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Hydrological Cycle • Water stored in biosphere, hydrosphere • Inputs, outputs, flows, storages
2. Precipitation, Interception and Evapotranspiration Precipitation • Differs by latitude: tropics – high, subtropical – low, mid-latitudes – cyclonic / frontal, polar – low because lower temperature holds less moisture • Influences run-off and evapotranspiration • Types o Convectional: displacement of warm air upwards in convectional system o Orographic: meets barrier (land mass) and must rise above it, deposits mostly on windward compared to leeward o Cyclonic: warm air mass rises after encountering cooler, denser air mass Warm front – drizzles, cooler front – heavier showers o Snow: water vapour frozen directly into solid, minute ice crystals forming around nuclei o Sleet / hail / frost • Intensity affects nature of channel flow: 0.5 – 4mm/h vs. 100150mm/h o Higher intensity, more flow Interception • Types: canopy, throughflow, stemflow, litter • Factors o Types of rainfall: short and heavy vs. prolonged drizzle: pine trees intercept 15% vs. 94% o Type of vegetation: tropical: 40%, temperate: 30%, savanna: full leaf then more interception but varies seasonally Evapotranspiration • Potential: at field capacity vs. actual: below field capacity • Factors o Temperature o Relative humidity • Low RH, vapour pressure gradient evapotranspiration increases
vapour pressure gradient increases. soil texture: determines wilting point and field capacity which in turn determines water capacity • 3. temperature increases • Results in lower RH. leaving hygroscopic water – soil reaches wilting capacity which is maintained till precipitation > potential evapotranspiration again Large water capacity – greater difference between field capacity and wilting point – more favourable for soil 2 . evapotranspiration increases o Wind: replace surface layer with unsaturated layer of air – facilitates mixing of saturated and unsaturated air molecules o Vegetation. Infiltration and Throughflow Soil moisture storage • Pores form narrow passages where water flows through – water not removed by throughflow and percolation become capillary water due to capillarity of water (water tends to stick to solid particles) • Seasonal variations cm of water (monthly means) Soil moisture recharge Precipitation Water deficit Soil moisture withdrawal Potential evapotranspira tion • Field Wiltin time (Winter) capacit(Summer) g (month) y point o When precipitation > potential evapotranspiration. leaving capillary water – soil reaches field capacity o When precipitation < potential evapotranspiration. water drawn from soil and is drawn from increasingly thinner pores. Soil Moisture Storage. vapour pressure gradient falls. soil reaches saturation capacity – gravitational water is drained.Results in higher RH.
size – affects ease of entry into soil o Soil texture: coarse vs. Overland Flow 3 . duration.Infiltration • Water drawn into soil by gravity and capillary action • Factors o Rainfall: amount. fine-grained: water encounters more flow resistance as diameter of pores decreases because it sticks to grains instead of flowing through o Vegetation Decaying vegetation assists infiltration Affects soil structure: changes soil to crumb-like structure (loose and friable structure allowing rapid infiltration and drainage) Rain splash action: reduces chances of raindrops sealing natural soil openings o Compaction by tractors / trampling by cattle changes soil into platy structure which impedes downward movement of water o Terracing increases amount of time water is retained on slopes o Antecedent soil moisture: rain water from previous rainfall o Urbanization: replacement of vegetation with concrete • Rate of infiltration decreases over time due to o Less storage capacity: depends on rate of water loss o Filling of thin pores reducing capillary action o Impact of rain breaks up soil aggregates to fill pores o Wet clay swells in size and decreases size of pores Throughflow • Generated by lower permeability of soil at greater depths o Occurs because permeability of soil is greater than the underlying rock o Clay pan (less permeable region) is formed below because finer particles are washed down by percolating water to fill pores o Soils at greater depth experience more compaction due to weight of soil above: restricts downward flow of water and hence water moves laterally (throughflow) • Sometimes throughflow can be a flow along well-defined subsurface seepage lines (percolines) like tunnels / pipes where soil particles are washed away by sub-surface flow 4.
devegetated areas. throughflow. baseflow • Sources: channel time Recessio • Types: perennial.Forms • Sheet wash o Upper part of slope with smooth surface experiences sheet erosion o Downslope experiences slope wash causing debris accumulated in thickening layers • Rills and gullies o Flows along depressions downslope cause small channels to be incised. places where soil is trampled by cattle Saturation overland flow • Ground saturated – rise in water table because rainfall impeded from flowing downwards due to impermeable B-horizon • Rain falls directly on saturated soil – cannot be absorbed – causing overland flow • Migration of water through soil downslope as throughflow will seep out as return flow Q/m3s. ephemeral: determined by baseflow Rising n limb limb Storm flow Storm hydrographs • Features Base flow 4 Time/ h . forming rills which are innumerable. closelyspaced channels o Gullies are the large channels formed due to erosion and devegetation Horton overland flow • When rainfall intensity > infiltration capacity. overland flow. urban areas. intermittent.Peak 1 discharge 5. Channel Flow Lag precipitation. excess water is stored in depressions – surface detention • Variations on slope o Amount increases downslope due to accumulation o Velocity increases due to steeper gradient + less friction between water and slope • Variation over time: increases if rainfall intensity does not fall because infiltration capacity decreases with time • Limitations o Rarely generated under humid temperate conditions where rainfall intensity > infiltration capacity by a wide margin o Works for semi-arid environments.
River Derwent: impermeable shalesandstone vs. circular (shorter lag time and lower peak) Relief: steeper – shorter lag time and higher peak o Vegetation Interception reduces total discharge Plant roots reduce throughflow – lower peak discharge Increase capacity and infiltration rate – increase proportion of throughflow and baseflow – longer lag time and lower peak o Basin geology: more permeable rocks and soil increase infiltration o Urbanization: increase velocity and amount of discharge Hydrograph of melting glaciers: melt in early afternoon where temperature highest. Britain: least in late summer. River Wye: permeable carboniferous limestone Flow regulation 6. peak discharge late afternoon causing shortterm variations Annual hydrograph o Seasonal variations Climate: eg. Groundwater Storage Porosity and permeability 5 .• • • o Initial rise in discharge due to channel precipitation o Rising limb due to overland flow o Lag time because need time for water from rainfall to travel to gauging station and time for overland flow to be generated Shorter lag time means more prone to flooding due to increase in discharge spread over a shorter time interval o Double peak: overland flow + throughflow Factors o Location of rainstorm: upper part of basin – longer lag time and less pronounced peak o Nature of precipitation: heavy – shorter lag time and higher peak o Basin characteristics Size: bigger – longer lag time (need more time to reach gauging station) and higher peak (more water captured) Shape: elongated vs. most in spring due to amount of evapotranspiration and water varies Basin geology eg.
groundwater • Factors affecting water table o Surface topography Shape of water follows shape of relief – greater depth at hills than at valleys because gravitational pull downwards If rain ceases. Britain: more rain in winter than in summer. limestone where solution activities form holes and pits that can be enlarged into caves as water flows over Vesicles: basalt and volcanic rocks found on top layer of lava flow – very high porosity due to trapped air bubbles Permeability: capacity of rocks to transmit fluids (size of pores) o Primary: passage of water through pores o Secondary: passage of water through fractures Groundwater storage and water table • Groundwater result of percolation • Water table: boundary separating unsaturated rocks above from saturated rocks below o Zone of aeration: air and water fill openings o Zone of saturation: fractures. sand and gravel high porosity but may be cemented by smaller minerals Fractures Solution cavities eg.• • • Aquifers: water-bearing rock formations high in porosity and permeability vs. AprilOctober: precipitation < evapotranspiration but this changes after October – precipitation recharge o Long term Eg. water level slowly subside to height of valleys o Geological structure: perched water table due to alternating layers of aquiclude and aquifer • Fluctuations in water table: determined by amount of input and output o Seasonal Zone of intermittent saturation (between minimum and maximum point of saturation) Eg. aquicludes: non-porous and non-permeable Porosity: % of total volume consisting of voids o Factors Spaces between mineral grains eg. deserts – water table lies at great depths – fossil groundwater from pluvial periods 6 .
Bangladesh floods due to snowmelt in Himalayas 7 . water outflow (evapotranspiration and stream flow). UK regular winter floods due to series of depressions – heavy rainfall – overland flow due to already saturated ground • Rapid snowmelt in spring / early summer eg. Though high potential evapotranspiration. In Southern California. especially beginning of year with NE monsoon – water surplus. Flood Management Causes: climatological vs. forming cones of depression Groundwater and channel flow • Effluent: water table higher than channel: seepage into channel • Influent: seepage from channel into ground • Problems associated with groundwater utilization and pollution o Ground subsidence due to over-pumping eg. Normally freshwater floats on denser salt water. valley of California. change in water storage • P=E+R± S • Spatial variations o Singapore: precipitation > potential evapotranspiration all year round. even higher precipitation o Sudan – arid region: precipitation < potential evapotranspiration due to high temperature – water deficit • Temporal variations: Britain: winter – surplus. summer – deficit 8. non-climatological • Excessive rainfall: eg. Mexico City. artificially divert rivers over permeable deposits to recharge groundwater o Groundwater pollution: bury waste in unsaturated region subjected to reaction with percolating water leads to contamination of groundwater o Salt-water intrusion: depth of freshwater underground 40x that of freshwater above ground. Water Balance • Balance between water inputs (precipitation). Water table getting lower because people use the aquifer by building wells to draw water. But excessive pumping lowers water table – bottom of freshwater zone will rise 40x – eventual salinization of water 7.
failure of St. Francis dam – San Francis Quito Canyon flooded Flood-intensifying conditions: basin conditions + channel conditions Flood prediction and forecasting • Flood prediction: likelihood of occurrence o Recurrence intervals – flood frequency graph o Limitations Talking about probability only. not certainty Basin / channel conditions may change with time – need to update Short records – inaccurate – may miss extreme floods 8 . rockslide in Vaiont reservoir in Northern Italy inundated the Piave Valley and the town of Longarone Dam failures: eg.• • • Volcanic action induces snowmelt Landslides: displacement of water – overflow banks eg.
Failure of levees in Mississippi in 1993. Meghna Effects of floods • Primary: direct contact with flood waters o High velocity – carry heavy load that can injure people o Can cause massive erosion – undermine structures o Suspended load which is deposited when flood retreats. hazard mapping. aggravate situation. Ganges. loss of jobs. I=rainfall intensity.• Flood forecasting: severity of flood o Rational runoff Peak rate of runoff Qpk= 0. corruption Prediction: recurrence interval. Failure of Teton Dam in Idaho. C=rational run off coefficient. warnings Mitigating • Levee / dams but if fail. covering buildings with a layer of wind o Farmland loss o Drowning o Furniture / equipment damaged by water especially US homes as they are made of timber / plastic • Secondary: disruption of essential services and health hazards and psychological impact • Tertiary: change in river channels. A=drainage area Assumes Horton overland flow Most ideal for area of 200 acres / urbanized area with high run off rates Flooding in Singapore • Nature of rainfall: high and intense especially during monsoon – saturate soil quickly – overland flow • Topography: Bukit Timah Granite and Jurong Formation – steepsided valleys concentrate floodwaters on low valley floors • Recent development: urbanization – concretization – reduces infiltration capacity and efficient storm drainage – increase flood propensity • Flood management programs to curb but can never evade floods Flooding in Bangladesh • May to June: snowmelt from Himalayas to reach Bangladesh in July • Worst hit: 60% island inundated • Deforestation in mountain catchment areas of Nepal • Coincidence of flood peaks from 3 rivers in 1988: Brahmaputra. 9 .278CIA.
Normally used for recreation.49R2/3S 1/2/ n o R: hydraulic radius: ratio of cross-sectional area to length of wetted perimeter More contact with bed and banks. Lake Ponchartrain. more friction o S: channel slope o n: coefficient of roughness Smoother downstream because bed made up of silt / sand / clay o 2x velocity leads to 4x discharge 10 . transportation (5%) o Frictional drag (95%) along river and banks Adjacent threads of water flowing at different velocities eg. Non-structural o Expensive and false of security o Flood-plain zoning: monitoring land use in floodplains o Building codes o Buy out programs: to relieve burden on government funds o Mortgage limitations 9. Straighten channels using artificial cut-offs – shorten channels – steeper gradient and velocity enables discharge to dissipate quickly o But like in Mississippi.• • • Channelization o Enlarge cross-sectional area. turbulent flow Water interchanged in eddies – local changes in velocity – loss in energy Factors affecting river energy • Volume of water o Humid tropics: volume increases downstream due to tributaries – more efficient river downstream o Arid regions: volume decreases downstream due to evaporation – convex profile • Velocity – Manning’s equation V=1. Channel Morphology Generation and dissipation of river energy • Generation: discharge = volume x velocity • Dissipation o Erosion. difficult to work against river’s natural tendency to meander Floodways: outlet of flow eg.
Increase in R and decrease in n compensated by decrease in S 11 .o Downstream: average stream velocity increases / remains constant.
Water / humic acid Components o Vertical down-cutting – gorges as neighbouring potholes merge – lowering of riverbed.10. Fluvial Processes Erosion processes • Abrasion: coarse and angular fragments dragged across riverbed. limestone. River rejuvenation – deep vshaped valleys / gorges o Lateral erosion Erosion concentrated at / below water surface where the thalweg is Usually when river meanders Collapse of upper face of banks – retreat of concave banks 12 . forming alluvial channels alluvial channel alluvium solid rock • • • o Cavitation: collapse of bubbles of water – shock waves hit and slowly weaken bank Attrition: breakdown of the load itself due to collision – more rounded downstream Solution: dissolve constituents eg. forming rock-cut channels due to down-cutting rock-cut channel Solid rock • o Pothole drilling: localized erosion in eddies forms shallow depression. Any load that gets trapped will be swirled round to form potholes Hydraulic action: sheer force of water to dislodge particles – lateral erosion o Occurs at lower/ middle courses. rubbing and wearing away exposed rock outcrops o Occurs upstream because lots of large load.
o Headward erosion Head of river eg. limestone terrain: emergence of springs Profile of river locally steep – could result in waterfall / collapse of overhang – retreat upstream 13 .
5mm diameter – sand – lowest competent velocity: minimum velocity required to move particles loosely resting on the riverbed Larger particles – higher competent velocity due to weight Smaller particles – higher competent velocity due to high cohesiveness and electrical bonding o Positive relationship between speed and particle size Larger particles have a higher settling velocity: velocity at which particles becomes too heavy to be transported and are hence deposited o Less velocity to transport than to erode Need very huge fall in velocity for smaller particles to be deposited even if they are eroded upstream vs.River transport • Processes o Traction: rolling of larger load across riverbed. larger particles Velocity 14 . Greatest part of load transported. larger load can remain in suspension. Greater turbulence and velocity. silt / clay small enough to be held by turbulence. Occurs near river mouth. o Solution: dissolved load • Hjulstrom curve • o 0. Usually at source of river where there are large load and steep gradient o Saltation: ‘bouncing’ of smaller load. Lifted due to turbulence and land a distance downstream o Suspension: smaller particles eg.
discharge falls. Deposit load in a fan-like shape.5 • Geometric features • Formation: erosion and deposition processes o Erosion of concave bank: thalweg diverted against – impact of hydraulic action greatest – concentrate erosion 15 .o River’s capacity: ability to transport volume of load proportional to discharge3 o River’s competence: ability to transport weight and size of load proportional to discharge6 o Affected by geology and climate River deposition • Sudden input of load – overloaded eg. • Land forms o Alluvial fan: where valley meets plain – sudden drop in gradient – loss of energy. Low precipitation. landslide • Loss of energy: river broadens. n increases. Sorting of alluvium with coarser ones downstream of the apex due to further fall in velocity o Point bars / floodplains (lateral accretion): erosion of banks – load deposit on point bars – continued lateral accretion – floodplains for meandering rivers o Floodplains (vertical accretion) Floodwater overflows banks – sudden drop in river competence and capacity – deposit coarser loads on margins of bank (levees) and accumulation of silt over floodplain 11. Channel Plan Forms River meanders • Sinuosity ratio: ratio between distance of centre line of valley and distance along channel. Meander if exceed 1:1.
Flow disrupted.o Load dragged across river bed to convex side but loss in river energy due to friction and previous erosion – deposit load – point bars o Helicoidal flow – increase meander amplitude and sinuosity – ox-bow lakes o Migration of meanders Braided channels • Features • Formation o High discharge – lots of bed load – erosion of channel banks o Low discharge – coarser load starts being deposited to form nuclei of bars. velocity decreases downstream. finer particles settle on nuclei o Further decrease in discharge – expose bars o Some bars will be washed away by the next high discharge but some will be stable and vegetated – assists trapping of more sediment 16 .
India receives load from the Himalayas: shifts 112km in 228 years.o Braided channels markedly unstable. Kosi River. Catastrophic erosion of new channels and abandonment of old ones 17 .
12. infiltration capacity of soil. higher ratio – more prone to flooding Drainage density • Total length of stream / total basin area • Limitations: intermittent streams. relief. Drainage Basin Analysis Stream order analysis • Strahler’s method: does not reflect relationship between channel size and capacity • Law of stream number o Number inversely proportional to order o Length proportional to order o Size of drainage basin proportional to order • Bifurcation ratio: dividing number of streams in one order by the number of streams in the next highest order. total annual precipitation / rainfall intensity. limestone terrain: dry valleys. vegetation 18 . underground flows • Factors (those influencing infiltration and overland flows) o Time for erosion / migrate headwards o Rock type.
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