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# Instructor: Manish Narayan Physics

. Second Law: F = ma (Force equals mass times acceleration) Or acceleration is directly proportional to the Force but inversely proportional to the mass. Third Law: For every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force. First Law: An object at rest remains at rest and an object in constant motion remains in constant motion unless acted upon by a net external Force.

F = ma Force = mass x acceleration = kg x m/s2 or 1 N 1 N = 1 Newton One Newton of force is required to cause a 1 kg object to accelerate at 1 m/s2. 1 kN = 1000 N .

If the net force on an object is 0 (balanced) . then the object must be accelerating: -50 N 100 N If I apply a force to the right of 100 N and another force in the opposite direction of 50 N then the net force on the box is: -50 + 100 = 50 N (The box will accelerate to the right!) . then the object is said to be in equilibrium (meaning at rest or at a constant velocity) If the net force on an object is not zero.

. The Earth pulls us down with a gravitational force and we call this our Weight (W) Using Newton·s second law and the fact that Earth·s gravitational acceleration is 9. My weight is W= (67 kg)(9.8 m/s2: W=mg Weight is also measured in Newtons (N) as it is a Force.8 m/s2) = 657 N on Earth.

e. When an object is in contact with a surface (i. The contact or ´normalµ force is the table pusing up on the green box (N) If you apply a force to the left (F) then the frictional force will be in the opposite direction of motion (Ff) Frictional force will be discussed in next slide. table or wall) then there is a perpendicular force the surface exerts on the object which is known as ´normalµ force: Weight is the force acting down due to gravity. ..

The frictional force on an object sliding on a surface is: F f ! QN mu ( ) is called the frictional coefficient and N is the normal force. . There are two types of frictional coefficients: Coefficient of Static Friction: s Coefficient of Kinetic Friction: k Initially it is hard to push an object since one must overcome static friction. but once it gets moving then a smaller force is needed to keep it moving (kinetic friction).

) Vectors can be resolved into components: F Fx ! F cos. acceleration. etc. force. Remember a vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction (velocity.

U U Fx Fy Fy ! F sin .

U F ! F F 2 x 2 y .

Assume a Force F=100 N is applied at an angle of 30 degrees in the previous diagram: First find the x component of Force: Fx ! F cos.

U Fx ! 100 cos.

6 Newtons Next find the y component of Force: x x ! sin .30 ! 86.

U ! 00 sin .

30 ! 50.0 Ne t s .

Example of resolving multiple forces on next slide« . If there are many forces acting on an object with different magnitudes and different directions then just break each force into components and finally find the net force in both the x & y directions: Once the sum of the forces in each direction are found then just use Pythagorean theorem to find the resultant force·s magnitude. Finally use the tan-1 of the y component of force divided by the x component of force in order to find the direction angle of the resultant.

6 2 50 2 ! 52.6 N Fy=100sin(30) = 50.6 N Fy= 50 N (only one component in y direction) Use Pythagorean Theorem to find resultant force: U ! 30Q F ! 16.6 ª 6. -50 N The force in the left direction (-50 N) only has a x component of force: Fx=-50 N The force (100 N) at an angle of 30 degrees has both x and y components of force: Fx=100cos(30) = 86.7 Newtons The direction of the resultant force is : ¨ 50 ¸ Q U ! tan © ¹ ! 7 .6 = 16.0 N Now sum all the forces in the x and y direction: Fx= -50 + 86.6 º .