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Hydro Summary

Hydro Summary

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Published by: Kenneth Chan Jian Da on Nov 13, 2010
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Hydrological Cycle • Water stored in biosphere, hydrosphere • Inputs, outputs, flows, storages




2. Precipitation, Interception and Evapotranspiration Precipitation • Differs by latitude: tropics – high, subtropical – low, mid-latitudes – cyclonic / frontal, polar – low because lower temperature holds less moisture • Influences run-off and evapotranspiration • Types o Convectional: displacement of warm air upwards in convectional system o Orographic: meets barrier (land mass) and must rise above it, deposits mostly on windward compared to leeward o Cyclonic: warm air mass rises after encountering cooler, denser air mass  Warm front – drizzles, cooler front – heavier showers o Snow: water vapour frozen directly into solid, minute ice crystals forming around nuclei o Sleet / hail / frost • Intensity affects nature of channel flow: 0.5 – 4mm/h vs. 100150mm/h o Higher intensity, more flow Interception • Types: canopy, throughflow, stemflow, litter • Factors o Types of rainfall: short and heavy vs. prolonged drizzle: pine trees intercept 15% vs. 94% o Type of vegetation: tropical: 40%, temperate: 30%, savanna: full leaf then more interception but varies seasonally Evapotranspiration • Potential: at field capacity vs. actual: below field capacity • Factors o Temperature o Relative humidity • Low RH, vapour pressure gradient evapotranspiration increases



vapour pressure gradient increases. soil texture: determines wilting point and field capacity which in turn determines water capacity • 3. temperature increases • Results in lower RH. leaving hygroscopic water – soil reaches wilting capacity which is maintained till precipitation > potential evapotranspiration again Large water capacity – greater difference between field capacity and wilting point – more favourable for soil 2 . evapotranspiration increases o Wind: replace surface layer with unsaturated layer of air – facilitates mixing of saturated and unsaturated air molecules o Vegetation. Infiltration and Throughflow Soil moisture storage • Pores form narrow passages where water flows through – water not removed by throughflow and percolation become capillary water due to capillarity of water (water tends to stick to solid particles) • Seasonal variations cm of water (monthly means) Soil moisture recharge Precipitation Water deficit Soil moisture withdrawal Potential evapotranspira tion • Field Wiltin time (Winter) capacit(Summer) g (month) y point o When precipitation > potential evapotranspiration. leaving capillary water – soil reaches field capacity o When precipitation < potential evapotranspiration. water drawn from soil and is drawn from increasingly thinner pores. Soil Moisture Storage. vapour pressure gradient falls. soil reaches saturation capacity – gravitational water is drained.Results in higher RH.

size – affects ease of entry into soil o Soil texture: coarse vs. Overland Flow 3 . duration.Infiltration • Water drawn into soil by gravity and capillary action • Factors o Rainfall: amount. fine-grained: water encounters more flow resistance as diameter of pores decreases because it sticks to grains instead of flowing through o Vegetation  Decaying vegetation assists infiltration  Affects soil structure: changes soil to crumb-like structure (loose and friable structure allowing rapid infiltration and drainage)  Rain splash action: reduces chances of raindrops sealing natural soil openings o Compaction by tractors / trampling by cattle changes soil into platy structure which impedes downward movement of water o Terracing increases amount of time water is retained on slopes o Antecedent soil moisture: rain water from previous rainfall o Urbanization: replacement of vegetation with concrete • Rate of infiltration decreases over time due to o Less storage capacity: depends on rate of water loss o Filling of thin pores reducing capillary action o Impact of rain breaks up soil aggregates to fill pores o Wet clay swells in size and decreases size of pores Throughflow • Generated by lower permeability of soil at greater depths o Occurs because permeability of soil is greater than the underlying rock o Clay pan (less permeable region) is formed below because finer particles are washed down by percolating water to fill pores o Soils at greater depth experience more compaction due to weight of soil above: restricts downward flow of water and hence water moves laterally (throughflow) • Sometimes throughflow can be a flow along well-defined subsurface seepage lines (percolines) like tunnels / pipes where soil particles are washed away by sub-surface flow 4.

devegetated areas. throughflow. baseflow • Sources: channel time Recessio • Types: perennial.Forms • Sheet wash o Upper part of slope with smooth surface experiences sheet erosion o Downslope experiences slope wash causing debris accumulated in thickening layers • Rills and gullies o Flows along depressions downslope cause small channels to be incised. places where soil is trampled by cattle Saturation overland flow • Ground saturated – rise in water table because rainfall impeded from flowing downwards due to impermeable B-horizon • Rain falls directly on saturated soil – cannot be absorbed – causing overland flow • Migration of water through soil downslope as throughflow will seep out as return flow Q/m3s. ephemeral: determined by baseflow Rising n limb limb Storm flow Storm hydrographs • Features Base flow 4 Time/ h . forming rills which are innumerable. closelyspaced channels o Gullies are the large channels formed due to erosion and devegetation Horton overland flow • When rainfall intensity > infiltration capacity. overland flow. urban areas. intermittent.Peak 1 discharge 5. Channel Flow Lag precipitation. excess water is stored in depressions – surface detention • Variations on slope o Amount increases downslope due to accumulation o Velocity increases due to steeper gradient + less friction between water and slope • Variation over time: increases if rainfall intensity does not fall because infiltration capacity decreases with time • Limitations o Rarely generated under humid temperate conditions where rainfall intensity > infiltration capacity by a wide margin o Works for semi-arid environments.

River Derwent: impermeable shalesandstone vs. circular (shorter lag time and lower peak)  Relief: steeper – shorter lag time and higher peak o Vegetation  Interception reduces total discharge  Plant roots reduce throughflow – lower peak discharge  Increase capacity and infiltration rate – increase proportion of throughflow and baseflow – longer lag time and lower peak o Basin geology: more permeable rocks and soil increase infiltration o Urbanization: increase velocity and amount of discharge Hydrograph of melting glaciers: melt in early afternoon where temperature highest. Britain: least in late summer. River Wye: permeable carboniferous limestone  Flow regulation 6. peak discharge late afternoon causing shortterm variations Annual hydrograph o Seasonal variations  Climate: eg. Groundwater Storage Porosity and permeability 5 .• • • o Initial rise in discharge due to channel precipitation o Rising limb due to overland flow o Lag time because need time for water from rainfall to travel to gauging station and time for overland flow to be generated  Shorter lag time means more prone to flooding due to increase in discharge spread over a shorter time interval o Double peak: overland flow + throughflow Factors o Location of rainstorm: upper part of basin – longer lag time and less pronounced peak o Nature of precipitation: heavy – shorter lag time and higher peak o Basin characteristics  Size: bigger – longer lag time (need more time to reach gauging station) and higher peak (more water captured)  Shape: elongated vs. most in spring due to amount of evapotranspiration and water varies  Basin geology eg.

groundwater • Factors affecting water table o Surface topography  Shape of water follows shape of relief – greater depth at hills than at valleys because gravitational pull downwards  If rain ceases. Britain: more rain in winter than in summer. limestone where solution activities form holes and pits that can be enlarged into caves as water flows over  Vesicles: basalt and volcanic rocks found on top layer of lava flow – very high porosity due to trapped air bubbles Permeability: capacity of rocks to transmit fluids (size of pores) o Primary: passage of water through pores o Secondary: passage of water through fractures Groundwater storage and water table • Groundwater result of percolation • Water table: boundary separating unsaturated rocks above from saturated rocks below o Zone of aeration: air and water fill openings o Zone of saturation: fractures. sand and gravel high porosity but may be cemented by smaller minerals  Fractures  Solution cavities eg.• • • Aquifers: water-bearing rock formations high in porosity and permeability vs. AprilOctober: precipitation < evapotranspiration but this changes after October – precipitation recharge o Long term  Eg. water level slowly subside to height of valleys o Geological structure: perched water table due to alternating layers of aquiclude and aquifer • Fluctuations in water table: determined by amount of input and output o Seasonal  Zone of intermittent saturation (between minimum and maximum point of saturation)  Eg. aquicludes: non-porous and non-permeable Porosity: % of total volume consisting of voids o Factors  Spaces between mineral grains eg. deserts – water table lies at great depths – fossil groundwater from pluvial periods 6 .

Bangladesh floods due to snowmelt in Himalayas 7 . water outflow (evapotranspiration and stream flow). UK regular winter floods due to series of depressions – heavy rainfall – overland flow due to already saturated ground • Rapid snowmelt in spring / early summer eg. Though high potential evapotranspiration. In Southern California. especially beginning of year with NE monsoon – water surplus. Flood Management Causes: climatological vs. forming cones of depression Groundwater and channel flow • Effluent: water table higher than channel: seepage into channel • Influent: seepage from channel into ground • Problems associated with groundwater utilization and pollution o Ground subsidence due to over-pumping eg. Normally freshwater floats on denser salt water. valley of California. change in water storage • P=E+R± S • Spatial variations o Singapore: precipitation > potential evapotranspiration all year round. even higher precipitation o Sudan – arid region: precipitation < potential evapotranspiration due to high temperature – water deficit • Temporal variations: Britain: winter – surplus. summer – deficit 8. non-climatological • Excessive rainfall: eg. Mexico City. artificially divert rivers over permeable deposits to recharge groundwater o Groundwater pollution: bury waste in unsaturated region subjected to reaction with percolating water leads to contamination of groundwater o Salt-water intrusion: depth of freshwater underground 40x that of freshwater above ground. Water Balance • Balance between water inputs (precipitation). Water table getting lower because people use the aquifer by building wells to draw water. But excessive pumping lowers water table – bottom of freshwater zone will rise 40x – eventual salinization of water 7.

failure of St. Francis dam – San Francis Quito Canyon flooded Flood-intensifying conditions: basin conditions + channel conditions Flood prediction and forecasting • Flood prediction: likelihood of occurrence o Recurrence intervals – flood frequency graph o Limitations  Talking about probability only. not certainty  Basin / channel conditions may change with time – need to update  Short records – inaccurate – may miss extreme floods 8 . rockslide in Vaiont reservoir in Northern Italy inundated the Piave Valley and the town of Longarone Dam failures: eg.• • • Volcanic action induces snowmelt Landslides: displacement of water – overflow banks eg.

Failure of levees in Mississippi in 1993. Meghna Effects of floods • Primary: direct contact with flood waters o High velocity – carry heavy load that can injure people o Can cause massive erosion – undermine structures o Suspended load which is deposited when flood retreats. hazard mapping. aggravate situation. Ganges. loss of jobs. I=rainfall intensity.• Flood forecasting: severity of flood o Rational runoff  Peak rate of runoff Qpk= 0. corruption Prediction: recurrence interval. Failure of Teton Dam in Idaho. C=rational run off coefficient. warnings Mitigating • Levee / dams but if fail. covering buildings with a layer of wind o Farmland loss o Drowning o Furniture / equipment damaged by water especially US homes as they are made of timber / plastic • Secondary: disruption of essential services and health hazards and psychological impact • Tertiary: change in river channels. A=drainage area  Assumes Horton overland flow  Most ideal for area of 200 acres / urbanized area with high run off rates Flooding in Singapore • Nature of rainfall: high and intense especially during monsoon – saturate soil quickly – overland flow • Topography: Bukit Timah Granite and Jurong Formation – steepsided valleys concentrate floodwaters on low valley floors • Recent development: urbanization – concretization – reduces infiltration capacity and efficient storm drainage – increase flood propensity • Flood management programs to curb but can never evade floods Flooding in Bangladesh • May to June: snowmelt from Himalayas to reach Bangladesh in July • Worst hit: 60% island inundated • Deforestation in mountain catchment areas of Nepal • Coincidence of flood peaks from 3 rivers in 1988: Brahmaputra. 9 .278CIA.

Normally used for recreation.49R2/3S 1/2/ n o R: hydraulic radius: ratio of cross-sectional area to length of wetted perimeter  More contact with bed and banks. Lake Ponchartrain. more friction o S: channel slope o n: coefficient of roughness  Smoother downstream because bed made up of silt / sand / clay o 2x velocity leads to 4x discharge 10 . transportation (5%) o Frictional drag (95%) along river and banks  Adjacent threads of water flowing at different velocities eg. Non-structural o Expensive and false of security o Flood-plain zoning: monitoring land use in floodplains o Building codes o Buy out programs: to relieve burden on government funds o Mortgage limitations 9. Straighten channels using artificial cut-offs – shorten channels – steeper gradient and velocity enables discharge to dissipate quickly o But like in Mississippi.• • • Channelization o Enlarge cross-sectional area. turbulent flow  Water interchanged in eddies – local changes in velocity – loss in energy Factors affecting river energy • Volume of water o Humid tropics: volume increases downstream due to tributaries – more efficient river downstream o Arid regions: volume decreases downstream due to evaporation – convex profile • Velocity – Manning’s equation V=1. Channel Morphology Generation and dissipation of river energy • Generation: discharge = volume x velocity • Dissipation o Erosion. difficult to work against river’s natural tendency to meander Floodways: outlet of flow eg.

Increase in R and decrease in n compensated by decrease in S 11 .o Downstream: average stream velocity increases / remains constant.

Water / humic acid Components o Vertical down-cutting – gorges as neighbouring potholes merge – lowering of riverbed.10. Fluvial Processes Erosion processes • Abrasion: coarse and angular fragments dragged across riverbed. limestone. River rejuvenation – deep vshaped valleys / gorges o Lateral erosion  Erosion concentrated at / below water surface where the thalweg is  Usually when river meanders  Collapse of upper face of banks – retreat of concave banks 12 . forming alluvial channels alluvial channel alluvium solid rock • • • o Cavitation: collapse of bubbles of water – shock waves hit and slowly weaken bank Attrition: breakdown of the load itself due to collision – more rounded downstream Solution: dissolve constituents eg. forming rock-cut channels due to down-cutting rock-cut channel Solid rock • o Pothole drilling: localized erosion in eddies forms shallow depression. Any load that gets trapped will be swirled round to form potholes Hydraulic action: sheer force of water to dislodge particles – lateral erosion o Occurs at lower/ middle courses. rubbing and wearing away exposed rock outcrops o Occurs upstream because lots of large load.

o Headward erosion  Head of river eg. limestone terrain: emergence of springs  Profile of river locally steep – could result in waterfall / collapse of overhang – retreat upstream 13 .

5mm diameter – sand – lowest competent velocity: minimum velocity required to move particles loosely resting on the riverbed  Larger particles – higher competent velocity due to weight  Smaller particles – higher competent velocity due to high cohesiveness and electrical bonding o Positive relationship between speed and particle size  Larger particles have a higher settling velocity: velocity at which particles becomes too heavy to be transported and are hence deposited o Less velocity to transport than to erode  Need very huge fall in velocity for smaller particles to be deposited even if they are eroded upstream vs.River transport • Processes o Traction: rolling of larger load across riverbed. larger particles Velocity 14 . Greatest part of load transported. larger load can remain in suspension. Greater turbulence and velocity. silt / clay small enough to be held by turbulence. Occurs near river mouth. o Solution: dissolved load • Hjulstrom curve • o 0. Usually at source of river where there are large load and steep gradient o Saltation: ‘bouncing’ of smaller load. Lifted due to turbulence and land a distance downstream o Suspension: smaller particles eg.

discharge falls. Deposit load in a fan-like shape.5 • Geometric features • Formation: erosion and deposition processes o Erosion of concave bank: thalweg diverted against – impact of hydraulic action greatest – concentrate erosion 15 .o River’s capacity: ability to transport volume of load proportional to discharge3 o River’s competence: ability to transport weight and size of load proportional to discharge6 o Affected by geology and climate River deposition • Sudden input of load – overloaded eg. • Land forms o Alluvial fan: where valley meets plain – sudden drop in gradient – loss of energy. Low precipitation. landslide • Loss of energy: river broadens. n increases. Sorting of alluvium with coarser ones downstream of the apex due to further fall in velocity o Point bars / floodplains (lateral accretion): erosion of banks – load deposit on point bars – continued lateral accretion – floodplains for meandering rivers o Floodplains (vertical accretion)  Floodwater overflows banks – sudden drop in river competence and capacity – deposit coarser loads on margins of bank (levees) and accumulation of silt over floodplain 11. Channel Plan Forms River meanders • Sinuosity ratio: ratio between distance of centre line of valley and distance along channel. Meander if exceed 1:1.

Flow disrupted.o Load dragged across river bed to convex side but loss in river energy due to friction and previous erosion – deposit load – point bars o Helicoidal flow – increase meander amplitude and sinuosity – ox-bow lakes o Migration of meanders Braided channels • Features • Formation o High discharge – lots of bed load – erosion of channel banks o Low discharge – coarser load starts being deposited to form nuclei of bars. velocity decreases downstream. finer particles settle on nuclei o Further decrease in discharge – expose bars o Some bars will be washed away by the next high discharge but some will be stable and vegetated – assists trapping of more sediment 16 .

India receives load from the Himalayas: shifts 112km in 228 years.o Braided channels markedly unstable. Kosi River. Catastrophic erosion of new channels and abandonment of old ones 17 .

12. infiltration capacity of soil. higher ratio – more prone to flooding Drainage density • Total length of stream / total basin area • Limitations: intermittent streams. relief. Drainage Basin Analysis Stream order analysis • Strahler’s method: does not reflect relationship between channel size and capacity • Law of stream number o Number inversely proportional to order o Length proportional to order o Size of drainage basin proportional to order • Bifurcation ratio: dividing number of streams in one order by the number of streams in the next highest order. total annual precipitation / rainfall intensity. limestone terrain: dry valleys. vegetation 18 . underground flows • Factors (those influencing infiltration and overland flows) o Time for erosion / migrate headwards o Rock type.

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