i2+T •• (,) - __ r2 + 1 4r - &&It 1 rL_ - '&It ,+ 2"

Figure 82.'-10 .how. ~ &ltd cCI) ('he re.a)' of &he CODYolaUoa)

o

Fic·5U .. I0

2.4-11 For I < 2r (lee Fia. 52.4-11)

c(C) -ICc) .1(,) - Lt .. r4r - 1- caeC For , ~ 2lr. the &rea of ODe cyde is sero &ltd

11

fiB, 52.4-11

1(') .,(1) = 0 2.4-12 For 0 ~ C ~ 211" (_ Fi&. 52.'-12&)

1(').,(.)= l'.mrllr=I-C08' For 211" ~ e ~.11" (Fis. S2.H2b)

I(c) .,(C) = 12• urir _ C08C-l 211' ~ C s ...

1-2.

For e > b (abo for e < 0), I(C) .,(C) = O. Fipre S2.'-12c .Iao_ c(C).

~(t)

2.'-13 <a)

12.1+, AB

c(e) - AB 4r .. -

2+, 2

o ~ C ~ 0.5

c:(f) = 13 AB 4r - AB(1 - t)

2+.

12.1+1

c:(e) = 2 AB lr = AB(C + 0.5)

c:(t) - 0 '~1 or t ~ -0.5

(b)

12.'

C(') = AB lr .. AB(1 - i)

1.1+1

12.1+1

c:(C) = AB lr .. AB(C + 1)

I.'

c(i) .... 0 for ,c, ~ 1

(e)

12+1

c:(c) - ir = 3

-1+.

12+.

c(t)= IIr=C+4

-2

t> -1

12

f ,. - 1 f r-, IA ,
o 11 I ] I i ~~ 11 r I
"'e~
1. t t 3 1' .. ~ ad !t .a .).s+t .
J.tt U1'* C(~ (1
~ (~)
-t ..
••. s • T , • r --,
~ I
I ,
I l
l' D

o t

t:tltt..O

lC)

(J)

'I /;

- <

o I

o t ~,

Fia- S2.4 .. 13 13

(d)

r+·

= 10 .-" ~r .. 1 - .-(3+.) .. 1 - 0.0491.-·

= 0 'S-3

ee)

1-1+. 1

e(')" __ '1'2 + 1 ~r = , ... -1(, -1) + i ' S 1

c(C) =f. :rh ~r = &aD-I riO =.! , ~ 1

_.'1'+1 __ 2

CI)

e(,) .. 11 .-" 11'1' .. 1 _ .-1

e(') = [. .-" ~r ... -(t-a) - .-' , ~ 3

1-3

c(t) - 0 , SO

(,) ThiI problem ia more coaftlliad,lOlyed by ill"" /1(') ratlaer &ba h(t)

[&+1 1

c(t)- (r-t)~r--

I 2

c(.) = 0

(b) /1(t) ... 1. 12(') ... -2'. /1('1')" .... /2(' _ r) ... -2(1- .. ).

c(t) = 1° ." .-~I-") ~r = .-21 r .3" ~r = i[.-2' - •. -3] 0 s' S 1

-1+1 1-1+.

e(t) _1' ." .-2('-'" ~r - .-2' l' .3 .. ~r _ ![.' - .'-3) 0 ~ t ~ -1

-1+' -1+. 3

c(t) _1* .... -2(.- .. ,,.'1' ... -211' .a .. ~r= i[e' _.-2(1+')] -1 ~ t ~-2

-2 -2

c:(') - 0 t S -2

2 •• 14 J... ....... of J-.tJa 1!6.,. u paW .1!6t' ... & cia .. 1(.I!6t')I!6'f' (Pia, SU .. 14). TIle elec:Uic leW cl .. io tJaia c:brp "* poia& • u

6E.. 1(·I!6t')Ar 4n(s-.Ar)·

ne ioul fie1cl clue io the daazp aloq &he eaIiIe )ap)a •

14

Fla. SU-14

;2.0

~ ~.
0 °r't. 0 i4 fit ~ A A- Pr It- A Ir It t. 0 0 . -
0 OJ ...... 0 ~ B p, !, B .~ o 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... Fit. S3.~1

2 ..... 15 The .,.tem n.poue to _(a) is '(') ad lbe n.poue &0 IMP _(' - 1') is ,(t - 1'). The iIlpll& 1(') it made up of ltep compoDeDY. The ltep compoll .. ' a\ l' .... a IaeiPl ~I .mda caa be up.-.ed u

~I = !! ~1' .. j(1')~1'

The .tep compoDellC at nA1' lau a laeich' j(a~1')~T aacI it caa be uprelleCl u ri(aAT)Ar)_(' - ISA1'). lu reapoue ~,(,) is

~'(') .. ri(a~1')~rll(' - .~r) The total n.poue due to aU compoDUY is

---

- L: j(r),(' - r) fir - i(T). ,(r)

1(') - ,(t)

1(' - T) - ,(I - T) (bJ TUu-iaftduce)

/(.) -let - T) - ,(t) - r(t - 7') (bJ 1iuui&J)

lim 11/(') -Ie' - 7')] - Jim !lJ(') - r(' - 7'))

r-oT ~T

The Wt-b .. d.ute is i(I) aU u.. .~u.d'- ill j(C). 1"MNfon

i(I) - fil)

1(')"(')- /"/(1').('-r}fI'f'- L'/(1')fl1'

'nil fDDowa from tlae fad tlaal.(1 - 1') - 1 ...... a S l' S c. If_ die ....... &0 to 1(1') fir it

(1)

(f(t) •• (t)l. l(t) - (f(,) • ,<t)). -<') - r(t) • -tt)

But U lJaowa ia 14. (1). ,(t) .. (t) it t '(1') n..fa&e ~ ..,...10 iapat I: I('T) fir it I: r{7') 41'.

2.~1 The tipre Uowa MtR] ad 1,(--] tapa To ,(0]. WI ma1UJIb &he _pie ftl .. ia tke Mlj.allli lloy, add

all che producW aad mwUpl, i& .., T. TIIia 1MIda:

,[0] .. T (iAB + tAB + JAB) .. 4.7sABT - G.47SAB

15

Similarl)' 10 bd ,(1] (,It. NIpO'" u c - 0.1" - riPwwa /1(-"') &&pi .". ... , aad Npe&& ,It. procedure

10 obw. 1

rll) .T(iAB+UB+ lAB) -1AST- G.IAB

To obw. rlrl. - np,"Mift 1,[- .. ) &ape bJ r ....... ..,... &M , __ an. For .epaft r, 'lac &&pi ia

Ief~ bJ r .... U'" &WI 0"'" rl'l- a lor , < -t .... II ~ 11, wb:Ia CDlI.,aad. 10

C ~ -0.' &ad • ~ 1.1. SimiIulJ, bel rl') - SAJJT _ O.IAB lor , - I, 2. 3, &ad" rl') - Q.41SAB for " - 0

&ad 5, ft'l - O.025AB lor II • -I .... 10(' - -0.5, &ad I). Fipft S2.I.1 ...... &M...,.... ,(.).

2.$02 w. IoUGw ,lac pIOCIId ... ill '1M. 2.5·1. W. oiKaia r(Ol _ UABT - O.NAB, uad rl:l:l) _ I"BT - O.IAB (COJNIPOHia.so. - SO.I), ft:l:l0) • O.2IABT. 0.025AB (con.pa.dial'" •• :1). SiJDilad)' We ob&aia ,[II) - 0 lor ,,,, ~ 11 wlta conwpoacia 10 '" ~ 1.1. F!pIe 52.5·2 ...... , .. pio' 0( ,cA).

" t

.

•.• - c;tA&

rC'''''~ e-« A a

o- 0 0 • •• 0 t Itt A- ,. A A A. A A ~ t 0 0 I- -
0 0 C ... 0 I 8 & & & 8 .& !> &B II: 0 0 . . -t·.

fie. 52.5-2

2.5-1 U •• I sl. procecl ... i. PlOb. U·l, ... lad r{O] - 30T -,. Fipre 52.54 ..... a .. pio& of ,[II]. Obeerft ,ltu ,[II) - 0 for " ~ -41 wllidl cwl.,oad. 10 C S -u.

o 10 lD

"'" , ~

tJ .1.1

ria. 52.50·3

.... . .. ~ ~ . ".'_41~ jtt
.::J
.£ "" j
• r· 1 :t. ~ ~ ... :( Ii. i
,...., .... piI~ ..... !
!
,. ......... ,
.... ,. ,
I
~rfirr 1
,
i I
r 1
~ -" -.;, .- .-t.~ ~ .", (a) l'+U+12-(l+2)(A+.)

Boala roou 1ft ill LBP. TIae I)'I&aI • ..,.pta&icaII), .&abIe. (b) l(A' + 3l + 2) • A(A + 1)(A + 2)

Roou 1ft O. -I, -2. 0.. IOCI& OR j ••••• ., &iii &ad ... ia UP. TIM .,... • au,qiaaU,. .&able. (e) l'(A' + 2) _ A2(1 + ;Ji)(l- jY1}

Roou 1ft 0 (,.,..aed __ ) aM:I:;yIt Yabiple .... _ ......" .... n..,... ia ua&&bl •.

Cd) (1 + 1)(1' - U+ I) - (1+ 1)(1-1)(1-1)

Roo .. 1ft -1, I &ad I. Two ..... ia BlIP. n. .,.... _ ... &abIe.

Ca) (A + lXl' +21+1)'. (1+ 1)(1+ 1- j2)1(1+ 1 + j2)'

Roo .. -I, -1 :l:j2 ( ........ , .. ) aN aIIla LBP. n. ~ • ..,.ptotic:aII.J ....... (b) (1 + 1)(11 + I) • (1 + 1)(1 + ;,)(1- ;3)

Roou 1ft -I, :1:;3. T .. (_pie) ..... _ .... ." ... _ ia BlIP. n. .,.... it ...... wll)' .&abIe. Ce) (1 + 1)(11 + 1)1 • (1 + 1)(1 + ;3"(1- ;,)1

R.oou aN -1 .... :1:;3 ,.,..aed , ... YUlipielOOU _ i= .... " .... n..,.._ .........

(d) (12 + 1)(la +4)(1' +1) - (1+ ;1)(1- ;1)(1 +;2)(1- ;2)(1+ ;3)(1-;3)· '.

TIae I0o&I an :jl, :1:;2 .... :1:;3. AIlIOClU ... _pie aM _ ....., ... HOM ia UP. n • .,.... it ...... ,.&abIe.

2.'"

(a) Becaue .(A) - ,,111('), &lie cbrKI 100& iI O.

(b) n. 100& u. OR &lie ......, aD, ak • .,.... -1IUIiUII1 e&aWe.

(e) f.- .(A)~A. oa

us

The system is DIDO unstable.

(d) The iDtesrai of 6(t) is .(t). The system response \0 6(.) is .(e). Clearly, the system is an ideal iat.elfa.tor.

2.6-4 Assume that a system exists that violates Eq. (2.85) and yet produces a bounded output for every bounded input. The response at t = h is

,(t.) = l-"(1')/(h-1')dT Colllider a. bounded input I(t) such that at some wwt h

I(t. _ 1') = { 1 -1

iU(1') > 0 if l(1') < 0

In this cue

I&(T)/(', - 1') = II&(T)I

&lid

,(tl) == L- Il(1')1 dT == 00

This violates the ... umption.

2.1-1 (a) The time-consiant (rise-time) of the Iystem is T" = 10-'.

The rate of pulse communication < .}; == 10' pw.e./sec. The channel cannot traumit million pu_/second. (b) The bandwidth of the channel is

1

B = T" = 10'H.

The channel can tranamit audio lipal of bandwidth 15 ItHI readily.

2.1-2

T" = ~ = 1~ = 10-1 = 0.1 mI

The received pulse width = (0.5 + 0.1) - 0.6 mi. E&ch pulse ta.kes up 0.6 me interval. The muimum pulse ra.1.e (\0 avoid interference bet_n lucUlaive pulses) is

1

0.6 )( 10-' ~ 1667 pulses/sec

2.8-1

l2 + Tl + 12 = (l + 3)(l + 4)

The natural response is

,.(t) = K1e-'t + K2e-ll

(a> For I(C) = .(t) = eOt.(.), ,.(t) = H(O) = QIt = t

,(t) .. Kle-3t +K2e-1t + 1 j(t) = -3Kle-a· - 4K2e-lt

Settiq e = 0 ud subttitutiq wtill c:onditions, _ obtain

and

r<e) - -fe-3' + le-lt + 1 t ~ 0 (b) f(t) = e-t.(e), ,.(e) == H(-I) - Q:B = 1

,(t) = Kle-" + x.~e-lt + te-' i(t) = -3Kle-a· - 4K2e-1I - ke-'

17

Set.ting t = 0, &lid subst.ituting iDitial conditiolUl yields

&lid

,(t) = ie-a. - ie4' + ~,-. a ~ 0

(e) f(a) = ,-2'.(t), ,.(t) - H(-2) ... 0

,(t) :;;;: Kl,-s, + K,,-tt jet) = -lKI,-a· - 4K2,-t·

Setting t = 0, &lid lubatitui.iq inii.ial cOllditiolUl yielcb

0= s, +K2 }

1 - -3K, - 4K, =-

and

,(a) ... ,-3' - ,-t. C ~ 0

2.8-2 A2 + 6A + 25 = (A + 3 - i4)(A + 3 + ;4) charact.emtic roo&l are -3 :ti4

, .. (t) = Ke-3' COI(4t +')

For f(C) = u(a), ,.(t) - H(O) • k 10 t.hat.

,(t) ". K,-s, CC»( 4t + ') + Is

jet) '"' -3K,-I. cc»(4a +') - 4K,-a. c~(4C +')

Set.i.iq t :;;;: D, and lubetituting initial conditiolUl yielcb

O=KCOI'+! }

2 = -3K c~' - 4K lin' .....

Kcc»'=ff }

KIin'.1£ ...

K"" 0.427 , = -106.1

&lid

,(t) "" 0.427,-1' c~(4t - 106.3·) + Ii t ~ 0

2.8-3 Characteriltic polynomial iI A2 + 4A + 4"" (A + 2)'. TIle roo&l are -2 Jepeaied twice.

, .. (t) .. (Kl + K2t),-"

(a) For f(t) = ,-31.(t), ,.(a) = H(-3) == _2,-3'

,(t) "" (Kl + K2t).-" - 2.-"

j(C) == -2(Kl + K,C),-2. + K2,-2t + 6,-s,

Seuillg t = 0, &lid .ubetit.uiiD& iait.ial collditiou yields

1. Kl-2 }

, ~

5 == -2KI + K2 + 6

&lid

,(t) "" (If + ¥-t).-2. - 2.-a• t ~ 0

(b) f(t) :;;;: ,-'.(t), ,.(t) ... H(-l)e-' = 0

,(C) ... (Kl + K2t)e-2t

jet) "" -2(KI + K,t),-" + K2,-21

Setting t ... D, and .ubat.itutiJII iaitial co_mUGu yielcb

18

Ulel

,(f) = (t + Yf).-2. f ~ 0 2.8-4 Bec&ue (~2 + 2~) - ~(~ + 2), ''-e c:ll&rac\eria&ic roo&. are 0 uel -2.

,..(f) = Kl + K2.-2•

In thia cue I(f) = "(f). The iIlp.' i_If is a daarac\eriatic: mode. Therefore

,.(f) .., {It

But ,.(c) satided the eyetem eqaation

(lY + 2D)J.(c) .. (D + 1 ),(0 .. i.(t) + 2;.lt) = iCC) + I(t) Subetituting /(.) = "(C) Ulel ,.(f) -= tJf, we ob&aiD

0+ 2{l = 0 + 1 .... tJ - •

Therefore ,.(f) = if.

,(f) .. x, + K2.-2• + 1t ;(t) __ 2K2,-2t + •

Setting C = 0, uel lubetitutiq initial c:oaditiou yielda

Ulel

,(c) = t -i'-" + ie t ~ 0

2.8-5 the natural responae , .. (c) is foud ill Prob. 2.8-1:

,n(f) - Kl,-at + K2'-" The iIlput I(e) ... ,-3' is a daaraderimc: mode. TJaereCore

,.(f) = {lte-I•

Also ,.(c) satiafiea the IYltem equation:

(D' + 7 D + 12),.(f) = (D + 2)/(f)

or

i.(t) + 7;.(f) + 12,.(c) - i(t) + 2/(f) Subetitutina/(C) = ,-3' ud ,.(c) _ tJte-a• in ~ equaUoJl yielda

(9{l' - 6{l),-a. + T(-3{Jt + (J),-3' + 12{Jte-3' = _3.-at + 2,-3'

or

,.-3. 5 _.-3. ... , = -1

Therefore

,(c) _ KI,-3· + K,,-·' - c.-3'

j(c) = _3Kl,-S' _ 4K2,-41 + 3te-3· _ ,-3'

Setting t = o. Uld lubititllUq iDitial c:oaclitiou yielda

Uld

O-KI+K., }

1 = -3KI - .. K, - 1 ....

Kl =2 K.,=-2

,(f) _ 2.-31 _ 2.-tt _ C,-31 t ~ 0

= (2 - c).-St _ 2.-t1 t ~ 0

19

Chapter 3

3.1-1

'[~1 = ,[~ - 11 + 1[~1 = ,[1 -1)

Therefore

r[~1- ,[1 - 1] = 1[11

Realization of ~hia equation is shoWII in Fig. 53.1-1.

Fic·53.1-1

1.1-2 The net growth rate of the native population i. 3.3 - 1.3 - 2" per year. AIIuming the immiP&IIti enter at .. uniform rate throughout the year, their binh and dash rate will be (3.3/2)" &lid (1.3/2)", rapectively of the immigr&llu at the end of the year. The population p[~] at the begiJlaing of the lth year is p[l - 1) plus the net increue in the native population plua i[~ - 1], the immigr&lltl entering during (1 - l)s\ year plus the net iJlcreue in the immigI&IIt population for the year (I: - 1).

p[l] = p[k - 1) + ~p[~ - 1] + i[l - 1) + ~i[~ - 1) = 1.02p[k - 1] + 1.01i[1 - 11

or

1'111- 1.021'11 - 1) = 1.01i[1 - 11

or

,[A: + 1] - 1.02p{A:] = l.01i[1:1

3.1-3

,[~] = ,[1 - I] + Tnt - 11

The realization ill shown in Fig. S3.1-3.

Fic·53.1-3

20

~.[It-IJ J

R- ,

Figure 53.1-.

3.1-~ At the iDllt&nt Ie, money which is for 2 or more yean is ,[J: - 2]. MODey which iI £Or 1 yeu iI ,(Ie-I]-,[J: - 2).

Beaee

,[Ie] "" 0.18,[1e - 2] + 0.12[w[1e - 11- ,(Ie - 2D + ,[Ie - 1] + J(Ie]

Of

,[Ie] - 1.12[1e - 11- 0.06,[1; - 21 "" 1[leJ This C&Il be alterDa.tively expreued &II

,[1; + 21- 1. 12,[J: + 1] - 0.06,[1c1 = 1[Ie + 2)

3.1-~

,[IcJ = H/[J:1 + J(Ic - IJ + I[k - 2] + I[k - 3] + [[k - .U

The realila.tioD is shown in Fig. 53.1-5.

Fig. 53.1-5

3.1-6 The node equa.tion at the kth node ia i1 + i, + i3 = 0, or

u[l: - IJ - u[le) + ,,(Ie + 1)- v(Ie] _ ,,[k] = 0

R R oR

Therefore

o(u(1: - 1] + ,,[I: + 1) - 2,,[k)) - u[k1 = 0

or

1

v[k + 1) - (2 + - ),,[k] + ,,[k - 1] "" 0 o

that is

1

,,[k + 2] - (2 + - )v[k + 1) + ,,[k) = 0

o

or

[E2 - (2 + ;) E + 1] ,,[k) _ 0, tbt is (E - O.S)(E - 2)v[k1 = 0

ll.2-1 <a>

,[k + 1) = 0.5,[Ic] Setting k = -1 a.nd subetitDful& ,[-1] = 10, yield.

(1)

,[0) = 0.5(10) = 5 Setting Ic = 0, &nd ,u))autuu., ,(0) = 5, yields

,(I) = 0.5(5) = 2.5 Setting Ie = 1 in (1), and lubl\i\uting ,[1] = 2.5, yield"

21

3.2-6

,(2) = 0.5(2.5) = 1.25

(b)

,[k + 1] == -2,[k) + J(k + 1) Setting I: ::: -1, and substituting ,[-1) ::: 0, 1[0] ::: 1, yields

(2)

,[0] = 0+ 1-1 Setting I: ::: 0, Uld lubstituting ,(0) ... 1, J(1) = t, yields

,[1) == -2(1) + ~ = -2 + ~ = -1.632 Setting k ::: 1 in (1), and lubatituting ,[1) = -2 + !, 1[2] = :" yieldl

,(2] = -2(-2 + ~) + !s ""' 4 - ~ + !s = 3.399

3.2-2

,[1:) = 0.6,[k - 1] + 0.16[1: - 2] Setting I: ::: 0, Uld substituting ,[-1) = -25, ,[-2] ... 0, yields

,[0] = 0.6( -25) + 0.16(0) = -15 Setting A: = 1, and substituting ,[-1]::: 0, ,[0)::: -15, yields

,[1] = 0.6(-15) +0.16(-25)::: -13 Setting I: = 2, and lubst.ituting ,[1) ... -13, ,[0] ... -15, yields

,[2] = 0.6(-13) + 0.16(-15) = -10.2

3.2-3 This equation can be expressed u

,[1: + 2] - -tp[A: + IJ - h,[A:] + I[l: + 2] Set.ting A: II: -2, and lub.tituting ,[-1] = ,[-2] ::: 0,1[0] = 100, yieldl

,[0) = -HO) - fe(O) + 100 = 100 Setting A: = -I, and subst.itutin, ,[-I] = 0, ,[0) = 100, 1[1] == 100, yieldl

,[1] = -t(lOO) - fiCO) + 100 = 75 Set.ting A: = 0, and lubltit.uting ,[0] = 100, ,[IJ = 75, 1[2] = 100, yields

,[2] = -i(75) - i\(I00) + 100 = 75

3.2-4

,[A: + 2] = -3,[1: + 1] - 2,[k) + I[A: + 2) + 3/[A: + 1] + 31[A:] Setting l: = -2, Uld ,ub,titutin, ,[-1] = 3, ,[-2] = 2, J(-I] = 1[-2) = 0, /{O] == 1, yields

,(0] = -3(3) - 2(2) + 1 + 3(0) + 3(0) ... -12

SeUing k = -1, and ,ubltitutin, ,[0] = -12, ,[-I] = 3,1[-1] = 0, J(O] = 1, J(I] = 3, yields

,[1] = -3(-12) - 2(3) + 3 + 3(1) + 3(0) = 36

Proceeding along lame lilla, we obtain

,[2] = -3(36) - 2(-12) + 9+ 3(3) + 3(1) = -63

,[A:] = -2,[A: - 1] - ,[A: - 2] + 2/[1:) - J(I: - 1) Setting I: = 0, and lubltituting ,[-1] = 2, ,[-2] = 3, 1[0] ::: 1, 1[-1] = 0, yields

22

,[0) = -2(2) - 3 + 2(1) - 0 ... -5

Setting k = I, and lubatituting ,[0) = -5, ,[-1) = 2, /[0) = I, /[1] = t, yielda

,[1] = -2{-5) - (2) + 2{t> -1 == 1.661

Seuing k = 2, and lubatituting ,[1) = 7.667, ,[0) = -5,1[1) = f, /[2] = ~, yielda

,[2] = -2{1.661) - (-5) + 2(t) - t = -5.445

3.3-1

(E2 + 3E + 2),[k] = 0

The chara.cteriat.ic equation is -? + 37 + 2 = (7 + 1)(7 +2) = O. Therefore

,[A:] ... et(-I)" +c2(-2t

Setting k = -1 and -2 and IUbititutilll initial condiUou)'ielda

Cl = 2 C2 =-4

,[k] = 2(-1)" - '(-2)"

3.3-2

(E2 + 2E + 1),[k] == 0 The chara.cteriatic equation is 73 + 27 + 1 = h + 1)2 = O.

'Ik] = (et + C21:)( -1)·

Setting k = -1 and -2 and ,ubatitutilll initial colldiUou yields

l--Cl+C2}-. 1 ... Cl - 2c3

Cl =-3 C2 --2

,[k] = -(3 + 2k)( -1)·

3.3-3

(~ - 2E + 2)J[k] = 0

The chara.cteriatic equation is -? - 27 + 2 = (1 - 1 - ;1)(1 - 1 + jl) == o. Tke roots are 1 ::t ;1 = ../ie*J·".

,[k] -= c( ~t a.( fA: + B) Setting A: = -1 and -2 and ,ubltitutiag initial condiUou yielda

1,.. *a.(-f +,) ... *(~a.'+ ~"B) 0 ... tc:o.(-f +') - t.'

Solu Doa of thue two aim1ll~eou equauolII yields

Ca.'.2} ==> caiD, _ 0

c=2 '.0

. ,(k] -= 2(v'i)"COI(il:)

3.3-4 Char&eteriatic eqU&tion is -? + 27 + 2 = (1 + 1- ;1)(1 + 1 + ;1) = O. T1ae roots are -1 ::t;1 == 'l/ie%J3ft".

,(k) ... c( ~). COI( 'fl: + ') Setting k = 0, 1, and IUb.titutiJl& initial coaditiou yielda

23

0 .. ccc.1 }

2 =: v'2ccc.(¥ +1) ~

c=2

1= -I

3.3-6

,[I: + 2) + .,{I:] = 0

or

(E' + .),[1:) = 0

The cb.a.racten.tic equaUoll is -f + • = (oJ + j2)(T - j2) =: o. The roob are ;J:j2 = 2e*jw/2.

,[1:] .. c:(2)· c:oa( fl: + I) Se~tin, I: .. 0, I, and lubati~ulilll illitial collditiou yields

1 = ca.' }

2 = 2cCOI(f +1) = -2c •• 1 ~

CCOII=1 } cu':s: -1 _,..

,[I:) = v'2(2)· COS ( fl: - f)

3.3-6

v(1: + 2) - 2.Sv(1: + 1) + v(l:) = 0 The auxili&IY conditions &Ie v(O) = 100, v(N) = O.

(£l - 2.SE + l)v[I:] = 0 The cha.racten.tic equation is .,2 - 2.5.., + 1 = (-y - 0.5)(7 - 2) = o.

v(l:) :: Cl (0.5)· + c2(2)· Setti., I: = 0 and N, and lubltitu~ing v(O) :: 100, v(N) = 0, yields

100 .. Cl + C2 }

o = cl(0.5)JI/ + C2(2)JI/ .....

I: = 0,1, ... ,N

3.4-1

(E + 2),[1:) "" 1[1:)

The characteristic equation is ., + 2 = o. TIle characteristic root is -2. Abo Ao "" 2, 60 - 1. Therefore

1[1:) = tl[l:] +c(-2)·

We need one .alue of h[l:) k» d~e c. This is determined by iterative dution of

(1)

(E + 2)h[l:] -= 6[1:]

01

.[1: + 1] + 2.[1:) :: 6[1:] Setlillll: = -I, &ad lubahtutin, .[-1) =: 1[-1] - 0, yields

.[0] = 0 Setting I: = 0 in Eq. (1) and WIin& A[O] = 0 yields

O=i+C ~ c=-t

Therefore

All:] - t6[I:] -l( -2)·.[1:] 24

3.4-2 The characteriatic: root it -2, 60 = 0, 110 = 2. Therefore

1a(1:1 = c( -2)·

We need one value of h(i) to determine c. TIIiI it dODe by solvinl iteratively

(1)

Ia[k + 11 + 2A[k1 = 6(1: + I] SeUinl k = -1, and lubstitutin,Ia[-I) = 0, 6[0) = 1, yields

A[01 = 1 Settina l: = 0 in Eq. (1) and usinl Ia[O) = 0 yields

and

Ia[k) = (-2)·.[A:]

3.4-3 Characteristic equation is .,2 - 6,. + 9 == h - 3)2 _ O. Also 110 - 9, 60 ,.. O. Therefore

"[1:) - (CI + fl2A:)3·.[A:)

We need two yalues of A[A:] to determiDe Cl and 112. TIai.t it found from iterative solution of

(1)

(Ea - 6E + 9)"[1:] = E6[k]

or

Ia[k + 2) - 61a(k + 1) + 911.[k) ;: 6[k + 1) Also A[-I] = 1a[-2] = 6[-1) = 0 and 6[0] = 1. Setting k = -2 in (2) yields

Ia(O)- 6(0) + 9(0) == 0 .... A(O) 0: 0

(2)

SeUins A: == -1 in (2) yields

A[I) - 6(0) + 9(0) ". 1 ~ 1a[1) = 1 Setting l: == 0 and 1 in Eq. (1) and subaUtutinl 1a[0) - 0, A{l] ,.. 1 yields

0= Cl }

1 == 3(Cl +'C2) .....

and

3.4-4

(E2 - 6E + 25),{A:] _ (2~ - 4E)/{A:) The characteristic: roots &Ie 5ej:jO"u, .. - O. T1lerelDre

1[1:] = c(6)· coe(0.9231: + ,)_[1:]

We .eed two nlues of 1a{1:) \0 detenDill.e e and ,. TIai.t iI done by 1OlYia& iterAtively

(1)

Ia[k) - 6lalA: - 1) + 2U[k - 2) == U[A:) - "[k - 1]

(2)

SeUinl I: == 0 yields

A[O] - 6(0) + 2S(0) = 2(1) - 4(0) .. Ia[O) = 2

Setting l: = 1 in (2) yields

A[I] - 6(2) + 26(0) = 2(0) -. ..... A[l] = 8 SeUinl I: = 0, 1 in (1) and nbiutuUq 1&(0) = 2, "[1) - 8 yields

2 =ceoa'

8 = Sca.{0.923 +') ,.. 3.017ccoa' - 3.981co,

25

SolUUOD of t.he. ~wo equat.ioD8 yidda

ccc»'.2 }

Clin' '"" -0.4931 _".

e 2.061

, -0.24had

ud

A[I:) :z 2.061(5t c~(0.9231: - 0.244).[1:)

3.4-5 (a>

or

,[t) - 6 .. /[1:) + "'-J/[t - 1) + ... + bo/[I: - n] WheD 1[1:] = 6[1:), ,[1:) = A[I:). Therefore

A[I:] ... 6 .. 6[1:] + 6,,_16[1-1) + ... + 606[1- II]

(b) Here n = 3,63" 3, .2 ... -5, ~ - 0, to - -2. Therefore

h[l:] .. 36[1:] - 56[1: - 1] - 21{1: - 3]

3.~1

,[1:] = e-·,,[I:). (-2)·,,[1:1- (~t.[t]. (-2)·,,[1:1

= u/cli:i4+'"t1·+1 .[1:] = ~[e-<·+11 - (-2)·+1].[1:]

,[1:1- e-·,,[t1. {l6[t] -l( -2)",,[t]}

= ie-·,,[I:] • 6[1:] - (~) •• [I:]. H -2)·.[1:] _ 1. -. [L]_ Cl/c_t-t-21·+1 [L]

fe • .. iI;J+5(" ..

"" {ie-· - ~[e-<Hl1 - (-2t+1]}.[I:)

3.5-3

,[1:] = (3)·+2,,[1:1. [(2)· + 3(-5)"),,[1:1

- 9[(3)".(1:) • (2)·.[1:) + 3(3)·.[1:] • (-S)'.[I:D ... 9("}·+ij2)·+1 + 3(1).+lat)"I).[1]

_ 9[.y.(3)'+1 _ (2)'+1 -i(-S)'+l).[l)

,[1] = (3)-·.[1]. 31:(2)'.[t) == 3(tt.[1] .l(2)'.[l]

=: 3l2!t;S),[(l)' - (2)· + e;}l')I:(2)'].[l) == Il(3)-' - (2)· + 5I:(2)·)ta[1:]

,[1:] = (3)· ~(fl: - 0.5).[1:]. (2)·.[1]

R == [(3)2 + (2)2 - 2(3)(2)(0.5)]1/2 ... ..ti

, - t.u-l [~f!l J = I.T61 r&d

ud

26

,[1:] = ~{(3)HI cc»[f(l + 1) - 2.261] - (2)10+1 cc»(2.261)},,[1] = ~{(3)Io+l co.{f(l: + 1) - 2.261] + O.637(2)1I+1},,[l]

3.1'r-8 the characteristic root is -2. Therefore

,.,[1:] = c(-2)· Setting I: = -1 and lubltitutiq ,(-1] = 10, yieldl

IO=-f .. c=-20

Thefefore

ro[l:] - -20(-2)" I: ~ 0

For this IYltem 1a[1:], the unit impulle RIpon. is loud in Ptob. 3.4-2 to be

The zerO-Itate responle is

This is found in Prob. 3.5-1 to be

,[I:} = 3ttr[e-CIo+1) - (-2)10+1],,[1:] = ~[!(e)-Io + 2(-2)11],,[1:]

= [~(e)-· + i!tr(-2)·j .(1)

Total Response = ro[l:) + ,[1:)

= [-20(-2)10 + ~(e)-' + dh(-2)"],,[I:J = ~[-(38c + 20)( -2)· + (e)-1I1,,[I:J

3.1'r-7 [a)

,[I:J = 211,,[I:J • (0.5)',,[1:1

= 2·+1~::,.+1 &[1:] = 1[2.+1 _ (0.5)k+l].[I:]

(b)

1[1:1 = 2(·-3).[1:1 = 2-32.,,[1:] = 1210,,[1:] From the result in part (a), it foDowa that

(e)

1[1] = 2',,[1: - 2) = f{i.-2),,[1: - 21}

Note tha.t i.-2),,[l - 21 is the _e AI the input 2",,[1:] in part Ca) delayed by 2 units. Therefore from the Ihift property of the convolution, iii RlPO_ will be the l&DIe AI in part <a) dela.yed by 2 units. TIle ill!lput here is 4{2(1o-2),,[k - 2n. Therefore

,[11 = fJ[21o+1-2 - (0.5)·+1-2]_[1: - 2] = J[2.-1 - (0.5)'-1),,[1 - 2] 3.6-8 The equation describiD& this _tnuon is [lee Eq. (3.2b)]

(E - ,.),[1) = E/[I:)

,. = 1 + r = 1.01

The initial condition ,[-1] = o. Heace \!len is oaly sero-l&ate compODeDt. The input is 500.[1$] - 15006[1:) because at I: = f, iJlatead of depolitiq the UDal '500, Ihe withdrawa '1000.

To find 1a[1:1, we 101ft iteratively

27

(E - 7).[i) = E6[~)

or

.[i + 1] - 7.[~) - 6[i + 1) SeUm,1 - -1 &Dd .ubeU'uu, A[-I] "" 0,6[0] - I, Jiela

A[O] = 1

AlIo, the ch&r&ct.eriltic root iI 7 ud 60 - O. Tlaerefore

Setug ~ = 0 ud .ub.&i&ll&iDg 1[0] = 1 Jield.

Therefore

The (ler<Ht&te) relpoue iI

,(1) = (1.01)·.[1] • /{l]

"" (1.01)·.[~]. {SOO-[l] - 15006[~ - 4)}

=- 500(1.01)".[1] •• (l) - 1500(1.01)"-4.[~ - 4)

s m-[(1.01)II+l -1].[1] -1500(1.01t-t.[~ - 4] == 50000[(1.01)11+1 - 1].[~) - 15OO(1.01) .. -4.[i - 4]

3.6-9 This problem is idelltical &0 the I&villp &Ccout problem wi&Ja DegaUve iDi&i&l depoli& (lou). If M is the illiUal lou, theD ,[0] - -M. If ,[1] is &he lou b&luce, theD [Me Eq. (3.2b)]

,[~ + 1] - 7r[~] "" I[l + 1] 'Y "" 1 + r

or

(E - 'Y)r[t] = E/[}] The impulse rCipOIlM for &his .y.&em i.e foud ill Prob. 3.5-8 &0 be

The Iero-mput leIPODM is

ra[l] = C'YII.[}] SeUiag 1 = 0, ud .ubiU'utin, ra[O] == -Jl, yield. e = -JI ud

r[i] - A[i] • /{i]

Let P be the monthly p&JIIleJlt. The 1m pIlIIIeIlt iI made ODe moath after rec:eiYiq the lou (at t = I). Therefore the iDp.t ia

Itl] "" P-£l- 1]

ud

,[k] s .[~] • P.[~ - 1]

- P7".[k] •• [~ - 1]

Here we Ule .hilt property of coDvobatioD. 8ec&ue

'the .hilt property yield.

28

P"lou[k] • u[k - 1] = z[k - 1] = p[':~1 ]u[k - 1] The total bal&llce ia roCk} + ,[i}

,.,[i] + r[i] ... -Mrloa[i] + P{'~.:;I}tI[i -1] For k > I, tI[k] = ulk - 1] = 1. Therefore

Lou bal&llce ... -M·," + Pp;.:;l] i> 1

Also ,. = 1 + ,. &Ild " - 1 = ,. where ,. ia 'he mler.' rale per doUu per DlOllth. At k = N, the lou bal&llce i. sero. Therefore

_Jl"N + Pp"r-1] = 0

or

P= ~H,. 'Y -I

3.5-10 We Ule the result iD Prob. 3.5-9. 1D thia problem ,. _ 0.015, ,. ... LOIS, P _ SOD, M ;:: 10000. Therefore

or

(1.015)" = U2857

N In(1.015) ;:: "'(1.42857)

N = '1unw "" 23.956

Hence N = 23 payments ue needed. The r_dual bal&llce (remainder) at 'he 23rd payment is

.~

. ~

.'

. " .

~tJu ., . .. ...
//.'
~. po
rL' .. "
~ 2. 3 .~. m-t ~ Fia. 53.5-11

29

3.&-11 (a> The two stripa eorrespondiag w .[i1 aDd .[i] (after iDvenion) &l'e shown iD the figure 53.S-U& for no shift (k = 0) and for one shift (k = 1). We lee that if elk) = lI[k). lI[k} then

e[01 = I, e[11 = 2, c[2] = 3, e[3] ... " e[.) = 5, e[5) ... 6, ... , c[k] = k + 1

Hence

lI[k) •• [k1 = (k + 1 ).[k1

(b) The a.ppropriate stripa for the two fuactiou .[11- .[1 - m) a.ad .[1] &l'e thown iD Fia. S3.5-11b. The upper strip correspondiag w .[11- .[1- m1 hu Aret m slots with value 1 &ad all the rema.iDing slots have value O. The lower (iDverted) .trip COrrespolldial w .(1) hu all slot 'Ialues of 1. From tbiB figure it follows tha.t

c(OJ ... I, c(1) = 2, c(2} = 3, . ", e[m - 11 ... m

c[m] ... c(m + 1] = ... = m

Hence e[k) = (1 + 1).[1] - (1- m + 1)11[1- m)

3.&-12 From Fig. 53.5-12 we observe that

k .[k)

o 0+1+2+3+'+5=15

1 1 + 2 + 3 + • + 5 = 15

2 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 1.

3 3 +'+5 = 12

• 4+5=9

5 5

6 0

,[k) = 0 k ~ 6 ,[1] = 15 k < 0

R=O I~I: ItlmlTI, I' I ...

':H.DJ: 15

b I kll: 1m Itl;1 'I, I ...

~ t'l~ 15

b." -It, I~! :I~!ml ~I" q." .

~ [.,J; 15

;'6 ~[k.J
~ ,4
, ,2-
. .. .. "
IS
- -2, e 1.~ - Fia. 53.5-12

3.rt-13 From Fig. 53.&-13, we obeene the faIlowiq 'Ialues for ,(1):

1 ,[11

o 5x5+5)(5=50

*1 5 )( • + 0 ~ 20

*2 5 )( 3 + 0 15

*3 5 x 2+0 10

*. 5)(1+0=5

*5 5)(0+0=0

*9 0)(0+0)(0-0

:1:10 0 )( 0 + 5 )( 1 = 5

k ,[k)

:1:11 0 x 0 + 5 )( • = 20

*12 0 )( 0 + 5 )( 3 = 15

:1:13 0 )( 0 + 5 )( 2 - 10

*14 0 )( 0 + 5 )( 1 = 5

:1:15 0 )( 0 + 0 )( 0 = 0

:1:16 0

:1:17 0

:1:18 0

Observe tlta.t

30

..

o

l=o

,

15 k'"

Fig. S3.5-13

too .... ~c.-I

-+O ........ _.,...-..- ............ ......_._....O ....... O ~O-+._. • ~ [-IJ = ,

o 0 ,., ~::. I _~~~.:....;...._,;..~..;...p,;...a..;;;()-+--. • . ~ tIJ:'

-7

Fi,. S3.5-14

3.5-14 (a) From Fis. S3.5-13. we oblerle the mUowiDg vahlel of ,[1:]:

~~~ __ ~ ~_-L_

(b) The answer is identical. to that of (a). This is becaue when we lay the tapa f[m] and g[-m] together, the situation ill identical. to that iD (a).

3.5.n. (a)

8 = "[0]

12 = h[l] + A[O] _. "[1] 12 - 8 _ 4

14 = 1&[2] + h[l] + h(O] A[2] = 2

15 ... A[3] + "[2] + "[1] + "[0] ...... "[3] - 1

15.5 = 1a[4] + 1a[3] + h[2] + "[1] + h[O] _. h[4] = 0.5

16.15 = 1a(5) + A[4) + A[3) + "[2] + A[l) + "[0) ~ "[5) = 0.25

(b)

[1 0 0] [1 0 0]

B = 2 1 0 =- B-1... -2 1 0

4 2 1 0 '-2 1

Hence the input eequence is: (1, 1/3, 1/9. '" )

3.5-16 iJi-€ o:pPY'Oj:lriq-k, alf'~~ ~ -flu rtsu Ift'(I-' ~rlc..l"~ sht')L..1'\ u" h'j. 53'5-'"

3.8-1 <a)

.,2 + 0.6., - 1.6 _ (., - 0.2)(-r + 0.8)

Roou are 0.2 and -0.8. Both are inside the utit circle. The IJStem is uymp\OtiaDy stable.

31

Q'tka:- 0 , 2.

7 i

15 <-etk]

00 00 0 stJoo 1+15000 =-1150l)O ·1I!5ooo .2.3 If. 5 000

Fia. S3.5-16

(b)

(12 + 1)(12 + oy + 1) = (oy - ;1)(oy + ;1)(oy + t - ¥)(1 + t + ¥)

Roots are :;1, -t: vp. ... ,.zj.,/3.

All the roo ... are limple ud on unit circle. The system is marginally stable. (c)

Roo ... are 1 (repeated twice) ud -0.5. Repeated root on unit circle. The Iystem is unstable.

(d)

oy2 + 20y + 0.96 _ (oy + o.a)(oy + 1.2)

Roots are -0.8 aad -1.2. One root (-1.2) is outside the the unit cirde. The syatem is uutable. (e)

(oy2 _ 1)(oy2 + 1) = (oy + 1)(-r - 1)(-, + il)(-, - il)

Roots a.re ±1, ±jl. All the roots are simple ud 011 IIllit circle. The system is margiD.ally stable.

3.8-2 Allume that a system exists that violates (3.72), ud yet produces bounded output for every bounded iDput.

The system response at Ie = lei is

-

,[lei]" E Ia(m]j(lel - m]

,Consider & bounded input 1[1:] such that

I[~ -m] = {I -1

if ~(m) > 0 if ~(m] < 0

In this case

~[ml/{lcl - m] = I/&[mll

ud

-

,[1:1] ""' E lia(mll ... 00

_0

This violates the Ulumption.

3.8-3 For a margillally stable system 1&[1:) doea 110t decay. For IUle 1:, it is either COlld&llt or CllCiUate. with c:onstut amplitude. Clearly

-

E 1/a(mJl- 00

.... 0

The Iystem is BIBO uDltable.

32

3.1-1

TIle char&eteristic equatiOll ill "'I + 2 = 0, ud ihe chara.cwriatic root ill -2. Therefore

,.(t) _ B( _2)K

Settiasl: ... 0, ud •• bstituURS ,[0] "" 1 Jie1cl.

l=B+~ .... B-t.fi

ud

1.1-2

,[1:] + 2,[1: - 1) = 1[1: - 1)

(1)

We IOlve 'hill equatioll iteratively to obw. ,[0). SetUR11: - 0, ud lubltitutiq ,[-1) = 0, 1[-1] = 0, we Ie'

,[0] + 2(0) .. 0 .. ,(0) :or 0 The ,YI&em equatioll can be expreaaed u

(E + 2),[1:] = /II:]

The characteristic: root it -2. Tlaerefore

For 1[1:] .... -',,[1:1- r',,[il with r .... -1,

,.[1:] ... H[r;' - H[.-I].-' - _-1+1,-' - i1.;re-1I

Therefore

,[i] = B(-2t + r..r.-. I: ~ 0 Setlins i = 0 &ad nbltit"t.iq riO) ... 0 7ieIda

ud

1.1-1

(~ + 3E + 2),[1:) - (~ + 3E + 3)/{I:] The characteristic: equtioa ill .,a + 3"'1 + 2 - ("'I + 1)("'1 + 2) ... O. TIlerefore

,.[1:] - Ss(-I)' + Bt(-2)'

For f[i}- 3'

Tlae total telpoue

,[i] ... B1(-I)' + 112(-2)' +<11>3' I: ~ 0

(al SeUiq I: = 0, I, ud •• bltit.t.iq,[O] - 1, rll) - 3, ,..

33

BI =-t ~=t

,(1:) = -H-1)" + H-2)' + i(3)" I: ~ 0

(b) We solve system equation iteratively to find ,[0) and ,[1). We are given ,[-I) == ,[-2) = 1. System equation is

,[I: + 2) + 3,[1: + 1) + 2,[1:) = 1[1: + 2] + 3/[1: + 1) + 31[1:)

Setting I: = -2, we obtain

,[0] + 3(1) + 2(1) = (3t + 3(0) + 3(0) ..... ,[0) = -4

Setting I: = -I, we obtain

,[1) + 3[-4) + 2(1) = (3)1 + 3(3)° + 3(0) ..... ,[1] = 16

,[1:] = BI(-lt + &(-2)" + t(3)' I: ~ 0

Setting I: = 1, 2, and substituting ,[01 = -4, ,[11 = lIS, yields

and

,[1:1 = ¥-( -It - ¥( -2)" + i(3)" I: ~ 0

3.8-4

.,2 + 2., + 1 _ h + 1)2 _ 0

The roots are -1 repeated twice.

, .. {I:] = (BI + B21:)(-I)"

Also the IYStem equation is (E2 + 2E + 1),[1:1 = (2J:2 - E)I[I:]. and 1[1:) = (W'. Therefore

,.[1:1 = HlH3-' == -h(3)-lr I: ~ 0

The total respoue

,[1:] - (BI + &1:)(-1)· - te(3)-' I: ~ 0

Settin, I: = 0, I, and lubstitutina ,[01- 2, ,[1] _ -y. yield.

2=BI-fa }

-'/- -= -(BI +~) - fa ....

,[1:) = (ft + .1:)(-1)· - t.(3)-lr

3.8-5

." - .., + 0.16 = h - 0.2)(,,( - 0.8)

The roots are 0.2 and 0.8.

Bec:aue the input is a mode

,.[1:) = "(0.2)" But ,.[1:) latiD. the I)'8Mm equation. that iI.

II.{I: + 2)- ,.[1: + I) + G.16,.[I:) == 1[1: + 1]

34

a.nd

c(1: + 2)(0.2)11+2 - c(1: + 1)(0.2)11+1 + 0.lacl:(0.2)1I = (0.2)11+1

This yield.

-0.12c(0.2t = 0.2(0.2)11

Therefore

a.nd

,.[1:] = -11:(0.2)11

r[i) == B1(0.2)1I + ~(0.8)1I - 1i(0.2)" i ~ 0

Setting I: = 0, I, a.nd .ut-titutins initial conditio ... .rOJ = I, ,[1] = 2, yield.

1 ... s, + & } Bl = - =l1

2 - 0.2B! + 0.8& -! _.. B2 - ,

,(I:] .. -¥-(0.2)' + '1(0.8)11 - 1<0.2)" I: ~ °

3.8-a

,[I: + 2] - ,[i + I] + 0.16,[1:] "" /[1: + 1]

We 101ve this equation iterativel1 for /(i) = ~('f + j), ,[-1) = ,[-2) = 0, to find ,[0) aad JI[l)' Remember aleo that /[1:] ... 0 for I: < 0.

Setting I: = -2 in the equation yield.

,[0) - 0 + 0.16(0) = 0 _.. ,(0] ... ° Setting I: = -1 in the equation yields

r{I] - 0 + 0.16(0) - ~ j os O.S ... ,[lJ - O.S Therefore ,[0] = 0 aad ,[1] = 0.5. For the mput /[1:] == COI( f + f) .

.. [I:]-c~(f+f+·)

But ,.[1:] latiriea the ')'Item equation, tltat ia,

,.[1: + 2] - ,.[1: + 1] + 0.16,.[1:] == /[1: + I]

or

ccoa[f(1: + 2) + r + .1- CCOl[f(1: + 1) + i +.] + 0.16c~(fl: + i +;) = coa[f(k + 1) + fl

or

or

1.306cCOl(f + f +; - 2.21) = coa(f + f + f)

Therefore

Therefore

1.30& "" 1 _. c _ o. T6S

; - 2.21 - f ... • - 3.84 - -2.44rad

,.[1:] - O.'7S5coa(f + f - U4) = 0.1a5coa(f -1.393)

,[1:] = Bt(0.2)' + 8,(0.8)' + 0.'765C01(¥ - 1.393) Settins I: = 0, I, aad nhltitutiq ,[0] "" 0, ,[1] - 0.5, Jielu

o - Bl + B2 + 0.1354} Bl .. 0.241

0.5 = 0.2Bl + 0.8& + 0.153 =+ & ""' -0.377

,[1:] = 0.241(0.2)" - 0.3'71(0.8)11 + 0.16ScOl( f - 1.393)

35

4.1-1 (.)

/(,) - .(') - s(t - 1)

F(e) _11 •• .,,,, - -~:··r

, - -![e-· - t] •

.. ![l-.-·)'

e

No&e ,laM ,]a. renh ie ftIid for aD vUlI .. of .; Ileace ,Ia. rePoD of co."....ce ie UIe .. me' .. pi ..... The &bec:iIA of CODftqeDce is er. - -00.

(b)

/(a) -te-'s(')

F(e) - L- fe-',-·' '" - L- te-(·+I) '" ,-< .. I)'

- - (e + 1)2 [-(e + 1)1 -II:

1

- (e+ I).

provided that .-(0+1) .. = 0 or R.e (e + 1) > O. Bace tU abIc:iIIaa of co.ftqeace ie R.e (e) > -lor ero > -1.

(e) ,

Ie') - 'c:c.loIOts(,)

F(e) -1- I c:c. I0I0,,-.' '"

- i {L- [,.<;..e-.). + "-<i ... +.)t),,.}

- i he _ ~1oIO). + (e+ ~)I] Be (e) > 0

-~

(d)

F(e) -1- (,:U - 28-').-" "e

-1- .2',-.r iC - 21- .-',-.' ~

-L- .-<_2). '" - 2L" .-<"~)' II,

1 2

·';::I'-Hi

We cet the first term only if Be , > 2, ud we let the leCoud term only if Be (,) > -1. Both conditioDll will be satisfied if Be (.) > 2 or 110 > 2. Hence:

1 2

F(,)=--.-2 .+1

for 110 > 2

(e)

11~ 11-

F(.) = 2 0 coa("',+III2)Ie-"d'+i 0 coa("'I-III2)te-"dt

= ~ [., + ("': + 1112)2 + -"''-+--(''''''';:;''_-1112''"')":-2 ]

provided that Be (.) > o. (f)

f(.) = Cod(_I)_(I)

F(.) = ~ [['" ,··e-II tit + 1"" e-··,-" dt] = i [1~ e-('-·)· 111+ 1"" ,-(,+a)1 dt]

=T=Gi

Be, > 101

(g)

f(t) == liah(ot),,(t)

o =T=Gi

Be, > 101

(h)

f(t) = ,-2' COI(S' + 1),,(.)

_ i [,-21+J(II+') + ,-21-i<It+')]

= !.,j'e-(2-ji)1 + !.,-j',-(2+JI)1

2 2

F(,) = i,;' (,+21_ ;5) + ie-j, ('+; + ;5) To is valid if Be (,) > -2 for botJa terma; hence

Hence

F(,) = (, + 2) COIl - hinl ,2+"+29

4.1-2 (a>

11 -.1 II 1

F(,) = •• - .. II. = _' _(-ri -1) ... -(1 -,-' - "-')

o ' 0"

(b)

1.. -at I" 1 +,-'"

F(,) = 1ia,,-'·d.t=T-l(-'uc-coa.) == 2+1

o ' + 0 '

37

(e)

4.1-3 (a)

(b)

F( ) 3,+5

, - "+4,+13

Here A .. 3, B - 5, • - 2, c - 13, • - v'l1'"='i - 3.

(e)

F(.).. (, + If' = (, + If'

.2 _ • _ e (. + 2)(, - 3)

Tbil ia all improper £radion witla ... = ~ _ 1. Tlaerebe

F( ) • • 0.2 3.2

, =1+--+--1--+--

,+2 ,-3 ,+2 ,-3

I(~) _ 6(C) + (3.2.3, - D.2.-2').(C)

(d)

F(,)- 5 _!+ 2.5 +~

,2(, + 2) , ,2 , + 2

To filld I: MIt • = 1 on bolla lid. W oblain

aad

<e)

2,+1 -1 AI+B

F(.) .. (.+1)(" +2,+2) -;:t:l + .2 +2,+2

Wuuply botla lid. by , ucllet , - 00. TU JieIda

0= -1 + A ==to A = 1

Setma. , = 0 on botJa aid. yieJda .

i - -1 + f =0- B = 3

38

In the IIeCOnd £radion, A = 1, B = 3, 1& = 1, c = 2, b = v'f=1' = 1.

(f)

.+2 2 k 1

F(.) - .(. + 1)2 - .. + 1+1- (. + 1)2

To compute 1, multiply both Rd. by • ud Ie' • - 00. This yield.

0= 2 + k + 0 ~ A: = -2

ud

2 2 1

F(.) = -; - ;+i - (. + 1)'

f(t) = (2 - (2 +I)e-,].(t)

(I)

1 1 1, ~ A:a 1

F(.) = (. + 1)(. + 2)' = ;+i + ;:j:2 + (. + 2)2 + (. + 2)3 - (. + 2)'

Multiplying both lids by • ud let, - 00. Thia yield.

1 1 1 A:2 13 1

(6 + 1)(6 + 2)4 = • + 1 - 7+2 + (. + 2)2 + (.r + 2)3 - (.r + 2)'

Setting , = 0 and -3 on both lides yields

i\ = 1 - 1 + ~ + ,. - Ii ~ 4~ + 2ka = -6 -t=-1+1+1,-A:3-1 .... A:,-1,-O

Solving theae two equatioUllimultueoualy yield. ~ = A:3 = -1. Therefore

1 1 1 1 1

F(,) =;:tJ' - .+ 2 - (.+2)2 - {. + 2)' - (.+ 2)'

f(t) = [e-' - (1 + t + ~ + ~)e-2'].(t)

Comment: TlUa problem could be tackled in lD&Dy w~. We could bYe ued Eq. (B.Mb). or after determining first two coefficienu by BeaYilicle methocl. we could haft deuecl fraaiou. AlIo iutead of teUiq D = 0 ud -3. we could bft lIeleded uy other let of valu •. However, in thil cue tlaele "'u. appear mmi IIwtable for numerical work.

(h)

F(.) = .+1 = ~+ _k_+ J!L&_+ A.+B

.(. + 2)2(.2 + .. + 5) • • + 2 (. + 2)2 r + 4. + 5

Multiplying both Rd. by • ud let • - 00 yield.

Setting. "" 1 ud -1 yield.

A=~+t+h+~ O""-~+A:+t+~

... 201: +GA+GB s:-5 ~ 20A: -10A+ lOB =-9

Solmg theae three equaUOUl in A:. A ud B yield. A: == -t. A "" t ud B == -to Therefore

39

1/20 2/.!_ ..!!ill.. 1 (.. • - 1 ) F(.) - -;- - '.+ 2 +(. + 2)2 + 5 .2 + 4. + 5

For Ute lut fradioD ia p&reDth_ OD the npi- .... d lide A-I, B - -1 •• - 2, c - 5, • - v'f=i - 1.

, ... /'if§ - ~ ,_ &aD-SO)'" n.se·

I(e) ... (' - t(1- 2e).~:1l + 41.-2, c;O.(' + Tl.5.·)]ta(')

(I)

F() .a i~ A.+B

• ... (.+ 1)2(r +2.+5) - T+T- (;+1)2 + r+~+5

M1Iluply both lid. by • ad I., • - 00 ~ ObWD

1-i+A

SetU.I • ,.. 0 &Ad 1 Jielda

o-~-t+f 2O~+4B-5

J\- = t - -k + ~ lei + 4A + 4B = 3

Som .. thae three equa.Uo .. in i, A ud B yieIU' - t, A - t &ad B - -to F() 1./!_ ....lli._ I ( • - 10 )

• - • + 1 - (. + 1)2 + i .2 + ~ + 5

For the lut fra.ctioD ill piftDth , A ... I, B - -10,. -1, c'" 5,' =.;r=r ... 2.

r J~ - 5.5t ,- &aD-1(lf) - 10·

Therefore

1(') ... (t - tt).-' + 1f1.-' coa(2t + 10·)].(') ... [te3 - C) + 1.3815 COI(2' + 10·»).-I.(t}

4.2-1 (a)

aDd

F(.) - ~[u(t)] -l[u(. - 1)] 1 _.1

... --. -

• •

... !.(t- c-') •

(b)

(e)

F(.)_.p_1_ .+1

(d)

I(C)'" .-IU(t - r) = .-p .-(I-P)u(e - r) ObeeIYe th .. t .-(,-p)u(' - r) iI .-'.(e) delayed by r.nerSle

F(,) ... -p (-L) .-or ... (_1_) .-('+1)"

,+1 ,+1

40

(e)

f(.) '"" ,,-r.(t - r) = (. - r + r),-<c-r+r).(C - r) =e-r [(' _ r),-<c-r).(C _ r) + re-(r-t').(C - r)1

Therefore

F(,) =.-" r(,; 1}le- ... ·+ (.~ 1)'-'''] .... -<.+l)r (1 + l' + 1)]

(.+ 1)1

(f)

f(.) -Iia Wo(. - r).(' - r) Note that this ~ IiDWo' shifted by rj heace

F(.) - (., ':;;;:) ,-."

(g)

F() Wo COl wor - nia wo r , .. i3 5

+"'0

(h)

f(C) = aiDwoh(C - r) = siD(wo(' - r + r»).(t - r)

= cOIworliD[WO(t - r)l.(. - T) + liD worcoe[loIO(t - T»)t&(t - r)

Therefore

4.2-2 (a)

F() 1 1 _. 1_.

, ----, --,

,2,2 ,

(b)

f(.} - aiD •• (') + IiDC' - .. ) .(. - .. )

(e)

f(') - '[.(') - .(. - In + ,-'.(. - 1)

.... (.) - (. - 1).(t - 1) - .(. - 1) + ,-1,-(.-1).(. - 1)

TherefOre

4.2-3 (a)

It is clear &hat f(.) .. i(' - 2).

41

(b)

where

(e)

where

Therefore

(d)

where

MoreoYer

/ 2.+5 2.+5 1 + 1

(.)- .2+5.+6 - (.+2}(.+3):O .+2 ;:t:'i

iCC) = (.-21 + .-al).(e}

f(t} = l(t - 2} = [.-2(.-2) + .-*-2)1_(t - 2)

F ( ) - •

I' - .2+2.+2

{

A _I, B = 0,. == I, c:= 2,.-1 r = ../2, ,= lan-I (I) = '11/4

f(t} = !1(t - 3} + faCt)

= ./2.-(.-3) cc»(t - 3 + f}-(e - 3) + 2.-1 mil h(e)

and Mt} = ~e' aiIl2h(t) and h(t) = i.' liIl2h(t)

f(t) = eMt -1) + h(t)

= i.(·-I) mll2(t - 1)_(e - 1) + I"u 2t aCt)

F( ) == ,-' + ,-20 + 1 = ( -. + -20 + 1)[ 1 )

• r+3.+2 e, r+3.+2

_ (,-0 +,-20+ 1)[_1 1_1

.+1 .+2

F(.) = (.-' + .-2' + 1)/(.)

42

4.2-4 <a)

and

,(c) - I(c) + I(c - To) + I(C - 2To) + ...

G(.) = F(.) + F(.),-o2"O + F(.),-2.To + .. , _ F(.)[1 + ,-'2'0 + ,-2,2'0 + ,-3oTO + ...

_ F(.) Ie-,Tol < lor Re. > 0

1- ,-,f.

(b)

Itt) = a(a) - a(t - 2) ud F(I) = !.(1 _ .-2')

I

F(I) 1 1 _ ,-2.

G(,) ... -- ,.. -( )

1-,-" I 1-,-1.

4.2-5 Pair 2

l' 1 1

_(t) = I(r)~r .. -(1) .. -

0- • I

Pair 3

l' 1 1 1

Ca(C)... a(r)ilfr .. -(-) =:;-

a- I I ...

Pair ,; Ule .ucceuive integra~ioll of C_(t)

Pair 5: From !requellcy-.hiftin, (,.23), _ bve

_(C) .. ! ud ,l,_(C) <=0- -4

• '-A

Pair 6: BecauH

Ca(C) ..... :2 aDd C.l'_(C) ..... (I ~ A)2 Pair 7; Apply ~he .ame UlUJIlellt to C2,,(C), ,s,,<,), ... , ud 10 011.

Pair 8a;

co.6",(C) ... !.(,J.' + .-J")_(,) .... !. (_1_. + _1_. ) = _._

2 2 1- J. 1+ J. .2 + ~

Pair 8b; Same way u 'he pair Sa.

Pair 9a; Application of the frequellc1-.hi£~ property (4.23) '0 pair 8a co""(c),, ~ yield.

-al 61 () .+.

• COl - C .. (1+4)2 +p

Pair 9b; Similar to ~he pair 9a. Paira lOa ud lOb: Reco&aiae that

re-al COI(.C + ') ,.. r.-al[COI 'COI'C -.in hill 61]

Now ue renlta in pairs 9a uel 9b to obta.iD pair 10L Pair lOb is eqlliftla' to pair lOa. 4.2-8 (a) (I)

df = I(C) -I(c - 2) ~&

.F(.) ... 1- ,-2.

F(.) = !(l- .-2') •

(il)

df ... 6(C - 2) - 6(t - ') ~C

.F(I) = ,-2, _ ,-u

F(.) ... !(,-2' - ,-") •

43

(b)

4.3-1 (a)

II ... _(') _ 3_(, _ 2) + 2.(' - 3) fI,

.F(.) ... !. - !.-h + !.-h (1(0-) = 0]

•• •

F(.) _ 1..(1 - 3.-2• + 2.-3·) .2

(b)

or

ad

Y b+W b+W 2 6

(.) 2 + .. + 4 ... (. + 2)2 ... ;"+2 + (. + 2)2

'(') (2 + 6,).-2'.(,)

(e)

or

4.3-2 (a) All iaitial condiUoDl are sero. The Hro-inPIl\ rapoD •• sero. The enlire rapoD. found in Prob. 4.3-2a is aero-.tat. rapo ... , that.

, •• (') ... (,-t _ ,-2')_(,) '''(') = 0

(b) The Laplace u&Illform of the cWf_Val eqlla&ion ia

1 (.2y(.) _ 2. - 1) + 4(.y(.) - 2) + 4Y(.) - (. + l);n

or

(.2 + .. +f)Y(.) - (2. + 8) _ 1

or

(.2 +4.+4)Y(.) = ~ +~

I.c_ I ••••

_1_ .. ,

...... "'.

2 5 1

= i+2+ (.+2)2 + (.+2)2 .....__.,

(e) The Laplace transform of the equation is

50 (a'Y(a) - a-I) + 6(aY(a) -1) + 25Y(a) - 25 + -

a

or

1+7 2 -2a + 13

=(a2+6a+25)+(;+ a2+6a+25)

,(C) = [..,'2,-31 COI«C - f)1 +{2 + 5.lMc-2· COI«C - 112.83·>1

¥

.r.i ••• ,

...... 1 •••

4.3-3 (a) Laplace tranaform of the two equation. yield.

1 (a + 3)Yl(a) - 2Y2(a) - - a

-2Yt (I) + (2a + ()Y2(1) = 0

Uling Cramer's rule, we obhin

y, ( ) a + 2 a + 2 !E. 1/3 1/6

1 a = a(a" + Sa + 4) = .(a + 1)(a + 4) - a - a + 1 - ~

y; ( ) 1 "" I 1/4 1/3 1/12

., • = .(a2 + 5. + 4) .(a + 1)(, + 4) = 7 - ;+J + ~

and

III(C) = (l-l'-' - te-·').(C) ,,(C) = <t -1'-' + ~e-u),,(C)

If Hl(.) and H.,(.) are the trau!er functiolll relatin, 'I(C) and ,,(C), respectively to the input f(C), thus

H() a+2 d H() 1

1 a = • ., + 5a + 4 an 2 a =-.2 + 5a + 4

(b) The Laplace trauform of the equatiOIll are

(a + 2)Yt(a) - (. + 1)1'2(a) - 0 -(a + 1)1', (a) + (2a + 1)1'2(a) = 0

Application of Cramer'. rule yields

Yi ( ) a + 1 • + 1 1 0.724 0.276

1 a - a(a2 + 3a + 1) - a(a + Q.382)(a + 2.618) = .. - a + 0.382 - a + 2.618

a + 2 a + 2 2 1.814 0.1056

1'2 (a) = a(,2 + 31 + 1) = a(. + 0.382)(a + 2.618) = ; - a + 0.382 a + 2.618

a+l .+2

Hl(a) = .2 +31+ 1 and Ba(.) = a2 +31+ 1

'l(f) = (1- 0.724.-0·3&2. - 0.276e-2.I1I,).(,) ,,(t) = (2 _1.8He-O·3&2, - 0.1056.-2.111').(,)

4.3-4 At t = 0, the inductor current '1(0) = ( and the capacitor voltap is 16 volta. After t = 0, the loop equa.tions are

45

If

'1(') YJ.(.).

ft(e) 1"2(,).

i; _ ,}'j(,) _. ift

it •• 1"2(,)

l' 1 16 ft(").1,, ..... -1"2(')+-

-- "

Laplace trauform of the loop eqntioll.l are

Or

40 (1' + 5)Yt(') - (1' + ')1"2(') =. + - ,

1 16

-(1' + ')Yl(') + (2' + 4 + -)1"2(,) 0: -8 - - , ,

Cramer's rule yields

YI(') .. 4(6" + 13, + 5) .. ! + "",:"",,:16-:':-,,+-:-2,,:,' ":'

,(" +3,+2.5) , ,'+3,+2.5

fl(') = [' + IT.8ge-u, c:oe(t - 26.56·)]-<') 20(,+ 2)

1"2(') - (,a + a. + 2.5)

ft(t) == 20./2e-1.I· coe(! - i )-(')

4.3-6 (a) •• /::'\2. (b) •• !::t~m+. (e)-I!J.hr 4.3-8 (a)

~: + 3: + .,(t) = : +5/(e)

(b)

" +.!l +52 + Tr{.) = i'/ +3~ +5/(')

.... .",.1, ''''.It

(e)

4.3-7 (a) (1) F(.) - ;:b &lid

Y( ) ,+5 ,+5 3 3 2

, == (,+3)("+51+6)" (,+2)(.+3),"';:t2- ,+3 - (._3)'

,(.) == (3e-2t _ Ie"'" - 2ee-3')_(,)

(ll) F(,) ==;h

46

(iii) The input here is the input in (ii) delayed by 5 .a. Therefore F(.) = ;h,-a.

y(.,) _ • + 5 e-h _ [3/2 __ 2_ _!E_]e-"

-(.+2)(,+3)(.+4) - .+2 .+3+(.+4)

,(t) = le-3(.-a) - 2e-~('-') + te-·(1-6)],,(t - 5)

(iv) The iuput here is equal to the input in (ii) multiplied by e'lO becallH C-l(·-6> = o'lOc-". Therefore the output is equal to the output in (ii) multiplied by .'l4.

(v) The input here is equal to the input in (iii) multiplied by ,-'10 becaue ,-·'.(t - 5) = ,-2!1e--t(.-6>.(t - 5). Therefore

(b) (D' + 2D + 5)1/(') = (2D + 3)/(f) 4.3-8 (a) F(.) = ~

Y 10(2' + 3 6 -61+8

(,) = " + 2. + 5) = ; + ,2 + 2, + 5

,(t) = [6 + 9.22,-' coa(2t - 130.6-)],,(t)

(b) I(t) = v(t - 5) and F(.) = ~e-"

y() 2.+3 _a. [0.6 1 ( -61+8 )] -II

• = .(,2 + 2, + 5) e = -;- + 10 ,2 + 2. + 5 e

,(t) = fcs{6 + 9.22.-(·-6> co.(2(e - 5) - 13Q.6·ns(t - 5)

y(,) = .2 ~9 and ,(t) = iU3h(t) 4.3-10 (a) Let H(.) be the .y.&em traufer function.

y(.) = F(.)H(.)

This ahOWI that '1(') = tl,/tlt.

(b) Uain& aimilar arpmeat _.Ilow that for the input J: /(r)tlr, t~e output is J; ,(r) dr. Beca.ue s(f) is an integral of 6(t), the uBit .te»> nspoue is the mtearal of the .Bit impulle reapoIUI! Ia('}.

1. S
.+
V_(S)
.1 D
Fia. SU-l
47 5 2-

++--4:~ vt.----t

~ 25

Fig. 5404 .. 2

4.4-1 Figure 54 .... 1 ,"ow. the truaformed .etwork. The loop eqllatioAl are

or

Cramer'lI rule yield.

1 1 1

Y'(II) = (11+ 1)2(11' +2. +2) = (. +1)' - .' +2.+ 2

val') = J2(') ... ('e-' -ie-'IiD C)_(t)

4.4-2 Before the .witch iI opened, the iadllctor current ilSA, that u ,(0) ... 5. Figure S4.4-2b .hOWl the tr .... formed circuit for t ~ 0 willa initial coaditioD pnerator. TIle C1I1Tent y(.) U pVeD. by

y(.).(10/.)+5_ 111+10 ... ![!_ 2 ]

a. + 2 .(a. + 2) 3. • + (2/3)

,(t) = (5 - f,-2./3)_(,)

4.4-3 The impeclaace NeD. by th, lOuce I(t) iI

L.(l/C.) LI LIlIIO'

Z(.) - L. + (l/C.) == LCal + 1 = r + Il10'

Ca)

AI A and A
FC.)=~, YC·) =_ Lwa' ,(t) == z;;2'(t)
(b)
Awo A aad A
F(.)=~. Y(I)=r ,(t) == LIllO -ce)
Il10.
48 Fia·5,U-5

4.4-4 At t = 0, the ,teady-state values of currents '1 ud J2 is '1(0) = 2, f2(0) = 1.

Figure 5'.4-4 Ihowi t.he t.rauformed circuh (or t ~ 0 with initial condition ,eneratOn. The loop equ~tiODI are

Cramer's rule yields

'1 (t) = (4 -le-t - te-SI).(t) J2(t) = (2 -le-r + !e-3t).(t)

V_(~

o

Fia·5U-6

4.4-6 The current iD the 2H iDductor at , = 0 i8 lOA. The trudormed circuit with initial condition senerators is shown in Figure 54.4-5 for t ~ o.

y 'l + 20 20. + 10 20(. + 0.5 1

(.) ... 3. + t + 1 = 312 +. + 1 = -; s2 + ia +}

Here A = I, B = 0.5, • = t, e = t, 6 = 4I

,-Ii'" 1.168

,(t) a ¥(1.l68)e-·'ICCM(4i' - 31.1·).(1) = 7.787e-t,1 a»p'1I, - 31.1·).(t)

49

4.4-6 Figure 54.4-6 ahow. the uauformed circuit with muhall1 coupled inductor replaced by their equivalents (see Fig. 4.15"b). The loop equatiou ue

Cramer'. rule yield.

40 y,(.) = (.I + 0.2)

&lid

-

-

ria. 54.4-7

4.4-7 Figuze 54.4-7 .hoWl the transformed circuit with puallel form of initial cODdiuon aeneraiora. The admittance W (.I) seen by the source is

W(.) = !! + • + 4 = .' + 4. + 13

• •

The voltage &crou terminals a b i.

v. , = 1(.) _ ~ + 3 _ 3. + 1

... {) We,) - C:u£:W. - " + .. + 13

Also

1 3.+1

110(.) = 2V ... [s] = 2(.2 + 4. + 13)

&lid

1

s

Fia·84.4-8

4.4-8 The capacitor voltage at , = 0 is 10 yoill. The iaductor current is aero. The trauformed circuit wiih iuiual condiUoD generatoR is ahOWll fOr , > 0 Ua Fia. 84.4-8.

To determine 'he current y(.), _ determine Z ... (,). the impedance seen acrou terminala .. b:

1 3. +8

Z •• (.) = ( 1 ) - iI+li'

1+ 2+J2a.

I+f

so

!II.
Y(.) = 1 lin:
.+( .. +11)
- 90! •• + ll!
3~+28.+55
- 30 •• + 11)
.2 + .+ y.
_ 30('.+ 11)
- (. + 2.8)(. + 6.53)
1.61 121.61
=--+--
• + 2.8 • + 6.53
aDd ,(f) = [121.61,--.u· - 1.6le-u,]u(,)
R. ...!-
t
" VCs>
i
(t~:~ (b)
Fig. SU-9 4."-9 Figure S ..... 9 shows the trauformed circuit (with DODiavertiq op amp replaced by ita equivalent &5 IIhown in Fig. 4.16) from Fig. S ..... 9&

Therefore

KtI. 1 Ra

H(.) -;+; tI. = sa: K = 1 + R.

Similarly for the circuit in Fig. P4 .... 9b, we cu show (eee Fig. S4 .... 9)

K.
H(.)=-
.+11
fr...(~) ,::
~
r ~) .5
CAM,. .. rt ,1- .
I-I
1- c ~" 'i. .
R!) 1: Y(5)
Fia. S4 .... 10 4."-10 Figure 54."-10 shows the uauformed circuit. The op amp iaPIl\ volute is V.(.) Q:! o. The loop equatiOJlS are

51

Cramer'. rule yield.

1 -,

Y(,) --2'[1, (,) -1,(,)] - ,a + I, + 12 F(,)

Tile trusfer {.action

-,

H(,) .. ,a + 8, + 12

4.4-11 (a)

y(,)_ '''+3,+10 ,(~2 +" +5)

,(0+) _ lim ,Y(,) - 3

.-00

.coo) - Ii .. ,y(,) - 2 _0

(b)

Y( ) ." + 3, + 10

, - (,+1)(2,2+',+5)

.c0+) .. lim ,y(,) .. 3

.-00

,tao) • lim ,Y(,) - 0

.-0

F;pre SU·l

4.6-1 (a) The loop eIlaado .. are

411 - 212 - F(,) -21J +11.- 0

Craaer'. rule JieIda

2 1

1.(,) - -F(,) .. -F(,)

20 10

ud

TlaeNfore H (,) -= laot t. (b)

411 - 21. - F(,) -21, + .001. - 0

Cramer'. rule yield.

52

, . ,

I

s:.r

Fi,.54.6-1

ba ~1Ua c.- H(,) ia verr c:laIe &0 1/4. TIUa ia b_ tile MCOBd ladder IIICtioa ca_ a BesliIib1e load OB ~he int. The Cucade rule appli. oa1y whea the nece.ift nb.yttell1l do Bot load the prececliq •• bc7.W:II1I. 4.6-1

H(,) = 6ar + 6,,' + "1' + io ~ + a2,2 + ai' + 110

with 110 - 12, al = 19, a2 ... 8, parallel realisauou. .

4.6-2 <a)

ud 60 = 0,61 = 2, 6a = 1. FilUre 54.6-100 ... the euoaiul, eeri. &Ild

For the euoaica1 form, _ have 110 - 2, al - " ., .. 3, ud 60 = 0, '" = 6, 6, = 3. Filure 5'.6-2a

.h .... & cuo\lieu, cucade ud paralle1 realiaaUoB.. No+e -ft\a#- .ft\€ ~ .F 5"\ .,S-t 'L elrt (I_'~I~ y .

ItIH~fz.."('f 1M 1~Wn.1'7<t. -tel')m "'lLt.st3k T'M11~ clirEl'tly,

I" . i

".

(b)

For a canonical forma, we have ao = 8, al s <I, a2 - 2, and ·60 = -<I, 61 .. 2, ~ = 0, 6, = O. Ficure

S<I.6-2b .how. a canonical, cucade ud parallel realintions.

4.8-3

H (,) _ 2, + 3 ... -:---:"0"':'.<I_ • .....;+:-:0~.6~-=-=-

- 5(.· + 7" + 16" + 121) ,t + 7" + 16,' + 12.

= (;) (,!2) (,!2) (O·~':30.6) = ~- ,12 + (,:2)' + D13

Figure 5<1.6-3 shows a cuonical, cucade ud pu&llel realintioD"

4.8-4

H(,) _ ,(, + 1)(' + 2) _ ,1 + 3.' + 2, = 1 _ 2!... + _!I_ _ ...!!_

- (. + 5){. + 6)(. + 8) ,3 + 19.' + 118. + 2<10 • + 5 • + 6 • + 8

For a canonical form All = 24, III = 118, "2 = 19, and 60 = 0, 61 = 2, ~ = 3, 63 = 1. Figure 54.6-4

.how. a canonical, cucade and parallel realisation •.

Figure 5<1.6-5 shaWl a canonical, cucade and parallel realiaations.

4.8-1

Figure 54.6-6 .how. a canonical, cucade and parallel realisations. 4.8-7 Application of eq. (U6) '" Fic. PU-7a yields

The output in Fig. P<I.6-7c is tile same of B - CIA times the outp1lt of Fig. P<I.6-Ta and A ~es the output of Fig. P4.6-7b. Therefore ita tr&nafer function is

H(,) = (B - _A)Hl(') + AH,(,) = B-aA + A(,+a)

(. + a)' + ., (. + a)' + .,

h+B

= (. +_)2 +.,

4.8-8 Thae tranafer functions are re&dily realised by 1IIiD& the arraqement in Fic. 4.31 by & proper choke of Z/(,) and Z(.).

55

'"
~
11 !I"
-.
u
VI
~
¢' '!~
t .-
~ i

r

I

t

f

~f
. .
-
(';)
>
'Z.
r.:. 0
::t> l:
iI' ~
~ ~ -c.
:e ~ !;I --.
t1 J ~
ii' CMotIIU4 F __ ------_- '1(')

y(s)

"'-.,c.tL. FoIIM

...--------- 'if,)

r----~-_ 'yrl)

~4-

flt}

ria. S..6-6

Fic. S..6-8

57

(i) In Fig. S406-8a

ud

1 t=--,

RCI

Choo.e R = 10,000, R, = 20,000 ud C, = 10-5• Thia ,ielcb i = 10 ud " = 5. Therefore

H(.)=~ ,+5

(ii) Thia ia ,ame u (I) followed by u amplifier of piD -1 U Mown in Fia. S4.6-8b. (iii) For the first Itage in Fia. 54.6-8c (lee Exerc:ile E4.12, Fia. 4.3Sb),

and

H(,) = _ Z,(,) = _.£(!.±!)

Z(,) C,' +a

ChoOie C = C, = 10-'. R = 5000, RJ = 2000. Thia yield.

H(,) :: _(!.:t!) .+5

Thia ia followed by u op amp of lain -1 U IhOWD in Fia. S4.6-8c. Thia yielcb

Fia·54.6-'

4.8-8 One realisation ia liven in Fia. 54.6-8c. For the other re&lia11io., _ expreu H(.) u H(I) = • + 2 OK 1 __ 3_

.+5 .+5

We realize H(.) u a parallel combial1ion of H1(,) = 1 and H2(.) = -3/(. + 5) u show. in Fia. 54.6-9. The secolld .tlle .erva u a .ummer for wlaic:h the inpu\l are &Jae input aad output of the fill' I'lle. Beeaule the IUmmer hu a gain -1, _ need a third Itlle of lUll -1 to obtain the cIe.ired traaaier f_dioal.

4.6-10 Cuollkat realisation of H(,) is Mown ill Fia. 84.6-10. Ob.erve &Jau thia is identical to H(.) ill Example 4.20 with a minor cillrerellce. Bence &Jae op amp c:Ucuit in Fia. 4.3k C&Il be uecI for oar purpoee with appropriate

58

(b)

IOOkn

Fia. scs,u

chanl. in the element valu •. The lu& .ummer iIlpu& relilton now are 1f- kO aad 1ft kO iIla&ead cf 50 kO aad 20kO.

4.6-11 We follow the procedure ill EDIIlple 4.20 with appropriate modifie&UoD •. Ia &0 cue Go = 13, Cll = 4, aad 60 = 2, .. = 5, aDd ~ == 1 (ill Example 4.20, _ bve _ = 10, -I - 4, and 60 .. 5, .1 = 2, and ~ == 0). Becaue ~ ia IlOuero here, _ have ODe .Oft teedforward conectioD. FieuN 84.6-11 _ow the developmeat of 'he nitable ftWauOD.

4.7-1

HU ) ;101+2 ;101+2

101 = (101)2 +5jlol +4 - (4-IoI2)+j5w

1012+4 w2+4

IH(jlol)1 = (4 _ w2)2 + (5w)2 = 101' + 17w2 + 16

L.Hblol) - taa-I(~2) - taD-I( 5w 2)

4-101

(a) f(t) = 5C01(2t + 30·). HeN 101 - 2 aad

59

IH(2)1 = Ii = f.

tH(j"') ,. \ ... -s _ \I,Il-s(oo) ... ~5· - go. = -~5·

,(t) - 5f. a.(2t + 30· - ~.) - v'2c:oe(2C - 15·)

(b) f(t) = IOai.(2t + ~5·)

,(t),. 10(4) •• (2' + ~5· - 45·) - 2v'iaiD2t (e) f(t) _10coa(3C + 40·). Here '" - 3

IHU"')I = f'{£ = 0.228 aad I.H(3) = 56.31· -IOU3· = -52.12-

Therdore

,(C) = 10(0.228) coa(3C + ~O· - 52.12·) ... 2.28 coa(aC - 12.12·)

4.1-2

. j",+3

H(1",) = (j'" + 2)2

IHU",)I-...rwr+J ... d I.H(j",) _ WI-l(~) _ \ ... -l(~)

",2+4 3 2

(a) fCC) = co.(2t + 60·). Here '" ... 2

IH(j2)1 = 4I aad I.H(j2) ... 3U9· - 90· = -56.31·

Therefore

,( t) ... 4! aII(2C + 60· - 56.31·) - ~ aII(2C + 3.8g·)

(b) fCC) = aiD(3C - 45·) Here '" 3 ... d

IH(3)1 JI(I ... tI I.H(j3) - ~5· - 112.62· ... -6T.62·

Therefore

(e) f(C) :: e13•

4.1-3

B( .",) = -(j", - 10) _ !!.::..i!!

, j", + 10 10 + j",

IHU"')I == w2 + 100 = 1 w2 + 100

I.BU",)", t ... -I(_~) - &aa-I(~) ... _2t .. -l(~)

·10 10 10

(a) /(C) = ~w.

,(t) = B(jw).lw, ... IBU",)Ie'[w.+I.JI{iw)J = e'1w-1' •• -'(w/so)J (b) let) ... COI{",c + ')

(e) f{C} ... co.'. Here '" - 1

IB(jl)1 == 1

I.BU",) - -Han-I(..!..) = -11.42· 10

,(C) - coa(c - 11.42·)

60

(d) f(t) = lin 2t. Here", = 2

IH(j2)1 = 1

i.H(j2) = -2tan-1(i\) = -22.62· ,(t) = sin(2t - 22.62·)

(e) f(t) = cae lOt. Here", = 10

IH(;10)1-= 1

i.H(jl0) = -2 &all-I (H) = -90· ,(t) = coa(IOt - 90·) = sin lOt

(1) f(t) = cae lOOt. Here", = 100

IH(jl00)1- I

i.H(jIOO) = -2tan-I(W) = -168.5S,(t) = cae(100t - 168.58-)

I f+(jID)\

-~r-------~--------~~-------

o

. - - ---~.~-------

Fia. SU-5

4.7-5 We plol. the poles -1 :i:;7 and l:i: j7 iD the .. plane. To ADd respoue at lOme frequency iii, we OlIDnect all the poles _d lerC» to the point JIM .. Hown in Fia. S4.7-5. Noie tllat ihe product of _&aIlea frOD the lerOi is equal to lbe product of the _&aile:. from &he poles for all val ... of "'. TIlenfore IH(;IM)I = 1. Gu.phicaJ argument IhOWI tbt i.H(jw) (Ium of ihe an&les from ibe zeroa- lum of ibe usles from poles) liub ai zero for", = 0 _d then reduces co.linU01llly (becomes neeaiive) .. 1M iDcre_. ItA w - 00, i.H(w) ..... -221'.

1

Cu-

(b")

Fia. SU-6

4.7-8 (a) IT r and d a.re the distances of the aero and pole, respectively from JIM, then the amplitude resPODK IH(jw)1 is the raiio rId conespoDding to jw. This ratio is 0.5 for w = O. Therefore, ihe de lain is 0.5. Abo the ratio rId = 1 for 1M = 00. ThUl, the laiD is unity at w = 00. Also the anales of the line seementl COl!Ulectin, the zero

61

aDd pole to the point jw are both zero for w = 0, aDd are both r/2 for w = 00. Therefore LH(jw) = 0 at w = 0 aDd w = 00. In bet_n the aqle it pomtive .. ,hown iD Fig. S4.7-6a.

(b) In this cue the ratio rid. iI 2 for w = o. Therefore, the dc gUD iI 2. Abo the ratio rid = 1 Cor w = 00. ThWl, the gUD it ulrity at w = 00. Abo the angle. of the line .egmeDle coDDeding the zero aDd pole to the point iw are both lero for w = 0, aDd are both r/2 for '" = 00. ThereCore LH(jw) = 0 at w = 0 and w = 00. In betweeD the aDgle it negative ... hoWD in Fig. SI.7-6b.

4_1-1 The pol. are at -II :til0. Moreover IelO gain at w ... 0 aDd w ... 00 reqair. that there be a .uagJ.e IelO a' • = o.

TJW dearly cau_ the gain to be zero at w :: o. Abo becaue there it ODe ex~ pole oYer zero, the gUD Cor large val .... of w ill/w, which APProach. 0 .. w _ 00. therefore, the .utable 'r....rer functioD iI

• •

H(.) = (. + II + jl0)(. + II _ jl0) = .' + 211. + (100 + 112)

The &mplitude r.poDle iI high in the vicinity of w = 10 provided II it 1Dl&ll. Smaller the II, more pronounced the gaiD in the vicinity of w :: 10. For II ... 0, the gain at w _ 10 iI 00.

4.8-1 (a) Le, /J(t) ,.. f(,).(t).., .'.(,) aDd h(t):: f(t).(-t) ...• (-,). Then FI(.) h .. a region oC converleDce II' > 1.

ADd F,(,) h .. a region II' < o. Bence there iI DO common region of convergence for F(,):: FI(') + F,(.).

(b) bet) = .-'.(t), aDd FI(')" .tr conver .. for (T > -1. AlIo 12(') - .(-t), aDd Fa(.) = -! coDveri. Cor (T < o. Therefore, the atrip of conyerpnce ia

-1 < (T < 0

Figure SI.8-1b

(e)

1 -0' o}

--e -

t2 + 1

.. t-ooiCRe.~O .. t - -00 if Re • S 0

Bence the converlence 0CC1llI a' (f- 0 (j..,.axiI) (d)

1 f(t) = "i"+7t

_1_.-., _a} 1+el

.. , - 00 if Re • > -1 ut--ooifRe.<o

Bence the region of coaYelIence it -1 < (f < 0 (e)

.. t - 00 for aD)' value of • .. t - -00 for aD)' value of • Hence the region of conYellence iI 'he entire .. plaae.

4.8-2 (a)

II' >-1

62

.+1 .+1

Race F,(.) IS (. + 1)1 + 1 aad Ft( -.) .. (. + 1)1+ 1 cd;!

F(.) - F,(.) +11(') - (.~i;:!;·-(,lJ~rft~i;~;J;t:1! -1 < «« 1

(e)

-1 .

F(.) - F,(.)+ F2(.) - (,f-l)(. ~~) 1<" < :I

(d)

Fa(.) -IT+';J

1 F2(-')- .+1'

i F'(')--1 - .

ad

.,.(;+~) ..•....... "

F(.} .. F,(.) + F2(') - ( • ...: 1)(.5 +~WJ) 0 < " < 1

(e)

I(t) - .-'0(1)_ {i-';:::~:.

Is(') - '-'.('), la(t) - -<-t). ...ce'Fa(.)'-.! 1 ,,>-1

1 -1

... Ft(-.) - -, F,(.) .. ;~,. " < 0

..• . "

F(.) _....!.._ ... 1 .. ~ .,«. -.1 <.< 0 .+1. ~.+l,·

(f)

hI(-t) {/a(t) _1 ,.: t > 0 1(') - ,,,- 1,'(.) -c' ',. t <0

Fl(').! ,,>0

l' ", ., l' ",

Ft("'} -. + i Ft(')· _ .... 1 , .• <.1

.I.,

ad laeace:

63

(b) Re • < -2: All poles to the right of the resion of conver,ence. Therefore

I(t) = (-e-' + e' - 2e-2')1&(_C)

(e) -1 < Re s < 1: Poles -1 a.nd -2 to the left and pole 1 to the right of the region of convergence. Therefore

let) = (e-' + 2e-2t)1&(t) + e'.( -t)

(d) -2 < Re • < -1: Pole. -1 a.nd 1 are to the riahl a.nd pole -2 ia to the left of the region of cOllllvergence. Therefore

4.8-6 (a>

_l!1 f(C) = e 2,

And

1 1

F(.)=----.+0.5 .-.0.5

hence:

2 2 1 2

y(.) = ~+ __ +.....1....._---L-

• + 1 • + 0.5 , + 1 • - 0.5

The pole. -1 a.nd -0.5, which are to the left of the ,trip of converlence, yield the callAl .iBn., a!lld the pole 0.5, which ia to the right of the strip of co.vergence, yield. the a.nticallAllicnai. Hence

(b)

1 1

F(.) = ----.-1 .-2

-1

- (. - 1)(. - 2)

And

1 H(.)- -.+1

~ >-1

Bence:

-1

y(.) - H(.)F(.) - (. + 1)(, _ 1)(1 - 2)

y(.) = -1/6 + 2E._ _ .2J.!_ .+1 .-1 .-2

1<~<2

(e)

1 1 -t

F(.) -1"+'O:i - • + 0.25 - (I + 0.5)(. + 0.25)

1 H(.) - .+ 1

(f >-1

65

L_

Heaee:

_1

y(,) = H(,)F(.) = (. + 1)(, + 0.5)(. + 0.25)

_ ..::.l + ..2,_ _ _l_

, + 1 • + 0.5 • + 0.25

-!.<O'<!.

2 •

1 1

-2<cr<,

(d)

1

F1(,) = --2 cr > 2

.-

F,(,) = -11 fI < 1

,-

ad

1 H(.)",,.+1

0' >-1

In tlLia cue, there is DO repan of conYer,ence that is common to F1(.) and F,(,). HoweYer. each or FI(') and F,(,) have a resion or conveqeace tnt is common to B(,). HeDce the 01ltP1lt CaD be computed by findia, the system r.pollle to 'l(t) and /2(t) aepuately. &ad then addins th_ two components. This me ... we need not worry about the common repon of conver,eDce for Fl(') and F,(.). Th .. :

where

0'>2

ObRrve that both the pol. (-1 ad 2) are to the left of the resion of CODverpDce. Iaence both &erma are ca .. "'. and:

-1 Y2(,) = F,(,)H(,) = (, + 1)(, _ 1)

_....L _ _j_

,+ 1 ,-1

The pol. -1 ad 1 an ~ tlw left ud tIM riPt, relpediveiy, of &Iw IUip of co ..... ce. Helice the lirat term yields cauaallipal and the IeCODd yields aticu .... "Dal. Heace

<e>

66

1 FI(.)w:: .+0.25

-1 F2(,)- _-

.+0.5

H(,)- _1_ .+1

Here abo, we have no commOll region of COllverpllce, for FIC,) &lld F2(') u in pan d. Let y(.) = Yi(,,) + Ya(.) "here:

where

1

fi( .. ) = (. + 1)(' + 0.25)

_1 1

=~+~ , + 1 • +0.25

-1

Y2(') - (. + 1)(, + 0.5)

:I :I

=.+1-~

a> -1

-l<a<-!. 2

-l<a<-!. 2

&lld W2(') :: 2e-'u(') + :le-t ,,( -t)

Hence ,C') = '1(') +W2(') = (le-' + ie-f) ,,(I) +2e-~"(-t)

(f)

"here

a> -3

a <-2

a> -1

In tllia cue, there ia & common repon of converlence for FIC') &lld H(.), but there i. no resion of convergence common to F2(') &lld H(.). Keace the output '1(') will be finite but ,,(t) will be 00.

67

Chapter 5

5.1-1 (a)

(1)

(b)

00

F [.I] = E .I-" = .1-'" + .1-<"'+1) + .1-< .. +2) + ...

(c)

Therefore

(d)

From the result in part (c) it follows that

Fl.r] = ., •• /. = (.'.' .)'/. = all'

6.1-2 (a)

Therefore

411 F[.r]""-+-.1-2 ,.1-,

(b)

Therefore

68

(e)

Therefore

F[zl- z(z - 0.25) -1 = 0.25(z -1)

z, - 0.5z + 0.25 z, - 0.5z + 0.25

(d) BeeauH k(k - 1)(1; - 2) = 0 for k ... 0, I, and 2

1[1;) = k(1; - 1)(1; - 2)2.-3• [k - m] = i(i - l)(k - 2)(2)·-3. [1;]

I; = 0, I, or 2. Therefore

and

5.1-3 (a)

F[z] = z-4 =_2 1_

z (z - 2)(z - 3) z - 2 z - 3

F[z] = 2_z __ ..2,_

z-2 z-3

1[1;] = [2(2)· - (3)·]. [i]

(b)

F [z] = z - 4 = -2/3 + _1_ _ 1/3

Z I(Z - 2)(z - 3) Z 1-2. - 3

2 • 1.r

F[.r]=--+---- 3 z-2 3.-3

I [I;J = -i6 (iJ + [(2)· - i(3)·] • [I;J

(e)

F[z] = C2-2 =_1 1_

z (z-e-2)(z-2) z-e-2 ,-2

F[zJ = __!.._ __ z_

z - e-' z-2

J[I;J ... [e-U - 2·]. [I;J

(d)

F[.] _ 2.+3 _ ~ __ 7_ + 9/2

z - (z-I)(z-2)(z-3) - .-1 z-2 z-3

5 z z 9 z

F[.J=---7-+-- 2.-1 .-2 2.-3

I[k] = [! -7(2)11 + t(3)1I] .[k]

(e)

Fr.l -5z+22 3 k 4

:....0= ... __ + __ + __

• (.+1)(.-2)2 z+1 z-2 (Z-2)2

Multiply both aides by z and let z - 00. This yields

0= 3 + k + 0 ... k ... -3

69

• • •

F[.) - 3;+1' -3;-::-2 + 4(. _ 2)2

I [i) = [3{-I)· - 3(2)· + 2i(2)·] .(i)

(f)

F [.) ... I.b + 0.08 . _ _!_ + _i_ + 2

• (. - 0.2)(. - 0.8)2 - • - 0.2 • - 0.8 (. - 0.8)2

Muluply bot.h aida by • ud let. • - 00. ThU yielda

0- 1 + i .... I: --I

F [.) = _,_ - _,_ + 2 •

• - 0.2 • - 0.8 (. - 0.8)2

I [i] = [(0.2)· - (0.8)· + il:(0.8)1I] • [i]

(e) We UK pair 12c wit.h ..4. = 1, B = -2, • - -0.5, 1'71 - 1. Therefore

(h)

F [.],., 2,2 - O.b + 0.25 =! + ..4.. + B

• .(.2 + 0.6. + 0.25) • .2 + 0.6. + 25

Muluply both .des by • ud let. - 00. TIUa yielda

2=1+..4.=-..4.-1

Setting. = 1 on both .da yielda

Ht=I+\\f ..... B=-0.9

] .(. - 0.9)

F (, = 1 + 2 0 6 0 25

• + .• + .

For the HCond fraction on riPt lide, we ue pair 12c with ..4. - I, B - -0.9, .... 0.3, ud hi ... 0.5. This yielda

(1)

F[.] ... 2(3. - 23) == -=!.. + ..u + B

• (._1)(.2 -11.1+25) • -I r -6. +25

Multiply both sida by • ud let • - 00. nit yielda

0=-2+..4. ..... ..4.-2

Set • = 0 on both .da to obt.ain

F[.] = -2+ _._ + .(2. -4) .-1.1-8.+25

For t.he HCODd fraction OD the riJht-hUld Bide, we ue pair 12c with ..4. = 2, B = -4, • = -3, Uld hi = 5.

r - JIf! {J = COI-I(i)'" 0.927 , ... tUl-I{;1) = -0.25

70

I [k] = [-2 + 4!(S)* co.(0.927k - 0.2S)] u [k]

F[.) = 3.83.+11.3. = _1_+ A.+B

• (.-2)(,2_5.+2S) .-2,2_5,+25

Multiply both aides by • and let, - 00. This yielcla

o = 1 + A ==> A = -1

Settiuc • :: 0 on both aides yielcla

F[.) = _._+ .(-.+6.83) .-2 r -5.+25

For the leCond fraction on ri&h~b&nd aide, ue pair 12c with A :: -1, B = 6.83, G :: -2.5, &Dd I'll "" 5.

(k)

!J!l %(_2%2 + 8z -7) 1 kl k2 2

, = (. - 1)(, - 2)3 =, - 1 + ~ + (. - 2)2 + (. - 2)3

Multiply both aides by • and Iet 11 - 00. Thia yielcla

Set 11 :: 0 on both sides to obtain

F[.] = _._ - 3-·_ - --,_ +2--'-

• - 1 • - 2 (. - 2)2 (. - 2)3

I [k) :: [1 - 3(2)* - 1(2)111 + ik( k - 1)(2)*] u [k]

5.1-4 Long division of 2.3 + 13.r2 +. by .3 + 7,r2 + 2. + 1 yielcla

1 • F[.]=2--+-+··· • r

Tberefore /[0] = 2,/(1) = -1,/[2]:: •.

5.1-5

Lonl division yield.

.,. = 1 + 2 (1)2 + 3 (1)' + ...

r - 2.,. + ,.a. • •

Therefore /[0] = 0,/[1] = 'Y, 1[2] - 2~, /[3] .. 31',"" Dd

/[k] = k'Y'u[k]

I[k):: .[k] - .[k - m1

• _",. 1- .- ...

F [·1 :: ;::} - • ;::} = -r::-;=r

71

Therefore

1234321 F(.J - .. + .2 +;r + .. + .11 + .II + .I'

.II + 2.11 + a.1 + 4.1' + 3.2 + 2. + 1

=

Alter.ate Method:

I til = ~{. (~]- • [i - S]) + (-i + 8){. [I; - S]- • [i - 9}}

a b [1;]- 21:. [I: - 5] + b [I; - 9) + h [I: - 5) - h [I: - 9J

= 1:. [I:) - 2{(1: - S).[I; - 5) + 5. [~- 5)} + (I; - 9).[1: - 9J + h [I; -9) + 8. [I: - 5) - h[1; - 9) -= b[I;]- 2(1; - 5).[1; - 5] + (I; -9).[1; - 9) - 2.(1: - 5)+ .[1;- 9)

Therefore

F[.] ... _._ _ 2. + • _ 2. + •

(.I - 1)2 "(.I - 1)2 .1(.1-1)2 "(.I - 1) .1(. - 1)

- .IC. ~ 1)2 [.II - 2.1' + 1 - 2.1(. - 1) + (.I - 1)]

1 [ • 1 ]

= .1(. _ 1)2 • - 2.1 + 1

Reader may verify thai the two .... wera are ide.tical.

5.2-3 <a)

I [I;] = i2..,1o. [1;] Repeated application of Eq. (5.25) to ..,'. [i) .. ~ yields

10 [] ..,.1

1;..,.1; "(-)2 .1-..,

1;2..,10.(1;) .. .,.(. + .,) (.I - .,)'

(b) Application of Eq. (5.25) to 1;2..,'.[iJ ...... l~~$)l) (_ad ia pui a) yielda

i'..,'" (i) = _ • ..! [.,.c. + 'Y)] _ .,.C.2 + 4..,. + ..(2)

~. (. - ..,)3 (.I - 1)'

Now leitia, .., = 1 ia thil reauli yields

(e)

1(1;) =- .'{.[I;J - .[1: - ml}

- .'. [i) - .... (.- .. ). [~ - m)

F(.] -...!,_ - ~.I-'" - - . .I_ [1- (!) .. ]

.I- • .I-. .I-. •

(d)

12

1.2-4 Pair2:

• [11 = 6 11J + 6 [1 - IJ + 6 [I: - 2J + 6 [I: - 3J + ...

1 1 1 1 •

• [lJ ...... 1 + - + - + - + ... = -- = --

•• 2.3 I-t .-1

Repea~ applicaUon of Eq. (S.25) to pair 2 yields pair 3. 4, aDd 5.

ApplicatioD of Eq. (5.24) to pair 2 yields pair 7, ud application of time-del&y (5.19a) to pair 7 yields pair 6. Repea~ applicaUoD of Eq. (5.25) to pair 7 yielu pair 8 ud 9.

6.3-1

,[I: + 1] -n[l:] = /[1: + 1]

with, [0] =< -M, /[1:] = P.[I: -1]

The .I-trusform of the system equatiou g

P • • Y[.J + M. - "Y[.] - --1 .-

P. (.I - ,,)Y[.] - -M +.-1

ud

The loan balance g zero for I: = N, that g, ,IN] = O. Setuql: = N in the aboye equation we obtain

,[N] - [_M'YN +~] - 0

Thil yields

6.3-2 The .r-tlusform of die equ&ioa Jielda

.rY[.r] -.r+2Y[.].., .FI.r)- .r/(O)

ud

Therefore

( 2)Y[] + 812 .(I-e)(,-e-I)+8I2

.r + .r =. - .. ;=-;::r = • _ .-1

vr., .r+l-.-1 1 [.+1 C]

.:...l:A. .., _ __ __ + _

, (.+2)(,-e-1) 2e+l.+2 ,_e-1

Y[.] = 2. ~ 1 [(e + 1).: 2 + e. -.Ie-I}

,[1:1 = ~ l(. + 1)(-2)" + .-(10-1)] .[11

73

5.3-3 The system equalionin delay form is

2, [k1 - 3, [k - 1] + ,[k - 2] == 41 [k1 - 31 [k - 1]

Also

The .z-trusCorm of tJae equ&lion is

3 1 4.z 3 4.z-3

2Y[.) - -Y(.) + -Y[I1 + 1 ... - - - = --

..' • - 0.25 • - 0.25 • - 0.25

or

(2 - ! +1..) Y[.1 = -1 + ~ = 3. - 2.15 I .2 • - 0.25 .z - 0.25

ud

y[.] = .(3.z - 2.15) = .(3. - 2.15) = ~ + 1/3 _ ~

, (2.2 - 3, + 1)(, - 0.25) 2(, - 0.5)(, - 1)(z - 0.25) z - 1/2 , - 1 1-0.25

,[k] = [1 + HO.5)· - 1(0.25)·] tI [k] = Ii + t(2)-· - !(4)-·] ,,[k]

5.3-4 For iniual conditions, [0]. ,[1]. we require equauon in advance {orm:

ALso

3 3 35

,[k1 ~ Y[.] ,[k + 11 ~ .zY[,] - 2' ,(k + 2] ~ ,'Y[.z] - 2.2 - 4"

• 0.25,

Ilk] ~ F [.] = ~ I[k + 1] <:::$0 .zF [.z] -. = ;::-rn

ud

I[k + 2] <:::$0 .z2 F[.] - .z' - ~.r == 16(. ~ 0.25) The .-trudorm of the equation is

or

ud

Y [.) == 3.2 + lUb - 3.15 = 4:6/3 _ ~ _ ~

I 2(. - 6.25)(. - 1)(. - 0.5) • - 1 .r - 0.25 .r - 0.5

Y[I) = !!._. __ !___!_ _ ~_'-

3 I - 1 3 I - 0.25 :I I - 0.5

,[k) - [f - 1(0.25)· - \l(0.5)·] .[k]

6.3-' SyMem equalion ia delay form is

4, [k] + 4, [l - 1) +, [l - 2)-/(l - 11

Also

, [k] ~ Y (.) ,[k - 1) <:::$0 ! Y [I)

J

• 1

J [k) .... ;-::-T f [k - 1) .. ;::}

74

(/(-1] "" 0)

The .-tranlform of the .,..tem equation w

and

5.3-6 The .,..tem in delay form i.

Also

1 1 2

, [k] ~ Y [.} , [k - IJ ;- Y [.] + 2, [k - 2]", .2 Y [,,} + ; + 3

l[kJ ~ F[.} /[1: -1] !F[.}

.I

The ,,-trannorm of the .".tem equation.

Y[,,] = -3.1 + 12 = -b + 12 = 9/2 __ 6_ + 3/2

" (.2 _ b + 2)(. - 3) (. - 1)(" - 2)(" - 3) • -1 ,,- 2 ,,- 3

9. • 3"

Y[.] - --- - 6-- + --- 2.-1 .-2 2,,-3

, [k] = [1- 6(2)· + 1(3t] 1& [k]

5.3-1 The ~tem eqUUOD in delay form u

,[i) .... Y[.] ,[i -1) .... !.Y[.] + 1

I [k - 2) ~ 12 F [.] and F [,,] = -"-

if ,,-1

The ,,-trannorm of the difference equauon w

Y[.] - 2 [;Y[.] + 1] + 2 [:2 Y[.} + i] = ,,(.: 1)

(,,2 -2,,+2)Y["J= 2.12 -4,,+3

.2 "(,, -1)

75

~ 2.12-4.1+3 1 .I-I

.I = (.I -1)(.2 - 2. + 2) = • -1 + .2 - 2. + 2

Y[.) = _z_ + .(. -1)

.-1.2-2.+2

For the IeCOnd fraction on the rl&ht-hud aide, we Ule pair 12c with A == I, B = -I, a = -I, hi' = 2. This yields r = I, IJ ... f. ud , = O. Therefore

5.3-8 The equation in advance form is

,[t + 2] +2,[t+ 1] + 2,[t] = I[t+ 1] + 2f(t]

,[t] Y[.] ,[t + 1] ... zY(z] ,[t + 2]", z2y[.] - .I

J(t] F[.] I[t + 1] .......• F(.]- z ud F[.] = _.1_

z-e

The z-tr&DIform of the cliffereace eqllaUoa is

2 r 2. .(e+2)

• Y[z] - .I + 2.Y[.j+ 2Y[z] ... -- - .I + -- =

.-e .I-I .-e

(.2 +2.+2)Y[.] =.+ z(e+2) = .1(.1 +2)

.-e .-e

Therefore

Y (.I] = • + 2 = 0.318 + -0.31b - 0.502

• (.-e)(z2+2.+2) .-1 .12+2.+2

Y [.I] = 0.318_.1 __ .(0.318.1 + 0.502)

• - I .I' + 2.1 +2

For the leCond fracUon on the riaht-hud .de. we ue pair 12c whh A = 0.318. B = 0.502, a = 1. 1712 = 2 a.nd

r _- 0.3-1 IJ -_ ,_-1(.:1) -_ lI.. ".ft-1(:LW.) - 0 525

v ~ ~ =.~ O~l' --.

,It] = [0.318(.)· - 0.361(~)· COI(¥t - 0.525)] • ttl

5.3-9

f[l] - ee·.[l] F[.] - ..!!_

.- . •• 2

Y [.j- F (.] H [.I] - (z _ ell. + 0.2)(. _ 0.8)

Therefore

Y[.] = lIZ =- ~ _ ~ _...!.:!!..

• (.I - .)(. + 0.2)(. - 0.8) • - e • + 0.2 .I - 0.8

• • •

Y(.] =1.32- - Q.186-0 2 -1.13-08

.-. .+ . .- .

, (t] - [1.32(e)' - U86( -0.2)· - 1.13(0.8)'}_ [t]

.(2.+ 3)

Y[.] = F[.]B [.I] = (.I -1)(. _ 2)(. _ 3)

Therefore

Y [oil = 201 + 3 = 5/2 _ _!_ + 9/2

.I (.I - 1)(. - 2)(01 - 3) • - 1 • - 2 • - 3

5. z 9 z

Y (.I] = 2;::'1 - 1;':2 + 2;::a

,[t] .. [t - 1(2)· + 1(3)·] _ [1]

76

5.3-11 (a) f[k) = 4 -jo. [k) = (t )jo. (k)1O that F [I) = ~, and

[ ) [] [) 6.(5. - 1) 1(5. - 1)

Y • = F I H • = (. _ h(6.2 _ 5. + 1) = (. - f)(. -H(. - f)

Therefore

Y[.) _ 51-1 _ _!!_ _ ~+ 2!....

I - (. - H(I -1)(1 - t) - • - t • - t ·-i

Y [.] = 12~ - 4.:-!-r + 36-"';'

.-. ·-r '-,

,[k] = [12(Hjo -4'(!>jo + 36(1)jo).[k]

= 12 [4-jo - 4(3)-· + 3(2ra] • [k]

(b) Here the iaput ia 4-(·-2>.[k - 2] which. icIeaUc:al to &lte iapu& ia pan (a) delayed by 2 \1IDitm. 'Therefore tlte rapoue will be the output ia part (a) delayed by 2 uaiu (&iJDe-ianriu.ce property). Therefore

(c) Here ihe iDpui can be eltpnaed u

This iapui ia 16 tima the iDput iD part (a). Therefore the reapoue will be UI tima the output illl part (a) (linearity property). Therefore

(d) Here the iDput CUI be expnaed u

This iDput ia f. times the iaput ia pan (b). Therefore tlte reapoue will be t. times the output in part (b). Therefore

6.3-12

[ .(2. - 1)

Y .] == F[.] H[.] = (. _ 1)(" _ l.a. + 0.8)

Y[.)... 2.-1 __ 5_ _ 5(.-1)

• (. - 1)(.2 - 1.6. + 0.8) • - 1 .2 - 1.6. + 0.8

I .(. -1)

Y [.] ... 5;:-r - IS .3 _ 1.6. + 0.'

For the IeCOlld fra.c:&ioD Oil tile apt-hud Me, we ue pair 12<: with A-I, B = -1, • := -0.1, ,. == *' hi' = 0.8. Therefore

r = 1.118 /I = ca.-I(¥) = 0.464 ,== tan-lett) ... 0.t64

,[1:] = [5 - 5(1.118) (*f COI{O.4M1: +0.464)] a[k) = [5-5.51(*)' COI(o.464i+ O.4M)] a[k]

5.3-13 (a) 5.3-14 (a)

(b)

(e) b'+~.+1

.,-1.+2 (b)

I .'-2.+2

77

5.3-15 (a)

Therefore

H [,] = ,2 + 3.1 + 3 :: 3/2 __ 1_ + 1/2

II 11(.+1)(.+2) • .+1 .+2

3 • 1.1

H[.]- -- --+-- 2 .+1 ~h+2

A [I:] = [.6[1:)- (-1)· + H-2>*1-[A:)

(b)

Therefore

H [.] _ 1!.::..!.. __ 2 __ __!_

• (. + 1)2 ., + 1 (. + 1)2

• .I

H[.] - 2(.+ 1) - 3(.+ 1)2

Ia [1:] - [2(-1)· + U(-I)·}. [1:) = (2 + 31:)( -1)·_[1:]

(c)

H .l +2. .(.+2)

[.] - ,2 _ • + 0.$ .... 2 - • + 0.$

Therefore

H[.] _ • +2

• .2 _. +0.$

We use pair 12c with A:: 1, B = 2, II = -0.5, 1712 = 0.5, hi ... ~, and

f" = 5.099 {J = ~-1(0.$~) = f , .. 'an-1(iIY) = -1.373

Ia [1:) =- 5.099 ( ~). ~(i - 1.373). [1:]

5.3-18 (a>

Jlr.l 1 -1 1

:..:.I. ... __ +_

• (. + 0.2)(. - 0.8) • + 0.2 • - 0.8

H I,] = -__!_ + __!_

.+0.2 • -0.8

A [I:) ... [-(-0.2)· + (0 .• )·]. [1:)

(b)

B [.J _ 2. + 3 _ 1/2 _ 7/2 +....L

• .(,-2)(.-3) • .-2 .-3

1 T. •

H[.] ... -- ---+3--

2 2.-2 .-3

A [I:] = [16[1:) - i(2)· + 3(3)1I}.{1:)

(c)

!J!l = 2. - 1 = ~ + 1.251

• .(at - 1.6. + 0 .• ) • .2 - 1.11. + 0.8

For &he MCOad fraaioD OIl the riP ... l&aad Iide, A _ 1.25, B ... 0, • _ -0.8, hl2 ... 0.8, 171 ... *' ud

, - 2.795 6 = CQI-l(Uf4) = 0.484 ,= tan-I (-2) = -1.107

78

.~
~ ~ ~
~
'+-- '-'
<+->
()
1'-
~-
~ ~ ~
~ r;; e=
'2 '"'C 3 ..t~
S .....
""-' .....
:r., ~ C'; ~
~ 0;;; C!..
~ ==
() E
~ M ~ .~ -
~ ._ ~
...... 7) II -
b -
"'S7 ~ ~
'" .....
c "SJ G
-.:.: t:! Q..
'.u
c.
c...
c
c;
~ ..

... ,

..

..; til

&.4-1 (a)

H[ ] 3a2 -1.8a 3a(a - D.e) (b) (il - 0.6)

a .. a2-.+O.16" (.-0.2)(.-0.8)";=n ;=n

Parallel (OnD: To reaIiH par.nel form, _ coa1d expaad H [a] or H [a] Iii mto paniu fradiou. Ia 0lIJ: cue:

[ 1 1.2. - 0.48

H a = 3 + (a _ 0.2)(. _ 0.8)

B(] 3+ 0.4 0.8

• - (. - 0,2) + (. - o.a)

Alterut.ively _ coU:l expaad B[.1/. mto panial. fndiou u:

H (a) _ 3(. - 0.6) __ 2_ + _!_

a (. - 0.2)(. - 0.') • - 0.2 • - 0.'

&Dd

• iI

H la] .. 2;=Q:i + ;-.:o:a

TIle realisat.iou are .hOWll in Fia. S5.4-1a.

(b)

All the re&lisatiou are OOWD in Fia. S5.4-1b. (e)

HI] 3.'. -1.1

II = .3 _ 0.8i12 + 0.31. _ 0.05

For a cucade fOnD, _ apr_ B (.] u:

H[ 1 ( 1 ) ( 3.'. - 1.1 )

• -;=-Q.i .2 _ O.b + 0.25

For a parallel form, _ ezpreu B [.] u:

B[.] .. _::!_ + 2. + 3

• - 0.2 .2 - 0.811 + 0.25

All the realisa.tiou are IhOWD iJl Fic. S5.4-1c.

&.4-2. Note: Qe complelt coajqak po&. m_ be realiHcl ~Mr u a aecoad order factor (a) Cucade fonD:

H (1 ( • ) ( 1.8. - 1.' )

.";=Q.'2 .2 + a + 0.5

Parallel fonD:

(b) Cucacl. form:

( • ) (2.' + 1.3. + 0.91)

B(a]= ~ .2-0.'.+0.18

Parallel fonD:

. • • 2.

H (.] .. ;m + ;-::Q.i + (. _ 0.4)2

80

til
"'"
~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ ""t: ::::: ..Q
(IS tI' :: C'l
~ Q (; e ,
e: .. \!I .Q. :t
N ~ Lf\
...
..; V)
Ul
II
II ..
.. ::
:: fill
fill ~
i'i: 5.4-3.

H [1 2 1 0.8 2 8 2.r2 + .r' + 0.8.r' + 2a- + 8

.r= +;+7+,ra+".= ".

The realisatioll of &hie b&lliler fullctioll iI IhOWll iD Fia. 85.4-3. n C&II be explaiJaed ia two wayl. The realiJation hu 5 patb. in parallel, &lid each path repreen" one &erm in the tr&llner function. The first path (which bypuaea all ihe delaYI) hu traufer function 2. The IflCOnd path (going through only one delay) hu tr&lllier fundioll 1/", &lid 10 on. Al&ernuely we oblerve ihai to traufer fundion hu Go := III = lIa = II,) = 0, and 60 ,.. 8, 61 = 2, 62 = 0.8, 6:1 = I, 6t = 2. Therefore all the feedback coefficiellu are sero, &lid there are DO feedback paths. There are 4 feed{orward pathl with gaina 8, 2, 0.8, I, and 2 u shown in ihe realiJation.

Figure 85.4-3

5.4-4

1 2 3 .. 5 6

H (a-] = ; + "a + a-3 + .. + ,,!o + ,,&

Thil &raufer function iI aimilar to that ill Prob. 5.4-3. Itl realisation iI .hown in Fig. 85.4-4.

Filure 5S. 4-4

1 [ JO] 1 1

H [.r] = ~ and H II ... ,in _ 0.4 ,. COl {} _ 0.4 + j sin {}

IH [ in] 12 - H H. _ 1 _ 1

t - - (ein-0.4)(Il-iii-0.4) -1.l6-0.8C01{}

18 [ jn]1 1

II ... JU6 _ 0.8 COl n

and

(b)

" 1

8 ["1 = ,,_ 0.4 ... 1 _ 0.4,,-1

and

[ 0l 1 1

He'=- . ... . .

1 - 0.4t-,n 1 - 0.4C01 {} - J SIll {}

Therefore

I [ nl I . rr;rr.: VII 1

H II' - v H 8· - - r.~Fii9E~

- - 1 - 0.41l-,n 1 - 0.41l;n "1.16 - 0.8C080

and

82

LH [eJn1 = _ &all-1 ( O.hiD 0 ) 1- 0.4 COl 0

(c)

H [.] = 3.2 - 1.8 • • 2 _ .+0.18

uel

H [e.in] = Se2;n - U.;n _ (3C01 20 - UCOI 0) + j(hiA 20 -1.8 .. 0) ,2in - sin + 0.16 - (COl 20 - COl 0 + 0.18) + j(1in 20 - lin 0)

n I [3.2;n _l.~n ] [ 3.-2;n _ 1.8e-in ] IH [el ] I = alin _ e;n + D.l6 a-Ijn _ .-in + 0.16

_ 12.24 -10.8C010

- 2.0256 - 2.32 COl 0 + 0.32 COl 20

Therefore

I [ In] I [ 12.24 -lO.aCOln ] 1/2

H e - 2.0258 _ 2.32 COl 0 + 0.32co.2n

uel

L.H [.in] _ ,u-1 (3lin20 -1.81in0) _ 'u-1 ( .. 20 - liDO )

3 co. 20 -1.8C010 co. 20 - co. 0 + 0.16

5.6-2 <a)

H [ ] 0.5 2 2 0.5 1 , =1+-+-+-+-+, r .' .4 .s

H [eJn) =1 +0.5.-;n + 2.-2in +2.-ian +0.5c-i4n +.-iUl _c-;:un [e.i2•an + 0.5ei1.an + 2e.i0.an + 0.5.-;un + .-iUn]

=2.-;2.&n [2 COl t + lcoa If + COl If]

Therefore

ud I..H [e1n] ,. -2.50

(b) u .. s the lUDe procedure u in Prob. 5.45&," obtain:

ud LH [si°] - -2.50 - r/2.

5.6-3

B[.)- .+0.8 .-0.5

(a)

83

(b) 0 = 0.5

Therefore

, [i1 = 2.86 c::a.(O.U - f - 0.6253) = 2.86 a.(O.U - 1.6725)

6.5-4 (a)

Fiaure 55.5-4

2K I-a

H[l)= - =1 =- K=-

I-a 2

&Ild

2(1 +coaO}

1 + a2 - 2aca.O

For a = 0.2

2(1 +c::a.O) 1.04 - 0.4 ca. 0

For 3 dB bandwidth IHI2 = 1/2. Hnee

! = (0.4)2 [ 2(1 + ca.() ] ..... 0 = 1.176

2 1.0"-0.4~O

Hnee

B = .!!. ... !!!! _ 0.117 HI

2r 2rT T

6.5-6 Fipre 55.5-5 .Ilo". a roush •• &cIa of tile amplitude and phue rapoDIe of tlail filler. For the cue (a), the pole. are in the vicinity of 0 = f. therefore, the pill IH[rOIl istup ill the viciaiiy of 011& r/4. In &he cue (b), the pola are ill the viciaity of 0 ::: r. therefore, the ,aia IN[rn]1 is hiah ill the viciaity of 0 = r.

5.5-6

1 1

T ~ 2B" = iOiiOo = lS".

Select T ::: 25". Frequency 5000 HI pves

0= wT::: 2r)( 5000)( 25 )( 10'" .. r/4

84

,fL._

o

).n e: ftf(e. 11

(0..).

-Jr Fia·55.5 .. 5

Therefore frequeDCY 5000 HI COrreaPODcU to aDpa :./ •. We mUI' place selOl ai e~iftl'. For fali ~yery OD eiiher side of 5000 HI, we read pola at IIc~'ftl' where II < 1 and II ~ 1.

The tr&lUlier funciioD iI

The CODliu' K ie chORD to have unity laiD at III" 0(0 - 0) or 6 _ e.ln = 1. (6[1] = 1)

6 [1] = K(2 - v'2) = 1 1 +112 - \72.

16 [e"n] 12,. 6 [ein] B Ie-in] ,. (."n - t)(e-;n - ~) ... 1 + ~ - ~COI 0 ... .! <8.1n _ ")(8-;n _ ,.) 1 + ,.2 - 2,.cOl n ,.3

TIaia Ihowe ihat the amplitude reap_ ia conltut <16 [e"n] I = H for aU valDa of n. The filkr iI aD. aUpus filkr. Thie result cu be leDeraliled euctly tbe lUIle way for complex polee ud serGI.

5.5-8

y [61 = F [61 6 [.] For aD input f[l:] ... e"n •• [1:], pair 1 ia Table 5.1 yieldl

• F[.]-_

s-eJU

ud

Y[6] = sa[s! iI-eJ

Therefore if

then

85

aDel

= B(a]I_.;o _ B [';0]

TIlerefore

"

yea] - ~ c,;_. a_. + B[.;o] ~;n

~ '-"J. a-e

'.1

aDel

'['] - [t Ci"J" + B [';0] ';1111] .• (t)

•• 1

TIl. 111m Oil til. riah'-haDcl aicle co ..... O{" .u~.mocl •. &he·.,.&em .. For aD -.ympco&ieaUy .table .• y.tem hil < 1 (i - I, 2, ... , ft) aDd tile 111m OD &be riP'-lIaDel aide vUiah .. U, - QQ. nu..uiD iI therefore the trADaient compollell' of the reapo .... The Iut terma H [e:in] eJn_, which doea DO& YaDilb u k - QQ, iI lbe steady- state compoDeal of lbe ~POIlH , .. [i):

, •• li] = H [eJn] ';1111

5.'7-1 (a) Ili] = (o.a)-. [i) + 2-. [-(i + 1)]
11'.) 1»'-1
, lal > 0.8
II [i} ... ;:o.a
-, 1'1<2
12[k] ... ;":2
Hellee
F[,] - __,!_ -..!.... 0.'< "1 < 2
, -0.8 .. -3
-1.2. o.e < 1'1 < 2
- i5-U.+U
(b)
, "1> 2
FI[']-~
,-
F2[.rl= ~ 1'1 <3
,-
Heac:e
, , 2 < "1 < 3
F(.)=-+-
.-2 .-3
_ .(2, - 5) 2 < 1'1 < 3
.r2 -5.+6
86 (e)

F1[z]=_z_ z-0.8

F2 [.I] = __.::!,_ z -0.9

Izl > 0.8

1.11 <0.9

Helice

F[z]=_Z Z_

, - 0.8 , -0.9

-,

0.8 < 1.1 < 0.9

- 10(r - 1.7. + 0.72)

(d)

[(0.8)·+3(0.4)·]"[-(1+1)] .... (.-=-~.8 - .~~.4) _ -4.(% - 0.7) - (% - U)(% - 0.8)

1%1 < 0.4

,., < 0.4

(e)

[(0.8)11 + 3(0.4)"] ,,[1] ~ ,-'0.8 + .I ~'0.4 4.(, - 0.7)

1'1> 0.8

= (z - 0.4)(z - 0.8)

1'1> 0.8

(f)

(0.8)11" [1] + 3(0.4)11" [-(1 + 1)]

The resiOD of CODyergeDce for (0.8)11" [1] ill'l > 0.8. The resiOD of CODyergeDce for (0.4)11" {-(l + 1)] i41'1 < 0.4. The commOD regiOD doe. Dot emt. HeDce the .r-traufarm for this fUDctioD does Dot eut.

6.7-2

F[,] e-2 -2 1 1

-,- = (.I - .-2)(, - 2) = ;::-;=i - -.I ---2

and

F[.]=-:l_·_-', - .-2 • _ 2

<a) The region of conyergence ill.l > 2. Both krml are cauaal. And

/[1] = (e-2• - 211). [1:]

(b) The regiOD of CODveraeDce iI .-2 < 1.1 < 2. III WI cue tbe lat term iI a_aad the secODd» aDucauaal.

1['] "" .-U,,[,)+ 211.[-(1:+ 1»)

(e) The resiOD of CODYelIellce ill'l < .-2. Both term. are aaUcauaal in this cue.

6.7-3 For causal lip ..... the recioD of CODyersellce may be illlOreci. We Ibll couider it only for IlODcaual inputs (a)

,2

Y I') = F I') B I'] "" (, _ e)(. + 0.2)(, _ 0.8)

Modified parUal fradioD expauioD of Y [.r] yield.

, , ,

Y[z] = 0.477-- - 0.068-0 2 - 0.412-0 8

.r-e ,+ . z- .

and

, [i] "" [0.477.· - D.068( -0.2)· - 0.412(0.8)·) ,,[l]

87

(b)

F [~] = -=.!... I~I < 2 .-2

H [~] = (.I + 0.2)(. - 0.8)

aad

2

Y[] -.I

~ = (.I + 0.2)(. - O.&)(~ - 2)

Y[.I] = -~ = 1/11 +.1lL _ ~

Z (II + G.2)(~ - 0.&)(11 - 2) ~ + 0.2 ~ - 0.8 ~ - 2

0.& < I~I < 2

Therefore

1 ~ 2 II ~

Y[II] = IT;+cr.2 + i;::Q.i - 0.758;=2 0.8 < 1.1 < 2

, [~]:: [111 (-0.2)' + i(0.8l*] • [~] + 0.758(2)*. [-(i + 1»)

aad

(e) The input in tllia cue ia the nm of the i_puw ill pan. a and b iaeDce tile respoue will be the tum of the reapoues iD part & and b.

Fa [.I) ... ....=!.. 1.11 < 1

~-l

There iI DO rqioD of CODYer&enCe common to Fl [II] aDd Fa [.I)

B[~) - ~

(~ + 0.2)(~ - 0.8)

The region of converlence of B [~] iii.' > 0.& ( .. nmiDi & caualqliem). We alaould fiDd the respoDie to It [i} aad Iz [~) aepara,ely.

~a

Y1 [.] = (.I _ 2)(.1 + 0.2)(.1 _ 0.8) 1.11 > 2

The modified partial fradioDt of Y {.I} yield

aad

1 • 2.1 Z

Y1 [.I] .. ---- - --- + 0.75&--

11 .I + 0.2 3 • - 0.8 ~ - 2

Similarly

aDd

-25 ~ 1 ~ .I

Yt[.] = -:--1 +-6-02 +"-08 0.8 < 1.11 < 1

u.l- .1+. .-.

aDd

f2[i)- [i(-o.2t+"<0.&)·] .[i} + ~.[-(i+l)]

,[i]- ,1[i) + f2 [i]- [!<-0.2)* + ~O(o.a)* + 0.158(2)*] • [i) + ~5 .[-(~ + 1)]

5.'1-5

aDd

B [.I) .. (~+ G.2)(~ _ 0.&) ,.I, > 0.&

No CODUDOIl repoD of COIlYerpJl.CI for F [.] aacl B [.] Gila Bence

,[i}- 00

88

Chapter 6

1.1-1 (a) To = 4, We = ~ = f. Becaue of eyen Iymmetry, &ll1iJae ~rma an lero.

00

/(t) =110+ LII.COI(~I".)

_1

110 = 0 (by iupection)

II" = ~ [11 COl ("21" t) cI' _[2 coa ("21" c) clC] = a~ lin "21"

Therefore, the Fourier aeri. for f(C) is

4 ( n 1 3n 1 51ft 1 71ft )

I(C) = - COI- - -COI- + -CoI- - -COI- + ...

I" 2325272

Here II" = 0, &Ild we allow Cft to take nqatiye valu •. Figure 56.1-1a IhOWI the plot of C ... (b) To = 101". We = ~ = t. Bec&ue of eyen IIJmmetry. all the line ~ an sere.

00

f(t) == 110 + LII"COI (it) +II"lin (it)

... 1

1

110 = - (by inspection)

5

II" = 2. j" COl (!!.c) cI, = ..!.( ~) lin (!t) I" =..!..Iin (~)

10. _.. 5 5. " 5 _tr.fa 5

II .. = _!_ f" lin (!,) cI, = 0 (intqrand is an odd function of'

10. _or 5

Here II" = 0, aDd _ allow C" to h.b Dllahft valu •. No~ tJaat C .. -." for" = 0, I, 2, 3, .... Fi&ure 56.l.1b .ho_ the plot of C".

(e) To = 21", We -= 1.

-

1(') == 110 + E I. COl at + 6" lin., whh 10 = 0.5 (by iDapeaiou)

".1

11'" C

I" = - -COI.,cI, = 0

.. 0 2,..

112" , 1

6. - - -1in.,cI, = --

I" 0 21" 1""

f(t) = 0.5-! (sint+ !sin2t+ !1ia3'+ !sin4t+ ... )

.. 2 3 4

= 0.5 + ; [Co. (, + i) + ~ COl (2t + i) + i COl (3t + i) + ... J

89

,.+ .

(b)

Q&

fI

~t •. 5Il i I

:1-lll;~w+ ~ rl11!1

(~ )

0'3 c! ef 3Ct
n
C) -e- (e)
c..)-'" "
-qc 1,5

The reuoll for ftIliahi..Il& of tke e ..... terma is th&t "hen 0.5 (the de compolleat) is .ubtr&eted from f(,). the remaiJaia& fuctioll h&I ocld I)'IIlIIldry. Reace, tke Fouier eerieI would coa&aba de aDd .me tenDI cmly. Fiaure S6.1.le 0_ the plot of C,. aDd I ...

(d) To :: 11'. ColO = 2 ud 1(') = ~,.

Go :: 0 (by iupecUoll).

Aft == 0 <" > 0) beea_ of odd IJ'mmetry.

. , 1"'·' . 2 (2 . 11''' 11''')

... =- -, .. 2",,,, ... - - .. --cae-

11' 0 11' 11''' n 2 2

Figure S6.1.1d .how. the plot of Cft ud 'ft.

90

(e) To = 3, WIO = 2ft/3.

110 - ! 11 til, - !

3 0 6

211 2rur 3 211'. 211'11. 211'.

ca. = - I ~ -ttl, ., -;::r.:r(coa - + -liD - - 1]

3 0 3 2.-2. 3 3 3

6 211 . . 2"ft • .J. 3 (. 2_ 2 .. " 2 .. ,,]

.. = - .IID -IA. = -llUl- - - COl-

a 0 3 2!f2"a 3 3 3

Therefore Co ., 1- aDd

3 [ 411'2,,2 2... 4_. 2 ...

Cn-- 2+---2cOI---IID-

2ft2,,2 9 3 3 3

aDd '. = taD -I ( !n coa ap - liD ~ )

c:oa + am siD &Ii - 1

3 3 3

(l) To = 6, "'0 = ft/3, 40 = 5 (b, iupec&ioD). EYeD 'YDUDetry; 6 .. ., O.

6 ( .. 2 1 5.. 1 7.. )

f(C) = 0.5+;; COIi'- i~n+ 2i~T'+ ii~T'+'"

Obeerve ,ha& eveD laarmoniCi vaniIh. The reuon is &ha& if 'he dc (0.5) it •• b,racted from f(I), the raulting function hu half-_ve 'ymme'fJ. (See Prob. 6.1-2). Fi&ue S6.I.ll .hOWl iIle plo& of C".

8.1-2 (a) For half wave I)'mmeuy

/(') - -f (,: ~)

aDd

2 /'1'0

4 .. = To 10 f(')COIlIWOltiI

Let :r; = , - To/2 in 'he IeCOIld inteJru. nil Ii-

2 r {'I'0/2 1'1'0/2 71 ) (71 ) ]

... = To Uo f(')~tIWO'4I + 0 / (:r; + ; ~IIWO • + 20 tI.

2 [1'1'0/2 1'1'012 ]

= To 0 I('} COl tIWO' 41 + 0 -/(·)(-~tIWO.]u

... r /'1'0/2 ]

., To Uo /('}~IIWa'4I

ID a Iimilar way we CaD thow iIla'

... ,.,..,2

6ft - To 10 /(')IiallWattit

(b) (i) To - 8, WIO = f, Go ., 0 (by iupec&ioD). Half _ve .ymmetry. Hence

91

Therefore

Similul,

aDd

4 [[ ...] 1 [1' , n.. ]

G .. - - I(')coa -,,,, ... - - COI-''''

8 0 4 2 02 4

4 ( a.. ... ... ) = - COI-+ -IiD--l

.2 .. 2 2 2 2

= _!_ (!! liD!!! - 1) (. odd)

.2w2 2 2

(. odd)

{~(T-l) .=1.5.9.13.··· An: -;I;d¥+l) .=3.1.11.15 •...

112 t . ... 4 (.... ... • .. ) 4. ( ... )

... - - -1IlIl-'"C. -- .D- - -coa- - -aID -

2 0 2 4 ,,' .. ' 2 2 2 .2 .. 2 2

GO

~ ... . ...

1(') - LJ G. coa., + ..... '

".J,3,1,'··

(II) To = 2 ... ColO = 1. Go - 0 (by iIlIpectiOD). Half waft aymmetry. HeDee .

aDd

1.1-1

8.2-1

00

I(c) = E Gft COl ", + ",IiD ",

".l.J,I.· ..

21"

Gn - - • -C/I0 coa ", cI,

.. 0

2 [ -1/10 ]"

:; ,,: + 0.01 (-0.1 COl "c + "liB .t) 0

2 [ .-.,10 1 ]

=; ,,2 + 0.01 (0.1) - n' + 0.01 (-0.1)

2 (-"/10) 0.0465

- 10 .. (,,' + 0.01) e - 1 - ,,' + 0.01

(. odd)

(. odd)

abc d

• t

h

periodi 'I ,.. DO rzrr zi:r: -~r
c. ,.. ,.. DO ,.. ,.
ColO I 1 1 If " i 1 ,
- ...
period ; 2 .. 21' j2 140 .. If 2 .. -

1(') = E D"c'-·c

".--

To de~e D". multiply bolla aid. by .-'-01 aDd iD\egrate oftr a period To:

92

(" odd)

I

U

From tile idotily ill tile foamoie of p .• 39, it foDowa tlau "'ell 11 t/& m, the iaiep"al OD the riP'-hUld .de ia sero. Olll,. whea • = m, the iniep"al ia IlOIlHIO willl fthae To. fierefore olll,. Olle ~ oa &lae riP'-hUld .ide yielda .. AOuerO nine To (wll.OIl = m) Uld

, • :1>1)

. .

, ,

, ,

I

. r 1

'1>" ,

I rTf, +

_+ -!J-

~r~

r 111 r r· • T 1 I .. "

_, .. 1 It 1 J~

-!

(d)

• qo.

(f1

93

6.2-2 (8): To = 4,""0 = ,,/2. Abo Do = 0 (by inlpection).

O 1 /1 -J( .... /2) • .J. 13 -J( .... /2) • .J. 2. ""

,,=- e ... - e ... =-1111-

2r -1 1 na 2

1"1 ~ 1

(b) To = 10., ""0 = 2,,/10r = 1/5

_-00

1 1" - t· i ( '. "") 1. (It")

DR = - • J d,= - -2JI1I1- = -GIl -

10" • 211"8 5 _ 5

(e)

GO

Ie') - Do + E D •• i'" Do = 0.5

11.-.

1 1'''''''' j D .. = - _.-1 dt = _

21f 0 21f 21f"

1 ID"I=- 2""

(d) To = r, ""0 = 2 &lid D" = 0

00

let) = E D ... j2 .. ,

ft.-oo

D 1 1"" 4t -j2"'.Jt -j (2 . r" -)

" = - -e .. = - - GIl- - co.-

r _./. r If" If" 2 2

(e) To = 3."'0 = a;..

eo

let) - E D"ei1p•

--

Therefore

ID I 3 [J2 411"',,2 2 21f" 4..,.. 2..,.]

" = 4;2,;2 + -9- - CD T - -3-1111 T

(f) To = 6, wo = 1f/3 Do = 0.5

-

" ¥ let) - 0.5 + L. Dne

_-00

94

en'~~-+~~T-~~ __

d) .... - 2Tft

-'fT/~

o

Fi,.56.2-3

8.2-3

I(C) = 3C01' +ain (St - i) - 2 COl (8t - n

For a compact triaonometric Corm, &I.l terllll must have coliDe form &Dd amplituda must be pOlitive. For this reUOD, we rewrite I(C) as

I( t) = 3 COl' + COl (St - i - i) + 2 COl ( 8' - i - ft )

= 3C01' + COl (5' - 23ft) + 2 COl (8t - ';)

Figure S6.2-3. ahowa amplitude &Dd phue apedr •.

(b) By inapection of the tnaonometric apedra in Fig. 56.2-3&, we plot the exponential lpectra as .hewn in FiS. S6.2-3b. By inlpection of exponential Ipedra in Fis. 86.2-3&, we obtain

f(,) = ~(r' + e-1') + i [ei(S'-.> + e-i(S'-.>] + [e1("-If> + .-I("-If>]

= ~ci' + (ie-i") eil' + (.-I'f) ci" + i.-I' + (ici.) .-JI' + (ci'f) .-i"

8.2-4 ha compact tri&ODomeUic: form. aU terms are of caGDe form &Del amplituda ue poIitive. We C&D express I(c) as

f(,) ... 3 + 2 COl (2'- i) + COl (3' - i) + iCOl (SI+ i -ft) ~ 3+2C01 (2' - i) + COl (3' - i) + iCOl (s, _ 2;)

From thia expr-WD we sbtch the triao.ometric FolUier .pecUa as .Iaow. in Fi,. 86.2-4&. By iupecuon of thelle apedr&, we .ketch the exponential Fouier .pedr. ahowa in Fis. S6.2-4b. From th_ expoDential 'pectra., .... e C&D DOW .... rite the expoDeDtial Fourier aeria as

6.2-5 (a) The exponential Fourier .eria C&D be expreued with coefticientl aD Polar form as

95

, D • ., \

Fia·56.2-.

• 21113
. 1r/2. 'L:Dn
. T 'E ~~': 4 f;
-5 -~ -r -JI 1 w·-
"
-'JV2
~ - 2.1("'3 ci) ... ·

-TN

-tr/-&

Fia. S6.2·5

I.. 2. 3

l·v-

From tllia expreuion the exponential Spectra are .ketched u .hOWl! iD Fig. S6.2-5a.

(b) By iJIIpection o( lhe expoDeIlUU apec:ua in Fia. S6.2-5&, we .ketch lhe tli&oDometric .penra ... hown in Fig. S6.2-Sb. From th_ 'pedr&, we c:&Il write the compact trigollomemc Fourier HrieI ..

/(t) = 3+'c:oe (t- i) +,..,,/2coa (3t - i)

(e) The low.t frequency ill Uae IpednID • 0 ud 'he hieh- freq_cy ia 3. TIluefore tJae bandwidth. 3 rill/lor f,; HI.

8.2-8 (a)

r let) = 2 + 2 c:oe(2t - r) + coa(3t - '2)

= 2 - 2coa2t +.iD3t

(b) The exponenUal.pedra are mowD iD Fia. 56.2-6.

(e) By iDlpecUoD 0( expoDeIlUuapenra

let) = 2 + (.(21- .. ) + .-;(21- .. )] + i [ei(al-I) + e-;(3I-I>]

= 2 + 2 COl (2t - r) + COl (3t - i)

96

u)-

/ "

FiI·98.2-8

(d) O_rve that the two expraliOIl8 ('riaOilomeUic .... d expoDeaUal Fourier eeria) are equivaleDt. &.2-1 (a)

f(,) = 2 + 28;(I+¥) + 2e-J(t+¥) + 1111(21+1) + lII-i(21+1)

- 2 +4coe (c+ 2;) + 2 COl (2'+ i)

(b) The triaOllometric lpeetra c:&II be lkek:bel bJ iupecticm of expoDeDtial lpedra. TbhlhoWD in Fia. 96.2-7. (c) By illlpectioll ohhe triaollometric lpeetr ..

f(') = 2 + 4 COl (c + 2;) + 2 COl (2C+ i)

3 ci)--

2.Tr13 Tr/~

_.--~--_.--~-----

o ~ 3 C4).-

o

.1

Fia·86.2-7

&.2-8 The period it To := 8 .... cl c.oIO = 'If/". AlIo Do = 0 (by inlpectiOD), .... d

---

D ... {~ .= :1;1,:1;3.:1;5.:1;7.···

o otherwile

Therefore

fCC) =

-

E

_-_,RedIA

(b) O'-"e that Ie') it &he HIlle .. f(C) ill Fis. PI.2-a delayed bJ 2 leCOaclI. Therefore

/(C) = f(C - 2) =

___ .n ....

•• -_."e4d

Therefore

i(c) =

_-oo, •• cIcI

97

b .... D .. r¥- .. _!!_,-I¥ r,,'

(e) Ot.erYe Ul&& icc) .. tAe AlRe u ICc) in Fic. P6.2-. &ilDe-clOIIlpreNeCl by & factor 2. 1'Iaenfore

..

-

lCt) .. IC2i) .. E D",I"t(") ..

•• -_ .•• ca.

-- ... " ...

Tilerefore

-

i(c) - E D .. ,'''f'

---." ...

where

,. lIS

u .. -D"-;;;r

1.2-1

-

I(t).. E D •• i-I'

---

- - -

. let) -/(t - T).. E D.,i-e<'-21.. E (D .. e-I-I").i_'.. E b .. r-It

---

.. -.

---

lb .. - lD" - jltfllOT

e.3-1 F1(2,-1), F,(-l,2). F,(O,-2), F.(l,2). F.(2,1), ud F.(3,O). froID 'he fipre, '" 1M 'iaa'.pain (F:s.F.). (Fl. F.) ud (F"F.) are or'laoaoul. We c:u Yerify ,Ilia..., aulyucaJly.

Fic. SU.·1

Fa ·F. - (0 x 3)+(-2x 0).0 Fl' F, - (2)( 1) + (-1)( 2).0 F, ·F. - (-1)( 2)+ (2)( 1).0

1.3-2

e(t) -/Ct) - es(')

Bu'

98

Substitution of c in the earlier equl.tion yielda

/" ,;(,)[I(t) - c,;(t)] tit = 0 1 ..

Therefore z(t) and [I(t) - cz(t)] are ortholoul.

(b) We eu readily see re.uli from Fis. 6.15. The enor vector e iI orthosonal to vector x. (e)

r 1" ( .. )2 12• ( 4· 2

10 e2(t)4t_ 0 1-;ant tlt- .. 1+;lint) tit

8 [1" 12.] 81'·

= -;: 0 lin ttlt + J It lin t dt = -;: 0 ain t dt = 0

6.3-3

00

I( t) = Go + E A .. COl 2nd + 6,. lin 211'Rt

11 11 1

Go=l I(t)dt= tdt=-

o 0 2

II .. = 211 'COI211'Rtdf = 0 R ~ 1 (Rintqer)

Hence

11 -1

6 .. =2 tUD2natdt=-

o 11'.

I(t) = ! - ! (lin 211't + ! Iin .... f + ! lin bt + ... )

2 II' 2 3

1 1~1'2

= i - ;: L.. ;; lUI. lI'ftt

... 1

From Eq. (6.73)

f~ = 1111'(t)dt - [Gf + i [(;f + (2~f + ... + (1-\)11' r]]

(Note thai K1 = 1/2 for i = 1,2, ... ud K~ = 1 )

(1 = 11 ,2 tit _ ! = !. _ !. = .!.

o .. 3 .. 12

1 1 1

(2 ""' i - .. - 211'2 = 0.03267

1 1 1 1

q = i - .. - 211'2 - 811'2 = 0.02

1 1 1 1 1

f4 = i - i - ;;i - hi - lIIr = 0.014378

6.1-4 FisaR 56.3-41. Ib.o_/l(') Uia& iI a periodic eneuion of f(') &0 yield a am_ with I0IO - 211' ud only mae tenu.

Thil requm. To ... 211'/211' - 1 uel odd IJ1IUDetry. I'Iom inapedion, the de compoilent iI 0.5. If we cubtrad de (O.S) from /J('), the remain;n, Iip&l Me) - 0.5 hu odd Iymmetry (only liDe &erma). Therefore

OIl

/1(C) ... 0.5 + E6..1iD2_t

." ... 2 r C 1iD2_ttlt =_2...

10 11'.

00

/J(C) = !. - ! " ! liD 2_t 2 lI'L..R

•••

99

Fic.8603-'

(b) I0IO = ft ud To .. 2ft/ft = 2. For liae &erm8 ODly, we Deed odd I1mmetry. Fieure S6.3-"b .hOWl a .Bitable faDdioD 12(1). It hu DO dc.

OD

h(e) "" I) .. liD ftffe

... 1

(e) "'0 = ft, To = 2ft/wo .. 2. For coeiDe terma oaly, we Deed aD eYeD fuctioD /s(e) ulhowa in FiC. S6.3-4c. By iupectioD dc iI 0.5. Therefore

1 OD

laCe) - 2' + E·"COI" ...

_I

"11 "

a,," - 'COI"rl~e = ---

2 0 ft2,,2

" = 1, 3,5, ...

6.3-6 (a) The lip&1 ,(') iI the lame u the 1ip&1/(I) in Example 6.10 (F •• 6.21) time-expudecl by a factor ft.

Therefore from Eq. (6.91) .... haft

,(t) - / (;) - -~ (;) + i [i (; r - ~ (;)] + .,.

For the repraeataUcm in Eq. (6.91) for /(C) in Fic. 6.21

1: /2(,) Ii' .. 2ft aDd

(1)

Therefore from Eq. (6.73)

/12) 1 2 . 3

II" (C ." - iC' = 2 - i = 0.5

f2 - //2(e).,c - !cf -!~ - 0.28125

3 1

Siace ,(t) Ia the _e u let) &ime-ezpaadecl by a factor ft, all eaerpa are iDcreued by \he I&me factor (ft). nerefore

(2 .. 0.28125ff

100

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