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First Edition

Volume III
Sewer Networks
and Pump Stations
Published by :
Suruhanjaya
Perkhidmatan
Air Negara (SPAN)

Ministry of
Energy, Water
and Communication
Malaysia
Foreword by the
CEO of SPAN
M
unicipal wastewater treatment technology in Malaysia has evolved through several eras. In the
past, only basic facilities were used, e.g. overhang latrines, pit privy, bucket systems and pour
flush systems. Some improvement were observed when more modern system like septic tank and
Imhoff tank systems were introduced into the country some 40 years ago. The municipal
wastewater treatment in Malaysia sees a significant improvement in the last three decades since the introduction
of new technologies in the form of oxidation ponds, aerated lagoons, activated sludge system, package systems
and a variety of mechanical plants into the country. However, sewage still remains as one of the major pollutants
of our inland waterways. In the 1900s, the emergent of new treatment technologies were mainly driven by the
basic need to treat the sewage so as to control waterborne diseases. Today, the environmental regulations are
becoming stringent with the increasing awareness toward sustainable environmental management. Allowable
effluent discharge limits are becoming lower globally. Public are also more educated and more alert on the needs
to preserve the environment. Hence the evolution of municipal wastewater treatment technologies now are even
more revolutionary and more rapid in order to meet the stricter regulators’ requirements and to compete in the
increasing competitive market.

While the nation moves towards achieving the status of a developed country, sustainability of our environment,
in particularly the Malaysian rivers and streams must be strengthened. With this vision in mind, the Sewerage
Services Department published its first edition of the guidelines for sewerage industry titled “Design and
Installation of Sewerage Systems” in January 1995. The main purpose of these guidelines is to assist the
developer and his designer to plan and design systems acceptable to the regulatory authorities which, in
turn speeds up the approval processes. The Guidelines has clearly guided the nation sewerage industry towards
achieving an improved sewerage system in the country. Subsequently, the Department further improvised the
Guidelines in its second edition titled “Guidelines for Developers” which comprise five volumes covering
specific topics.

As a continuation to the efforts by the Sewerage Services Department, the National Water Services Commission
undertake to revise and improvement the Guidelines for Developers. The product of the revision is “Malaysian
Sewerage Industry Guidelines” which also comprise five volumes. These new revisions incorporated valuable
knowledge gained by various stakeholders over a decade since the implementation of the first Guidelines for
Developers and upkeep with the aim towards sustainable environmental management.

Volume 1 - Sewerage Policy for New Developments


Volume 2 - Sewerage Works Procedures
Volume 3 - Sewer Networks and Pump Stations
Volume 4 - Sewage Treatment Plants
Volume 5 - Septic Tanks

Volume 3 is specifically developed to provide a clear understanding of policies of the SPAN for the
provision, refurbishment or upgrading of sewer networks and pumps stations. This volume covers
planning, design, material selection, construction, installation and sewer testing requirements. The
implementation of these guidelines since 90’s has undoubtedly achieved some levels of consistency in the
design and construction of sewerage network nationwide. Finished sewerage networks quality has also
been elevated while the operation and maintenance of the plants have improved significantly in terms of
safety, health, operability and robustness. Whilst the adherence to these guidelines is necessary,
engineering discretion is also required, especially for large sewers and pumping station with special
situations. It is hoped that the publication of the third edition of this Volume further improve the municipal
wastewater treatment facilities in this country.

Dato’ Teo Yen Hua


Chief Executive Officer
SPAN
© Copyright National Water Services Commission, Ministry of Energy, Water and
Communications, 2008

All rights reserved.

This publication is protected by copyright.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, stored in a retrieval


system, or reduced to any electronic medium without the written authority of the Commissioner,
National Water Services Commission, Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications,.

National Water Services Commission and Registered Certifying Agencies employees are
permitted to copy and use the information in this publication, for internal purposes only.

Changes may be made periodically to the information herein.


TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE

Section 1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of This Volume 1
1.2 Who Should Use This Volume 1
1.3 Related Reference Material 1

Section 2 Planning, Material and Design


2.1 Sewers 9
2.1.1 Pipe Material Selection Factors 9
2.1.2 Pipe Materials and Fittings 10
2.1.3 Pipe Selections 11
2.1.4 Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe
Material 11
2.1.5 Vitrified Clay Pipe 13
2.1.6 Reinforced Concrete Pipe 14
2.1.7 Ductile Iron Pipe 15
2.1.8 Steel Pipe 15
2.1.9 Solid Wall PE Pipe 16
2.1.10 Profiled Wall PE Pipe 16
2.1.11 Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe 17
2.1.12 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe 18
2.1.13 Sewer Design - General Requirements 18
2.1.14 Flow Rate Estimations 19
2.1.15 Sewer Cleansing Velocities 20
2.1.16 Pipe Roughness 20
2.1.17 Design of Gravity Sewer 21
2.1.18 Design of Force Mains 23
2.1.19 Vacuum Sewerage System 25
2.1.20 Computerised Sewer Designs 36
2.1.21 Design of Inverted Siphon 37
2.1.22 Structural Design of Sewers 37
2.2 Manhole 40
2.2.1 General 40
2.2.2 Manhole Location 42
2.2.3 Pipe Lengths from Manhole 42
2.2.4 Structural Design Considerations for Manhole 43
2.3 Manhole Covers and Frames 44
2.3.1 General 44
2.3.2 Load Class 44
2.3.3 Material 44
2.3.4 Dimensions, Marking and Surface Finish 44
2.3.5 Seating 44
2.3.6 Casting 45
2.3.7 Protective Coating 45
2.3.8 Water-tightness 45
2.3.9 Safety Features 45
2.3.10 Product Certification 45
2.4 Design of Network Pump Stations 46
2.4.1 Specifying of Network Pump Stations 46
2.4.2 General Requirements 46
2.4.3 Buffer Requirements 47
2.4.4 Pipework Requirements 47
2.4.5 Wet-well Requirements 48
2.4.6 Dry-well Requirements 48
2.4.7 Structural Requirements 49
2.4.8 Ventilation Requirements 49
2.4.9 Odour Control 50
2.4.10 Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings 50
2.4.11 Acceptable Pump System (Fixed Speed Pumps
Only) 50
2.4.12 Valve Requirements 51
2.4.13 Requirements for Level Controls 52
2.4.14 Requirements for Alarms 52
2.4.15 Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance52
2.4.16 Maintenance Considerations 52
2.4.17 Hazard and Operability 53
2.4.18 Other Requirements 53
2.5 Interceptors 56
2.5.1 Oil Interceptors 56
2.5.2 Grease Traps 56
2.6 Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements 56
2.6.1 Concrete 57
2.6.2 Cement 57
2.6.3 Steel Reinforcement and Falsework 57
Section 3 Construction and Installation
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling 59
3.2.1 Pipes and Fittings Delivery 59
3.2.2 Pipe Handling at Site 60
3.2.3 Pipe Storage 61
3.2.4 Pipe Damage 62
3.3 Trench Excavation 63
3.3.1 Protection of Affected Services, Structures, Pavements
and Vegetation 63
3.3.2 Excavation Requirements 64
3.3.3 Bored Excavation 66
3.4 Pipe Laying 66
3.4.1 Pipe Bedding 66
3.4.2 Pipe and Fittings Placement 67
3.4.3 Pipe Jacking 68
3.4.4 Concrete Pipe Support 68
3.4.5 Pipe Cutting 69
3.4.6 Backfill of Trench 69
3.5 Pipe Jointing 70
3.5.1 Flexible Joints 70
3.5.2 Solvent Weld Joints 71
3.5.3 Flanged Joints 72
3.5.4 Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding) 72
3.5.5 Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints 73
3.6 Special Requirements For Sewer 73
3.6.1 Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines 73
3.6.2 Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes 74
3.6.3 Pipe Embedment and Overlay 74
3.6.4 Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe 75
3.7 Reinstatement 75
3.8 Connections to Public Sewers 76
3.8.1 General 76
3.8.2 Junction Connections 77
3.8.3 Saddle Connections 77
3.8.4 Manhole Connections 78
Section 4 Sewer Testing
4.1 General 79
4.2 Testing of Gravity Sewers 80
4.3 Testing of Forced Mains 81
4.4 Testing of Manhole and other ancillaries 81
4.5 Low Pressure Air Test 82
4.5.1 General 82
4.5.2 Procedure for Testing 82
4.5.3 Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure 83
4.6 Low Pressure Water Test 84
4.6.1 General 84
4.6.2 Procedure 84
4.6.3 Handling Water Test Failures 85
4.7 High Pressure Water Test 86
4.7.1 General 86
4.7.2 Procedure 86
4.8 High Pressure Leakage Test 87
4.8.1 General 87
4.8.2 Procedure 87
4.9 Test for Straightness, Obstruction, and Grade 88
4.10 CCTV Inspection 88
4.10.1 Objectives of CCTV Inspection 89
4.10.2 Technical Requirements and References 89
4.10.3 Equipment Specifications and Test Devices 89
4.10.4. CCTV Inspection Requirements 90
4.10.5 CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for New
Sewer Network 91
4.10.6 Interpretation Of Results From CCTV Inspection 93
4.10.7 Follow -Up Action to Be Taken 93
4.11 Infiltration Test 95
4.11.1 General 95
4.11.2 Procedure 95
4.11.3 Handling Test Failures 95
4.12 Water-tightness Test 95
4.12.1 General 95
4.12.2 Procedures 96
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1a Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer 21
Table 2.1b Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe
Materials 21
Table 2.2 Typical Roughness Coefficient, ks 22
Table 2.3 Typical Manning Coefficient, n 22
Table 2.4 Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C 23
Table 2.5 Condition/alarm of the station equipment 36
Table 2.6 Minimum Manhole Diameters 41
Table 2.7 Final inspection and testing 46
Table 2.8 Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations 54
Table 4.1 Test Duration 83
Table 4.2 Defect Grades Descriptions 94

Appendix A Typical Drawings/ Diagrams


Figure A1 Standard Manhole Cover 98
Figure A2 Plan View of Typical Manhole 99
Figure A3 Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2m ≤ Depth < 2.5m 100
Figure A4 Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdro
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2m ≤ Depth < 2.5m) 101
Figure A5 Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5m ≤ Depth < 5m) 102
Figure A6 Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole with backdrop
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5m ≤ Depth < 5m) 103
Figure A7 Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m) 104
Figure A8 Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m) 105
Figure A9 Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type 106
Figure A10 Typical Induct Vent Detail 107
Figure A11 Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer
Reticulation Pipe for V.C. Pipe 108
Figure A 12 Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block 109
Figure A13a Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer
(Sheet 1 of 2) 110
Figure A13b Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer
(Sheet 2 of 2) 111
Figure A14 Typical Details of Receiving Manhole, Force Main and
Washout Valve 112
Figure A15 Precast Concrete Chamber (Type A ) and Details of Air
Valve and Scour Valve Chamber 113
Figure A16 Standard Pipe Beddings 114
Figure A17 Vacuum sewage collection system 115
Figure A18 House connection 115
Figure A19a Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel116
Figure A19b Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel117
Figure A20a Collection chambers with interface valves vented through
breather pipes 118
Figure A20b Collection chamber with interface valve activated by float118
Figure A20c Multi-valve collection chamber 119
Figure A21 Vacuum sewer profiles (not to scale) 120
Figure A22 Example of vacuum sewer profiles for uphill and downhill
transport (not to scale) 120
Figure A23 Y-branch for vacuum sewer 121
Figure A24 Method of joining crossover pipes and branch sewers to
vacuum mains 121
Figure A25 Typical details of dry-well pump station 122
Figure A26 Typical detail of wet-well pump station 123
Figure A27 Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure 124
Figure A28 Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure 125
Figure A29 Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure 126

Appendix B Tables
Table B1 : Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth 127

Appendix C CCTV Format and Codes


Appendix C 1 Report format for CCTV Inspection 129
Appendix C 2 Report format for CCTV Inspection 130
Appendix C 3 Report format for CCTV Inspection 131
Appendix C 4 Report format for CCTV Inspection 132
Appendix C 5 Report format for CCTV Inspection 133
Appendix C 6 Module 134
Section 1
Introduction
Introduction

1.1 Purpose of This Volume


This volume sets out the requirements of the National Water Services Commission
(SPAN) (referred to as the Commission in this document) for the design,
construction and testing of sewer networks and network pump stations.

The owner must comply with the requirements set out in this volume when
submitting an application for the approval of the Commission.

This volume generally does not cover internal plumbing systems within buildings.
However, some guidelines are provided on the provision of interceptors to protect
public sewers from the discharge of oil and grease from garage workshops, hotels,
restaurants, canteens or any premises that collect such matter.

1.2 Who Should Use This Volume


This volume is primarily intended for owners, developers, consulting engineers,
sewerage contractors, manufacturers, planners, and Public Authorities who have a
direct interest in the planning, design and installation of sewer networks and/or
network pump stations.

1.3 Related Reference Material


This volume does not cover all aspects of design and construction of sewer
networks and network pump stations. Where information is not covered in this
volume, the designer shall follow the requirements given in MS 1228.

MS 1228 shall take precedence over other foreign standards in the event when
there are discrepancies on the requirements.

The following documents are also referred to in this volume.

a) Malaysian Standards
i. MS 28 Specification for test for water for making concrete
ii. MS 29 Specification for aggregates from natural sources for
concrete
iii. MS 144 Specification for cold reduced mild steel wire for
reinforcement of concrete
iv. MS 145 Specification for steel welded fabric for the reinforcement
of concrete.
v. MS 146 Specification for hot rolled steel bars for the reinforcement
of concrete.
vi. MS 522 Specification for Portland cement (ordinary and rapid
hardening)
vii. MS 523 Specification for concrete including ready mixed concrete
viii. MS 628 Specification for unplasticised PVC (uPVC) pipes for water
supply

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 1


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Part 1 : Pipes
Part 2 : Joints and fittings for use with unplasticised PVC
pipes
ix. MS 672 Specification of rubber seals in water supply, drainage and
sewerage pipelines
x MS 740 Specification for hot-dip galvanized coatings on iron and
steel articles
xi. MS 822 Specification for sawn timber foundation piles
xii. MS 881 Specification for pre-cast concrete pipes and fittings for
drainage and sewerage
Part 1: Specification for pipes and fittings with flexible
joints and manholes
xiii. MS 922 Specification for concrete admixtures
Part 1 : Accelerating admixtures, retarding admixtures and
water-reducing admixtures
MS 923 Specification for joints and fittings for use with uPVC
pressure pipes [delete]
Part 3: Mechanical joints and fittings, principally of uPVC
[delete]
xiv. MS 979 Specification for unplasticizes sewerage pipes and fittings
Part 1: Pipes of diameter 100mm and 155mm
Part 2: Pipes of diameter 200mm and above
xv. MS 980 Specification for safety signs and colours : Colorimetric and
photometric properties of materials
xvi. MS 981 Specification for safety signs and colours : Colour and
design
xvii. MS 982 Specification for fire safety signs, notices and graphic symbol
xviii. MS 1037 Specification for sulphate-resisting Portland cement
xix. MS 1058 MS 1058 Specification for polyethylene (PE) piping
systems for water supply
Part 1 : General
Part 2 : Pipes
xx. MS 1061 Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains
and sewers
xxi. MS 1195 Code of practice for structural use of concrete
xxii. MS 1227 Specification for Portland pulverised fuel ash cement
xxiii. MS 1228 Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage
Systems
xxiv. MS 1347 Cathodic Protection : Part 1 Code of practice for land
applications
xxv. MS 1292 Specification for rubber seals – water stop for sealing joints
in concrete – Specification of materials
xxvi. MS 1389 Specification for Portland blastfurnace cement

2 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Introduction

xxvii MS EN Specification for general criteria for certification bodies


. 45011 operating product certification.
xxvii MS General requirements for bodies operating product
i. ISO/IEC certification systems
Guide 65
xxix 04Z005R0 Air Quality – Determination of odour concentration by
dynamic olfactometry. [ KIV. To be discussed in the Main
Committee Meeting ]

b) British Standards
i. BS 65 Specification for vitrified clay pipes, fittings and
ducts, also flexible mechanical joints for use solely
with surface water pipes and fittings
ii. BS 915 Specification for high alumina cement. Metric unit.
iii. BS 3416 Specification for bitumen-based coatings for cold
application, suitable for use in contact with potable water
iv. BS 3692 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws and nuts.
Specification.
v. BS 4147 Specification for bitumen based hot applied coating
materials for protecting iron and steel including suitable
primers where required
vi. BS 4164 Specification for coal-tar-based hot-applied coating
materials for protecting iron and steel including a suitable
primer
vii. BS 4248 Specification for Supersulfated cement
viii. BS 4515 Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and
offshore.
ix. BS 5153 Specification for cast iron check valves for general purposes.
x. BS 5480 Specification for Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes,
joints and fittings for use for water supply or sewerage
xi. BS 5911 Part 1 : Precast concrete pipes, fittings and ancillary
products. Specification for unreinforced and reinforced
concrete pipes (including jacking pipes) and fittings with
flexible joints (complementary to BS EN 1916)
xii. BS 5975 Code of practice for falsework.
xiii. BS 6076 Specification for polymeric film for use as a protectiv
sleeving for buried iron pipes and fittings (for site and factory
application)
xiv. BS 6105 Specification for corrosion resistant stainless steel fasteners.
[delete]
xv. BS 7123 Specification for metal arc welding of steel for concrete
reinforcement.
BS 7874 Method of test for microbiological deterioration of
elastomeric seals for joints in pipework and pipelines.
BS 8005 Sewerage [delete]

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 3


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xvi. BS 8007 Code of practice for design of concrete structures for retaining
aqueous liquids
xvii. BS 8010- Code of practice for pipelines. Pipelines on land : design,
2.1 construction and installation. Ductile iron
xviii. BS 8666 Specification for scheduling, dimensioning, bending and
cutting of steel reinforcement for concrete.
xix. BS EN 124 Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian
areas. Design requirements, type testing, marking, quality
control
BS EN 295 Specification for vitrified clay pipes and fittings with
flexible mechanical joints [delete]
Part 7: Requirements for vitrified clay pipes and joints for
pipe jacking [delete]
xx. BS EN Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains
295-1 and sewers. Requirements
xxi. BS EN Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains
295-7 and sewers. Requirements for vitrified clay pipes and joints
for pipe jacking
xxii. BS EN 545 Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and their joint for
water pipelines – requirements and test methods
xxiii. BS EN 598 Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and their joint for
sewerage applications – requirements and test methods.

xxiv. BS EN 681 Elastomeric seals. Materials requirement for pipe joint seals
used in water and drainage applications.
xxv. BS EN 682 Elastomeric seals. Materials requirement for pipe joint seals
used in pipes and fittings carrying gas hydrocarbons fluids.
xxvi. BS EN 752 Drain and sewer systems outside buildings
xxvii. BS EN Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings
1091
xxviii. BS EN Specification for flake graphite cast iron
1561
xxix. BS EN Specification for spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast
1563 iron
xxx. BS EN Copper and copper alloys. Ingots and castings.
1982
xxxi. BS EN Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels.
10025
xxxii BS EN Seamless and welded steel tubes. Dimensions and masses
10220 per unit length.
xxxiii. BS EN Non-alloy steel tubes and fittings for the conveyance of
10224 aqueous liquids including water for human consumption.
Technical delivery conditions.
xxxiv. BS EN Bright steel products. Technical delivery conditions.
10277 Part 1 : General
Part 2 : Steels for general engineering purposes

4 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


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Introduction

Part 3 : Free cutting steels


Part 4 : Case-hardening steels
Part 5 : Steels for quenching and tempering
xxxv BS EN Dimensions and tolerances of bright steel products.
10278
xxxvi BS EN Air quality – Determination of odour concentration by
13725 dynamic olfactometry.
xxxvii BS EN ISO Construction drawings. Simplified representation of concrete
3766 reinforcement.
xxxviii BS EN ISO Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel
3506 fasteners
Part 1 : Bolts, screws and studs.
Part 2 : Nuts.

c) Australian / New Zealand and Australian Standards


i. AS/NZS PVC-u pipes and fittings for drain, waste and vent
1260 application (refer to uPVC profiled wall pipe only)
ii. AS/NZS PVC pipes and fittings for pressure applications
1477
iii. AS/NZS Buried flexible pipelines
2566 Part 1 : Structural design
iv. AS/NZS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) compounds, pipes
3518 and fittings for pressure applications.
v. AS/NZS Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland
3582 and blended cement
Part 3 : Amorphous silica.
vi. AS/NZS Stationay source emissions
4323 Part 3 : Determination of odour concentration by dynamic
olfactometry.
vii. AS 3725 Loads on buried concrete pipes
viii. AS 3750.2 Paint for steel structure – Ultra high-build piant.
AS Paint for steel structure – Alkyd/micaceous iron oxide.
3750.12
ix. AS 3751 Underground mining – Slope haulage – coumplings,
drawbars and safety chains.
x AS 3996 Metal access covers, road grates and frames
xi AS 4060 Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes

d) German Standards
i. DIN Thermoplastic pipes and fittings with profiled outer and
16961 smooth inner surfaces
Part 1: Dimensions
Part 2: Technical delivery conditions

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 5


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e) International Standards
i. ISO 1083 Spheroidal graphite cast irons - Classification
ii. ISO 3506 Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel
fasteners
iii. ISO TR Underground installation of flexible glass-reinforced
10465 thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes
Part 1: Installation procedures
Part 3 : Installation parameters and application limits

f) Water Industry Specifications (U.K)


i. WIS 04-32- Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 spigot fittings and drawn
15 bends for nominal sizes up to and including 1000
ii. WIS 04-24- Specification for mechanical fittings and joints for
01 polyethylene pipes for nominal sizes 90 to 1000
iii. WIS 04-32- Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 electrofusion fittings
14 for nominal sizes up to and including 630

g) American Society for Testing and Material


i. ASTM D Specifications for “Fiberglass” Glass-Fibre-Reinforced
3262 Thermosetting- Resin Sewer Pipe
ii. ASTM D Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible Thermo
2321 Plastic Sewer Pipe
iii. ASTM F 894 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Large Diameter Profile
Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe
iv. ASTM D Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and
3350 Fitting Materials
v. ASTM D Standard Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer
3212 Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals

h) Other Reference Materials


i. Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried Pipelines - UK Transport
Research Laboratory

The Commission will, from time to time, specify additional standards to be used in
the design and construction of sewerage works. These standards shall be referred
to as appropriate for the design and construction of sewer networks and network
pump stations.

All standards used in the design and construction of sewerage works shall be the
latest or the most updated. When any one of the above mentioned standards is
withdrawn or superseded, the latest or updated standards shall be referred to as
appropriate. This shall be the same for any applicable act, guideline, by-law, etc.
related to sewerage works endorsed by the government.

6 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Introduction

Other Guidelines in This Set

The Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines comprise of 5 volumes:

♦ Volume I Sewerage Policy for New Development


♦ Volume II Sewerage Works Procedures
♦ Volume III Sewer Networks and Pump Stations
♦ Volume IV Sewage Treatment Plants
♦ Volume V Septic Tanks

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 7


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8 (this page is intended to be blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Section 2
Planning, Material and Design
Planning, Material and Design

2.1 Sewers
2.1.1 Pipe Material Selection Factors

The following considerations are the important factors to be considered before


selecting or approving any pipe material and pipeline system for sewer networks.

a) Resistance to acidic condition of which is prevalent in sewer networks in


tropical climates
b) Resistance to sulphate attack from aggressive soils and groundwater
c) Resistance to corrosion in contaminated soils
d) Resistance to severe abrasion from sewage flow and usual cleaning
methods
e) Resistance of the joint to groundwater entry (infiltration) and sewage
escape (exfiltration)
f) Resistance of the joint material to corrosion and microbiological
degradation
g) Structural damages and other damages that may occur in handling
h) Handling, laying and jointing care and difficulties
i) Methods of pipe embedment to ensure structural performance
j) Maintenance of structural strength and performance in service
k) Methods of maintenance and repair
l) Cost of supply, transportation and installation
m) Range and suitability of fittings where considered for smaller diameter
sewers
n) Previous local experience
o) Local availability
p) Pipe pressure ratings
q) The design life of a pipe shall be at least 50 years.
r) All bolts and nuts shall be stainless steel (SS) 304.
s) Where necessary, special tools and trained personal shall be made available
during handling and installation of pipes.

Additionally, the following factors should be considered before selecting or


approving any pipe manufacturer and supplier.

a) Compliance of products to standards


b) Compliance to additional material and product requirements specified by
the Commission
c) Quality control and assurance practised by the manufacturer and supplier to
ensure good pipe product quality from manufacturing to delivery

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 9


Planning, Material and Design

2.1.2 Pipe Materials and Fittings

There is an extensive range of pipe materials available in Malaysia for use for
gravity, pressure and vacuum sewers. The materials and the standards which the
pipes are required to conform to are as follows:

a) Vitrified clay (VC)


i) MS 672
ii) MS 1061
iii) BS EN 295

b) Reinforced concrete (RC)


i) MS 881
ii) BS 5911
iii) BS 7874
iv) BS EN 681
v) BS EN 682

c) Ductile iron (DI)


i) BS EN 598

d) Mild Steel
i) BS EN 10025
i) BS EN 10224

e) Stainless Steel
i) BS EN 10220

f) Polyethylene (PE) solid wall


i) MS 1058
ii) WIS 04-32-15
iii) WIS 04-32-14
iv) WIS 04-24-01

g) Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) solid wall


i) MS 628 : Part 2 : Section 2
ii) MS 923
iii) MS 979
iv) AS/NZS 1477

h) Polyethylene profiled wall


i) DIN 16961

i) Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride profiled wall


i) AS/NZS 1260

j) Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)


i) BS 5480
ii) AS 3571

k) Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)


i) AS/NZS 3518

10 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Planning, Material and Design

Marking of all pipes shall comply with available Malaysian or British Standards
where applicable. Additional requirements to those given in the above standards
may be specified from time to time by the Commission.

2.1.3 Pipe Selections

Except where otherwise specifically approved by the Commission, the pipe


materials to be used for a specific type of sewer are listed below:

1) Gravity sewers
a) Rigid pipes b) Flexible pipes
i) VC i) GRP
ii) RC ii) Ductile Iron
iii) HDPE (Profile)

2) Force mains (Rising mains)


i) Ductile Iron
ii) GRP
iii) ABS
iv) HDPE (Solid)
v) Steel

3) Vacuum sewers
i) ABS – for internal use
ii) HDPE (Solid) – for external use

There are specific requirements such as pipe class, joint type, linings etc. which the
above approved pipe materials must meet in order to suit the above applications.
Also, there are certain limitations for use of each pipe type. These requirements
and limitations are specified in the following sections.

From time to time, the Commission will publish sewer selection guides which will
provide more detailed direction on the selection and use of sewer materials.

For other pipe materials not listed above, their use will be given considerations in
special circumstances. However, only pipes and fittings from manufacturers and
suppliers approved by the Commission are permitted to be used for sewerage
applications.

2.1.4 Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe Material

Unless the exemption is granted by the Commission, the following limitations or


requirements shall be followed when selecting the pipe materials:

1) Gravity Sewer

a) VC
i. Only size 150 mm or above shall be used
ii. The minimum size for public sewer shall be at least 225 mm

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Planning, Material and Design

iii. Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground


iv. Flexible joints are recommended

b) RC
i. Pipe protection linings are required
ii. Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed in compliance to the
policy
iii. Flexible joints are recommended

c) GRP
i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the
pipe
ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges
that may affect the pipe integrity
iii. Pipe shall be used only when no fittings are required
iv. Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed

d) DI
i. The use is only allowed for applications needed high pipe strength
ii. Pipe protection linings and coatings are required
iii. Polyethylene sleeving is required for all buried applications

e) HDPE
i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the
pipe
ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges
that may affect the pipe integrity.
iii. Only pipe with profile wall is permitted.

2) Force Mains

a) DI
i. Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground
ii. Pipe protection linings and coatings are required
iii. Polyethylene sleeving is required for all buried applications
iv. Flexible joints are recommended

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b) GRP
i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the
pipe
ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges
that may affect the pipe integrity.
iii. Fittings shall be made of ductile iron
iv. Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed

c) ABS
i. Where VC or RC pipes are not suitable
ii. Only for nominated projects or as permitted by the relevant
authority

d) HDPE
i. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the
pipe
ii. Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges
that may affect the pipe integrity.

e) Steel
i. Pipe is allowed only for sizes 700 mm or above
ii. Pipe protection linings and coatings are required

2.1.5 Vitrified Clay Pipe

Vitrified clay (VC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters of 100 mm to


600 mm and lengths ranging from 0.91 m to 2.50 m. Larger diameters of VC pipe
are imported. VC pipes are classified according to the pipe ring crushing strength
which depends on the manufacturing process and quality. VC pipes and fittings can
be produced either unglazed or glazed on the interior and/or exterior. When glazed
they need not be glazed on the jointing surfaces of the spigot and socket. VC pipes
which are available in Malaysia are normally manufactured with spigot-socket
flexible joints. Most manufacturers commonly offer a rubber ring seal. However,
polyurethane seal is sometimes offered by some manufacturers.

Vitrified clay pipe that has extra chemical resistance is suitable for sewerage
applications. This type of VC pipe may be used even under very corrosive sewage
environment. However, the potential for infiltration is great and must be minimised
by careful laying procedures on site.

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Planning, Material and Design

Vitrified clay pipes are permitted for gravity sewers. The minimum permissible
size for public gravity sewer shall not be less than 225mm and service connection
shall not be less than 150mm.

VC pipes and fittings shall conform to the requirements of MS1061. Pipe strength
is classified by the crushing strength (FN) value tested in accordance with BS EN
295-3. The crushing strength for pipe with DN150 shall not be less than 22 kN/m.
The crushing strength of the pipe with size ≥ DN 225 is classified by class number.
All VC pipes and fittings shall be furnished with spigot-socket flexible joints and
rubber ring seals or polyurethane seals. Glazing of VC pipes and fittings are
preferred.

2.1.6 Reinforced Concrete Pipe

Reinforced concrete (RC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters from 150


mm to 3,600 mm. The standard pipe length is 3.05 m. RC pipe is classified
according to pipe crushing test load or the three-edge bearing strength which varies
with wall thickness and reinforcement.

Common reinforced concrete pipes are not resistant to acidic corrosion which
occurs in certain septic sewage conditions. The cement used to manufacture
concrete pipe shall be factory produced by the cement manufacturer. Pipes can be
manufactured using Ordinary Portland Cement, Rapid Hardening Portland Cement,
Portland Blast Furnace Cement, Portland Pulverised Fuel Ash Cement and
Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement. All these types of cements are corrosion
resistance, except Ordinary Portland Cement and Rapid Hardening Portland
Cement. To improve the corrosion resistance, high alumina cement mortar lining,
PVC lining, PE lining and sacrificial lining have been used. Low heat and super-
sulphated cements have also been found in some tests to improve the corrosion
resistance. The inclusion of calcareous or limestone aggregate is another measure
found to improve corrosion resistance. To resist corrosion by neutral sulphates
occurring in aggressive soils and groundwater, RC pipes are sometimes
manufactured using sulphate resistance cement and where not available, portland
pulverised fuel ash cement or portland blastfurnace cement shall be used with the
approval from relevant authority.

RC pipes are permitted for gravity sewers of diameter DN600 and larger. Pipe shall
be of Standard Strength or higher as determined from structural design. RC pipes
below 1000mm in diameter linings shall consist of either 12mm thick high alumina
cement or 38mm thick (as appropriate) sacrificial concrete lining. For RC pipes
greater than 1000mm diameters either PVC or HDPE plastic lining or 38mm thick
sacrificial concrete lining shall be employed. Other linings may be used if approval
from the Commission is obtained. Concrete pipe junctions shall be fixed to the
main pipe by the pipe manufacturer and fabricated to clay pipe dimensions.
Flexible joints which utilise a rubber ring to join a rebated joint and a spigot to a
socket are commonly used and are recommended. Ogee joint (fixed joint) shall be
used in conjunction with concrete bedding haunching only. RC pipe when used for
pipe jacking purpose, shall be comply with BS 5911. The RC pipes also
incorporate rebated joints with joint elastomeric ring seals either integrated in the
unit or supplied separately.

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Planning, Material and Design

2.1.7 Ductile Iron Pipe

Ductile Iron (DI) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia for diameters from 80 mm to


1200 mm. The imported pipe can be up to 2,000 mm. Standard lengths are 6.0 m.
DI pipe is classified according to wall thickness. The pressure rating of the pipe
increases with an increase in wall thickness. Commonly used pipe strength is class
K9 and shall comply with BS EN 598 for working pressure exceeding 6 bars.

DI pipe is permitted for force mains and internal pipings of pump stations. DI pipe
shall be used for gravity sewers only where it is needed to take the advantages of
the high strength of ductile iron, e.g. shallow cover sewers subjected to high live
load or sewers of above ground applications.

Pipes shall have flexible joints, i.e. spigot-socket rubber seal joints or mechanical
joints, except for pump station pipework and valve connections where flange joints
shall be used.

Ductile iron will undergo corrosion when exposed to certain aggressive


groundwaters and conveying certain aggressive water. Therefore, the internal
lining protection is required to protect against corrosions. Unless otherwise
approved by the Commission, all ductile iron pipes shall have an external coating
to be determined by a Qualified Person based on actual soil condition. For internal
lining of constant full flowing pipe, ordinary Portland cement shall be used, while
high alumina cement mortar or plastic adhesive lining is required for partly full
flowing pipes. Buried pipe shall have zinc with bitumen external coating and
fittings shall have bitumen external coating. The end surfaces shall include the
internal surface of the socket and external surface of the spigot for flexible
connection.

The finishing layer, which is normally bituminous product, shall cover the whole
surface of the applied coating and shall prevent defects such as the loss of
adhesion. In addition, the material of the finishing layer shall be compatible with
the coating.

Unless otherwise approved by the Commission, all fittings and accessories shall be
provided with external and internal epoxy coating.

Polyethylene sleeving shall be used for all the buried pipe and fittings.

2.1.8 Steel Pipe

Steel pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in a wide range of diameters up to 3000 mm


and lengths up to 10 m. Pipe joints are normally welded utilising either spigot-
socket ends, plain ends or a collar. Flanged and mechanical joints are also
available.

Steel pipes will undergo corrosion when in contact with aggressive soil and sewage
and, thus, require an internal lining and an external coating. Pipe internal linings
normally include high alumina cement mortar, coal tar enamel, coal tar epoxy,
sulphate resistant cement lining, or bitumen. Pipe external coatings often include
coal tar enamel, bitumen enamel or asphalt enamel and glass fibre.

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Planning, Material and Design

Steel pipes are permitted only for inverted siphons (depressed sewers) and internal
pump station pipework. For force main larger than 700 mm, steel pipe may be
used if the approval from the Commission is obtained.

The internal and external surfaces of the pipes and fittings shall be coated with
thermosetting (epoxy paint or powder or epoxy tar resin) or thermoplastic
(polyethylene or polyurethane) material. The type of external protection shall be
determined by the Qualified Person based on soil condition. Following the completion
of pipe jointing, exposed steel at the joints shall be protected from corrosion by
manually applied external tape wrap and internal cement mortar lining.

A spigot and socket joint welded both externally and internally shall be used for pipe
joints except for pump station pipework and valve connections where flange joints
shall be used. Mechanical joints are only permitted for cut pipe lengths, where
internal cement mortar lining at joints is not possible and where movement of the
pipeline is to be allowed for.

2.1.9 Solid Wall PE Pipe

Polyethylene (PE) pipe is resistant to sulphuric acid of concentrations that might be


found in septic sewage under the worst conditions.

PE solid wall pipe is available locally in diameters up to 1,000 mm and in standard


lengths of 6 m and 12 m. This pipe is normally butt fusion jointed. Pipe size of
160mm or less may be flange jointed or electrofusion jointed. PE pipe is classified
by pressure rating with static working pressures up to 1.6 MPa. High density PE
(HDPE) is used for sewerage applications.

Since PE pipes are flexible, the design of the pipe/trench system is more critical
than for rigid pipe materials. Compared to rigid pipes, the stability of flexible
pipes relies more on the side support of the earth backfill around the pipe.
Consequently, in an urban environment, where the side support may be removed
during future adjacent construction of underground services, pipe failures could be
more frequent. Ground conditions which provide poor pipe side support are
unsuitable for flexible PE pipe.

Solid wall HDPE pipes are suitable for buried pressure sewer and buried vacuum
sewer installations. Butt fusion joints shall be used for PE pipe. uPVC fittings are
not permitted for force mains. Solid wall pipe for pressure main application shall
be of minimum PE80-PB10. The use of specific strength shall depend on the depth
and nature of the soil as confirmed by the Qualified Person. Solid wall pipes for
vacuum sewer shall be minimum of PE80-PN8 and at least PN10 for heavy vehicle
loading.

2.1.10 Profiled Wall PE Pipe

A profiled wall pipe is a pipe with a plain inside surface and with a ribbed or
corrugated outside surface. The ribs or corrugations are normally either aligned
circumferentially or helically. These corrugated or ribbed profiles optimise the pipe
ring stiffness to weight ratio. The pipe can be designed with double-wall profile or
triple-wall profile.

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Corrugated high density PE pipe is available in Malaysia in a range of size from


100mm to 3000mm nominal diameter and in standard 6m lengths. The standard
joint is a flexible spigot-socket joint with rubber seal.

Pipes from specific manufacturers in this category may be permitted by the


Commission to be used for gravity sewers where special circumstances require the
benefits of such pipes.

2.1.11 Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe

Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe is currently required to be imported into


Malaysia.

There are two principal manufacturing methods for GRP pipes, centrifugal casting
and filament winding. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe incorporates silica sand in
the wall structure in addition to resin and chopped strand mat glass fibres. The
silica sand shall have a maximum particles size of 10 mm. The centrifugal casting
GRP pipe shall be according to AS 3751.

The filament winding GRP pipe does not normally incorporate sand, which permits
centrifugal casting GRP pipe to have a much thicker wall, and thus much higher
ring stiffness than the filament winding GRP pipe. The filament winding GRP pipe
uses continuous glass fibres wound helically about the pipe. The design of filament
winding GRP pipe shall be in accordance with BS 5480.

Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance for


pressure applications and by pipe ring stiffness for non-pressure applications.
Centrifugal casting GRP is available up to 10,000 N/m2 stiffness and up to 2.5 MPa
static working pressure. Filament winding GRP is available up to 5,000 N/m2
stiffness and up to 1.6 MPa static working pressure

Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is available in sizes from 200 mm to 2,400 mm and
standard length of 6 m. The inner surface of the pipe is usually finished with a
resin rich lining which is resistance to attack by sulphuric acid that may result from
septic sewage. Centrifugal casting GRP pipe has a rubber sealing sleeve joint
which is supplied fitted to one end. So jointing is similar to a spigot-socket joint.
These pipes can also be supplied with flange joints, sleeve-locking joints and
sleeve recessed joints for special applications such as pipe jacking and pipeline
towing.

Filament winding GRP pipe is available in sizes up to 3,700 mm and standard


lengths of 6m and 12m (size dependent). It also has a resin rich inner surface
although the thickness of this resin surface layer is often limited by the
manufacturing method. Some filament winding GRP pipe manufacturers
incorporate corrosion resistant glass fibres. This feature can be essential with this
GRP pipe because its resin rich surface (gelcoat) is thinner or, sometimes, removed
for fabrication purposes. Filament winding GRP pipe currently being offered can
be jointed using a sleeve and two rubber O rings. Filament winding GRP pipe does
not have a smooth outer surface like centrifugal casting GRP pipe. Machining may
be required for the outer surface where rubber sealing rings are used. Flange joints
and mechanical couplings are also available for special applications.

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Planning, Material and Design

GRP pipe is classified as a flexible pipe. It requires sufficient side support to retain
its structural integrity in cross-section in the same way as uPVC and PE pipe. GRP
pipe has lower strain limits than uPVC and PE pipes since it is made of thermoset
resin, which is brittle compared to thermoplastic material. Due to its inherent
structure, GRP pipe has a much higher modulus of elasticity than uPVC and PE
pipe. Thus, it may have a much thinner wall than uPVC and PE pipes to achieve
equivalent ring stiffness. GRP pipe is generally available in higher stiffness than,
uPVC and PE pipe.

Approval for the use of GRP pipe shall be sought from the Director General for
each project intending its use. GRP pipes are permitted for gravity and pressure
sewers. For gravity sewers, GRP pipes are only permitted for sizes of 600mm
nominal diameter and larger where no fittings are required. The minimum pipe
stiffness shall be SN 5000 with the appropriate stiffness determined in accordance
with structural design to AS 2566. For pressure sewers, fittings must only be of
ductile iron meeting the coating, lining and other requirements.

2.1.12 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipe is a thermoplastic pipe. It is


manufactured in Malaysia in diameters up to 630 mm.

ABS pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance. It comes in various static


working pressure ratings up to 1.5 MPa.

The most common jointing method is by solvent cementing. The cementing


jointing process is more complex than the jointing process of uPVC pipe. A
spigot/socket rubber ring joint is generally not available. Because of the care
required to make a solvent cement joint, particularly in larger diameters, the
jointing of ABS pipe requires special trainings.

ABS, like uPVC and PE, is resistant to corrosion in the most corrosive sewage
environment that could occur. ABS is used in a range of applications requiring
pressure pipe. Because of its excellent resistance to abrasion and UV degradation,
ABS has found use in industrial and mining applications and also in treatment
plants for sewage and water.

ABS pipes may be permitted for force mains under special circumstances which
require the benefits of such pipes. If used, the approval of the Commission is
required. ABS pipes may be permitted for use in buried forced mains and buried
interconnecting pipe-works within pump stations.

2.1.13 Sewer Design - General Requirements

The design of a sewerage system shall generally be in accordance with the


principles set out in this guideline. Additional requirements in the Malaysian
Standard MS 1228:1991 Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage
System shall also be referred to in design.

The sewerage system shall be suitably designed to carry all sewage flows including
sullage to the approved disposal point. Unauthorised connections of surface waters
or excessive infiltration to the sewerage system are not permitted.

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Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission, all sewers shall be sited in public
road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance purposes. Under special
circumstances where the sewer cannot be sited in public road reserve then
vehicular access of at least 3 m in width and road bearing capacity of not less than
5 tonne shall be provided.

A checklist for sewer reticulation design is given in the Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines, Volume II.

2.1.14 Flow Rate Estimations

Few principal considerations when selecting the diameter and gradient of a sewer
are:

i) to cater for peak flow


ii) to ensure that there will be a sufficient velocity during each day to
sufficiently cleanse the sewer of slime and sediment
iii) to limit the velocity to avoid scouring of sewers

a) Average Flow:

The volume of sewage that needs to be treated per day is based on an assumed
contribution per person of 225 litres. Another assumption is made as to the
contribution from various types of premises where the contribution from each
premise type is defined in terms of an equivalent population. The recommended
minimum population equivalent values are given in Table B.1.

b) Peak Flow:

The flow used to determine the diameter and gradient of the pipeline is the peak
flow. Peak flow is the most severe flow that could occur on any day when
considering daily flow fluctuations and infiltrations. The peak flow is derived from
the average flow by applying a peak factor for daily flow fluctuations. The peak
factor shall be estimated from the following formula:

Peak Factor = 4.7 (PE/1000)-0.11


Where PE = assumed population equivalent

c) Infiltration:

Infiltration is the amount of groundwater that enters sewers through damage in the
network such as cracked pipes, leaking joint seals, leaky manhole walls, etc. There
are many variables affecting infiltration such as quality of workmanship, joint
types, pipe materials, height of water table above pipeline, soil type, etc. The peak
factor above has included the contribution of infiltrations. The maximum allowable
infiltration rate shall be 50 litre / ( mm diameter.km of sewer length.day ).

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Planning, Material and Design

2.1.15 Sewer Cleansing Velocities

The principal accumulants in sewers are slimes and sediments. The hydraulic
requirements for cleansing the sediments of sewer differ from those required for
cleansing the slimes of sewer.

a) Sediment Cleansing:

For the removal of sediments, the traditional design approach has been to set a
minimum velocity to be achieved at least once daily. Minimum velocity values at
full bore of 0.8 m/sec are commonly specified. However, it has been found that
larger pipe diameters require higher velocity to cleanse the sediment. This is
mainly due to higher sediment depths in large diameter pipes

The movement of sediment is mainly a function of shearing stress needed to


dislodge sediment off the pipe wall. Similarly, shear stress is a function of pipe
diameter. Also, the type of sediment (i.e. grain size, specific gravity, cohesiveness)
also influences the movement of sediment and, thus, the amount of required shear
stress. For design purposes however, only a single sediment type needs to be
assumed.

b) Slime Cleansing:

The removal of slime depends on the stress needed to shear sections of slime from
each other or from the pipe wall. However, the shear stress required to remove
slimes is not a function of pipe diameter. The necessary shear stress depends on
the thickness of slime to be removed and the pipe material. The degree of removal
of slimes in any pipe material varies with the sewage velocity.

Removal of large portion of slimes requires high sewage velocities. It has been
found that 85% or more of the sulphide producing slimes are removed when the
grade of the sewer is 2.5 times of that for sediment cleansing. In many instances, it
may not be practical to design a sewer to achieve such velocities due to the
excessive cost of constructing such a deep and steep sewer. Although increasing
the velocity up to the critical velocity will increase the amount of slime being
sloughed off, the rate of sulphide production remains substantially unaffected by
the thinner slime layer. Therefore, the selection of steep gradient to achieve
velocities for full slime stripping is not a design requirement.

2.1.16 Pipe Roughness

Except for very high velocities, slime will always be present, which will increase
the pipe roughness. Abrasion by sediments will also impart a permanent increase
in roughness. Pipeline roughness decreases as the velocity increases. However,
there is insufficient data to accurately determine the pipeline roughness for a wide
range of velocities or at small incremental changes in velocity. In addition, the
velocity of the sewage flow varies due to the factors such as daily fluctuations,
different type of catchment, different stage of catchment maturity, etc. Therefore, it
is not possible to select the pipe roughness with great accuracy.

Conservative roughness values as given in Table 2.1 shall be referred to when


determining sewer discharge capacity.

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Table 2.1a Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer

Roughness, ks (mm)
Pipe Material
New Old
Vitrified Clay 0.06 1.5
Concrete: 0.15 3.0
Plastic 0.06 0.6

Old and new roughness values shall be used to determine the sewer cleansing and
maximum design velocities respectively.

Table 2.1b Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe
Materials

Mean Velocity, V (m/s) Roughness, ks (mm)


0.8 ≤ V ≤ 1.5 0.6
1.5 ≤ V ≤ 2.0 0.3
V ≥ 2.0 0.15

2.1.17 Design of Gravity Sewer

Unless special arrangements have been agreed for the structural protection of pipes,
the minimum depth of soil cover over the sewer shall be 1.2 m. Sewers are not to
be constructed under buildings.

The minimum size of public gravity sewers shall be 225 mm in diameter. The
minimum size of domestic connections to the public sewer shall be 150 mm in
diameter. The maximum design velocity at peak flow shall not be more than 4.0
m/s.

The design shall be based on the worst case scenario. The selection of the gravity
sewer diameter and gradient to cope with the peak flow shall be based on the
following equations:

1. Colebrook - White Equation


⎛ ks 2.51ν ⎞
V = −2 (2 g D S log ⎜ + ⎟
⎜ 3.7 D D 2gDS ⎟⎠

where
V = velocity
S = hydraulic gradient (m/m)
ν = kinematic viscosity of water (m2 / sec)
D = internal diameter (m)
g = acceleration due to gravity (m/sec2)
ks = roughness coefficient (m)

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Planning, Material and Design

Typical ks values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.2 below:

Table 2.2 Typical Roughness Coefficient, ks

Material Roughness Coefficient, ks (mm)


Concrete 0.3 to 3
Cast iron 0.26
Asphalted cast iron 0.12
Ductile iron 0.046

2. Manning Equations

R 2 / 3 S1/ 2
V = n
where
V = velocity (m/sec)
S = hydraulic gradient
R = hydraulic radius
n = Manning coefficient

Typical n values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.3 below:

Table 2.3 Typical Manning Coefficient, n

Manning Coefficient, n
Material Good Condition Bad
Condition
Uncoated cast-iron 0.012 0.015
Coated cast iron 0.011 0.013
Ductile iron 0.012 0.015
Vitrified clay pipe 0.010 0.017
Concrete 0.012 0.016

3. Hazen - Williams Equations

V = 0.849 C R 0.63S 0.54

where

V = velocity (m/sec)
S = hydraulic gradient
R = hydraulic radius
C = Hazen - Williams coefficient

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Typical C values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.4 below:

Table 2.4 Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C

Material Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C


Top quality pipes, straight and 130 to 140
smooth
Smooth masonry 120
Vitrified clay 110
Old cast iron 100
Old cast iron in bad condition 60 to 80

Colebrook-White Equation has been deemed to give the most accurate results.
However, the other equations, such as Hazen-Williams Equation and Manning
Equation are easier to use and may be used too. Various design charts and tables
have been developed elsewhere to aid the manual computations.

2.1.18 Design of Force Mains

The minimum diameter of force mains (also known as rising mains) shall be 100
mm diameter. There shall be no reduction in force main diameter with distance
downstream.

All bends on force mains shall be securely anchored to resist lateral thrusts and
subsequent joint movements.

Air release valves and washouts shall be provided at appropriate locations along
the longitudinal profile.

For long and undulating force mains, hydraulic pressure transient analyses may be
required to ensure that the force main can cope with water hammer pressures.

Retention times in force mains must not exceed 2 hours without special precautions
to mitigate septicity.

All force main shall be designed to withstand at least 1.5 times the working
pressure. Approval from the Commission is required if any force main is to be
designed to withstand pressure less than the pressure stated above.

Where retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where concrete
pipe are laid downstream of the force mains, an induct vent shall be provided at
manholes receiving pumping discharges.

Friction losses are normally calculated using either Darcy - Weisbach (Colebrook-
White) Equation or Hazen-Williams Equations. The forms of the equations are
different from the equations used to design gravity sewers. The equations are
listed below:

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Planning, Material and Design

1. Darcy-Weisbach Equation

2
fLV
hf =
2 gD
where

hf = Friction loss
f = Coefficient of friction
V = Velocity in the pipe
g = Acceleration due to gravity
D = Equivalent diameter of the pipe
L = Length of pipe

The value of f is known to depend on the Reynolds number, Re, pipe roughness, ks,
and pipe diameter, D, through the Colebrook-White equation as follows:

1 = -2 log ks + 2.51
sqrt (f) 3.7D Re sqrt (f)

The Reynolds number is defined as follows:

Re = VD
v

where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, typically equal to 1 x 10-6 m2/s for
sewage.

The above equations together with the Moody Diagram are used to determine the
coefficient of friction, f.

2. Hazen-Williams Equation

1.85
⎛V ⎞ L
hf = 6.82 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ C⎠ D1.167
where

hf = Friction loss
C = Hazen-William Coefficient (refer to Table 2.4)
V = Velocity in the pipe
L = Length of pipe
D = Equivalent diameter of the pipe

Force mains shall be designed to handle the full range of flows from present
minimum to future peak.

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The design velocity shall fall within the range of 0.8 to 3.0m/sec over the full range
of design flows.

The hydraulic resistance of force main fittings and bends shall be included in the
hydraulic design.

2.1.19 Vacuum Sewerage System

The design requirements of this Guidelines are the minimum requirements, and do
not constitute in themselves a comprehensive design guide sufficient to ensure a
correctly functioning system. Every system must be individually designed, based on
the design parameters of the system employed; where proprietary systems are
employed, it shall be designed in compliance with the requirements of system
manufacturers.

2.1.19.1 General

Specification of a vacuum sewage collection system shall only be considered where


the life-cycle costs of a conventional gravity sewage collection system are clearly
shown to be higher.

This Guidelines assumes that all sewage transportation modes have been identified, C
their respective feasibilities evaluated against technical, environmental, financial, o
economic and other relevant criteria over the design life of the asset and that n
vacuum sewage collection system has been confirmed as the best option. The c
Commission may request for net present value (NPV) calculations for all options
prior to approving construction of a vacuum sewage collection system.

a) Application of vacuum sewage collection system

Consideration shall be given to the use of the vacuum system in one or more of the
following circumstances:

i. Flat or undulating terrain; E


ii. Obstacles to the sewer route eg utility services, waterways; x
iii. Poor ground subsurface eg high ground water table, rocky terrains;
iv. Isolated, low density communities;
v. Where it is necessary to minimise the impact of construction work;
vi. Where it is necessary to minimise the environmental impact.

b) Unit Processes

Typical unit processes for a vacuum sewage collection system is shown in typical
drawing in Appendix A. The unit processes shall comprise of, but not limited to, the
followings:-

i. Collection chamber for housing vacuum interface valve and also forming a
sump from which collected sewage is evacuated;
ii. A vacuum sewer network for the transport of sewage collected in the
collection chambers to a central vacuum station;

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Planning, Material and Design

iii. A central vacuum station where the vacuum pressure is generated which
allows the sewage to be collected and forwarded to a receiving gravity
sewer manhole or a sewage treatment plant.

c) Description of System

i) Collection chamber and vacuum pipeline

When the volume of sewage draining into a collection chamber reaches a


predetermined level in the sump, the normally closed interface valve opens. The
differential pressure between the vacuum sewer and atmosphere forces the sewage
from the collection chamber into the vacuum sewer via a crossover pipe. Typical
crossover pipe connection is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. After the
sump is emptied, the valve closes. Air is admitted simultaneously with, or after, the
admittance of the sewage. The sewage is driven along the sewer until frictional and
gravitational forces eventually bring it to rest in the lower section of the pipe
profiles. The characteristics of the vacuum sewerage system ensure that peak
discharges into the sewer are rapidly attenuated.

The vacuum sewer discharges into the vacuum vessel at the vacuum station. The
vacuum is maintained, by vacuum pumps, at a predetermined level. The sewage is
generally pumped from the vacuum station by sewage discharge pumps.

ii ) Vacuum station

The vacuum station is similar to a conventional pumping station with the addition
of vacuum pumps and a closed vacuum vessel. Typical vacuum station is shown in
typical drawings in Appendix A. The level of the sewage in the vacuum vessel is
monitored by a level detection probe which activates the sewage discharge pumps.
If the sewage rises too high in the vessel then a high level detection probe stops and
locks out the vacuum pumps to prevent the flow of sewage into the vacuum pumps.
The vacuum in the vacuum vessel is maintained within the operational range by
pressure switches.

d) Warranty of System Performance

Since the vacuum system involves proprietary design and equipment, specialist
system designers shall be accountable to the performance of the entire vacuum K
system including both design and construction aspects. The specialist system P
designers shall also specify clearly the specific maintenance and operational K
requirements of the system. T
/
2.1.19.2 Collection Chamber

a) General design requirement

Collection chambers shall have sufficient capacity to store sewage discharged from
all connected properties for at least 6 hours in the event of a valve failure or similar
emergency, which is sufficient to cover the IWK’s emergency response time.

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The overflow storage time shall be based on the ultimate sewage design flow that
will enter the collection chamber. The volume that can be used for emergency
storage shall be the volume contained in the collection chamber from the base of the
collection chamber up to the lowest ground level at any point served by the chamber
as well as the volume contained in the gravity lateral sewers entering the collection
chamber.

Separate chambers shall be provided to serve properties at different elevations


where there is a likelihood of sewage from one property flooding another property.

The chamber shall resist external forces and internal water pressure.

The preferred material of construction for collection chambers is pre-cast concrete.


The two sections (the valve compartment and the collection sump) may be mounted
vertically one on top of the other as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The
diameter of the sections may be as small as 1200mm or as large as 1500mm.

The collection sump requires a benching section that allows a scouring action from
the sewage as it enters the suction pipe, thereby rendering the sump self-cleansing.
The internal surfaces of the sump shall be both strong as well as resistant to
corrosive attacks from the collected sewage.

Where the interface valve is situated over the collection sump, a working platform
shall be provided for allowing maintenance engineers to stand on when carrying out
scheduled maintenance to the interface valve.

The sump shall be sufficiently vented to allow the intake of air without causing a
noise nuisance and to ensure that the operation of the vacuum system does not
unseal the water traps on the gravity drainage system.

b) Number of properties connected

The location of each collection chamber and the number of properties connected to
each collection chamber shall be specified in the Design Drawings / Calculations.

Sewage flow from the maximum number of existing or future properties that are K
proposed to be connected to a collection chamber shall be quantified, and the P
retention time of the collection chamber can be then established. The retention shall K
exceed 6 hrs. T
/
c) Maximum flows to collection chambers

The maximum sewer design flow to a single vacuum interface valve collection
chamber shall not exceed 0.25 lit/s. Where single point flows in excess of 0.25 lit/s
occur, multiple vacuum interface valves shall be installed. Typical multi-valve W
S
collection chamber is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A.
A

d) Breather pipes

Some vacuum interface valves inhale and exhale air during their operation. This is
accomplished through a screened air pipe known as a "breather".

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Planning, Material and Design

While breather bells are generally mounted inside the collection chamber, it may be
necessary to mount them externally.
W
S
Each breather pipe shall be fitted inside the "breather bell" located at the top of the
collection chamber in an accessible location to allow their removal for maintenance
purposes.

e) Covers and frames

Collection chamber covers shall provide an access opening of at least 600 mm E


diameter. Covers and frames shall be installed in accordance with the requirements x
stipulated in Clause 2.3. i

2.1.19.3 Vacuum Interface Valves

a) General

The interface valve shall fail safe in the closed position and shall prevent backflows
from the crossover pipes to the collection sump. When the valve is open, the flow
path shall not be obstructed by the valve mechanism. The valve shall evacuate at
least the batch volume each time it cycles. Valves installed in the sump shall be
capable of operating when submerged provided that the breather pipe is not
submerged.

The valve shall be installed in the collection chamber using demountable, re-useable
“ No Hub” couplings suitable for vacuum service.

b) Level sensor

The valve shall be equipped with a sensor to determine the level of sewage in the
collection sump; this sensor shall be designed to be fouling resistant. Level sensor
pipes shall not be less than DN/ID 45.

c) Interface valve controller

The controller shall open the valve only if there is a minimum partial vacuum of
0.2bar below atmospheric available and shall maintain the valve fully open until at
least the batch volume has been evacuated. If the design provides for the
introduction of air after the sewage has been evacuated, the controller shall maintain
the valve open for a further period. The controller shall be adjustable so that a range
of air to sewage ratios can be obtained. Controllers installed in sumps shall be
capable of operating when submerged.

d) Explosion proof

The valve mechanism and controller shall be explosion proof if exposed to


potentially explosive atmosphere.

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e) Life of valves and membranes

Every interface unit, comprising the interface valve, controller and sensor shall be
expected to last in excess of 25 years. Manufacturers shall clearly specify scheduled
maintenance, thus allowing the operators to keep the interface units in tip-top
conditions at all times.

2.1.19.4 Vacuum Sewer Design

a) General

For a completely flat area, the length of a single sewer branch shall not be more
than 3km. However, the maximum limit of the pipe length would vary according to
the gradient achievable in that line. Specialist system designer shall provide a
detailed hydraulic calculation for the vacuum sewer network.

Vacuum main routes shall be selected to:

i. Minimise lift;
ii. Minimise length;
iii. Equalise flows on each vacuum main;
iv. Provide adequate access for operation and maintenance.

b) Sewer depth

Vacuum sewers, branch sewers and crossover pipe connections from the collection
chambers, shall have a minimum cover of 0.9 m to withstand the stresses arising
from traffic loads.

When sewers are not buried, they shall be protected from extremes of temperature,
ultra-violet radiation and possibility of vandalisms.
When sewers are suspended underside walkways or bridges, they shall be rigidly
supported so there is no visible sagging between supports. Supports shall withstand
all static and specified dynamic conditions of loading to which the piping and
associated equipment may be subjected. As a minimum, consideration shall be
given to the following conditions:

i. Weights of pipe, valves, fittings, pipe protection materials, and medium in


the pipe;
ii. Reaction forces due to the operation of isolation valves;
iii. Wind loadings on outdoor piping.

c) Sewer profiles

Pipeline profiles shall be self cleansing and prevent the accumulation of solids.
Typical pipeline profiles are shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. For
crossover pipes, the minimum distance between lifts shall be 1.5 m. Vacuum sewers
shall have a minimum gradient of 1 in 500. Where the ground has a gradient of 1 in
500 or more in the direction of flow, the vacuum sewer may be laid parallel to the
surface as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A.

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i) Design tolerances

The chainage and invert levels of the pipeline(s) shall be determined to the
following levels of design accuracy and specified in the Design Drawings:

• Sewer chainage to the nearest 0.5 m.


• Sewer invert levels to the nearest 0.01 m.

ii) Lift design

To provide for efficient vacuum transport to sewer extremities, the size of


individual lifts shall be kept as small as possible. Many small lifts are preferable to
one large lift. The change in invert at each lift shall not exceed 1.5 m. For vacuum
sewers, the minimum distances between lifts shall be 6 m.

iii) Crossover pipe connection

Crossover pipe shall initially fall away from the interface valve and shall connect
into the top sector of the vacuum sewer contained within the angle of ± 60° about
the vertical axis as shown in Standard Drawing – Figure Vac7.

iv) Branch connections

All branch connections to vacuum sewers shall be by a Y-junction connected to the


sewer above the horizontal axis as shown in Standard Drawing – Figure Vac8. In
plan, the angle of the Y-junction shall ensure that flow towards the vacuum station
is generated and backflows are minimised. No connection shall be made within 3m
of a lift.

v) Water-logging

The profile shall ameliorate water-logging at any change in gradient even when a
prolonged power failure occurs (both TNB supply and standby genset fail), and the
vacuum interface valves continue to operate and admit sewage until the vacuum
level reduced to the point when they will no longer open. When power is again
available, the system shall be capable of recovering to normal operation without
intervention by an operator.

d) Pipework and Fittings for Vacuum Sewers

The recommended material from which to construct vacuum sewers is PE 80 SDR


13.6 rated polyethylene pipe. Pipe fittings shall be PE 100 SDR 13.6. Pipes shall be
UV stabilised with carbon black which shall give the pipe a black colour
throughout. Four evenly spaced brown stripes shall be incorporated, thus readily
identifying that the pipe is transporting sewage. The polyethylene pipe is selected
because it is both structurally strong and compatible with potentially chemically
aggressive and abrasive flows in the sewage.

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i) Pipe size

The suction pipe DN/ID shall not be greater than the DN/ID of the interface valve.
The minimum diameter of crossover pipe shall be DN/ID 50 and shall be greater
than the DN/ID of the suction pipe. Vacuum sewer shall have a minimum diameter
of DN/ID 80.

ii) Jointing of PE pipes and fittings

PE pipes and fittings less than DN 160 shall be jointed using electrofusion fittings.
Pipes and fittings DN 160 and larger shall be jointed with electrofusion fittings or
butt fusion welding.

iii) Warning system

To act as a warning to an excavation possibly carried out at a later date, the use of a
marker tape laid 300mm on top of the pipe is recommended. This shall be a 150mm
wide polyethylene and printed with a descriptive warning of the pipework below.

e) Isolation valve

The isolation valve clear opening shall be not less than the DN/ID of the pipe, and
be capable of sustaining a vacuum pressure of -0.8 bar(g).

Isolation valves shall be resilient seated gate valves with the body, bonnet, gate and
bridge fabricated from ductile or cast iron. The stem shall be stainless steel, and the
gate shall be encapsulated with EPDM. End connections to the valves shall be
flanged.

i) Isolation valve installation

Each isolation valve shall be located in a chamber, which shall contain a


dismantling arrangement for replacement of the isolation valve if needed.

When isolation valves are buried, they shall have extension spindles and surface
boxes.

ii) Isolation valve location

Means of isolating lengths of vacuum sewer to permit repairs or to locate faults


shall be provided at distances of not more than 500 m and on branch sewers longer
than 200 m.

2.1.19.5 Vacuum Station Design

a) General

It is desirable to have the vacuum station located as centrally as possible within the
sewer network. This lends itself to a system with multi-branches hence giving
added operating and design flexibility. Ideally, the design capacity of a single-
vessel vacuum station shall not exceed a population equivalent of 8,000 persons. A

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Planning, Material and Design

dual-vessel station, or more than a single-vessel station that is completely isolated,


shall be provided when the population equivalent exceeds 8,000 persons.

b) Vacuum station layout

A typical vacuum station layout is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The


vacuum station shall be divided into two main areas, an above ground plant room
and a below ground dry well.

The floor level of the dry well shall be designed to suit the invert levels of the
incoming sewers, the vacuum vessel diameter and the dimensions of the selected
sewage discharge pumps.

The vacuum vessel, the sewage discharge pumps, valves and pipework associated
with the sewage discharge pumps and a small sump to collect washdown water shall
be located in the dry well.

The plant room shall contain the vacuum pumps, control panel, standby diesel
generator, vacuum pressure gauges, and moisture trap.

c) Vacuum vessel

Vacuum vessels shall be designed to meet the requirements of ASME Section VIII
Division 1 – 2004 Edition. The vessel shell shall be constructed from mild steel or
any other approved material.

Sewer inlets shall be provided with short radius elbows inside the vessel to direct
the sewage inflow away from the sewage discharge pump suction connections and
the vessel walls.

A vacuum vessel may have up to five (5). incoming vacuum sewers connected
directly to the vessel. No inlet pipes shall be connected below the system
emergency stop level. Sewage discharge pump suction connections shall be
provided at the invert of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel shall be fitted with
an externally mounted sight glass which is suitable for operation in a vacuum and is
easily removed for cleaning without decommissioning the vessel.

The vacuum vessel shall be provided with a DN 600 access opening, and the cover
shall be provided with a lifting eye. Wherever possible, the opening is preferably
positioned on the top of the vessel in order to minimise the size of the structure
necessary to house the vessel, this conserves valuable resource, reduces the
footprint of the building, and thus allows adjacent residences to enjoy more buffer
spaces.

During the inspection or maintenance works, safe entry procedures shall be adhered
to, according to the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) codes
of laws, by trained certificated operator, and that the vessel is decommissioned,
with the access opening removed and discharge pipeworks at the two (2) draw-off
points dismantled, and a forced air ventilation is applied.

It is important to ensure that the system would operate continuously in the face of
having the vacuum vessel temporarily out of service during an interval inspection. C
o
n
cl
u
d
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The incoming sewage shall manually be bypassed to a mobile vacuum tanker via a
flexible ribbed pipe. The pipe is of an adequate length to reach the bypass valves
safely. Typical bypass valve arrangement is shown in typical drawings in Appendix
A.

d) Moisture trap

When mechanical vane vacuum pumps are selected, moisture trap shall be provided
for the vacuum pumps.

Baffles or moisture removing material shall be fitted inside each vessel to assist
with moisture removal.

e) Vacuum pumps

Vacuum pump capacity (Qvp) shall be rated. The selection of appropriate size of
vacuum pump is determined by the following four factors:-

• The peak flow of the sewage to be collected;


• The length of the longest single sewer within the sewer network;
• The total volume of the sewer pipework within the network;
• Air to liquid ratio employed (ratio not less than 3).

i) Evacuation time

When the vacuum pumps, collection chamber and vacuum vessel have been sized,
system evacuation time for an operating range of – 0.55 bar(g) to –0.65 bar(g) shall
be calculated using:

⎡⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎤
⎢⎜ 3 ⎟Vvs + (Vvv − Vo ) + Vmt ⎥ × 60
⎝ ⎠
t=⎣ ⎦
Qvp

Where,
t = system evacuation time, minutes
Vvs = volume of vacuum sewers, m³
Vvv = volume of vacuum vessel, m³
Vo = operating volume of vacuum vessel, m³
Vmt = moisture trap volume (if fitted), m³
Qvp = vacuum pump capacity, m³/hr

NOTE: In normal operation it is assumed that the vacuum sewers will be


approximately 1/3 liquid filled.

The system evacuation time, which is defined as the time period between the
vacuum pump start and stop, shall be between 2 and 5 minutes.
ii) Selection of vacuum pumps

Vacuum pumps shall have sufficient capacity to serve the system. A minimum of
two vacuum pumps of equal capacity shall be installed such that one pump can be

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Planning, Material and Design

removed for maintenance without loss of system capacity. Vacuum pumps, where
used, shall be suitable for both continuous operation and for a minimum of 6 starts
per hour.

iii) Vacuum pipework

ABS pipes and fittings shall be used for interconnecting pipework between the
vacuum pumps and the vacuum vessel within vacuum stations.

Pipework shall be fully supported.

f) Sewage discharge pumps

Two sewage discharge pumps of equal capacity are recommended for use in a
vacuum station. Each pump shall be sized to discharge sewage at a rate at least
equal to the calculated design peak flow for the vacuum system. Sewage discharge
pumps shall be capable of pumping unscreened sewage and suitable for immersed
operation in the event of the vacuum station dry well flooded. In normal operation
the dry well will not contain water.

Pumps may have a vertical or horizontal configuration.

Sewage discharge pumps shall be suitable for a minimum of 6 starts per hour.
Equalizing lines connecting the discharge side of the centrifugal sewage discharge
pumps to the vacuum vessel shall be installed if required to prevent cavitation or to
ensure that the pump inlet is always flooded.

Sewage discharge pumps shall be fitted with isolation valves to allow removal of
the pump without disrupting the system operation.

Discharge pipework for each pump shall be fitted with a non-return valve and a
resilient seated gate valve on the discharge side. Where the discharge pipework is
manifold, the final discharge pipe shall also be fitted with a non return valve. The
valves shall be able to be operated from the vacuum station floor.

g) Vacuum gauges

150mm vacuum gauges calibrated to read 0 to -1 bar to an accuracy of ±2% shall be


fitted to the vacuum vessel and each incoming vacuum sewer. Vacuum gauges shall
also have bottom outlets fitted with lever-operated ball valves. All gauge
diaphragms shall be suitable for use with sewage gases. The gauges indicate the
vacuum pressure within each sewer and enable pressures within the sewer network
to be monitored.

h) Fire-fighting system

Fire-fighting system using carbon dioxide at the genset / fuel room shall be
provided at every vacuum station in accordance with Bomba’s requirements.

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i) Odour control

Effective odour control system shall be provided to treat air vents from a vacuum
station to prevent malodour impacts being imposed on downstream residential
areas.

Biofilters shall be used to remove the odours from the vacuum pump exhaust gases
containing toxic and odorous compounds by passing the gases through a natural
biologically active filter medium.

j) Noise control

Vacuum station shall be acoustically designed and fitted with noise control
measures, as required to control noise to levels that comply with local council’s
regulations.

k) Controls and Telemetry

i) Vacuum level control

Vacuum levels in the vacuum vessel shall be controlled by vacuum switches with
an operating range of 0 to -1 bar(g). Their purpose is to control the operation of the
vacuum pumps and to maintain the vacuum within the vessel inside the operating
range. A minimum of four vacuum switches shall be provided to operate the duty
and assist pumps, and to provide a high and a low vacuum alarms.

ii) Level control

The level detection probes shall be mounted on the vacuum vessel. Their purpose is
to control the operation of the sewage discharge pumps and to maintain the sewage
within the vessel inside the operating range.

Probes shall be manufactured in one length without any screw joints along their
length. Any form of float switch, including magnetic and ultrasonic types shall not
be permitted.

The level control system shall respond to the following sewage levels in the vacuum
vessel:

Emergency stop level - stops vacuum generation;


- sewage discharge pump operates;

Start level - starts sewage discharge pump;

Stop level - stops sewage discharge pump;

iii) Vacuum / sewage discharge pump control

The controls shall permit the selection of duty, duty assist (where provided) and
standby vacuum pumps and sewage discharge pumps and shall provide for the
automatic introduction of the standby units in the event of failure.

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The electrical controls shall allow sequential operation of all pumps so that running
times are equalised. The standby pump shall automatically cut-in should the duty
pump fail.

iv) Valve monitoring system / station telemetry

Valve monitoring and station telemetry systems are optional, but, shall be
implemented for larger schemes comprising more than 50 interface valves.

The open and closed status of interface valves shall easily be detected by the use of
a remote control via infrared/radio signals. Alternatively, system suppliers may
install a signal cable to relay this information to a display panel within the vacuum
station. All monitoring components installed at the collection chambers shall be
robust and suitable for use in sewerage application.

Large schemes shall also include a telemetry section with volt-free contacts for each
condition/alarm of the station equipment as shown in Table 2.5

Table 2.5 Condition/alarm of the station equipment

DESCRIPTIONS INPUT / OUTPUT


Station power Failed / OK
Vacuum pump power Isolated / OK
Sewage discharge pump power Isolated / OK
Vacuum pump overload Tripped / OK
Sewage discharge pump overload Tripped / OK
Vacuum level Low / OK
Vacuum level High / OK
Sewage level High / OK
Intruder alarm Activated / OK
Fire alarm Activated / OK

v) Emergency power generation

A back-up diesel generator shall be provided to adequately run the station in the
event of an electric power disruption. The generator shall be capable of providing
120% of power for at least one vacuum pump and one sewage discharge pump and
other necessary equipment.

2.1.20 Computerised Sewer Designs

Manual computations for the hydraulic design of a sewer network can be avoided
for many aspects using proprietary computer software or in-house computer
programs. However, there are many variations possible for the different aspects of
hydraulic design, i.e. flow contributions from different sources, quantity of
infiltration, quantity of inflow, sediment cleansing requirements, pipeline
roughness coefficients, etc. It is therefore necessary that the computer software or
programs adopt the hydraulic design requirements as detailed in this guideline.
Some proprietary softwares may not permit certain adaptations required to conform
to the hydraulic design requirements given in this guideline. As such, these
software would be unsuitable.

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2.1.21 Design of Inverted Siphon

Inverted siphons are introduced along a gravity sewer line in order to pass under an
obstacle (e.g. railway line, stream, culvert, etc). An alternative to an inverted
siphon for bypassing obstacles is a pump station. But such an option may be
economically not viable. The profile of an inverted siphon encourages solids
settlement and accumulation and therefore they require more frequent cleaning.
They must be avoided as much as practicable.

Inverted siphon shall consist of at least two or more parallel pipelines (or barrels).
The minimum pipe size of a barrel shall be 225mm, and shall be provided with
necessary appurtenances for convenient flushing and maintenance. There will be an
inlet chamber designed to divide the flow among the pipes by allowing each pipe to
come into operation in succession and an outlet chamber designed to prevent
eddies from carrying solids and sediments back into the siphons.
Longer siphons shall be provided with hatch box with access for maintenance and
cleaning. These siphons shall have independent washout facilities.

The manholes shall have adequate clearance for rodding. In general sufficient head
shall be provided and pipe sizes selected to secure flow velocities of at least
0.9m/sec for average flow. The inlet and outlet shall be arranged so that the normal
flow is diverted to one barrel, and so that either may out of service for cleaning. Its
choice should be taken into consideration the operational and maintenance aspect
of siphons. The siphons shall not have sharp bends, either vertical or horizontal.
The horizontal leg of the siphon shall have a negative gradient of 8° to 10°, whilst
the rising leg shall be limited to 30° to 45° should space permitting. There shall be
no change in pipe diameter along the length of the barrel. Pipes and pipe joints
used for siphons shall be designed at the appropriate pressure rating.

2.1.22 Structural Design of Sewers

The structural design of a buried sewer can be divided into the following two
categories:

a) rigid pipe
b) flexible pipe
All two structural designs shall take account of how the sewer is supported to
determine the loading which the sewer can safely withstand.

The structural design of a buried sewer normally considers only the structural
integrity of the pipe cross section. Although not as critical as the structural
integrity of the pipe cross section, the considerations for the ground conditions and
sewer installation practices that will affect the longitudinal structural integrity shall
not be omitted.

There are many design approaches for each of the two structural design categories.
However, there are only minor alterations among these different approaches. Some
design approaches tend to give a more favourable prediction of performance for a
particular pipe material than other approaches. The use of standard design
approaches given in this guideline will prevent the selection of a particular design

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Planning, Material and Design

approach purely to favour one material over another. Also, the following
recommendations are only meant for general design aspects. Any design aspects
that are not covered by this guideline, the designer shall refer to BS EN 752 or any
other standards deemed appropriate by the Commission.

a) Rigid Pipe Structural Design:

Pipes which are classified as rigid are:

i. vitrified clay pipe


ii. reinforced concrete pipe

The failure of a rigid pipe normally occurs by pipe fracture. Thus, for structural
performance, the determination of the pipe ring crushing strength/load is required.
This strength is determined using a three point loading test as described in the
respective Malaysian standards for the above pipes. Both VC pipe and RC pipe
can be made to achieve different ring strengths as defined in the standards.

When a buried rigid pipe is supported, the load which the pipe can safely withstand
is higher than the load which caused failure in the three point loading test.

The improvement in load resistance provided by different pipe support designs is


defined by the bedding factor. Where the sewer is supported on granular material,
such as crushed rock, the bedding factor becomes a function of the density of the
granular material and the height to which the granular material is placed above the
sewer.

By varying the pipe ring strength and the pipe support, different load resistance can
be achieved.

The pipe support designs permitted by this guideline are limited to those in typical
beddings in Appendix A. They include the following:

i. granular bedding/ Crusher rock


ii. concrete cradle
iii. concrete arch (with granular bedding)
iv. concrete surround

Granular bedding design shall be adopted wherever possible. Concrete support or


arch designs should be avoided. This is due to the difficulty in achieving full
contact of the concrete support with the pipe ring. A higher strength pipe in
combination with crushed rock support is preferred over a lower strength pipe in
combination with concrete support or arch designs.

It is important that the pipe bedding should be properly constructed to allow for the
flexibility at the pipe joints and to ensure uniform pipe supports. Point supports or
loads which may lead to pipe failure must be avoided.

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The soil load to which a rigid pipe can be subjected to shall be determined from
Martson Load Theory. According to the theory, the soil load on a rigid pipe differs
from that on a flexible or semi flexible pipe. The load on a rigid pipe is a function
of trench width, backfill soil type and trench depth. In a narrow trench, trench wall
friction reduces the load applied by the soil backfill. Therefore, wide trench gives
a more conservative loading and shall be used to determine the load on rigid pipe.

Where vehicles will pass over the sewer and the sewer is laid with a cover depth of
less than 2.5 m, the sewer will be subjected to additional loads from such vehicles.
The Boussinesq theory should be used to determine the loads from vehicles in the
design.

The ultimate vehicle load to which the sewer will be subjected to shall be used for
structural design. Where the sewer may be subjected to construction traffic or may
have temporary shallow cover during installation, structural design must examine
such loading conditions to ensure the sewer can withstand such temporary vehicle
loadings.

Determination of vehicle loading shall be in accordance with AS 3725 (Loads on


buried concrete pipes) and AS 4060 (Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes.)

Loads on buried rigid pipe for field conditions and for main roads can be found in
Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried Pipelines published by the UK
Transport Research Laboratory.

b) Flexible Pipe Structural Design:

Pipes which are classified as flexible are:

i. PE pipe
ii. GRP pipe
iii. ABS pipe
iv. Steel pipe

The mode of failure of a flexible pipe is usually by excessive pipe ring


deformation, except for GRP pipe which may be by excessive pipe ring strain. The
occurrence of such a GRP pipe failure depends on the wall thickness.

Normally a standard long term allowable ring deflection is applied for all flexible
pipe. A 5% long term deflection limit has been the most commonly adopted limit
and shall be used except for steel pipe with cement mortar lining. For steel pipe
with cement lining, a 2% deflection limit shall be used. Where surface settlement
is critical, a lower allowable deflection limit may be adopted.

The resistance of a flexible pipe to ring deformation is classified by pipe ring


stiffness. The stiffness classification is derived from a two point short term loading
test. It is a function of the loading force divided by the specified test deflection.
Flexible pipe can be made to achieve different ring stiffness by varying the wall
thickness. For PE pipes, the ring stiffness can also be varied by varying the wall
structure.

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Planning, Material and Design

Similar to rigid pipe, the loading which a flexible pipe can withstand can be
increased when the pipe is supported. For flexible pipes, this external ring support
is more critical. Without it, a flexible pipe would fail under the loads applied by
usual soil cover for gravity sewers and under vehicle loads for shallow cover force
mains.

By varying the pipe ring stiffness and surrounding soil stiffness, different load
resistance can be achieved for flexible pipe. Flexible pipe must be completely
embedded in crushed rock, with the rock to be finished at 150 mm over the top of
the pipe. Crushed rock will give a uniform support around the pipe.

The soil load used for structural design for flexible pipe support shall be the prism
load or the weight of the column of soil directly above the pipe. Marston Load
Theory mentions that this column of soil is partly supported by friction provided by
adjacent soil. Therefore, this frictional support of soil column causes the load on
the flexible pipe to be less than the weight of soil directly above the pipe. This
frictional support may be lost with time and the design using prism load represents
a conservative design.

Where vehicles will pass over the sewer and the sewer is laid with a cover depth of
less than 2.5 m, the pipe will be subjected to additional loads from such vehicles.
The Boussinesq theory should be used to determine the loads from vehicles in the
design approach in this guideline.

The ultimate vehicle load to which the pipe will be subjected to shall be used for
structural design. Where the pipeline may be subjected to construction traffic or
have a temporary shallow cover during installations, structural design must
examine such loading conditions to ensure the pipeline can withstand such
temporary vehicle loadings.

Granular bedding design shall be adopted wherever possible. Typical details of


granular bedding for flexible pipe is given in Appendix A. The structural design of
flexible pipe support must be in accordance with Australian Standard AS/NZS
2566, which uses a modified form of Spangler’s equation for the determination of
pipe deflection. This Spangler equation incorporates Leonhardt’s factor to account
for the change in support provided by surrounding soil stiffness when the trench
width is varied.

For force mains with shallow cover, structural design of flexible pipe may not be
necessary. However, when the structural design of flexible pipe for such a force
main is undertaken, the re-rounding effect of internal pressure should be ignored to
allow for the worst case design, which occurs when the line is out of service.

2.2 Manhole
2.2.1 General

Pre-cast concrete manholes shall conform to MS881 and BS5911. Manholes shall
be constructed with pre-cast concrete sections surrounded by an in-situ concrete
surround. Protecting lining/coating shall be provided to prevent corrosion of the

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concrete due to sulphide attack. Walls shall be either rendered with sulphate
resistant cement mortar at least 20mm thick or lined with PVC, HDPE or epoxy
coating. PVC or HDPE lining shall be at least 5mm thick. Continuity of the lining
shall be provided by means of welding or fusing each individual sheet to the next
prior to the concrete curing. The epoxy coating shall either be high build tar epoxy
system complying with AS 3750.2 and applied in two or more coats to give a total
dry film thickness of not less than 500µm; or high build micaceous iron oxide
pigmented epoxy system complying with As 3750.12 and applied in two or more
coats to give a total dry film thickness of not less than 250 µm. The benching shall
be protected with epoxy coating, high alumina cement mortar, or equivalence.
Only materials and application processes approved by the Commission may be
used.

Brick manholes shall not be used, due to the high risk of excessive infiltration.

Details of manhole types and construction are shown in Appendix A. Straight back
type taper top shall be used while reducing slabs type are acceptable as alternative.
Any other type of pre-fabricated manhole will require prior approval of the
Commission.

The minimum diameter of manhole chambers constructed from pre-cast concrete


rings shall be as given in Table 2.6 below:

Table 2.6 Minimum Manhole Diameters

Depth to Soffit from DN Largest Pipe in Min. Internal


Cover Level (m) Manhole (mm) Dimensionsa (mm)
< 150 1000
225 to 300 1200
< 1.5 375 to 450 1350
525 to 710 1500
820 to 900 1800
> 900 Subject to designer’s
requirements based
on site condition
< 300 1200
375 to 450 1350
> 1.5 525 to 710 1500
820 to 900 1800
> 900 Subject to designer’s
requirements based
on site condition
Note:
a These sizes apply to straight-through pipes; larger sizes may be required for
turning chambers or chambers with several side branches or where specific
maintenance requirements are necessary, e.g disconnecting traps.

An induct vent shall be provided at manholes receiving pumping discharges where


retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where concrete pipe are
laid downstream of the force mains. The induct vent shall have a diameter of
approximately one half of the force mains but shall not exceed 300 mm in

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diameter. The top of the concrete support of the vent shall be built up above flood
level. Details of the induct vent are shown in Appendix A.

Provision of back-drop manhole shall be based on the following criteria:-

a) for pipe size equal to 225 mm or less, back-drop manhole shall be provided
when the difference in invert level is equal to 900 mm or more.
b) for pipe size more than 225 mm, back-drop manhole shall be provided
when the difference in invert level is equal to 1000 mm or more.

2.2.2 Manhole Location

Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission, all manholes shall be sited in public
road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance purposes. Manhole shall
be provided for the following locations:

i.the starting end of all gravity sewers, this may be replaced by a terminal layout
ii.every change in direction or alignment for sewers less than 600 mm in diameter
iii.every change in gradient
iv.every junction of two or more sewers
v.every change in size of sewer

Unless adequate modern cleaning equipment is used for the maintenance of the
sewer, the spacing between manholes shall not be more than 100 m for sewers less
than 1.0 m in diameter. For sewers with diameter larger than 1.0 meter, the spacing
between manholes shall not be more than 150 m.

Where site conditions prevent manhole construction on the existing public sewer, a
manhole shall be provided on the connection pipe as near to the public sewer as
possible.

The connections, details, and methods of manhole construction not covered in this
guidelines shall be in accordance with MS 1228. In addition, the current policies
of the Commission with respect to safety and operation shall be strictly followed.

2.2.3 Pipe Lengths from Manhole

To prevent the differential settling of the manhole and the connecting sewer from
breaking the sewer pipe, rotational flexibility in the sewer close to the manhole is
required. A single flexible joint placed immediately outside the entry to the
manhole is not sufficient to solve the differential settlement problem, unless graded
(governed by gradient permissible range) to connect directly to match invert level
of manhole channel, if unable to match invert level. A short length of “rocker pipe”
having a flexible joint at both ends shall be provided. A 600 mm length short
“rocker pipe” is sufficient to provide the rotational flexibility required for most
circumstances in small diameter pipelines (≤300 mm). For larger pipe, a 900mm
length short “rocker pipe” shall be provided. Refer to drawings in Appendix A.

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2.2.4 Structural Design Considerations for Manhole

i. Concrete used in situ shall be 25Mpa Portland cement unless shown


otherwise by the Qualified Person.
ii. A cement blinding with a minimum of 50 mm thickness shall be placed
before pouring the concrete manhole base.
iii. The base of the manhole shall not be less than 300 mm thickness, which is
measured from the channel invert.
iv. Channel inverts shall be laid accurately to meet entry and exit pipe inverts.
v. The channel invert shall be graded evenly between the entry and exit pipes
vi. Flexible joints shall be provided at the exit and entry of the manholes and
shall be placed immediately outside any poured-in-situ concrete surround.
vii. Joints between the pre-cast chamber rings shall be sealed with suitable
mortar, which can be high alumina cement mortar or equivalence.
viii. The top of the benching shall be sloped at 1 in 12 towards the channel.
ix. The finish surfaces of cast in-situ concrete structures shall be trowelled
smooth without poke holes or exposed aggregate.
x. A minimum of 150mm thick Grade 25 concrete in-situ shall be encased to
the precast concrete section. Brick manholes shall not be used.
xi. Box outs sealed with bricks or equivalence shall be made for any proposed
connections.
xii. Drop connection pipes and fittings in the manhole shall be of the same
diameter and material as the connecting sewer.
xiii. A factory pre-cast intermediate slab shall be provided at every 3 meters
depth and placed at half of the manhole depths. The slabs must have holes
for ventilation.
xiv. Pre-cast reinforced concrete landing, cover slap and flat top’s undersides
shall be painted with 2 layers of coal tar epoxy.
xv. Manhole covers in roads shall be set to the road profile and shall be flushed
with the road surface.
xvi. Manhole covers in unimproved areas shall be set at an elevation to prevent
entry of surface water.
xvii. Manhole frame surrounds shall be filled with 1:3 cement mortar.
xviii. Field coatings to manhole covers and frames shall be applied to surfaces
that are clean, dry and free from rust.
xix. Bolted-in steps are not permissible in all manholes. Provision shall be
provided for portable ladder for access. The lightweight removable ladders
shall be used in manholes where they can easily be inserted and secured
from the surface, in order to deter unauthorized access to sewers.
xx. Maximum depth shall be equal or less than 9 meter and all manholes deeper
than 6 meter are subjected to the Commission’s prior approval. Depending
on the catchment are and size of sewer pipe, manholes deeper than 9 meter
may be considered for the Commission approval.

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xxi. Precast or cast in-situ concrete base of minimum grade 20 with 1 layer of
A6 BRC, 300 mm thick or to Qualified Person’s design shall be provided
under poor soil condition including piling, if necessary.

2.3 Manhole Covers and Frames


2.3.1 General

Manhole covers and frames shall comply with the specifications in this guideline
and BSEN124. Where the specifications in this guideline contradict the
specifications given in BSEN124, the specifications in this guideline shall take
precedence.

2.3.2 Load Class

Manhole covers and frames shall be capable of bearing wheel loads of up to 400
kN and, as such, shall meet the test load requirements for Class D400 manhole
covers and frames given in BSEN124.

2.3.3 Material

The material for manhole covers and frames shall be of spheroidal or nodular
graphite iron (otherwise known as ductile iron) complying with the requirements
specified in BSEN1563 for Grade 500/7.

The production, quality and testing of spheroidal graphite cast iron shall comply
with ISO 1083.

2.3.4 Dimensions, Marking and Surface Finish

The manhole covers shall be free of defects which might impair their fitness for
use.

The dimensions, marking and surface finish of manhole covers and frames shall
comply with the requirements given in Figure A.1 to A.4 in Appendix A.

Tolerance on dimensions shown in Figures A1 to A2 shall be ± 1 mm. The casting


of markings shall be clearly legible.

2.3.5 Seating

When a random cover is placed in a random frame, the adjacent top surfaces of the
cover and frame shall have flushness of level within ± 1 mm.

The manholes covers shall be compatible with their seatings. These seatings shall
be manufactured in such a way to ensure stability and quietness in use.

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2.3.6 Casting

All cast units shall be cleanly cast and free from air holes, sand holes, cold shuts
and chill. They shall be neatly dressed and carefully fettled. All castings shall be
free from voids, whether due to shrinkage, gas inclusions or other causes.

2.3.7 Protective Coating

All surfaces of manhole covers and frames shall be supplied coated with either a:

i. hot applied bituminous material complying with BS 4147 Type I


Grade C
ii. cold applied bituminous material complying with BS 3416 Type II

Immediately prior to coating, surfaces shall be clean, dry and free of rust. The
coating shall be free of bare patches or lack of adhesion. The mean thickness shall
be no less than 70 µm and the local thickness shall be no less than 50 µm.

2.3.8 Water-tightness

No visible leakage shall occur between the manhole cover and its seating in the
frame when tested in accordance with Appendix E of AS 3996.

2.3.9 Safety Features

Manhole covers shall be provided with locking device and hinge to prevent rocking
due to traffic and to provide a theft proof design.

a) Locking Devices

Locking devices shall be either bolts and nuts or a mechanism with a special key
design. The mechanism shall be able to be integrated with the covers and can also
be used as a lifting device. All the mechanism for locking device shall be of
stainless steel in accordance with BS EN ISO 3506. Bolts and nuts for locking
devices shall be hexagonally headed, complying with BS3692.

b) Hinge

All manhole covers shall be hinged. The hinge shall be designed such that, when
in the open position, they shall be secured by a positive mechanical retainer to
prevent accidental closure of the covers. The opening angle of hinged covers shall
be at least 100o to the horizontal. If hinge bolt is used for coupling separate
sections of covers and frames, it shall be of stainless steel in accordance with BS
EN ISO 3506.

2.3.10 Product Certification

Manhole covers and frames shall be certified as complying with the requirements
of this specification. The product testing for certification purposes shall be
undertaken by SIRIM QAS, IKRAM QA services or other third party certification
body. The approval of the product shall be from the Commission.

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The quality control of the certified manhole covers and frames shall meet the
requirements given in Clause 10 of BSEN 124. However, the final inspection and
tests and the frequency of tests/inspection shall not be as shown in Table A3 of
BSEN 124. Instead, the specifications as shown in Table 2.7 below must be
followed. All final inspection and test documents shall be retained for at least 5
years.

Table 2.7 Final inspection and testing

Final Test/Inspection Frequency


Markings legibility inspection Every unit
Casting defects inspection Every unit
Protective coating inspection Every unit
Locking devise inspection Every unit
Seating flushness of cover in frame 1 per 20
Measurements of all dimensions 1 per 100
Load Class Test 1 per 100
Water-tightness Test (only applicable for covers 1 per 100
required to be watertight)
Protective coating thickness measurement 1 per 200

2.4 Design of Network Pump Stations


2.4.1 Specifying of Network Pump Stations

Network pump stations shall be provided only where:

i. Sewage flow by gravity is not allowed by the topography


ii. Excessively deep and expensive excavation for sewer installations will be
required
iii. Sewage needs to be delivered from an area that is outside the natural
drainage catchment of a sewage treatment plant

2.4.2 General Requirements

i. Network pump stations shall be preceded by screens to protect pumps from


being damaged or clogged.
ii. The type of pump used must be suitable for sewage application. Water
pumps must not be used as they are not designed to transfer sewage.

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iii. Drainage of dry wells and valve pits shall be provided. Drainage lines shall
be equipped with back flow protection to ensure that the chamber is not
flooded.
iv. Wherever possible, the wet well shall not be housed within a building
structure with insufficient ventilation.
v. Where separate valve pits are used, then the connecting pipes shall
incorporate at least two flexible joints to allow for differential settlement.
vi. The designer shall ensure that his/her designs comply with all relevant
legislation, standards, guidelines and requirements, and its latest
amendments.
vii. Access and appropriate parking shall be provided at all times for emergency
vehicles, maintenance vehicles and ancillary equipment.
viii. Adequate protection against lightning shall be provided

2.4.3 Buffer Requirements

In order to minimise the nuisance of odours from pumping stations, buffer zone
shall be provided at all sides. The zone shall be at least 20 m from the pumping
station fence to the nearest habitable building fence. The presence of a pumping
station in any development may draw negative visual impacts. To minimise the
visual impact of surface structures of the pumping station, landscaping shall be
provided. Landscaping shall comprise of trees that are non-shedding to minimise
maintenance. The buffer requirements are shown in Appendix A.

Under conditions where there exists the potential of odour nuisance to the nearest
habitable building property line within residential and commercial development
despite having the minimum buffer zone, such odour shall be minimised to the
lowest possible level and in compliance with the EQA.

2.4.4 Pipework Requirements

i. Pipe work shall be of ductile iron with approved internal lining. Other
approved material by the Commission may be used.
ii. External surface of pipe work in chambers and wells shall be epoxy coated.
iii. Buried ductile iron pipe shall have polyethylene sleeving.
iv. Pipe work shall be adequately supported
v. Flanges shall be located at least 150 mm away from structures.
vi. Dismantling joints such as bends shall be provided.
vii. Pumping thrust shall be resisted using pipe supports
viii. All internal pipework within the pump station shall have flanged joints
unless the pipe selected has special jointing requirements.
ix. Flexible couplings should be used where they will facilitate dismantling and
accommodate vibration.

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2.4.5 Wet-well Requirements

i. Suction channels shall be designed to avoid "dead zones", i.e., prevent


solids and scum accumulation.
ii. Minimum hopper bottom slope shall be 1.5 vertical to 1.0 horizontal.
iii. Automatic flushing of grit and solids is required for plants of PE > 2,000.
iv. The difference between stop and start levels shall be a maximum of 900
mm and a minimum of 450 mm.
v. The difference in level between start or stop of duty and assist pumps shall
be greater than or equal to 150 mm.
vi. The minimum sump volume required shall accommodate the pumping
cycle as per Table 2.4.
vii. Benching shall be designed to minimise deposition of solid matter on the
floor or walls of wet wells. The minimum slope of benching shall be 45o to
the horizontal.
viii. Benching shall preferably extend up to the pump intake.
ix. Self cleansing pumps shall be provided.
x. Access into wet wells can be by vertical rung ladders with a maximum
height of 6 m. When the height exceeds 6 m, intermediate platforms shall
be provided with a change in direction of the ladder. Safety cages shall be
provided for ladders exceeding 6 m.
xi. Access covers shall have a minimum clear opening of 600 mm diameter
and be sufficiently large to withdraw pumps vertically.
xii. Access covers shall be capable of being lifted by, at most, two operators.
xiii. On small pump stations (PE < 500), the practice is to provide difference
between the cut-in and cut-out levels, the storage volume equal to 2 to 3
times the peak flow into the wet-well in litres per minute merely to protect
the starting equipment from overheating and failure caused by too frequent
starting and stopping.
xiv. Emergency by-pass shall be provided either at any suitable manhole or wet-
well. The discharge of the by-pass is preferred to the nearest watercourse
and not to the perimeter drain of the pumping station. However, if this is
not available then discharge to the nearest surface drain is allowed.
xv. All wet-well shall be opened and come with stainless steel or other non-
corrosive handrails. If stainless steel tubing is used, it shall be in-filled with
concrete.

2.4.6 Dry-well Requirements

i. The size of dry well depends primarily on the number and type of pumps
selected and on the piping arrangement.
ii. The requirement of pump installation is to provide at least 1.0m from each
of the outboard pumps to the nearest side wall and at least 1.2m between
each pump discharge casing.

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iii. Sufficient room is required between pumps to move the pump off its base
with sufficient clearance left in between the suction and discharge piping
for site repairs, inspection or removal from the pit to the surface for repairs.
iv. Consideration should be given to the installation of monorails, lifting eyes
in the ceiling and A-frames for the attachment of portable hoist cranes and
other devices.
v. Provision should also be made for drainage of the dry well to the wet well.

2.4.7 Structural Requirements

i. Substructure shall be constructed of reinforced concrete with sulphate


resistant cement to resist aggressive soils and groundwater.
ii. Below ground walls shall be waterproofed and protected against aggressive
soils and ground water.
iii. Safe and suitable access to the wells shall be provided.
iv. Internal walls shall be made resistant to sulphide corrosion by coating with
high alumina cement or equivalent coatings.
v. A penstock shall be installed upstream of the wet well to isolate the pump
station.
vi. For safety and operational reasons, a double penstock system may be
required at specific plant.
vii. The penstock spindle shall extend to pump station ground level and shall be
suitably positioned to allow unrestricted operation of the penstock.
viii. Access platforms shall be provided at all locations where dismantling work
takes place.
ix. Access covers shall be hinged with a lifting weight not exceeding 16 kg.
x. Internal walls shall be made resistant to sulphide corrosion by coating with
high alumina cement mortar lining, PVC lining or epoxy coating. Other
materials used under special circumstances are subjected to approval from
the relevant authority.
xi. Penstock greater than 610mm x 610mm shall be motorised and come with
manual overwrite switches. The actuator shall be located above ground
level and above flood level for easy access in the event of flooding.
xii. Protection against falling shall be provided by means of handrails at
walkways and other working areas, where the fall equal or exceeds 1.5 m.
xiii. Edge protection by means of kick plates of at least 50 mm in height shall be
provided, where the drop is equal or exceeds 2.0 m.
xiv. Proper drainage shall be provided at the collection bin area to ensure that
liquid collected could be channelled back to the pump sump.

2.4.8 Ventilation Requirements

i. Ventilation shall be provided for all hazardous zones of the pump station.
ii. Covered pits shall have mechanical ventilation.
iii. Separate ventilation shall be provided for wet wells and dry wells.

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iv. Lighting systems shall be interconnected with ventilation.


v. Permanent ventilation rate and air changes shall comply with MS 1228.
vi. uPVC pipe is not permitted to be used as ventilation ducting between wet-
well and dry-well.

2.4.9 Odour Control

i. the potential for odour generation, its impact and treatment, shall be
considered in all aspects of design
ii. isolate odorous gasses from general ventilation exhausts by containing
identified odour generating sources with a separate local exhaust system
iii. containment of the odour sources shall be by installing lightweight and
corrosion resistant covers/enclosures designed for practical operation and
maintenance works
iv. the local exhaust odorous air shall be conveyed through well designed and
balanced ductworks by a centrifugal fan to an effective odour treatment
equipment

2.4.10 Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings

i. Wet wells and dry wells shall be adequately lit.


ii. Electrical installations shall be water proof, vapour proof and explosion
proof.
iii. If lights are fitted outside the well, then a spotlight system may be used to
provide adequate illumination.
iv. If portable lighting is used, proper ancillaries shall be made available.
v. Equipments shall be sited above the highest water level.

2.4.11 Acceptable Pump System (Fixed Speed Pumps Only)

The acceptable pump types are:

i. Centrifugal
ii. Screw
iii. Screw Centrifugal
Pumps are to be equipped with an auto restart mechanism to allow for automatic
pump restart after power supply has resumed from a power failure. Pumps shall be
equipped with protection accessory, e.g. thermal sensor, leakage sensor, etc. Dry
well mounted pumps shall be equipped with auxiliary services such as cooling and
gland seal water supply.

Guide rail, lifting device and other wet well fittings must be fabricated of stainless
steel, that is corrosion resistant. The use of hot dip galvanised iron is not
recommended.

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Pre-fabricated pump stations are acceptable for small installations of PE less than
or equal to 2,000.

2.4.12 Valve Requirements

2.4.12.1 General
i. All valves shall be anti-clockwise opening.
ii. All valves shall be suitable for use with wastewater and shall be designed to
prevent retention of solids.
iii. All valves shall be identified by durable name plate. Direction of flow shall
be stamped on the valve body.
iv. Bodies and cover for all valves shall be made of ductile iron to BS EN
1563: 1997. Special protective surfaces finishing by short blasting and
finished externally with epoxy corrosion resistant coating shall be provided.

2.4.12.2 Gate Valve


i. Gate valves shall be of the non-rising screw wedge-gate type, double-faced
ductile iron made and with resilient seated.
ii. Gate valve shall conform to MS 1049, BS 5163 EN 1074 Part 2 or BS EN
1171: 2002.
iii. The wedge of the gate valves shall be coupled and integral to the wedge hut
in dezincification resistant high tensile brass (CZ 132) conforming to BS
EN 2287 2: 1993, ISO 2872: 1985.
iv. The spindle of the gate valve shall be of the inside screw non-rising with
machined square or acme threads and operated by a handed or tee-key.
v. Resilient seat valves shall have EPDM covered gates with inside screw
non-rising stem. Stem shall be stainless steel conform to BS EN 10088-3:
2005.

2.4.12.3 Check Valve


i. Check valve shall be of approved by the Commission and suitable for their
intended used and shall comply to BS 12334: 2001.
ii. Check valves of non-slam swing type with extended spindle if necessary
shall be provided at the upstream of a flow detection device.
iii. Only single disc type of check valve shall be used.
iv. The uses of internal counter weights are not permitted for check valve.
v. Type non-slam check valve shall be of the full body type, with a domed
access cover and only on moving pant, the flexible disc.
vi. Disc of check valve shall be of precision molded NBR to BS EN 681-2:
2000. the disc shall be of one-piece construction, precision molded with an
integral o-ring type sealing surface, and contain alloy steel and nylon
reinforcement in the flexible use area.

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Planning, Material and Design

vii. In the absence of check valve, the reverse rotation of the pump shall not
exceed 150% of the rated speed or limit set by the manufacturer.
viii. Tapping (12 mm BSP) shall be located upstream and downstream of check
valves.

2.4.13 Requirements for Level Controls

i. Either floats, electrodes or ultrasonic level controls may be used for start-
stop level of pumps. Those level controls with environmental friendly
features are recommended.
ii. Ultrasonic level control is recommended due to its clog-free nature.
iii. Non-mercury type floats are recommended.
iv. Hollow tube electrodes are not acceptable.
v. Level controls shall be placed where they are not affected by the turbulence
of incoming flow and where they can be safely removed.
vi. When floats are used, cable hanger shall be installed.

2.4.14 Requirements for Alarms

i. Provision of alarms shall be considered inclusive of flammable gas, fire,


high water level, bearing temperature, motor temperature, pump failure,
power failure and vandalism.
ii. An alarm system should have an emergency power source capable
operating for at least 24 hours in the event of failure of the main power
supply and shall be telemetered thereto.
iii. Where no such facility exists, an audio-visual device shall be installed at
the station for external observation.

2.4.15 Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance

The followings items shall be provided:

i. System curves
ii. Pump curves
iii. Operating point of pumps with respect to flow and total dynamic head
(TDH)
iv. Operating characteristics such as efficiency, horsepower, motor rating and
NPSH

2.4.16 Maintenance Considerations

i. Mechanical and electrical equipment selected shall be robust and reliable


and shall require minimal maintenance.
ii. Consideration should also be given to the availability of spare parts.
iii. The provision of appropriate lifting hoists and beams, and lifting eyes or
similar features on heavy equipment, shall be considered.

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iv. Complete sets of current general arrangement and sectional drawings,


operational, maintenance and service manuals, circuit diagrams and parts
lists shall be supplied and be available at all times.

2.4.17 Hazard and Operability

i. All pumping station design shall give consideration to all potential hazard
and operability of design.
ii. HAZOP study may need to be conducted for pumping station design to
identify the hazards and operability issues.
iii. The need for HAZOP study shall comply with requirements stipulated the
Volume II.

2.4.18 Other Requirements

Also refer to MS1228 for additional requirements.

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Table 2.8 Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations (continue on next page)

Design Parameters
Description Unit PE ≤1,000 1,000 < PE ≤ 5,000

Type of station Wet well Wet well


2 2
Number of pumps
1 duty, 1 duty,
(all identical and work
1 stand-by 1 stand-by
sequentially)
(100 % standby) (100 % standby)
Pumps design flow each at Qpeak each at Qpeak
Maximum retention time at Qave min 30 30
Min pass through openings mm 75 75

Minimum suction and discharge


mm 100 100
openings

Pumping cycle start/ 6 min 6 min


(average flow conditions) hour 15 max 15 max

Lifting device* lifting davit lifting beam and block


*- Weight < 16 kg: Manual lifting
- 16 kg ≤ Weight ≤ 250 kg: A davit or ‘A’ frame shall be arranged to allow items lifted by using manual chain
hoist to be projected on a 1.2 m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level. In the pump
station, motorized hoist is required for lifting weight exceeding 100kg.
- Weight > 250 kg: A gantry with motorised hoist shall be arranged to allow items to be projected on a 1.2m truck tray
and positioned at 2m above road level truck tray.

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Table 2.8 Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations

Design Parameters
Description Unit 5,000 < PE ≤ 20,000 PE > 20,000

Type of station wet well or dry well up to 10,000 PE wet well and dry well
10,000 PE above – wet well and dry well

Number of pumps 4 (2 sets) 6 (3 sets)


(all identical and work 1 duty, 1 assist, 1 duty, 1 assist,
sequentially) per set per set
(100 % standby) (50 % standby)

Pumps design flow each at 0.5 Qpeak each at 0.25 Qpeak

Maximum retention time at Qave min 30 30

Min pass through openings mm 75 75


Minimum suction and discharge
mm 100 100
openings
Pumping cycle start/ 6 min
6 - 15
(average flow conditions) hour 15 max
Lifting device* Mechanical and block mechanical
*- Weight < 16 kg: Manual lifting
- 16 kg ≤ Weight ≤ 250 kg: A davit or ‘A’ frame shall be arranged to allow items lifted by using manual chain
hoist to be projected on a 1.2 m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level. In the pump station,
motorized hoist is required for lifting weight exceeding 100kg.
- Weight > 250 kg: A gantry with motorised hoist shall be arranged to allow items to be projected on a 1.2m truck tray and
positioned at 2m above road level truck tray.

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2.5 Interceptors
All development schemes including individual premises that involve any sewerage
works are vetted by the Director General. As part of this vetting, a check is made
on the means of protecting public sewers from the discharge of prohibited matters
such as oil, grease, petrochemicals, fats and solid food wastes. These matters can
lead to congealment, constriction and blockage of sewers and pipelines and can
also present hazards for sewer operations and maintenance. Therefore, suitable
interceptors must be provided on the sewerage systems of garage workshops,
engineering workshops, canteens or any premises that collect such matters. The
design specfication may be acquired from the Director General for such a system.

2.5.1 Oil Interceptors

Oil interceptors shall be provided in drain lines from areas such as garages, parking
zones, service stations, machine shops and industrial plants where oil sediments
and other volatile liquids are generated.

Oil interceptors shall be designed in such a way that pollutants that are lighter than
water liquid are trapped in a chamber and are prevented from being discharged to
the public sewer. The chamber shall be normally fitted with a device to trap
sediments and heavy particles that settle to the bottom. The removal of these
sediments is required periodically.

Intercepted oils shall be capable of being drained off for storage from suitable draw
off points on a continuous operational basis.

The interceptor shall be sized to accommodate the volumes of liquid likely to be


discharged into the drainage system and the trapped pollutants.

2.5.2 Grease Traps

Grease traps shall be provided in drain lines from areas such as restaurants,
canteens, food processing and animal product or feeds factories, where grease and
fat are likely to present in wash down waters or sullage.

Grease traps shall be designed in such a way that solidified grease and fats are
trapped in a chamber prior to discharge and may be skimmed off by means of a
perforated strainer or bucket.

The trap shall be sized adequately to contain the volume of liquid to be discharged
from the drain line and the accumulated grease.

2.6 Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements


Unless otherwise specified in other sections of this guidelines, all the concrete and
reinforcement designed for pump stations and sewer networks shall comply with
the following subsections.

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2.6.1 Concrete

i. Structural use of concrete shall be designed in accordance with MS 1195


ii. Concrete shall generally comply with the relevant requirements in MS 523
iii. Concrete for purposes other than manholes and pumping stations shall have
a strength grade not less than Grade C20 where unreinforced, and not less
than Grade C30 where reinforced
iv. Structures that are designed for retaining sewage or other aqueous liquids
shall be in accordance with BS8007, which specifies C35A concrete.
Where required, higher strength grades may be specified by the Director
General.
v. Concrete exposed to a sewage atmosphere shall be lined with minimum 20
mm high alumina cement mortar complying with BS 915 Part 2 or 2 mm
epoxy coating using a method of application approved by the Commission.
vi. Concrete and cement mortar shall be made using a cement with sufficient
resistance to sulphate attack if contacted with sewage
vii. Approval for admixtures shall be obtained prior to inclusion in the concrete
mix. All admixtures shall comply with MS 922
Aggregates shall comply with MS 29 and shall be coarse aggregate of maximum 20
mm nominal size

2.6.2 Cement

One of the following cement shall be used to resist sulphate attack:

♦ Sulphate-resisting Portland cement complying with MS 1037


♦ Portland pulverised fuel ash cement complying with MS 1227
♦ Portland blastfurnace cement complying with MS 1389
♦ High silica content Portland cement complying with AS/NZS 3582
♦ Super-sulphated cement complying with BS 4248

2.6.3 Steel Reinforcement and Falsework

♦ Steel reinforcement shall comply with:


1. MS 144 for cold reduced mild steel wire
2. MS 145 for steel fabric
3. MS 146 for hot rolled steel bars
♦ Scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of steel reinforcement shall
be in accordance with BS 8666
♦ Welding of steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with BS 7123
♦ Falsework shall be in accordance with BS 5975

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Industry Guidelines
Section 3
Construction and
Installation
Construction and Installation

3.1 Introduction
The correct installation of sewer systems is critical to the efficient and effective
sewer system operation. Poor construction practice causes defects in the sewer at
joints, along pipe barrels, at manholes, transition points (e.g. pipe to manhole), etc.
Adequate site supervision and certification by consultants, with reference to
approved design drawings, are therefore also required.

The various construction and installation aspects of sewer system can be divided
into:

i. Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling


ii. Trench Excavation
iii. Pipe Laying
iv. Pipe Jointing
v. Special Requirements for Ancillaries and Protection
vi. Connections to Public Sewers

A description of the requirements for each stage is given below.

3.2 Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling


3.2.1 Pipes and Fittings Delivery

a) Materials delivered shall be from approved suppliers.


b) Pipes and fittings on the delivery truck shall be secured firmly without
damaging the pipe and fittings. Pipes and fittings shall be protected from
any damage from the chain securings by using rubber, carpet or textile
paddings.
c) Pipes and fittings shall be checked to ensure that they have not moved
during transportation.
d) The pipes and fittings shall not be stacked in contact with each other and
shall be separated by wooden spacers. The pipes stack can be secured by
strapping or crating or can be secured by chocks at the outer pipes of each
layer.
e) Sockets of pipe in adjacent layers should be placed at opposite ends.
Alternatively, sockets of adjacent pipe can be placed at opposite ends.
f) Thermoplastic pipes (PE, ABS) shall not be supported in such a way that
will cause the pipes to be twisted or bowed.
g) Sewer pipe and components shall be checked for damage before being
removed from the delivery truck

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h) The delivered pipes and fittings shall be checked against the design
drawings and the delivery docket to ensure the pipe and fittings delivered
are of the strength, stiffness, pressure class, length, joint type, diameter,
fitting type, etc. specified.
i) The delivery truck shall be positioned on a flat ground or in such a way
that pipes and fittings would not fall off the truck when unsecuring the
fastenings.
j) Pipes and fittings shall not be pushed off the delivery truck and shall not
be allowed to drop to the ground.
k) When pipes are delivered in crates, the crates shall be removed intact,
wherever possible.
l) Pipes and fittings shall be lifted from the delivery truck using approved
slings. Plastic covered wire mesh slings, hemp rope slings and chain
slings without rubber sleeving are not suitable. For plastic pipes or pipes
with external coating, webbed synthetic slings shall be used.
m) Alternatively, pipes and fittings can be removed from the delivery truck by
rolling a pipe at a time down the wooden runners. The pipe rolling shall
be simultaneously controlled by ropes.
n) Uncrated light thermoplastic pipes shall be lifted manually and carefully
off the truck and shall not be dragged across the truck bed, edges or other
hard and sharp surfaces. This is to avoid the scoring of plastic pipe.

3.2.2 Pipe Handling at Site

a) Pipes shall not be dragged or pushed over the ground.


b) Pipes and fittings shall not be dropped in any way.
c) Pipes and fittings shall not knock against each other or any other objects.
d) The pipe lifting shall be controlled, where necessary, using ropes or by
hand to ensure they do not knock against other objects.
e) When rolled, pipes shall be rolled on smooth timber bearers, which are free
of nails, fasteners, etc., and sufficiently raised above the ground to prevent
hitting any rocky ground, tree roots, etc.
f) When rolled on timbers, pipes shall not be pushed with a machinery
bucket.
g) Pipes with external coatings shall not be rolled. Instead, these pipe shall
be lifted into place.
h) Pipes and fittings shall be lifted using approved slings
i) Pipe lifting equipment shall be of sufficient strength and reach to lift the
intended individual pipe or crate of pipes.
j) Mechanical lifting units (cranes, backhoes etc.) shall be stable or properly
stabilised prior to lifting operations to ensure they would not tip and
damage pipe and fittings.

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k) The slings or chains used for lifting the load shall be secured to the load in
the right manner to ensure the load does not slip or tilt excessively.
l) All other safe lifting procedures not covered above shall be adopted.
m) The lifting and moving of all the steel pipes and any pipes that contain
internal linings shall follow the manufacturer instructions.

3.2.3 Pipe Storage

a) The pipe and fittings storage area shall be away from traffic and shall not
obstruct any property access or pedestrian route.
b) The pipe and fittings storage area shall be at a location that allows lifting
machinery to position easily and safely for lifting pipes and fittings.
c) Pipes shall be stacked on a flat and level firm ground or the base of the
pipe stack shall be made level using additional solid timbers under base
bearers.
d) There shall be no rocks, tree roots, etc. under the pipe stack, which may
cause point load.
e) The sockets shall be alternated to different ends for each pipe stack layer.
The sockets shall be protruded out of the stack.
f) The base timber bearers shall be sound and without protrusions. The cross
section of each timber shall be at least 75 mm by 75 mm. The base bearers
shall provide support near the pipe ends, but placed behind sockets. The
placement of base bears shall not be more than 1.5 m apart.
g) VC, RC, DI, Steel and GRP pipe layers shall be separated using timber
spacers of at least 50 mm wide and 50 mm thick. These spacers shall not
be placed more than 1.5 m apart. These spacers will prevent pipes in each
layer from touching pipes in the next layer.
h) For VC and RC pipes that are not crated, the pipes shall not be stacked
more than 3 pipes high. The pipe stacks shall be wedged to prevent them
from rolling off the stack.
i) Thermoplastic pipes (PE and ABS) shall be stacked in such a way to
prevent them from being twisted or bowed.
j) Thermoplastic pipes shall be either stacked in a pyramid with no more than
1 m high or in a square with vertical side supports for more than 2 pipes
high.
k) Plastic pipe and fittings shall be kept under a cover that prevents direct
exposure to sun light.
l) Plastic pipe and fittings shall not be covered with plastic sheeting.
m) Plastic pipe and fittings shall be stored away from oils, greases, solvents
and other aggressive chemicals.
n) Plastic pipe shall be stored away from sources of heat such as engine
exhausts.
o) Care shall be taken to prevent scoring and scratching of plastic pipe and
fittings.

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p) Joint lubricants, rubber rings and other jointing materials shall be stored in
a secured area that cannot be accessed by the public.
q) Any safe pipe stacking procedure not covered above, but recommended by
the manufacturer, shall be adopted.
r) The rubber rings that are not delivered fitted to the pipe socket or sleeve
shall be stored away from direct sunlight or continual artificial light. Also,
the rubber rings shall be stored in a cool area that is away from oils,
greases or other petroleum products.
s) When rubber rings are delivered fitted to a pipe socket or sleeve, the pipe
ends with the rubber ring shall be shielded from sunlight using a hessian
cloth.
t) Rubber rings shall be retained in the original sealed packaging until they
are required.

3.2.4 Pipe Damage

a) Pipes, fittings (including coatings and linings) and rubber rings shall be
inspected for damage on delivery, immediately before laying and after
laying.
b) Damaged pipe and fittings shall be identified and marked with an indelible
marking of “Damaged” in a clearly distinguishable colour.
c) Damaged rubber rings shall be cut through completely to prevent
inadvertent use.
d) Damaged pipe, fittings, and rubber rings shall be set aside and separated
from the undamaged components.
e) Pipes or fittings shall only be repaired if they can be restored back to a
satisfactory state. Approval for repair shall be sought from the
Commission before the repair.
f) Pipes or fittings that are damaged and are in a repairable state shall be
repaired according to the manufacturers instructions.
g) Damaged pipe and fittings that are not permitted to be repaired shall be
removed from the site as soon as possible.
h) PE and ABS pipes with damage in the barrel, shall have the damaged
section and at least 100 mm either side of the damage cut from the barrel.
i) Repaired pipes and fittings shall be used only after the approval for reuse
from the Commission is granted.

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3.3 Trench Excavation


3.3.1 Protection of Affected Services, Structures, Pavements and
Vegetation

a) Owners of affected property, structures, services and other pipelines


(sewer, water, gas, electricity, telecommunications lines, fuel lines,
chemical pipelines) along or within 3 m of the excavation shall be notified.
b) Services and other pipelines shall be protected, uncovered, temporarily
supported or temporarily relocated in accordance with the conditions
specified by the owner.
c) Where the shutdown of a service or pipeline cannot be avoided,
arrangements shall be made with the owner of the service or the pipeline
on the closure and reinstatement requirements.
d) Damages to any affected structure, service or pipeline shall be avoided.
e) Damage to any structure, service or pipeline shall be informed to the
owner and shall be repaired as quickly as possible in accordance with the
requirements of the owner.
f) Damage to vegetation (trees, bushes, gardens), paved areas (roads,
footways, kerbs), fences or other property within the construction zone
shall be minimised.
g) The length of time that any paved route is out of use shall be minimised.
h) Not more than half the width of a roadway shall be disrupted at any one
time.
i) Spoils shall not be placed on road surfaces. Where there is no other
approved storage area, spoil shall be carted away.
j) Non-reusable material excavated from roadways shall be disposed of in an
appropriate manner. Only fillings approved by the responsible authority
for the roads shall be used as refill.
k) Excavations shall be sufficiently clear of building foundations.
l) Excavations adjacent to roads shall be at least 1 m clear of the road edge
except when otherwise approved by the Director General.
m) Trenches adjacent to roads, buildings and structures shall be continuously
supported until the trench is refilled.
n) Structures, services, vegetation, paving, or other property not within the
construction zone shall not be damaged.
o) Temporary fencing shall be provided where barriers such as fences and
walls are dismantled.
p) Warning signs and temporary fencing shall be provided at the work site for
excavation spoils, access routes, steep or loose slopes resulted by
excavation work.

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q) Warning signs shall be in accordance with the relevant Malaysian


Standards. Some of the relevant Malaysian Standards are:
i. MS 980 Specification for safety signs and colours: colorimetric
and photometric properties of materials
ii. MS 981 Specification for safety signs and colour: colour and
design
iii. MS 982 Specification for safety signs, notices and graphic
symbols
r) Adequate lighting and reflective signals, which can make clearly visible
the perimeter of the work site to pedestrians and traffic, shall be provided.
s) Adequate lighting shall be provided for works undertaken in poor lighting
or at night. Lighting in confined spaces shall be explosion proof.
t) Alternative means of access shall be provided to rights of way, buildings
and property where usual means of access are disrupted by the excavation.
u) Soils shall not be taken out of the work site, put onto pavements or flushed
down to drains or water courses.
v) Road drains, gutters and channels shall not be obstructed.
w) Drains disturbed by works shall be rerouted to ensure continual operation.
x) Sufficient top soil that will be used for surface reinstatement shall be
removed and stockpiled separately.
y) When dewatering, care shall be taken to ensure that the adjacent structures,
services and building foundations are not affected.
z) Water removed from the excavation shall be disposed of without damaging
other property or causing a public nuisance.

3.3.2 Excavation Requirements

a) The required line of the sewer and manhole locations shall be set out using
accepted surveying practices.
b) Manhole locations shall be pegged and the line of the excavation between
manholes shall be maintained straight using one or more of pegs, chalk lines
laser beam lines and string line.
c) Changes to the line, grade or level due to unforeseen obstructions or
proximity to services shall be approved by the Commission prior to making
the actual changes.
d) The trench shall be excavated precisely along the marked alignment to
ensure the sewer will be in the centre of the trench.
e) The trench shall be excavated to a depth so that the sewer can achieve the
specified level and grade when the specified bedding depth is used.
f) Over-excavation of the trench depth shall be avoided.

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g) For open excavation, depending on depth of sewer and soil condition,


sufficient slope protection must be provided and supported by approved
consultant drawings and design.
h) When the excavations are required to cross rivers, railway lines, and any
other obstructions, minimum soil cover requirements specified by the
responsible authorities shall be observed. In extreme cases, inverted siphons
may be necessary. Minimum requirements for inverted siphons are shown in
the standard drawings in the Appendix, and they must be designed
individually based on actual locations.
i) When working with poor ground conditions, construction depth shall be
minimised. Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and cross-
sectional sewer profile drawings, which give details of construction based
on soil reports.
j) The base of the trench shall be trimmed carefully to level and grade.
k) Where sight rails are used to determine trench excavation depth, at least
three sight rails shall be used for each manhole length.
l) Sight rails shall be fixed to a uniform height above sewer invert.
m) Rocks that cause an uneven trench base shall be removed. The resulting
holes shall be refilled with the specified embedment material.
n) The trench in the pipe zone shall be excavated to the minimum width limits
as given in the specification, except where a wider trench is needed due to
unsupportive soil adjacent to the pipe zone.
o) The trench sides shall be vertical except where permitted otherwise by the
Commission.
p) To prevent trench wall from collapsing which may lead to injuries and pipe
damage, timber or steel support shall be provided in the trench when the
trench is deeper than 1.5 m. These supports must be adequately designed
for.
q) Where possible, spoil shall be placed only on one side of the trench.
r) Spoil shall be placed at an appropriate distance away from the edge of the
trench (minimum 600 mm). This is to prevent the spoil material from
falling into the trench or to prevent the weight of the spoil from collapsing
the trench wall.
s) Unsupportive (very soft, loose, spongy or puddly) soil in the base of the
trench (as determined by the Commission) shall be removed and replaced.
The replacement based shall be sufficiently supportive and shall require
approval from the Commission.
t) Excessive excavation shall be refilled with approved materials to the
specified compaction.
u) Where possible, the excavated trench shall be kept free of water until
sufficient backfill is placed above the sewer. This is to prevent the base of
the trench from becoming spongy and to prevent the pipe from moving off
line or grade.

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v) Changes to the line, grade or level of the sewer shall be properly recorded
for incorporation in the as-constructed drawings. All as-constructed
drawings, irrespective of whether there are changes to the original design
drawings, shall be certified by consultants and shall include sufficient
details, including as-built sewer invert levels. These drawings shall be
submitted to the Director General.
w) Excavation shall not proceed too far ahead of pipe laying to avoid damages
from flooding or spoil.
x) Excavation shall not proceed too far ahead of the required trench support
placing to avoid trench wall from collapsing.
y) Excavation shall comply with the relevant Occupational Safety and Health
Act (OSHA) requirements for safety.

3.3.3 Bored Excavation

a) The bore shall be on the line, level and grade and of sufficient diameter to
allow pipes to be inserted without over-stressing the joints or damaging the
pipes.

3.4 Pipe Laying


3.4.1 Pipe Bedding

a) Only approved materials are allowed to be used for pipe embedment. They
shall be in accordance to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional
sewer profile drawings, which shall also provide details of the designed
bedding types.
b) The bedding material shall be placed as soon as possible after the base of
the trench is prepared and excess water has been removed.
c) Granular bedding shall be placed, compacted and graded so that it offers
continuous support to the sewer. The compacting, where required, shall
achieve a uniform density.
d) A small hole shall be left in granular bedding for each socket, jointing
sleeve, flange, etc. that may project into the bedding. The holes shall be of
size that is just sufficient for projections to be clear of bedding. Long and
large holes that may undermine the pipe barrel support are not allowed.
e) A recess shall be made in the bedding to permit the withdrawal of the sling
without disturbing the remaining bedding.
f) Where the bedding is disturbed, the pipe shall be raised again to repair the
bedding.
g) Pegs or other temporary aids to levelling shall be removed before pipe
laying.

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3.4.2 Pipe and Fittings Placement

a) Before lowering the pipes into the trench, pipes shall be placed next to the
trench away from the trench edge. The pipes shall be placed on the opposite
side of the spoil beside the trench with their sockets facing upstream.
Where required, the pipes shall be blocked or chocked to prevent any
rolling.
b) Pipes and fittings (including linings, sheathings and protective paintworks)
shall be checked for damage before and after laying in the trench.
c) VC pipes shall be carefully tapped at mid length and either end with a
wooden mallet or, otherwise, a metal bar. This is to detect a clear ring that
indicates soundness. This is best undertaken while each pipe is lifted in free
air with a lifting sling.
d) Pipe and fittings shall not be dropped into the trench. Instead, pipes shall be
lowered into the trench using approved slings.
e) Pipes shall be laid from the downstream end towards the upstream end.
f) The laying of pipes shall proceed carefully to ensure the line, level and
grade are within the specified tolerances.
g) Pipes shall not be dropped or impacted forcefully into the bedding to obtain
the specified level or grade.
h) Concrete pipes with elliptical reinforcement shall be laid with the load line
on the vertical axis at the top or bottom position.
i) Holes made in granular bedding for projections of sockets, flanges, etc. shall
be lightly filled where necessary without pushing the pipe/fitting off line,
level or grade.
j) Bedding shall be checked to ensure continuous support along the pipe
barrel. Further bedding material shall be placed to an even height and
uniformly compacted across the trench to ensure the full support of the pipe
haunch.
k) Pipes that are laid on concrete, grout, cement stabilised bedding or
connected to a concrete structure shall consist of a flexible joint at the
upstream end immediately outside such a zone.
l) Pipe level, grade and alignment shall be sighted using sight rails and boning
rod or laser and target. They shall be in accordance to the approved
longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings, which shall be
submitted for approval before work at site is allowed to begin.
m) The invert level of each pipe laid shall be checked during laying and
immediately after laying completion, and with reference to the approved
drawings.
n) Boning rods shall have a foot to rest on the pipe invert with a vertical spirit
level attached and shall not be more than 45 m apart.
o) The pipe interior shall be cleaned after laying and kept clean and free of
water.
p) The pipe ends shall be sealed with a tightly fitting plug immediately after
laying, cleaning of the pipe interior and at the end of the day after laying.

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q) The branch arm of the oblique branch junction fitting, if installed, shall be
laid in such a way that it is at approximately 45° off horizontal level.
r) Junction fittings shall be properly supported using well compacted crushed
rock (or, where required, concrete). The coverage of the support shall be
across to the trench wall and into the junction trench.
s) Branch connections shall be sealed with an approved plug where
connections are to be made at a later time.
t) Any pipe laid that is out of alignment either vertically or horizontally or
shows undue settlement shall be taken up and re-laid correctly.
u) Photographs shall be taken during pipe laying and after sewer pipe laying
for all lengths of pipes and manholes.

3.4.3 Pipe Jacking

a) Jacking method of pipe laying shall be employed only when the conditions
or the requirements of the responsible authorities require such a method.
b) The pipes used for jacking shall be able to withstand the laterally induced
jacking stresses without damage.
c) The setting out of the guide rails for the pipe and the actual jacking
operation shall maintain a high accuracy level of line and grade.
d) The direction and grade for jacked sewer shall not deviate from the designed
alignment for more than 100 mm for every 100 meters of sewer.
e) All the joints used for connecting the jacked pipes shall be watertight and
durable.

3.4.4 Concrete Pipe Support

a) Concrete used shall be 20 MPa Portland cement concrete with a slump no


greater than 80 mm.
b) When purpose-made pre-cast concrete blocks are used, the block shall have
approximately the same width as the trench and shall be positioned just
behind each pipe socket. A compressible packer of polystyrene or particle
board shall be placed between the pipe and the concrete block.
c) Concrete shall be poured in one lift.
d) Pipes shall be prevented from floating or other movement during concrete
pouring.
e) A space shall be left between the concrete supports for the pipe socket by
use of a polystyrene spacer of 20 mm minimum thickness. This is to retain
rotational flexibility at the joint.
f) The concrete support shall fit the pipe closely after hardening.
g) Concrete shall be allowed to cure for at least 7 days before applying any
load.
h) Where the trench base is soft or puddly, a blinding layer shall be placed on
the trench base before the concrete is placed.

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3.4.5 Pipe Cutting

a) Only VC, HDPE, ABS and DI pipes are permitted to be cut in the field.
However prior approval from the Director General is required should the
HDPE helically wound profile wall pipe needs to be cut in the field. All
pipes shall be cut in accordance to approved methods.
b) Rough edges and burrs shall be removed from inside and outside of HDPE
and ABS pipe with a rasp or file.
c) Pipes shall be cut in a neat and skilful manner by workers experienced in
pipe cutting.
d) Pipes shall be cut perpendicularly to the pipe axis.
e) Any damage to the cement lining of DI pipe shall be repaired to the
satisfaction of the Commission.

3.4.6 Backfill of Trench

a) Selected excavated material shall be placed above the specified pipe support
until 300 mm above the sewer. They shall be in accordance to the approved
longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings, which also give the
bedding details and the types of fill material.
b) Trench support shall be progressively removed as the backfill is placed.
c) There shall be at least 300 mm of cover over the sewer before light
mechanical compaction can commence.
d) There shall be at least 1000 mm of cover over the sewer before heavy
mechanical compaction can commence.
e) For plastic pipe, a metallic marker tape shall be laid along the line of the
sewer at approximately 500 mm below the surface level.

3.4.6 Other General Requirements

a) Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional


drawings of sewer profiles of both gravity sewers and force mains. These
drawings submitted for approval must include details of bedding types and
manhole types, and their design must be must be supported by soil reports.
b) Pipe laying shall be such that there is adequate access for operations and
maintenance of completed sewers, especially in undulating ground profiles,
with a minimum width of 6 metres, which shall be supported by drawings
with ground profiles during drawings approval stage.
c) For easy identification of underground forced sewer mains, their layout
shall be planted with marker posts at every 200m length and at every
change of pipe directions. Valve chambers provided shall have adequate
access for operations and maintenance.

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d) There shall be adequate site supervision of construction, and at least these


documents must be submitted before approval of construction:
i. Photographs showing sewer pipe laying during an after construction
for all lengths.
ii. Testing certificates from the consultants (see Section 4 on Sewer
Testing)
iii. Supervision certification from the consultants
iv. As-built drawings certified by the consultants

e) The construction and installation works shall incorporate the consideration


of health and safety.

3.5 Pipe Jointing


3.5.1 Flexible Joints

a) Joint components (i.e. spigots and sockets or sleeves and rubber seals) shall
be checked for damage after delivery, before and after usage.
b) Every part of the rubber ring shall be bent by hand to detect cracks.
c) VC pipe sockets shall be gently tapped with a wooden mallet or, otherwise,
a metal bar to detect a clear ring that indicates soundness.
d) Steel sleeve collars used for jacking pipe shall be checked for damage to the
coating.
e) Pipe jointing surfaces and rubber seals shall be wiped clean immediately
before jointing using a clean cloth.
f) The rubber ring shall be placed correctly around the pipe joint.
g) The rubber ring shall not be twisted in any way prior to jointing and shall be
seated in the correct position.
h) For skid type of joints (i.e. the sealing ring remains stationary and does not
roll into place), the spigot shall be lubricated with an approved lubricant.
i) The pipe to be jointed shall be aligned with the laid sewer before pushing in
the joint.
j) The pipe to be laid shall be orientated so that the offset inside the pipe at the
joint is minimise at the invert.
k) The pipe that is already laid and to be connected to another pipe shall be
restrained to prevent its pipe joints being further stressed and to prevent the
laid pipe from being pushed off grade or alignment.
l) Pipe joints shall be connected using a bar and block (crow bar and a block
of wood to protect the pipe end) or a pipe puller.
m) A machine bucket shall only be used to connect a pipe joint where approval
is given by the Commission. This method shall only be used for large
diameter pipes (larger than 600 diameter pipe) where the jointing
compression force makes it impossible to use a bar and block or pipe puller.
A timber shall be placed across the pipe end to protect the pipe from

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Construction and Installation

damage. Pressure shall be applied by the bucket gently while the insertion
shall be carefully monitored and directed by a person next to the joint.
n) No excessive force shall be applied to make the joint.
o) After pushing the spigot into the socket, the seal shall be checked to ensure
the seal is correctly located and the spigot is properly inserted. No
contaminants are allowed between jointing surfaces. The joint or pipe shall
not have damage from jointing.
p) Any allowable deflections at joints shall only be made after the pipe jointing
is made.
q) Where a pipe is to be deflected at a joint, the deflection shall not exceed the
allowable limit for the specific type of joint.

3.5.2 Solvent Weld Joints

a) The socket and spigot shall be checked for damage before and after jointing.
b) Damaged spigot ends shall be cut from the pipe with 100 mm clearance to
the damage. The spigot end shall be cut perpendicularly to the pipe and any
burrs shall be removed.
c) The spigot shall be inserted up to the witness mark.
d) If a witness mark is not already on the pipe, the mark shall be made to
ensure that the spigot is inserted to the appropriate length.
e) Witness marks drawn on site shall be made with a soft pencil or felt pen
marker that would not score or scratch the pipe.
f) The witness mark shall be of the depth of the socket and shall be measured
from the pipe end.
g) A dry fit of the joint shall be made before the jointing.
h) Jointing surfaces shall be wiped clean and dried with a clean cloth.
i) Jointing surfaces shall be primed using an approved priming solution. The
priming shall be applied with a clean cloth or swab freshly dipped in the
fluid immediately before jointing.
j) A thin and even coat of solvent cement shall be applied to the socket and the
spigot, which should then be inserted up to the witness mark.
k) The jointing surfaces shall not be contaminated with water, dirt, etc.
l) The jointing shall be made immediately after the application of solvent
cement.
m) After the spigot is pushed firmly into the socket, the joint shall be hold in
the same position for at least 30 seconds without moving.
n) The jointed pipes shall not be moved for at least 5 minutes after jointing.
The jointed pipes shall be handled with extreme care for at least another
hour.
o) Joints shall be left to dry for at least 24 hours before pressure testing.

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p) Containers of solvent cement and primer shall be kept tightly sealed when
not in use.
q) Solvent cement and priming fluid are highly flammable. Therefore, the
solutions shall be stored in a cool place away from any source of spark or
fire.

3.5.3 Flanged Joints

a) Flanges, particularly flange faces and rubber seal shall be checked for
damage before and after jointing.
b) Appropriate metal backing plates shall be used on plastic flanged pipe.
c) Screwed-on flanges shall have the screw thread sealed with a compound
suitable for sewers.
d) Flanged ends shall be correctly aligned before jointing.
e) A steel bar or similar object shall not be used as a lever through the flange
holes to bring the bolt holes into line prior to bolting.
f) The rubber seal between flanges shall be made of an approved compound
and shall meet the specified requirements.
g) The flange faces and the rubber seal shall be wiped clean with a cloth
immediately before jointing.
h) Bolts shall be tightened evenly and gradually in rotation.
i) Bolts and nuts shall be tightened with a torque trench set at an appropriate
torque.
j) Plastic flanges shall not be distorted before or after jointing.
k) After pressure testing, metal flanges shall be reprimed and painted with two
coats of bituminous based coating in accordance with BS 4147 for below
ground protection.

3.5.4 Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding)

a) The welded joint shall use a socket-spigot joint with taper sleeve wherever
possible.
b) Welding surfaces shall be cleaned to a bright metallic finish before welding.
c) Welders shall be qualified in accordance with the requirements of British
Standard BS 4515 Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and
offshore.
d) Welding procedures shall be tested, qualified and approved in accordance
with BS 4515.
e) Welds shall be inspected and tested in accordance with BS 4515.
f) After welding, exposed external surfaces shall be cleaned by sand blasting
or wire brushing. The dry surfaces shall be wrapped in an approved manner
with an approved wrapping tape to provide corrosion resistance.

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3.5.5 Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints

a) The pipes to be joined shall be of the same grade of polyethylene and of the
same wall thickness.
b) The butt welding machine shall be of an approved type and shall be fit for
use.
c) The welding machine shall be sheltered from wind and rain during the
welding process.
d) A practice weld shall be performed and discarded to check the operational
effectiveness of the machine.
e) The pipe ends shall be trimmed square.
f) The ends to be jointed shall be kept free of dirt, grease and moisture after
trimming.
g) The heating plate shall be brought into contact with the pipe ends only after
it is at the correct temperature.
h) The pipe ends shall be held against the heating plate for the specified time
appropriate for that pipe size.
i) Immediately after the removal of the heating plate (no longer than 15
seconds after heating), the pipe ends shall be pressed together with an
appropriate pressure for a specified time appropriate for that pipe size.
j) The joint shall be maintained clamped and pressurised in the machine for a
suitable period of cooling time (approx. 10 minutes minimum).
k) After removed from the machine, the joint shall not be stressed until it has
completely cooled (approx. 10 minutes minimum).
l) The weld shall not be artificially cooled with cold air or water.
m) The external bead shall carefully be removed. The joint zone shall be
thoroughly checked.
n) A pipe end that has undergone a complete heating cycle but not joined shall
not be reheated. The unjoined pipe end shall be cut off to at least 250 mm
from the end.

3.6 Special Requirements For Sewer


3.6.1 Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines

a) The thrust block shall be extended to approximately 180° around the fitting.
b) The thrust block shall not cover a flexible joint.
c) The thrust block shall be constructed equally around the centreline of the
fitting.
d) The thrust block shall bear firmly against a recess at the side of the trench.
e) The trench face which the thrust block bears against shall be freshly cut and
undisturbed.

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f) Each thrust block shall have sufficient bearing area.


g) Thrust block shall be cast-in-place with 20 MPa concrete.
h) For plastic pipe or pipe with a protective coating, a compressible membrane
of rubber, felt or cork shall be placed on the pipe to protect it from damage
from its movement in the thrust block.
i) Formwork shall be used to cast the thrust block to the required dimensions.
j) Formwork shall be removed before any testing.
k) Reference shall made to the standard drawings for thrust block to ensure
proper shape and size, which must be designed for each individual thrust
blocks.

3.6.2 Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes

a) A bulkhead to prevent soil erosion shall be used where the gradient of the
sewer is steeper than 1 in 40.
b) A restraint to prevent sewer slippage shall be used where the gradient of the
sewer is steeper than 1 in 6.
c) The restraint or bulkhead shall be placed at the downstream side of the
socket.
d) Concrete bulkheads shall be keyed into the base and sides of the trench by at
least 100 mm.
e) A weep hole with the upstream end covered with a geotextile filter shall be
provided through a bulkhead immediately above pipe invert to allow
drainage of groundwater.

3.6.3 Pipe Embedment and Overlay

a) The embedment material type and its grading shall take considerations of
the sewer type or length.
b) Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional
drawings of the sewers showing the bedding types, which shall be designed
based on supporting soil reports.
c) Embedment material shall not be contaminated with other soils.
d) Embedment material shall be brought up evenly in layers on each side of the
pipe.
e) Each embedment layer shall be placed to a depth that permits the
compaction equipment to achieve the specified density.
f) The pipe shall not be pushed off alignment, level or grade while placing the
embedment.
g) Where the embedment requires tamping, tamping equipment shall not come
into contact with the pipe.
h) Temporary trench wall support shall be lifted when the embedment is
compacted.

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i) While placing the embedment for the pipe haunches, unnecessarily voided
areas shall be avoided.
j) At least 300 mm of cover shall be placed over the pipe before light
mechanical compaction, such as a hand operated whacker, can commence.

3.6.4 Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe

a) Plastic sleeve shall be secured immediately behind the second spigot


jointing witness mark with three overlapping turns of adhesive tape. After
that, sleeve shall be tightly wrapped around the pipe by folding over surplus
sleeving. Then, the sleeving shall be further secured with three winds of
overlapping adhesive tape at one meter intervals.
b) The pipe shall be placed in the trench with the folding of the sleeve located
at the top of the pipe.
c) After the pipe jointing, the sleeve of the preceding pipe shall be brought
over to cover the socket and the cover shall follow the socket outer surface
closely.
d) The sleeve of the preceding pipe shall overlap the sleeve of the next pipe.
The sleeve overlap shall be secured with three overlapping winds of tape.

3.6.5 ‘Rocker’ Pipe Connections to Manholes

a) The ‘rocker’ pipe connecting sewers to manholes shall have sufficient cast
insitu concrete surround and extended concrete base as shown in typical
manholes drawings in Appendix A.

3.7 Reinstatement
a) All structures, services, fences, drains, gardens, improved surfaces, etc.
disturbed by the construction shall be restored within 7 days after
backfilling. The restored conditions shall be as similar as possible to their
original condition. Also, the condition shall be to the satisfaction of the
Commission, other responsible authorities and property owners.
b) Where a structure or service is affected by construction, the trench fill shall
be compacted to the equivalent of that under a pavement.
c) Within 7 days after backfilling, fill over unimproved surfaces shall be
placed to a height that will make the filled surface level and the adjacent
undisturbed surfaces closely matching after settlement. All contours shall
be similar to the original condition.
d) Unimproved surfaces shall be levelled and settled to as near as possible to
their original condition in 30 to 40 days after backfill.
e) Road pavements and access ways shall be temporarily restored to a safe
condition, immediately after completion of backfilling. Then, the
pavements shall be permanently restored to as similar as possible to their
original condition within a time frame specified by the responsible
authority.

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f) Extra excavated material, un-reusable excavated material and all rubbish


shall be removed from the site and legally disposed of.

3.8 Connections to Public Sewers


3.8.1 General

Severe maintenance problems are often caused by poorly made connections to


sewers. These may lead to blockages or failure of the sewer structurally. The
following procedures and formalities must be followed to ensure integrity of the
sewerage system.

a) The owner must seek the approval of the Director General for any
connections that involve physical work to an existing public sewer. The
initial notification must be made on the appropriate form.
b) Once approved, the owner may make the connection only if his contractor is
licensed by the Commission for this category of work.
c) The type and location of connections shall be determined by the
Commission. The type of connection could be a connection to a manhole or
a connection to a sewer through junction or saddle fittings.
d) The cost of the work in making the connection shall be borne by the owner,
regardless of whether the work is undertaken by his licensed contractor or a
licensed contractor employed by Services Licensee.
e) The connection must be correctly made by the licensed contractor under the
supervision of an authorised inspection person.
f) When the connection is ready for inspection, the owner must notify the
Commission on the appropriate form. At the same time, he must give a
copy of the notice to the authorised inspection person who will make
arrangements for the inspection.
g) The connection must be completely watertight to prevent infiltration. Any
evidence of infiltration in the connection pipe shall be referred to the Local
Authority who may withhold issuing the Certificate of Fitness.
h) For a development which contains several connections from individual
premises to the proposed public sewers within the development, the
connections may be deemed covered by the original technical proposals.
These individual connections will be inspected as part of the routine
inspection by the authorised inspection person.
i) The inspection by the authorised inspection person for the connections to
existing public sewers shall be subjected to a standard inspection fee.
j) The design and installations shall incorporate the considerations of health
and safety
k) The difference between each premise platform level and the nearest public
sewer invert level shall not be less than 1.2 metres to avoid flooding of
premises.

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3.8.2 Junction Connections

Where an existing public sewer is circular and is of diameter DN 450 or less, any
connection to that sewer may be made using a Y junction fitting.

Where the location of future connections are known, Y Junction fittings and the
accompanying junction connection pipework may be installed at the time of the
public sewer construction.

The typical connection configuration of junction is shown in Figures A.11 and


A.12 of Appendix A.

Where no junction pipework exists, a Y junction fitting may be installed by


removing part of the existing sewer. The connection of such a junction shall use
flexible couplings.

3.8.3 Saddle Connections

Saddle connections may only be permitted where the existing sewer is at least two
pipe sizes greater than the proposed connection pipe. Only saddles specifically
designed for the type and size of the sewer to be connected to shall be used. Also,
the saddle used shall be approved by the Commission.

Making a saddle connection is a highly skilled operation. Hence, only licensed


contractors who can demonstrate suitable qualifications and experience are
permitted to make this form of connection.

The saddle must be purpose-made by off-site manufacture except when the existing
pipe size is 900 mm in diameter or greater, which other forms of connection are
preferred.

The saddles for concrete or vitrified clay sewers shall be bedded on cement mortar
(mix 3:1) with a depth not less than 40 mm below the base of the saddle. A
flexible joint shall be provided between the saddle and the remaining connection
pipe.

The hole prepared for the saddle connection on the existing sewer shall not have
any rough edges that might cause blockage. The location of the hole on the pipe
shall be at a 45° to 60° angle to the horizontal. The hole shall be made at the
middle of the pipe to avoid damages or excessive loading to the existing sewer pipe
joints. The existing pipe may require extra strengthening by additional concrete
surround to withstand the extra load from the connection pipe and fittings.

The connection pipe must not protrude into the existing sewer.

Any debris falling into the existing sewer during the connection shall be removed.

On completion, the saddle connection joint must be completely watertight to


prevent infiltration.

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3.8.4 Manhole Connections

Manholes may be constructed on the public sewer for private sewer connections
where:

a) good practice requires a manhole for ease of maintenance, or


b) the diameter of the connection pipe is 300 mm or greater, or
c) the public sewer is more than 4.5 m deep, or
d) the point of connection is more than 5 m from an existing or proposed
manhole.

Where site conditions prevent manhole construction on the existing public sewer,
the manhole may be provided on the connection pipe as near to the public sewer as
possible.

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Section 4
Sewer Testing
Sewer Testing

4.1 General
Sewers and ancillary works shall be tested and inspected for water-tightness to
prevent infiltration and exfiltration and to ensure the pipe are laid correctly
according to the designed straightness and grade. The testing of the sewers and
ancillary works before backfill will facilitate the replacement of any identified
faulty pipes and joints. The testing of the sewers and ancillary works after backfill
will reveal the leakages caused by the displacement of joints and subsequent
damage. The testing shall be supervised by consultants and their testing certificates
issued by the consultants shall be submitted to the Commission before final
approval.

The tests that are required to be conducted are listed as follows:

I) Before Backfill

a) Gravity Sewer:
i. Exfiltration Test (Either low pressure air or water tests)
ii. Check for straightness, obstruction and grade

b) Force Main:
i. Exfiltration Test (When required)
ii. High pressure water test
iii. High pressure leakage test (Following high pressure water test)
iv. Check for straightness, obstruction and grade

c) Manhole and others:


i. Visual inspection
ii. Water-tightness test (when required)

To prevent movement of the sewer, embedment material shall be placed around


and over the sewer prior to testing. The section of the joints above spring line shall
be exposed.

For pipe or part that is made of material that will deteriorate under the sun, the
exposed parts of the pipe shall be shielded from direct exposure to the sun during
testing.

The concrete used for supporting the pipe or resisting thrust shall be cured for at
least seven days prior to testing.

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II) After Backfill

a) Gravity Sewer:
i) Exfiltration Test (Either low pressure air or water tests)
ii) Infiltration Test (when required)
iii) CCTV Test (when required)

Before and after any test, the sewer pipeline to be tested shall be clean, which shall
be flushed clean when necessary. Any leaks or defects identified from any test
shall be located and repaired. After testing has been completed, the cleaned sewer
shall be plugged at open ends to prevent dirt or soil from getting into the sewer.

4.2 Testing of Gravity Sewers


The tests of gravity sewers are generally conducted to ensure there is no leaks,
damages, or laying errors.

An exfiltration test, which can be either a low pressure air test or a water test shall
be performed on the sewer before any concrete pipe encasement or backfill. After
backfilling, an exfiltration test is required again on the sewer laid. In addition, an
infiltration test shall be conducted if:

a) required by the Commission


b) detected high groundwater table

When infiltration has been confirmed by the infiltration test, light and mirror
method or CCTV may be used to isolate the locations of leaks. If a CCTV
inspection is conducted, a video and written record of the CCTV inspection shall
be provided to the Commission no later than 7 days after the inspection.

For gravity sewers, the sewer length to be tested shall be the length between
manholes or proposed manhole locations. The test length for water test may be
shorter where the gradient is so steep as to cause too high a head at the downstream
end. The pressure head on the sewer being tested shall not be less than 2 m above
pipe crown at the upstream end and shall not be more than 7 m above pipe crown at
the downstream end.

When desired, the air and water tests may be undertaken on shorter lengths of the
laid sewer before backfill. This is to prevent any faulty joint to go unnoticed until
it is revealed by a test on the complete length, which will be more costly and time
consuming to rectify the defects. Testing of shorter lengths may also be necessary
where it is required to backfill the sewer to surface level quickly. This early
backfill may be encountered when there is wet weather, traffic crossings or site
safety requirements.

In every stage of the works, frequent tests of straightness and obstruction shall be
conducted, when required, to ensure there is no line obstruction and the
straightness or grade is correct.

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4.3 Testing of Forced Mains


For pressure sewers, the normal tests during the sewer laying may include, where
required, the low pressure air or water exfiltration tests on short individual sections.
These low pressure air or water exfiltration test are conducted, when required, to
ensure that the joints are watertight.

As in gravity sewers, the force mains should be checked to ensure the straightness
is correct and to ensure no obstruction in the force mains. Also, force main is
required to be tested for its mechanical stability through the high pressure water
test. Its water-tightness shall be tested through high pressure exfiltration test.
Before conducting these high pressure tests, the sewer support and thrust block
shall be allowed to develop the sufficient strength. In addition, cautions shall be
taken when dealing with high pressure.

Where required, a CCTV inspection should be performed on the pipeline after


backfilling the trench. If a CCTV inspection is performed, a video and written
record of the CCTV inspection shall be provided to the Commission no later than 7
days after the inspection.

For the high pressure water test, the test length will depend on:

a) the length which can be isolated effectively, i.e. suitable anchorage for
temporary end closures
b) the time permitted to leave the trench open without backfill taking
considerations of weather, safety, traffic etc.
c) the location of permanent anchorages
d) the maximum volume of water available to fill the pipeline
e) the requirement to have the pressure at the highest point not less than 0.8
times the pressure at the lowest point

After taking the above considerations, initially a maximum of 300 m length of pipe
shall be laid and tested to verify that pipe laying practices are to an acceptable
standard. The maximum lengths for subsequent tests may be progressively
increased, as determined by the authorised inspection person, but shall not exceed
1500 m.

4.4 Testing of Manhole and other ancillaries


Manhole and other ancillaries shall be constructed in such a way that no
appreciable amount of infiltration or exfiltration will occur. When the manhole and
other ancillaries are constructed in an effective manner, visual inspection is
normally sufficient. However, manholes and other ancillaries suspected of very
poor workmanship shall be tested with exfiltration test before backfill or concrete
surrounded.

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Connections between sewer and manholes shall be constructed with extended cast-
in-site concrete base and surround over the top of the rocker pipe in accordance to
the standard drawing attached.

Drop manholes shall be constructed in such a way that no appreciable amount of


blockage will occur with construction details as in the standard drawings which
provide for proper pipe outlets and proper sizing of drop pipes.

A visual inspection is required on all the external and internal sections of each
manhole before backfill. Particular attention shall be given to:

a) the slope of benching,


b) joints to pipes,
c) transitions at entry and exits,
d) joints in the structure
e) quality of concrete finish
f) water-tightness of manhole cover and surround.

The internal surfaces of manholes shall be inspected visually for sources of


infiltration after backfill and stabilisation of groundwater table. Manhole covers
and surrounds shall be checked for leakage of surface water.

4.5 Low Pressure Air Test


4.5.1 General

Low pressure air test is one of the two sewer exfiltration tests recommended for
sewer testing. The air test is quicker to conduct than the water test. Furthermore,
no large quantity of water needed to be disposed of after the test. This test provides
a quick mean for checking any damage pipe or joints. Sometimes the test is
conducted on a short length to prevent damage pipe or joints from passing without
noticed until the final sewer test, which could be more costly and time consuming
to rectify. However, these tests on the shorter length should not replace the final
test.

4.5.2 Procedure for Testing

a) Seal the open ends, including sideline ends, using approved plugs. Strut the
plugs to prevent movement. Provide temporary bracing where necessary to
prevent pipeline movement during testing.
(One of the end plugs will require a connection point to permit injection of
air.)
b) Connect a hand or motorised pump to the pressure injection line at the end
plug. Pressurise the test length at a slow and constant rate.

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c) Use dial pressure gauges to measure pressure. Apply an air pressure of:
i. 30 kPa for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipelines
ii. 50 kPa for all other pipelines
(Two gauges in series shall be used so that the accuracy of one gauge can
be confirmed by the other. The dial gauges shall be able to be read to an
accuracy of ± 0.1 kPa.)
d) Wait five minutes for air pressure to stabilise due to temperature absorption
into pipe wall and other effects. Adjust the pressure to the required test
pressure during this period.
e) Check for leaks at plugs and test apparatus. Release the air pressure where
leakage occurs. Make necessary repairs and adjustments of apparatus to
prevent leakages. Repressurise the sewer pipeline in accordance with the
preceding steps again.
f) Start the test and record the pressure loss for the test duration after the final
gauge adjustment to the test pressure. Conduct the test for the test duration
given in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Test Duration

Pipeline Test Duration


Nominal Size (minutes)
150 2
225 4
300 6
375 8
450 11
525 14
600 17

g) Pass the test if the pressure loss over the test duration does not exceed:

i) 7 kPa for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipes


ii) 2 kPa for all other pipes

4.5.3 Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure

I) Before Backfill

a) Readjust the pipe pressure to the specified test pressure and examine for
leakage by pouring a solution of soft soap and water over the exposed joints
if the test fail.
b) Repair leaks and repeat testing where leaks are found at joints.

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c) Where leaks are not found at joints, move the plug, the one that is not used
to exert air pressure, along the pipeline to isolate lengths with leakage.
Uncover pipe barrels in the isolated lengths where leakage in pipe barrels is
suspected. Replace leaking pipe lengths and repeat testing.
d) Conduct low pressure water testing to verify that the air test was not
erroneous where the test length fails the air test but no source of leakage
can be identified.

II) After Backfilling:

a) Move the plug up from the other end along the sewer pipeline to isolate the
lengths that fail the air test.

b) Exhume the failed length of pipeline and replace pipe lengths.

c) Repeat the air test.

d) Conduct water testing to check that the air test was not erroneous when
failed lengths could not be isolated using the air test.

e) Use CCTV, when required or available, to identify the leakage if the fail
section can not be isolated by the air test or water test.

4.6 Low Pressure Water Test


4.6.1 General

The low pressure water test is commonly used for checking the water-tightness of
the joints and the integrity of the sewer pipes. Unlike the high pressure water test,
this test can not be used to check the mechanical strength of the sewer pipe.
Compared with low pressure air test, this test requires more time to set up the test.
Also, the water used for the test require disposal in an appropriate manner.
However, this test will show the location of the leaks more clearly than the low
pressure air test.

4.6.2 Procedure

a) Seal the open ends, including sideline ends, using approved plugs. Strut the
plugs to prevent movement. Provide temporary bracing where necessary to
prevent sewer movement during testing.
b) Establish appropriate arrangements involving a standpipe to apply the water
head at the upstream end.
(Acceptable arrangements include:
i. temporarily fitting a 90° bend to the upstream end, which should then
be connected with a vertical riser of straight pipe to used as a
standpipe

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ii. sealing the upstream end with a plug which has a connection point for
a hose, which can be connected to a tube acting as a standpipe)
d) Fill in water from the upstream end. Ensure water head is not less than 2 m
above pipe crown at the upstream end and not greater than 7 m above pipe
crown at the downstream end. Shorten the test length if the sewer gradient
is so steep as to cause these water head requirements not to be met.
e) Fill the sewer slowly to the required head and bleed air from behind the
upstream plugs.
(Air may be released by slightly loosening the plug and pushing in a piece
of wire between the seal and the pipe.)
f) Maintain the water head for two hours. Top up the water as required.
g) Check for leakage at the plugs and the test apparatus during the pressurising
period and the constant pressure holding period. Release the water pressure
if leakage occurs. Make the necessary repairs and adjustments before
repressurising again.
h) Commence the test immediately after the last adjustment of water head in
the preceding two hours period.
i) Add water to maintain the starting water head every 5 minutes during the
test period of 30 minutes. Record the total amount of water required for
readjustment.
j) Pass the water test if:
i. the loss of water does not exceed 1 litre per hour per linear metre per
metre internal diameter for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete
pipes,
ii. there is no loss of water for pipe other than vitrified clay and
reinforced concrete pipe,
iii. these is no visible leakage at the joints for all pipe types.

4.6.3 Handling Water Test Failures

I) Before Backfill:

a) Readjust the internal water head to the specified test head if the test section
fails the water test. Examine visually for leakage at the external surface of
joints.
b) Uncover pipe barrels and inspect for leakage if leakage is not evident at
joints. Drain the water and move the downstream plug towards upstream,
where necessary, to isolate pipe lengths that fail the water test.
c) Repair or replace pipes before repeating the low pressure water test until the
sewer passes the test.

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II) After Backfill:

a) Isolate pipe lengths that fail the water test by moving the downstream plug
towards the upstream end in sections when the test sewer fails the water
test. Alternatively, conduct a CCTV inspection, where required, to identify
the source of leakage if the source of leakage can not be isolated.
b) Exhume failed pipe lengths and replace.
c) Repeat test until the sewer pipeline passes the test.

4.7 High Pressure Water Test


4.7.1 General

High pressure water test is normally used for testing the pressure sewers and pipe
works within the pump station. The main aims of the test are to ensure the
mechanical stability of the pipe and joints to withstand the working pressure. Since
the test is conducted under high pressure, the anchorage of the sewer is more
critical than the low pressure tests. Preferably, the test should be conducted before
backfill. During the test, the test pumps should not be subjected to hydrostatic
pressure.

4.7.2 Procedure

a) Seal the sewer pipeline ends using “test-end” units consisting of short
lengths of pipe permanently fitted with caps or valves. Connected the “test-
end” units to the test pipe section using a standard coupling, which permits
easy removal of “test-end” units after testing.
(The “test-end” units should have a valve with pressure gauge to allow
filling of the test length with water or for venting air. The gauge shall be a
conventional circular gauge not less than 200 mm diameter and shall be
able to read to an accuracy of ± 0.01 Mpa.)

b) For sewer on level grade, fit tees along the test length, where necessary, to
ensure all the air can escape. Fit air valves to such tees. Remove air valves
and blank off tees after the test is applied.
c) Fit the test pressure gauge at the lowest end of the test length.
(This prevents the test pressure from exceeding the permitted maximum
pressure in the test length.)
d) Place pre-constructed temporary thrust blocks behind the test end units to
brace against thrust from the test pressures.
(No temporary bracing is permitted along the sewer pipeline. All specified
thrust blocks must be constructed and left to cure before testing.)
e) Fill the test length slowly with water through the valve at the lowest test-
end unit.

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(The water shall be of fair quality and free from sediment. A firm foam
swab placed ahead of the water column will improve the expulsion of air.)
f) Set all valves at high spots to vent air.
g) Close the air vents after thorough venting of all air.
h) Fill the test length with water. Leave the filled test length undisturbed for
24 hours prior to testing to allow for absorption of water into the pipes and
/or jointing materials.
i) Wipe the exposed fittings and joints clean and dry and check for leakage
and other irregularities during this preparatory period. Check also the test
pipe for any appreciable movement and disturbance of anchorages. Drain
the water and repair any damage found. Repeat the water filling again to
start the test.
j) Pump more water into the test length to raise the pressure. Raise the
pressure slowly in increments of 1 bars, with pauses of one minute between
each increment until achieving the lower of:
i. the maximum rated pressure of the pipes laid, or
ii. 1.5 times the design operating pressure of the pipeline (includes surge
allowance)
k) Stop the test immediately should any appreciable drop in pressure be noted
during one of these pauses. Determine the cause of the pressure drop.
Drain the test length where repairs are required. Start the test again after
repairing.
l) Pass the pressure test if there is no reduction from the test pressure in the
next 10 minutes after the test pressure is achieved. Do not reduce the
pressure since the high pressure leakage test should be conducted
immediately next.

4.8 High Pressure Leakage Test


4.8.1 General

High pressure leakage test normally follows the high pressure water test
immediately. This is to avoid any unnecessary pressurising and water filling, which
could take time and is costly. The purpose of this test is to ensure the pipe and
joint will remain intact under the pressure environment.

4.8.2 Procedure

a) Conduct the test immediately after the high pressure water test. Maintain
the following test pressures (whichever is lower) for 24 hours by pumping
in make-up water if necessary:
i. the maximum rated pressure of the pipes laid, or
ii. 1.5 times the design operating pressure of the pipeline (includes surge
allowance)

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b) Measure the amount of make-up water pumped into the pipe to maintain the
test pressure.
c) Pass the test if the measured amount of make-up water does not exceed 0.1
litre per millimetre of pipe diameter per kilometre of pipe per day for each 3
bars of pressure applied.
d) Reset the test pressure and check all visible joints to locate leakage when
the test length fails the test.

4.9 Test for Straightness, Obstruction, and Grade


The sewers shall be check for straightness, obstruction, and grade whenever
possible. For gravity sewers and force mains, the grade and straightness are
important to achieve the designed velocity. The following tests are recommended
for testing the laid sewer:

I) Test for freedom from obstruction:

a) Visual inspection
b) Insertion of mandrel
c) CCTV inspection

It should be noted that the visual inspection is only for checking a short length.
Sufficient light shall be provided when carrying out the inspection. For checking a
long sewer, insertion of a mandrel should be adopted.

II) Test for grade and straightness

a) Laser beams with sighting targets


b) Sight rails and boning rods
c) CCTV inspection
d) lamp and mirrors
e) Insertion of a smooth balls

The first three methods will provide a more exact assurance for both the grade and
straightness of sewers, which shall be used whenever possible. The latter two
methods will provide a rough ideas on whether the sewers are laid graded or
straight, which should be used only for a quick check.

4.10 CCTV Inspection


The following subsections outline details on how the CCTV inspection
requirements shall be implemented. These guidelines are also aim to enhance
professionalism in line with progress in sewerage field, and promote efficiency and

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Sewer Testing

cost effectiveness as well as transparency and accountability in sewerage system


development.

4.10.1 Objectives of CCTV Inspection

a) Enable detection of sewer defects such as cracks, deforms, collapse,


dislocate and etc. which are not detected by normal means;
b) As a quality assurance measure to ensure sewers and sewer appurtenances
are constructed in conformability with approved design, specifications,
workmanship as well as materials and fixtures used;
c) As a means to establish record to enhance accountability and
professionalism on quality assurance for sewer construction.

4.10.2 Technical Requirements and References

a) Analysis of defects shall be based on WRc Manual for Sewer Condition


Classification Latest Edition;
b) Equipment and test devices to be used are as listed in Section 4.10.3.
c) For sewer with diameter larger than 1050 mm, Man-entry CCTV survey
mode may be adopted unless it can be demonstrated that the CCTV can be
maintained in a stable position on or near the central axis of the sewer and
images captured are satisfactory and not distorted.

4.10.3 Equipment Specifications and Test Devices

4.10.3.1 Specifications for CCTV unit’s equipment

a. Solid state colours CCTV camera with pan & rotate features, together with
a lighting unit, automatic date/ metre age.
b. A self powered tractor or crawler on which the camera is conveyed along a
pipeline under inspection in a stable manner.
c. Calibration chart for various sizes of sewer for the camera used.
d. Test device for the CCTV camera using 'Marconi Resolution Chart No.1' or
its derivative to demonstrate satisfactory performance of the camera.
e. Test device for the monitor and video recorder to establish the effectiveness
and accuracy of the 'on-site' monitor and video recorder.
f. The control unit comprises the camera unit, crawler control and
screenwriter. This console can be mounted permanently in a vehicle or use
as portable system.
g. A video recorder for recording high quality video images.
h. A means of producing still images from the monitor screen.

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i. A PC-based site reporting system capable of producing reports customized


to the Contractor's needs and to include photographs captured directly from
video.

4.10.3.2 Software Requirements

Software standardisation using databank software that can produce report, based on
WRc format.

4.10.3.3 Report Format

Report in VCD or other digital form to be submitted in MPEG format with


minimum 352x240 pixels. Two copies of digital records and one copy of hardcopy
report shall be forwarded to JPP office.

a) For the diameter pipe greater than 600mm, it shall have zooming
capabilities.

4.10.4. CCTV Inspection Requirements

The following areas area identified as the minimum coverage for CCTV inspection.

4.10.4.1 High Risk Areas

A 100% CCTV inspection shall be conducted for sewers laid in the ground with
high risk of failure and having the following characteristics:

a) Deeper than average 6m or more


b) Pipe diameter above 600mm.
c) Areas that have restricted vehicular access for repair (e.g. central business
district).
d) Crossings under buildings, lakes, rivers, roads and railway including their
reserve.
e) Ground slopes greater than 30o inclination.
f) All sewers installed using pipe jacking method.
g) All diversion or re-alignment of existing sewer networks.
h) All single private developments (with PE > 30), connecting to existing
main sewer.

4.10.4.2 General Inspection Coverage (for Sewer, Manholes and Lateral


Connections)

a) Initial CCTV testing & inspection shall be conducted for a minimum 10%
random selection of sewers including all manholes and lateral property
connections in accordance with standard procedure.

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b) If the mandatory requirement of Clause 4.10.4.1 is less than 5% of the


entire development area, the minimum CCTV testing & inspection is 10%
as in Clause 4.10.4.2a. If the mandatory requirements of Clause 4.10.4.1 is
more than 5%, the minimum CCTV testing & inspection shall have an
additional of 10%.
c) Prior to taking over existing network that has been approved from any
owner or after rehabilitation works have been completed.
d) All new network undergoing intermediate inspection except:
i. Single Phase development with total sewer length less than 500m
long with no interval.
ii. Vacuum sewer.

4.10.4.3 Stage of Inspection

a) Stage 1- All projects are to start with stage 1 inspection where 10 % (by
length) of sewer network and property connections involved, shall be
randomly selected and CCTV inspected.
b) Stage 2 - Should any Grade 3,4 or 5 conditions as defined in the Manual for
Sewer Condition Classification approve by the Commission, found in Stage
1 inspection, the CCTV inspection shall proceed to Stage 2 inspection.
Stage 2 inspections shall include another 40% of the sewer network to be
randomly selected for CCTV inspection.
c) Stage 3- Should any Grade 3,4 or 5 conditions as defined in the Manual for
Sewer condition classification approve by the Commission, found in Stage
2 inspection, the CCTV inspection shall proceed to Stage 3 where all the
remaining network shall be CCTV inspected.

4.10.5 CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for New Sewer


Network

4.10.5.1. Activities to be completed before submitting for final


Intermediate Inspection.

a) All construction works have been completed and tested by the supervising
qualified person.
b) Sewer networks have been cleared of debris and are ready for inspection.
c) A CCTV Inspection Contractor licensed with the Commission has been
appointed to carry out the inspection.

4.10.5.2. Random selection of sewer to be inspected.

a) The list of sewer segments and house connections selected for CCTV
inspection shall be recorded and the parties witnessing the selection process
shall duly sign the record.

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b) Names and designations of all persons involved in the random selection


process as well as the time, date and place where the selection were carried
out shall be recorded in the report on the random selection process. Record
of the sewer segments randomly selected for CCTV inspection shall be
included as appendix to the report.
c) The random selection process shall be completed in a single session.

4.10.5.3. CCTV inspection on site.

a) The CCTV inspection shall be carried out 7 days after notice issued by the
Commission.
b) Inspection shall be carried out in within 24 hours after random selection has
been completed.
c) Once started, CCTV inspection for a project shall be carried out without
any break. Should for any reason a break/delay of more than 24 hours
become necessary, the random selection process shall be repeated to select
the remaining sewer segments for the inspection. Reasons for the
break/delay shall be recorded.
d) Representative from the Commission or authorized person, consultant
representative and contractor responsible for the construction of the sewer
shall be present at the onset of CCTV inspection at each project site.

4.10.5.4. Documentation on CCTV recording

a) At the start of the CCTV recording, the following details must be recorded:
i. Date and starting time of inspection.
ii. Project name and location
iii. Names and designation of persons involved (i.e representative of the
Commission or authorized person, consultant & contractor and
CCTV contractor).
b) At the beginning of each CCTV recording for every segment of sewer shall
be marked with their respective code number with chainage together with
the date, start and end times of the recording.
c) After the CCTV inspection and recording have been completed for a
project, a copy of recorded CCTV shall be handover to the Commission or
authorized person immediately. Report on the CCTV inspection together
with the recording and recommendations shall be prepared by the CCTV
contractor and submitted to the relevant the Commission branch office or
the appointed agency not more than 7 days after the date of inspection. The
format of reporting shall follow the standard that had been given (Appendix
C). The copy of the tape (or other recording media used to store the record)
containing the CCTV inspection records shall be submitted to the
Commission Branch office or the appointed agency together with a
certificate duly signed by the qualified person responsible for the CCTV
inspection declaring the authenticity of the recording submitted and that the

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CCTV inspection has been done in accordance with the procedure stated in
this guideline.

4.10.6 Interpretation of Results from CCTV Inspection

a) Classification : Grade 1 to Grade 5 as per the Commission approve Sewer


Assessment Classification. Colour to show the defect grade description
shall be follow as:
i. Grade 1: Green
ii. Grade 2 : Blue
iii. Grade 3 : Orange
iv. Grade 4 : Brown
v. Grade 5 : Red
b) Grade 1 and 2 is acceptable constructional defects but may have other
minor defects. It can be accepted provided a performance bond has been
submitted and the contractor undertake to rectify the defect within 30 days.
c) Sewer with Grade 3, 4 or 5 conditions has major structural defects and shall
be accepted. Relaid of the affected sewer segments is necessary.

4.10.7 Follow -Up Action to Be Taken

a) For Grade 1 and Grade 2, the developer shall rectify and make good to all
the defects in 30 days. These rectification works shall be witnessed by the
parties concerned and agreed together that the works had been completed.
The Commission or the authorised person may instruct CCTV inspection to
be carried out again. Under these grade classifications, the letter of
recommendation for CFO will be released by the Commission or the
authorised agency.
b) For Grade 3, 4 or 5 classifications, the developer shall change, replace,
relay or reconstruct the rejected works. Further CCTV inspection shall be
carried out before acceptance. The letter of support for CFO will be
released upon acceptance.
c) In the events of any blockages, damages, seepages and etc to the sewer
networks during the defects liability period, JPP may require the developer
to carry out further CCTV inspection to determine the cause and extent of
the problems that arises. CCTV inspection shall be carried out immediately
within 24 hours.

Table 4.1 provides the description of various defect grades

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Table 4.2 Defect Grades Descriptions

Grade 1

Occurances without damage and no cracks of pipe but only acceptable displacement on
joint where no visual infiltration can be observe: e.g.

Grade 2

Constructional and sewer product deficiencies or occurances with insignificant influence


to tightness, hydraulic or static pressure of pipe, etc.

Examples: Joint displaced large; badly torched intakes; minor deformation of plastic
pipes (<5%); minor erosions; infiltration seeping; Cracks – joint, circumference,
longitudinal; Debis, silt – 15%; Encrustation light.

Grade 3

Constructional, operational and maintenance deficiencies diminishing static, hydraulic,


safety and tightness.

Examples: Infiltration dripping. (OMD); Open joint; untorched intakes; cracks; minor
drainage obstructions such as calcide build ups; protruding laterals; minor damages to
pipe wall; individual root penetrations; corroded pipe wall; flexible pipe deformation
(>5%); Lining defect.

Grade 4

Constructional and structural damages with no sufficient static safety, hydraulic or


tightness.

Examples: axial/radial pipebursts; visually noticeable infiltration/exfiltration; cavities in


pipe-wall; severe protruding; laterals severe root penetrations; severe corrosion of pipe
wall; Infiltration running; encrustation medium; minor deformation; flexible pipe
deformation >15%

Grade 5

Major structural damaged where pipe is already or will shortly be impermeable.

Examples: collapsed or collapsed eminent; major deformation; deeply rooted pipe; any
drainage obstructions; pipe loses water or danger of backwater in basements etc

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4.11 Infiltration Test


4.11.1 General

Infiltration is an extraneous flow not contributed from households. Although


design has allowed for certain amount of infiltration, a significant amount of
unexpected infiltration will overload both the collection sewers and the treatment
plant. To avoid any extra infiltration, a test maybe conducted on the gravity sewer
laid. If the force main is significantly below the groundwater table, an infiltration
test is also highly recommended. When severe infiltration is found during sewer
laying, the source shall be investigated immediately.

Infiltration test is normally conducted after backfill and after the groundwater level
has stabilised. The procedures are as follows:

4.11.2 Procedure

a) Plug the inlets at all upstream open ends, after the groundwater level has
stabilised following backfilling.
b) Measure any infiltration from the sewer to the manhole or within manhole
itself.
c) Conduct the measurement of infiltration for at least 24 hours.
d) Pass the infiltration test if the infiltration does not exceed 1 litre per hour
per metre diameter per meter of pipe run.

4.11.3 Handling Test Failures

a) Conduct a light and mirror test to identify the location of the infiltration if
the pipe is small and short.
b) Move an inflated rubber plug toward downstream end to isolate lengths of
leakage. Repeat the test procedure after each plug relocation
c) Conduct a CCTV inspection if the location of the infiltration can not be
identified by the light and mirror test or moving the inflated rubber plug.
d) Exhume and repair the fail section of the pipe.

4.12 Water-tightness Test


4.12.1 General

Visual inspection is usually sufficient to ensure the water-tightness of manhole and


other ancillary structures. However, water-tightness test may be required if:

a) Instruction from the authorised inspection person


b) Unsatisfactory features identified from the visual inspection
c) Suspicion of poor workmanship or poor materials

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 95


Sewer Testing

d) Leakages revealed from other tests


e) Frequent surcharging of the structure is possible

The test should be carried out only after the structures have achieved sufficient
strength to withstand the test pressure. Where possible, the test shall be carried out
before backfilled or concrete surrounded.

For manhole less than 1.5 m in depth, the manhole shall be filled with clean water
to the bottom of cover. For manhole more than 1.5 m in depth, the water head for
the test shall not be less than 1.5 m or the mean groundwater level, whichever is
larger. For any other ancillary structure, the water shall be filled to the top of the
structure unless otherwise specified by the authorised inspection person.

The procedures for testing the manhole are listed below. For other ancillary
structures, the procedures can still be adopted. However, the height which the
water level should be tested shall follow the instruction from the authorised
inspection person.

4.12.2 Procedures

a) Fit a plug or stopper in all the openings.


b) Secure the plug/stopper to resist the full test pressure.
c) Provide a mean to remove the plug/stopper from the ground level safely if
test water is allowed to be discharged to the downstream.
(The plug/stopper may need to be remove while the structure is still full of
water. Alternatively, a potable submersible pump might be sunk into the
test structure to remove the water.)
d) Fill the structure with clean water. Fill slowly to avoid any intense pressure
impact from the water.
e) Observe visually to identify any water leakage to the outside of the
structure. Drain the water to repair the leakage if necessary.
f) Otherwise, allow the water to stay in the test structure for 8 hours.
Investigate any appreciable water loss.
g) Drain and dispose of the test water from the test structure in an appropriate
manner and to an suitable location.

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APPENDIX A
Appendix A

APPENDIX A

Figure A.3 : Standard Precast Concrete Manholes (Shallow, 2.5 to 5 metres, and > 5
metres depth): Add standard drawing for large diameter manhole with RC
chamber. Page 107.
Figure A.4 : Standard Precast Concrete Manholes (Shallow, 2.5 to 5 metres, and > 5
metres depth): Add standard drawing for large diameter manhole with RC
chamber. Page 108.
Figure A.5 : Standard Deep Precast Concrete Manhole: Remove or reposition landing
for clear passage from manhole top, as landing may obstruct operations
activity (eg. jetting hose).Page 109.
Figure A.5 : Standard Precast Concrete Manholes (Shallow, 2.5 to 5 metres, and > 5
metres depth): Add standard drawing for large diameter manhole with RC
chamber. Page 109.
Figure A.6 : Standard External Drop Junction: Present susceptible to blockage.
Improve construction details to minimise blockage Page 110.
a. Outlet for 90 deg bend pipe, to raise to min. 300 mm above crown
of sewer pipe.
b. Size of drop pipe min. 300 mm dia.
Figure A.13 : Typical Induct Vent Detail: Delete this figure, as not applicable. Page 117.
Figure A.14 : Typical Details of a Wet Well Submersible Pump Station: Review, include
also typical details not using the circular wet well type (which is now not
common). Page 118.
Figure A.18 : Buffer Zone for Pump Station with and without Super Structure: Buffer
zone for fence to fence, add note “where located in high risk areas,
brickwall fencing may be specified for safety”. Page 122.
Figure A.19 : Buffer Zone for Pump Station with and without Super Structure: Buffer
zone for fence to fence, add note “where located in high risk areas,
brickwall fencing may be specified for safety”. Page 123.
Note: Other figures added are distributed as hard copies for incorporation in the documents.

OTHER COMMENTS

a) Clause 2.5.2, 1 (Oil & Grease Trap) - Drawings submission by developers


must show O&G traps have been provided for these premises where grease and fat
are likely to be discharged to sewers. Page 6.
b) To include a section on Inverted Siphons - Standard drawings for inverted
siphons to be included, but they must be designed for individually based on actual
locations.
c) Clause 2.2.4, (Structural Design Consideration for Manholes) - Iron steps in
manholes shall not be provided, for safety. Page 50.

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 97


Appendix A

Figure A1 : Standard Manhole Cover


840

25 50.5
HINGE DEVICE BOLT HOLES

5
RUANG TERKURUNG

20
DILARANG MASUK

20
50.5
SEE DETAIL `2'
SEE DETAIL `1'

60°
840

652
MODEL NO. AND THE
MARKING "BSEN 124 MANUFACTURER'S NAME AND
CLASS D400 " PLACE OF MANUFACTURE

SEE DETAIL `3'

10
EMBOSSED LOGO(SEE DETAIL `X')

DANGER

25
5

5
CONFINED SPACE

20
SERIAL NO.
DO NOT ENTER

20
91
LOCKING AND
LIFTING DEVICE

PLAN
TYPICAL DETAILS OF HEAVY DUTY D.I. MANHOLE DETAIL `2' & '3' : EMBOSSED DESIGN
COVER AND FRAME

665

655

652
9

100
60

55 55 65 55

55
600
20

250
140
840

20 20 20

55
TYPICAL SECTION OF HEAVY DUTY D.I. MANHOLE 290

COVER AND FRAME 350

(SECTION Y-Y)

DETAIL `X' : EMBOSSED LOGO


Z Z
14

22
ALL CORNERS TO BE ROUNDED OFF
NOTES:

1. MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME MUST COMPLY WITH THE


DETAIL `1' SPECIFICATION AND BE MANUFACTURED BY A MANUFACTURER
APPROVED BY SPAN
( TYPICAL SURFACE DETAIL )

6
22
3

SECTION Z-Z
100

20
20

120 120

SECTION Y - Y
SECTION X - X
TYPICAL HINGE
TYPICAL LOCKING DEVICE
20
20

120

120

SECTION Y - Y SECTION Y - Y
COVER HINGE OPEN AT 90° COVER HINGE OPEN AT MINIMUM 100°

SECTION Z - Z

Page 98 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
HALF ROUND
V.C. CHANNEL
PRECAST REINFORCED HALF ROUND HALF ROUND PRECAST REINFORCED HALF ROUND
PRECAST REINFORCED
CONCRETE RING WITH V.C. CHANNEL V.C. CHANNEL CONCRETE RING WITH V.C. CHANNEL
CONCRETE RING WITH
150 THK. MIN. 150 THK. MIN. 150 THK. MIN.
CONCRETE SURROUND CONCRETE SURROUND CONCRETE SURROUND

SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE


(DIA. VARIES) (DIA. VARIES) (DIA. VARIES) (DIA. VARIES)

1:12
1:12
1:12

FALL
FALL
FALL
INLET ET
OUTL
FA
L
1:1 L
2
OUTLET INLET OUTLET INLET

MANHOLE OPENING FA SEWER PIPE


1:1 LL (DIA. VARIES) MANHOLE OPENING

1:12
1:12
1:12

FALL
FALL
FALL
2
PRECAST REINFORCED
CONCRETE RING WITH
150 THK. MIN.
CONCRETE SURROUND
MANHOLE OPENING MANHOLE OPENING

MIN 1200 MIN 1200 MIN 1200

SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW

OUTLET
OF MANHOLE TYPE A OF MANHOLE TYPE B OF MANHOLE TYPE D
(FIRST MANHOLE) MIN 1200 (CHANGE OF DIRECTION)
(STRAIGHT THROUGH)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW
OF MANHOLE TYPE C
(CHANGE OF DIRECTION - 90° BEND)

Volume 3
INLET

HALF ROUND
V.C. CHANNEL MANHOLE OPENING
PRECAST REINFORCED PRECAST REINFORCED PRECAST REINFORCED PRECAST REINFORCED HALF ROUND
CONCRETE RING WITH CONCRETE RING WITH CONCRETE RING WITH CONCRETE RING WITH V.C. CHANNEL
150 THK. MIN. 150 THK. MIN. 150 THK. MIN. 150 THK. MIN.
CONCRETE SURROUND CONCRETE SURROUND CONCRETE SURROUND CONCRETE SURROUND

SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE
(DIA. VARIES) (DIA. VARIES) (DIA. VARIES) FA (DIA. VARIES) (DIA. VARIES)

1:12
1:12

FALL
FALL

LL LL
1:1 FA
2 2
1:1

1:12
FALL
OUTLET INLET INLET INLET INLET OUTLET
INLET INLET

FA FA
LL 1:1 LL LL LL
FA
FA 2 1:1 LL LL
FA 2 2 2
FA 2 1:1
1:12
FALL

1:1 1:1 1:1 2


Figure A2 : Plan View of Typical Manhole

MANHOLE OPENING HALF ROUND HALF ROUND VC


V.C. CHANNEL MANHOLE OPENING

MANHOLE OPENING

MIN 1200

SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW

OUTLET
OUTLET

INLET OF MANHOLE TYPE H


MIN 1200
MIN 1200 MIN 1200
(DIAMETER CHANGE)

SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW NOTE :

OF MANHOLE TYPE E OF MANHOLE TYPE F OF MANHOLE TYPE G 1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED

(MULTIPLE INCOMING) (TWO INCOMING SEWER) (THREE INCOMING SEWER) 2. DIAMETER OF PIPE INSIDE MANHOLE BASE TO BE OF EQUAL SIZE
OR LARGER THAN THE INCOMING PIPE DIAMETER.
Appendix A

Page 99
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS AND COVER TO DETAILS
AND COVER TO DETAILS

Page 100
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX
MORTAR MIX
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT
Appendix A

MORTAR MIX PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED

350 (MAX.)
350 (MAX.)
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO

350 (MAX.)
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL
FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 600
600 PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH
PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF
UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL EPOXY (100 THK. MIN.) COAL EPOXY (100 THK. MIN.)
COAL EPOXY (100 THK. MIN.)

PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20
MIN. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA MIN. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT MORTAR CEMENT MORTAR
PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20
MIN. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT MORTAR

CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND


(150 THK. MIN) (150 THK. MIN)
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND
(150 THK. MIN)

CONCRETE BENCHING CONCRETE BENCHING CONCRETE BENCHING


(20 HIGH ALUMINA (20 HIGH ALUMINA (20 HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT RENDERING) CEMENT RENDERING) CEMENT RENDERING)
1:12 1:12 1:12

HALF ROUND PIPE AND BENCHING


SHAPED TO DIRECT FLOW IN

600 (MAX.)
DIRECTION OF MAIN FLOW

MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20


FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. BASE
CONC. BASE CONC. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE
IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE
THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER
INCOMING SEWERS OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE
T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS T12-150 B/WAY
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING

Volume 3
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
BLINDING
BLINDING
SECTION A-A SECTION B-B SECTION A-A (FREE DROP < 600)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.2 < D < 2.5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.2 < D < 2.5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.2 < D < 2.5 METRES)

NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO


300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.
B 60
Ø B
0 2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT


FOR PILING.
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2m ≤ Depth < 2.5m
Figure A3 : Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole

PLAN VIEW

Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT
MORTAR MIX
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED

350 (MAX.)
MORTAR MIX TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL

350 (MAX.)
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO 600
FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL
PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH
600 UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF
PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH COAL EPOXY (100 µm THK. MIN.)
UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF
COAL EPOXY (100 THK. MIN.)

PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20


MIN. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 CEMENT MORTAR
MIN. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT MORTAR
CAST INSITU CONCRETE
SURROUND (150 THK. MIN)

CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND


(150 THK. MIN)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


SEE DETAIL 'A'
CONCRETE BENCHING CLEAR AND ROUGHEN SURFACE OF
CONCRETE BENCHING MANHOLE AND APPLY NEAT CONCRETE
(20 HIGH ALUMINA (20 HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT RENDERING) PASTE PRIOR TO POURING SUPPORT FOR
CEMENT RENDERING) DROP SECTION
1:12
1:12
1:12

DROP MANHOLE 90 DEG. BEND

FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH


ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE
CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER
FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS
IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS
THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3
INCOMING SEWERS

Volume 3
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS T12-150 B/WAY MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 T12-150 B/WAY
BLINDING CONC. BASE
MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS CONC. BASE
BLINDING

SECTION A-A (BACKDROP > 600) SECTION B-B (BACK DROP > 600)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.2 < D < 2.5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.2 < D < 2.5 METRES)

A
375 125

3 nos. Ø12 GALVANISED RAG BOLTS 12 DIA. GALVANISED RAGBOLTS WITH


WITH GUNMETAL NUTS AND WASHERS GUNMETAL NUT AND WASHERS

Ø6
00
1/2Ø+100

B B
375 125

12 THK. M.S PLATE

COVER PLATE DETAILS


(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2m ≤ Depth < 2.5m)

DETAIL 'A'

NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO


A 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.

2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT


Figure A4 : Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdro

PLAN VIEW
FOR PILING.
Appendix A

Page 101
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME

Page 102
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS AND COVER TO DETAILS AND COVER TO DETAILS

FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX
Appendix A

FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT


MORTAR MIX
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO

350(MAX.)
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO

350 (MAX.)
350(MAX.)
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED
MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
SURFACE LEVEL SURFACE LEVEL
600 600 FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600

PRECAST R.C. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY PRECAST R.C. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY
PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY
WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY
WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY

PRECAST R.C. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. PRECAST R.C. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.
INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT
MORTAR MORTAR

PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.


INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND CEMENT MORTAR
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND
(150 THK. MIN) (150 THK. MIN)
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND
(150 THK. MIN)

CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH CONCRETE BENCHING CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH
ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) (20 HIGH ALUMINA ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING)
CEMENT RENDERING)

1:12 1:12
1:12 1:12

HALF ROUND PIPE AND BENCHING IN


GRADE 2O HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT

600 (MAX.)
SHAPED TO DIRECT FLOW IN
DIRECTION OF MAIN FLOW
FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE CONC. BASE CONC. BASE
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE CONC. BASE ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE
IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS
THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3
INCOMING SEWERS INCOMING SEWERS INCOMING SEWERS
T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS T12-150 B/WAY 50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
BLINDING BLINDING

Volume 3
BLINDING

SECTION A-A SECTION B-B


SECTION A-A (FREE DROP < 600)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.5 < D < 5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.5 < D < 5 METRES)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.5 < D < 5 METRES)

B 00
Ø6 B
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5m ≤ Depth < 5m)

NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO


Figure A5 : Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole

300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.

2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT


FOR PILING.

PLAN VIEW

Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS

FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT


STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME MORTAR MIX

350 (MAX.)
AND COVER TO DETAILS
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT
600 FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL
MORTAR MIX

350 (MAX.)
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
600 FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL

PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY


WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY

PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY


WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY

PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.


INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT MORTAR

CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND


(150 THK. MIN)
PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.
INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


CEMENT MORTAR

CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND


(150 THK. MIN)

SEE DETAIL 'A'


CLEAR AND ROUGHEN SURFACE OF
CONCRETE BENCHING MANHOLE AND APPLY NEAT CONC
(20 HIGH ALUMINA CONCRETE BENCHING PASTE PRIOR TO POURING SUPPORT
CEMENT RENDERING) (20 HIGH ALUMINA FOR DROP SECTION
CEMENT RENDERING)
I : 12

I : 12 I : 12 DROP MANHOLE 90 DEG. BEND

FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE CONC. BASE
IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS CONC. BASE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS
THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3
INCOMING SEWERS INCOMING SEWERS

Volume 3
T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
BLINDING 50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING

SECTION A-A (BACKDROP > 600) SECTION B-B (BACK DROP > 600)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.5 < D < 5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.5 < D < 5 METRES)

A
375 125

3 nos. Ø12 GALVANISED RAG


BOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUTS 12 DIA. GALVANISED RAGBOLTS WITH
AND WASHERS GUNMETAL NUT AND WASHERS

Ø6
00
1/2Ø+100

B B
375 125
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5m ≤ Depth < 5m)

12 THK. M.S PLATE

COVER PLATE DETAILS

DETAIL 'A'

NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO


300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.
A
2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.
Figure A6 : Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole with backdrop

3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT


FOR PILING.
PLAN VIEW
Appendix A

Page 103
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS AND COVER TO DETAILS AND COVER TO DETAILS

Page 104
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT
MORTAR MIX
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO

350(MAX.)
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO

350 (MAX.)
350(MAX.)
Appendix A

PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED


MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
SURFACE LEVEL SURFACE LEVEL
600 600 FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600

PRECAST R.C. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY PRECAST R.C. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY
PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY
WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY
WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY

PRECAST R.C. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. PRECAST R.C. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.
INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT
MORTAR MORTAR

PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.


INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND CEMENT MORTAR
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND
(150 THK. MIN) (150 THK. MIN)
CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND
(150 THK. MIN)

CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH CONCRETE BENCHING CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH
ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) (20 HIGH ALUMINA ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING)
CEMENT RENDERING)
1:12
1:12 1:12 1:12

HALF ROUND PIPE AND BENCHING IN


GRADE 2O HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT

600 (MAX.)
SHAPED TO DIRECT FLOW IN
DIRECTION OF MAIN FLOW
FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE CONC. BASE CONC. BASE
ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE CONC. BASE ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE
IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS
THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3
INCOMING SEWERS INCOMING SEWERS INCOMING SEWERS
T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS T12-150 B/WAY 50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS
BLINDING BLINDING
BLINDING

Volume 3
SECTION A-A SECTION B-B SECTION A-A (FREE DROP < 600)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES)

B Ø B
60
0
NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO


300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m)

2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT


Figure A7 : Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole

FOR PILING.

PLAN VIEW

Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS
STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME
AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT
MORTAR MIX

350 (MAX.)
FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED
MORTAR MIX TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL

350 (MAX.)
PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED 600
TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO
600 FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL

PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY


WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY
PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY
WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY

PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.


INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA
CEMENT MORTAR

CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND


PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. (150 THK. MIN)
INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


CEMENT MORTAR

CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND


(150 THK. MIN)

CONCRETE BENCHING SEE DETAIL 'A'


(20 HIGH ALUMINA CLEAR AND ROUGHEN SURFACE OF
MANHOLE AND APPLY NEAT CONC
CEMENT RENDERING)
CONCRETE BENCHING PASTE PRIOR TO POURING SUPPORT
(20 HIGH ALUMINA FOR DROP SECTION
CEMENT RENDERING)

I : 12 DROP MANHOLE 90 DEG. BEND

FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH


ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS CONC. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20
THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE CONC. BASE
INCOMING SEWERS IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS
T12-150 B/WAY THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS INCOMING SEWERS

Volume 3
BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY
50 THK. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING

SECTION A-A (BACKDROP > 600) SECTION B-B (BACKDROP > 600)
(GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES)

375 125

3 nos. Ø12 GALVANISED RAG

Ø6
BOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUTS 12 DIA. GALVANISED RAGBOLTS WITH

00
AND WASHERS GUNMETAL NUT AND WASHERS
B B
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m)

1/2Ø+100

375 125

12 THK. M.S PLATE

COVER PLATE DETAILS

DETAIL 'A'
A NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO


Figure A8 : Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop

300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.


PLAN VIEW 2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.
3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT
FOR PILING.
Appendix A

Page 105
GRD. LEV.

T W A W T

150mm CONC.

Page 106
675mm DIA.
SURROUND
OPENING
WITH D
GRATING 1200mm DIA.
ACCESS
Appendix A

T
CHAMBER WITH
GRADE 20/20 12mm HIGH

W
150mm CONC. E E
SURROUND CONC. ALUMINA LINING
SURROND BRANCH
SEWER FOOT HOLES
AT 300mm
MANHOLE TO BE
B B C/C

1:12
IDENTICAL TO

FALL
STANDARD
PRECAST
MANHOLE

A
675 DIA.
C OPENING C

GRADE 30
CONCRETE
WITH 12mm

DEPTH VARIES
150mm

MIN. 150
INVERT INTERNAL HA

W
MAIN SEWER CHAMBER
LEVEL LINING
12mm HA LINING

T
TO CHANNEL
PLASTIC BENCHING
PLASTIC WALLS AND TOP
SAFETY SAFETY
CHAIN SLAB
CHAIN

1800 MIN.
PLAN 6mm DIA. HEAVY STANDARD
MOULDED GMS (REFER TO LENGTH OF
CHANNEL DETAIL `A') PIPEWORK TO
SECTION A-A BRANCH
SEWER BE SET IN
MANHOLE
BRANCH
SEWER
D (V

D
ARIE
S)
3/4 D

MAIN SEWER DIA. (mm)


1/4 D

INTERNAL
SECTIONAL PLAN C-C TYPE WIDTH, INTERNAL CHANNEL INTERNAL CHANNEL
`A' (mm) STRAIGHT THROUGH BENDS N.E. 22.5 N.E.
TO BENDS N.E. 22.5 90

D 1900 1050, 1200 900, 975, 1050


50mm THK. GRADE 20 WITH INSTALL 2 NOS.
E 2200 1350, 1500 1200, 1350 CONC. SCREED 12mm INTERNAL APPROPVED STAINLESS
HA LINING STEEL CHAIN AT D/S SIDE
F 2500 1650, 1800 1500, 1650
OF MH. ONLY

SECTION D-D

Volume 3
GRD. LEV.

150mm CONC.
SURROUND

1200mm DIA.
ACCESS
CHAMBER WITH
150
12mm HIGH
ALUMINA LINING

150
COVER PLATE
A A

12mm HA LINING

MASS CONC.
MAIN 500 500 WALL
SEWER
6mm DIA. HEAVY
BRANCH GMS
SEWER

300
300

CONC.
CHAMBER
DIA
.O 30 APPROVED
6mm DIA. HEAVY STAINLESS
FM
AIN
GMS HEXAGON STEEL CHAIN
50

SE
W S) BOLT
ER IE 6mm DIA.
AR
(V STAINLESS
STEEL BOLT
AND NUT
20

GRADE 20/20
CONC. INVERT LEVEL INVERT LEVEL
SURROND
TO SUIT

38
50
50mm THK.
CONC. SCREED
Figure A9 : Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type

SECTION B-B 50mm THK. CONC. GRADE


CONC. SCREED 20/20
EXPANDITE EXPOCRETE UA OR SIMILAR APPROVED
LARGE DIAMETER MANHOLE WITH INVERT LEVEL OF
INCOMING BRANCH SEWER ABOVE R.C. CHAMBER SECTION E-E
DETAIL `A'

Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
Appendix A

Figure A10 : Typical Induct Vent Detail

Induct Vent

Centreline of manhole

150 Min. 750 Min.

Inside face of Manhole

150 Min.

Column Support

Notes :
1. All dimmensions are in millimetres.
2. Diameter of induct vent shall be approximately 1/2
of the forcemain but shall not exceed 300mm.

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 107


BUILDING LOT ROAD RESERVE / BACK LANE BUILDING LOT

Page 108
ONE LENGTH OF PIPE LIMIT OF WORKS FOR SEWER LINE ONE LENGTH OF PIPE
Appendix A

CL

45°
MAIN SEWER PIPE

150 Ø PIPE
150 Ø PIPE
R
STANDARD WYE
OR TEE

MASS CONCRETE (GRADE 20)


R
45° BEND

150
CL

CONC. HAUCHING INSPECTION MANHOLE


(GRADE 20) WITHIN PROPERTY BOUNDARY
MAIN SEWER PIPE STANDARD WYE
OR TEE 150 Ø PIPE

150 Ø PIPE ROAD SIDE DRAIN

MAIN SEWER PIPE

PLAN

PLAN

BUILDING LOT ROAD RESERVE / BACK LANE BUILDING LOT


CL
ONE LENGTH OF PIPE LIMIT OF WORKS FOR SEWER LINE ONE LENGTH OF PIPE

TRENCH WIDTH

PLAN

VARIES
TWO 45° BENDS

Volume 3
300 MIN.
300 MIN.

SLOPE 1%

W
O
FL
1% MIN. GRADE TO MANHOLE

INSPECTION MANHOLE 150 CONCRETE SURROUND INSPECTION MANHOLE


Pipe for V.C. Pip

150 Ø PIPE STANDARD WYE OR MAIN SEWER PIPE WITHIN PROPERTY BOUNDARY
WITHIN PROPERTY BOUNDARY
TEE OR SADDLE

VARIES
150 Ø PIPE

SECTION R - R

FLOW
FLOW T
C
MAIN SEWER PIPE
A
45° BEND 150 THK. GRADE 25
CONCRETE SURROUND
W
O CONCRETE GRADE 20/20
FL
D

SADDLE T C A D L S R R1
MORTAR CONCRETE
MASS CONCRETE (10 THICKNESS) HUNCH
150x375 259 217 150 67 310 193 224 188
(GRADE 15) SECTION VIEW
225x375 353 308 225 80 310 284 224 188

MAXIMUM 2000
MAIN SEWER PIPE LATERAL SERVICE CONNECTION
300x375 447 389 300 82 318 355 224 188
REFER TO DETAIL `A'
150x300 259 217 150 67 255 193 178 151
L

SHORT LENGTH OF PIPE


R

(WITH SOCKET END UNDAMAGED)


225x300 353 308 225 80 255 284 178 151
TO BE INSERTED INTO EXISTING PIPE
R1

SEWER
150x225 259 217 150 67 225 193 142 113
NOTES:
SECTION VIEW 1. SADDLE CONNECTIONS ONLY PERMITTED WHERE EXISTING SEWER IS THIS END OF PIPE MAIN SEWER PIPE
TO BE FLUSHED WITH
OF GREATER DIAMETER THAN THE PROPOSED CONNECTION PIPE.
INSIDE SURFACE OF
DEEP CUT LATERAL SERVICE CONNECTION S
2. ENSURE CONNECTION IS DONE ONLY ON THE TOP HALF OF THE EXISTING SEWER
EXISTING PIPE. THE HOLE SHALL BE MADE AT THE MIDDLE OF THE
EXISTING PIPE AT 45° TO 60° ANGLE TO THE HORIZONTAL. NOTES:-

1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED


3. SPECIAL CORING EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SADDLE CONNECTION.
DETAIL `A' 2. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING.
Figure A11 : Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer Reticulation

SADDLE

Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
A B C D
B B B B

A
A

A
A
C

TRENCH
TRENCH WIDTH

TR
EN

WIDTH
CH
C C

WID
TH
C TR
A B EN
CH
W
ID
TH
C

D
1 1
DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR BEND 11 4 OR 222 DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR BEND 45 DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR BEND 90 DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR TEE

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN.

GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL

DI
DI
D

DIA
DIA

A.
A.

D
D
D

.O
.O

F
OF
F

OF

PI
PI

PI

PIP

PE
E
PE

PE
CONC. TO BE CAST CONC. TO BE CAST CONC. TO BE CAST CONC. TO BE CAST
CONC. GRADE 20/20 AGAINST ORIGINAL CONC. GRADE 20/20 AGAINST ORIGINAL CONC. GRADE 20/20 AGAINST ORIGINAL CONC. GRADE 20/20 AGAINST ORIGINAL
SOIL SURFACE SOIL SURFACE SOIL SURFACE SOIL SURFACE

SECTION A - A SECTION B - B SECTION C - C SECTION D - D

300 RECESSED INTO

Volume 3
300 PIPE TRENCH WIDTH SIDE OF TRENCH
G
B B
GROUND LEVEL

300
15
0

E E F F
ADDITIONAL
300

4Y12 EACH FACE


M

TRENCH WIDTH
TRENCH WIDTH
IN
.1
00
m0
m

GRADE 25/20
CONCRETE

PLAN PLAN 50mm THK. GRADE 15 /20 Y12 @ 300 C/C


CONCRETE BLINDING BOTHWAYS EACH
FACE
450

DETAIL OF THRUST BLOCK FOR VERTICAL BEND DETAIL OF ANCHOR BLOCK FOR VERTICAL BEND SECTION G - G
(ACTING UPWARD)
50mm THK. GRADE 15 /20
CONCRETE BLINDING
G
GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL

NOTES :
ELEVATION
CONC.
GRADE 20/20 ANCHOR BLOCK
1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.

2. MASS CONCRETE GRADE 20/20.


SCHEDULE OF ANCHOR BLOCK
3. REINFORCED CONCRETE GRADE 25/20.
C GRADIENT POSITION OF
EXCEEDING ANCHOR BLOCK 4. BLINDING CONCRETE GRADE 15/20.
8% EVERY 3RD. PIPE 2
5. ALLOWABLE BEARING PRESSURE = 50 KN/M .

150

C
12.5 % EVERY 2ND. PIPE
6. TEST PRESSURE FOR THRUST BLOCKS IS BASED ON 50mm HEAD OF
Figure A 12 : Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block

WATER.

150
20 % EVERY PIPE
B
7. DIMENSIONS OF THRUST BLOCKS TO BE INCREASED IF ACTUAL
B 2
CONC. BEARING PRESSURE IS FOUND TO BE LESS THAN 50 KN/M .
GRADE 20/20
8. DIMENSION `A' OF THRUST BLOCK TO BE ADJUSTED BY THE E.R. IF
NECESSARY TO SUIT TRENCH WIDTH.
Appendix A

Page 109
SECTION E - E SECTION F - F
B D

Page 110
500 Ø 500 Ø
Appendix A

750 Ø 750 Ø

350 Ø 350 Ø

A A C C

400 Ø 400 Ø

INLET CHAMBER OUTLET CHAMBER


B D

PLAN OF INLET CHAMBER PLAN OF OUTLET CHAMBER

2000

750 Ø SLIDE GATE GUIDE (TYPICAL) SLIDE GATE GUIDE (TYPICAL) 750 Ø

500 Ø

500 Ø

Volume 3
350 Ø 350 Ø

SECTION A - A SECTION C - C
400

INVERT ELEVATION

232

375
OF 750 INLET
375

INVERT ELEVATION
250

232

OF 750 INLET

125
NOTES:

1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS


UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER
DIAMETER SEWERS
Figure A13 : Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer

SECTION B - B SECTION D - D 2. QUALIFIED PERSON TO JUSTIFY MANHOLE INSTALLATION


WITHOUT PILING
3. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED

Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
FORCE MAIN (FORCE MAIN ABOVE
GROUND TO BE PAINTED GREY) 45° BEND
ANCHOR BLOCK ANCHOR BLOCK
TO SUIT FLANGE JOINTS TO SUIT

FLEXIBLE COUPLING

A A

FILL WITH CEMENT MORTAR 1:3 HEAVY DUTY DUCTILE IRON COVER
AND FRAME (FRAME BEDDED ON
PLAN CEMENT MORTAR)
FLANGE ADAPTOR HEAVY DUTY PRECAST RC
COVER SLAB WITH 2 LAYERS
Ø150 SCOUR VALVE
OF COAL TAR EPOXY ON
UNDERSIDE

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


CLAY BRICKWALL (SINGLE COURSE
TO BE USED UNLESS OTHERWISE
PLAN SPECIFIED BY THE SO 4 COURSES
MAX.)

225 THK. CAST INSITU RC VENT DUCT TO


MANHOLE GRADE 20 WITH 2 VENT CHAMBER
LAYER OF BRC A8

12 THK. ALUMINA LINING

DETAIL `A'

APPROVED TEE
AIR VALVE
BELL MOUTH 300Ø SEWER PIPE
SLUICE VALVE 200Ø D.I.
SPIGOT
SOCKET
JOINT

FORCE MAIN (FORCE MAIN ABOVE


GROUND TO BE PAINTED GREY)

50 THK. LEAN CONC. ROCKET PIPE


GRADE 7

Volume 3
FLANGE JOINTS 45° BEND FLEXIBLE COUPLING CAST INSITU CHAMBER 45° ANGLE 2 LAYER OF BRC A7
20 THK. RENDERING
BASE GRADE 20 IN 1:2 HIGH ALUMINA CHAMBER
ANCHOR BLOCK ANCHOR BLOCK CEMENT & SAND
TO SUIT TO SUIT 1000x1000x12 THK. UNBREAKABLE M.S. WITH SLOPE 1:12
CHEQUER PLANT STIFFENED BRACED WITH
STEEL FRAME COMPLETE WITH KEY AND
Washout Valve

ELEVATION LOCKING GEAR AND PAINTED WITH


BITUMINOUS PAINT INTERNALLY AND
EXTERNALLY GROUND LEVEL
TYPICAL FORCE MAIN CROSSING OVER CULVERT DETAIL OF RECEIVING MANHOLE
NOT TO SCALE NOT TO SCALE

150 THK. CONCRETE SURROUND

Ø1200 STANDARD PRECAST


CONCRETE RING

THRUST Ø150 WASHOUT VALVE


BLOCK
TO DRAIN OR SUITABLE OUTFALL

NOTES:
3 NOS. Ø50
HOLES
1. ALL PRECAST MANHOLE COMPONENTS JOINTS
Ø50 AIR VALVE
SHALL BE FILLED WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR.
300 THK. CONCRETE GRADE
20 BASE 2. ORIENTATION OF MANHOLE POSITION ACCESS
Ø50 SLUICE VALVE
COVERS AND CENTERLINE OF SEWERS SHALL BE
WELDED TO D.I. 300 THK. CONCRETE GRADE 100 THK. CAREFULLY
Ø50 D.I. EXTENSION PIECE TO SUIT 20 SUPPORT COMPACTED 20 MAX.
DETERMINED ON SITE.
PLATE ON FLANGED
END OF THE TEE AGGREGATE
3. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS
OTHERWISE STATED.

DETAIL OF INSTALLATION OF WASHOUT VALVE


NOT TO SCALE

DETAIL `A'
Figure A14 : Typical Details of Receiving Manhole, Force Main and

TYPICAL SEWAGE AIR VALVE INSTALLATION


(ABOVE GROUND)
NOT TO SCALE
Appendix A

Page 111
Appendix A

Figure A15 : Precast Concrete Chamber (Type A ) and Details of Air Valve
and Scour Valve Chamber

300

150
225

75
900

150 150

75
225

150
75 MIN.
150

225 900 225

50 50 380 50 50
150 380 150
150
50
50

430
430

150
50
50

900 (NTS)
630

250

430

580

75

Page 112 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A16 : Standard Pipe Beddings

LOAD FACTOR 2.8 LOAD FACTOR 1.9

100
MIN. GRADE 20/20 CONCRETE
150 300 MIN SURROUND 150 MIN
GRADE 20/20 SELECTED

O.D + 300
CONCRETE BACKFILL COMPACTED BACKFILL
0.50 O.D.
SEWER PIPE
0.25 O.D. SEWER PIPE SEWER PIPE
0.50D
WITH 100 MIN.
20 AGGREGATE 20 AGGREGATE 0.25 O.D.
150 0.25 O.D. WITH 100 MIN. WITH 100 MIN.

O.D + 300
O.D + 300 0.D + 300

CONCRETE ARCH CRUSHED RUN CONCRETE SURROUND


BEDDING FACTOR 2.8 BEDDING FACTOR 1.9 BEDDING FACTOR 3.0
PIPE EMBEDDED IN CAREFULLY COMPACTED 20 DIA. AGGREGATE
EXTENDING HALFWAY UP TO SIDE OF THE PIPE. THE REMAINDER (FOR SEWERS WITH LESS THAN 1M COVER,
PIPE EMBEDDED IN CAREFULLY COMPACTED 20 DIA. AGGREGATE FORCE MAINS AND INVERTED SYPHON.)
SIDE FILL AND TOP COMPACTED CAREFULLY WITH BACKFILL.
EXTENDING HALFWAY UP TO SIDES OF THE PIPE. THE REMAINDER
SIDE TO FILL AND TOP WITH MONOLITHIC PLAIN CONCRETE THE SELECTED COMPACT BACKFILL FOR VITRIFIED CLAY PIPE SHALL BE
COMPACTED DRY SOIL (FREE FROM VEGETABLE ORGANIC MATTERS &
EXCAVATION/COMPACTED DRY RED EARTH/SAND/CHIPPING/STONES NOT
GREATER THAN 25.

DETECTABLE GROUND LEVEL


MARKER TAPE

BACKFILL & COMPACT WITH


SUITABLE SOIL TO REQUIRED LEVEL

BACKFILL WITH WELL COMPACTED SOIL


LOAD FACTOR 1.9
FINAL BACKFILL (HAND HELD COMPACTOR)
VARIES
(SELECTED BACKFILL)

300 MIN
COMPACTED SELECTED
BACKFILL MATERIAL
BACKFILL WITH SAND
(HAND HELD COMPACTOR)
SEWER PIPE
300mm MIN.
0.25 O.D. SEWER PIPE
GRADE 20/20 CONCRETE INITIAL
0.25 O.D. WITH 100 MIN. BACK FILL 32mm Ø 2
CONCRETE GRADE 25 N/mm
PIPE EMBEDMENT SPRING LINE ONE LAYER OF A8 (BRC)
0.D + 300 (CRUSHER RUN)
150 THICK SAND
HAUNCHING SEWER PIPE
CONCRETE CRADLE
BEDDING 150 to 300mm (20mm Ø) "X' NO. OF 70 Ø BAKAU PILE (REFER TABLE `A')
70 Ø BAKAU PILE AT 300 C/C ALONG PIPE BAKAU
PILES SHALL BE DRIVEN TO SET OR 10m DEPTH
(2 x 5m LONG) WHICHEVER ACHIEVED FIRST
CRUSHER RUN BEDDING
FOR FLEXIBLE PIPES SEWER PIPE LAYING
ON UNSUITABLE SOIL

NOTES:

1. THE BACK FILL MATERIAL SHALL BE PLACED OVER THE FULL


WIDTH OF THE TRENCH AND WELL COMPACTED IN LAYERS
NOT EXCEEDING 300.
2. INCREASED IN BAKAU PILES LENGTH AND NUMBER.
3. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT
FOR PILING.

PIPE SIZE MAXIMUM TRENCH WIDTH

TABLE 2

TABLE 1
MAXIMUM TRENCH WIDTH

NOTE : FOR FILLING OF TRENCHES ALONG/ACROSS TABLE `A'


CARRIAGEWAY, BACKFILL MATERIAL SHALL
USE SAND FROM AN APPROVED SOURCE.

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 113


Appendix A

Figure A. 17 Vacuum sewage collection system

Figure A. 18 House connection

Page 114 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A. 19 (a) Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 115


Appendix A

Figure A. 19 (b) Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel

Page 116 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A. 20 (a) Collection chambers with interface valves vented through


breather pipes

Figure A. 20 (b) Collection chamber with interface valve activated by float

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 117


Appendix A

Figure A. 20 (c) Multi-valve collection chamber

Page 118 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A. 21 Vacuum sewer profiles (not to scale)

Figure A. 22 Example of vacuum sewer profiles for uphill and downhill


transport (not to scale)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 119


Appendix A

Figure A. 23 Y-branch for vacuum sewer

Figure A. 24 Method of joining crossover pipes and branch sewers to


vacuum mains

Page 120 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A. 25 Typical details of dry-well pump station

OVERFLOW PIPE DISCHARGE


TO MONSOON DRAIN

OVERFLOW CHAMBER

3 LAYER CONC. VENTILATION


DRAIN LIQUID RETURN FROM OTHER UNIT PROCESSES BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL
RAMP DOWN WP
CONC. APRON LAID TO FALL
FORCEMAIN

MECHANICAL COARSE SCREEN


A

A 12
CONC. THRUST BLOCK.
GATE VALVE.
13 11
14 10
15 9
INCOMING SEWER
16 8
AIR EXTRACTOR FAN CHECK VALVE. EXTRACTOR FAN
G.I CHAIN GUARD 17 7
18 6
PENSTOCK R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL.
19 5
GRATING COVER 3 LAYER CONC. CONC. THRUST BLOCK. 20 4

G.I CHAIN GUARD.


14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 VENTILATION BLOCK 21 3
AT TOP AND BOTTOM
LEVEL 22 2 CONCRETE VENTILATION
23 1 BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL
DN
CHAIN GUARD.
R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL DN
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

SPOT LIGHT ADJUSTABLE GLASS


CHEQUER PLATE LOUVRES WINDOW

BRICKWALL C/W CEMENT DOOR


PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES
DRY PIT PUMPS

PLAN VIEW

COPPER TYPE LIFTING I-BEAM C/W


LIGHTNING ARRESTOR CARRIER R.C GUTTER TO ENGR'S DETAIL

RAIN WATER DOWN PIPE


MECHANICAL COARSE SCREEN TO NEAREST SUMP

DOOR
SCREENINGS COLLECTION BIN
PENSTOCK BRICKWALL C/W
CEMENT PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES
WINDOW
HANDRAIL CHEQUER PLATE
3 LAYER CONC. VENTILATION
BLOCK

HANDRAIL

R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL

WET WELL
DRY WELL

PERFORATED SLAB

CAT LADDER

OPENINGS

ALARM
CHECK VALVE 2nd. STANDBY PUMP START
1st. STANDBY PUMP START
INCOMING SEWER 2nd. DUTY PUMP START
(FLOAT SWITCH) GATE VALVE 1st.. DUTY PUMP START
ALL PUMP STOP
STOP LOG

SUMP BWL

N.B. : The discharge level for dewatering pump shall be


higher than the invert level of overflow pipe to prevent
sewage from back flowing into the dry well during DEWATERING PUMP
DRY PIT PUMPS
flooding

SECTION VIEW

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 121


Appendix A

Figure A. 26 Typical detail of wet-well pump station

MECH. COARSE SCREEN


INCOMING SEWER
STEPS
GRATING COVER V.C.P
OVERFLOW PIPE
DISCHARGE TO DRAIN STAND PIPE

CONC. APRON

COLLECTION BIN
CLEAR SPACING
S.STEEL MANUAL OVERFLOW
FINE SCREEN CHAMBER INFLUENT PUMP
A PRIMARY SCREEN A
GRATING COVER
EXPLOSION PROOF
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 SPOT LIGHT
PUMP SUMP
CHECK VALVE
S.STEEL HANDRAIL FLEXIBLE COUPLING
STEPS
PENSTOCK GATE VALVE
16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

DELIVERY PIPE

R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL

PLAN VIEW
LIFTING I-BEAM C/W
CARRIER
MECH. COARSE SCREEN
HANDRAIL
CHAIN GUARD
CHECK VALVE
CLEAR SPACING PENSTOCK
MANUAL FINE SCREEN FLEXIBLE COUPLING
GATE VALVE
OVERFLOW DELIVERY PIPE
PIPE DISCHARGE
TO DRAIN NON-EXPLOSION SPOT LIGHT

DELIVERY PIPE
OVERFLOW GUIDERAIL
S.S PERFORATED
CHAMBER TROUGH PUMP SUMP LIFTING CHAIN

PRIMARY SCREEN
CHAMBER

CONC. SLAB
R.C WALL TO
IL ENGR'S DETAIL

FRP STOP LOG C/W


1: 2 HAND WHEEL OPENING
IL IL
ALARM
START
MANUAL COARSE SCREEN

STOP

SECTION A-A

Page 122 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A. 27 Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure

Typical Section

1. 20m buffer zone shall be provided from the external edge of the P.S super-structure
fence/boundary
to the nearest habitable building fence/boundary as required by building by-laws. The
buffer zone
shall be sufficient to allow for pump station access and working area .

2. Non-Habitable buildings may be located within buffer zone.

3. Where the pump station is located in sensitive areas, additional buffer zone may be
specified for the purpose of beutification.

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 123


Appendix A

Figure A. 28 Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure

Vent

Vent

H
Properties Properties
P.S P.S
Fence Fence
Fence Fence
G

20m
(Mi ) 5m 5m 20m
Buffer ( ) ( )
Buffer
Access Access
and and
Beutifician Beutificatio

Sectional Plan

Note
1. 20m Buff er zone shall be prov ided f rom the perimeter (f ence/boundary ) of the pump station
to the nearest habitable building f ence/boundary as required by building by -laws. The buffer zone
shall be sufficient to allow f or pump station access and working area.

2. Non-habitable buildings may be located within the buffer zone but shall not obstruct operation,
maintenance and access.

3. H is the height of the v ent pipe which shall be at least higher than roof eav es lev el for buildings up
to 2 storey s high. The v ent cowl shall be at least 20m away f orm the nearest building windo w.

4. Where the pump station is located in sensitiv e areas, additional buff er zone may be specif ied f or the purpose
beutification.

Page 124 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix A

Figure A. 29 Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure


Symbols PI PE

BUILDING (WOODEN OR
DN 375 R.C.P DN 375 R.C.P
PROPOSED MANHOLE AND
SEWER IN PLAN
1:80 1:72
DIRECTION OF
BUILDING
SEW ER
(MASONRY)

GATE

POND
PON

PROPOSED MANHOLE AND SEWER IN


FIRE PROFILE
H

PAVED

RAIL
ROAD
CULVER EXIST ING MANHOLE AND SEWER IN
PLAN
BRIDGE

PAVED CHANNEL AND FLOW

EXIST ING MANHOLE AND SEWER IN


UNPAVED SIDE PROFILE
SLOPES
CHAINLINK
FENCE
UT ILIT Y G GAS

T ELEPHONE
POLE

ELECT RIC W WATER MAIN (GENERALLY 1m DEEP)

ELECT RICAL T RANSMISSION LINE OR


E CONDUIT (GENERALLY 1m DEEP)
STREET

LIGHT SIDE
T ELEPHONE CONDUIT
P OLE SIDE
T (GENERALLY 1.5m DEEP)
PROPERT Y, LOT OR RESERVE
PROVISION FOR BACKDROP FOR
SEWER CONNECT ION
SEPT IC PROVISION FOR T -JOINT FOR
T ANK SEWER CONNECT ION
ST BOREHOL

Abbreviations
A.C.P. ASBESTOS CEMENT N.T.S. NOT TO
C.I. CAST O.D. OUTSIDE
CH. CHAINAG R.C. REINFORCED
CL. CLASS R.C.P REINFORCED CONCRETE
CONC. CONCRET RET. RETICULATION
CRS CENTRE RT RIGHT
D.I. DUCTILE S SLOPE
DIA.(ø) DIAMETE STREAM OR
SG.
D.M.H. DROP SHT. SHEET
DN. NOMINAL SPEC SPECIFICATI O
DRG. DRAWIN STD. STANDAR
EXIST. EXISTIN
SCW. STANDARD CUT-OUT
GD. GROUND
STEEL
STL.
GR. GRADE
STA. STATIO
H.A. HIGH
HORIZONTA TYP. TYPICA
HORZ VARIE
INSIDE VAR.
I.D. VERTICA
INVER VERT.
INV. VITRIFIED CLAY
V.C.P
JLN. JALAN HDPE HIGH DENSITY
KG. KAMPUN
LRG. LORON
LT LEFT
MAX. MAXIMU
M.H. MANHOL
MIN. MINIMU
MOD. MODIFIE
NO. NUMBE

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 125


Appendix A

Page 126 (this pages is intend to blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
APPENDIX B
Appendix B

Table B1 Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth

CLASSES OF RIGID PIPE REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS DEPTH


TABLE B.1
CLAY PIPE

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 127


Appendix B

128 (this page intended to be blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
APPENDIX C
Appendix C

Appendix C 1 Report format for CCTV Inspection


Contractor :

Project-Information
Project Name : Project Number : Contact : Date :

Client :
Contact :
Position :
Road :
Town :
State :
Telephone :
Fax :
Mobile :
E- Mail :

Site :
Contact :
Position :
Road :
Town :
State :
Telephone :
Fax :
Mobile :
E-Mail :

Contractor :
Contact :
Position :
Road :
Town :
State :
Telephone :
Fax :
Mobile :
E-Mail :

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 129


Appendix C

Appendix C 2 Report format for CCTV Inspection

Contractor :

Inspection Report
Date: Job nr: Weather Operator Section Number PLR:

Present: Vehicle: Camera: Preset: Cleaned: Grade:

Road: Division: Start MH:


Place: District: End MH:
Location: Tape No.: Total Length:

Purpose: Size/Shape:
Use: Material:
Catchment: Lining:
Category:
Comment:
Location details:
Slope Position Code Observation Counter Photo Grade

MH
No.

130 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix C

Appendix C 3 Report format for CCTV Inspection


Contractor :

Inspection Photos
Town : Road : Date : Section Nmber : PLR :

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 131


Appendix C

Appendix C 4 Report format for CCTV Inspection


DEFECT SUMMARY OF PIPE SECTIONS INSPECTION

From MH : To MH :

Pipe Dia. Pipe Infiltration Wide Cracks or Section


Item Start MH End MH Material Others Comments
(mm) Length (M) Seeping Dripping Running Joints Fractures Total

N.B : When more than one defect is recorded at the same chainage, the most severe defect is counted.

Prepared By : Prepared By : Approved By : ( Qualified Person )


( Name : Qualified Person & Company) ( Name : Qualified Person & Company)

Date Of Report : Date Of Report : Date :

132 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix C

Appendix C 5 Report format for CCTV Inspection

DEFECT SUMMARY OF PIPE SECTIONS INSPECTION

From MH : To MH :

Item Position
Start MH Finish MH Code Description Grade
No. (M)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 133


Appendix C

Appendix C 6 Modules
Section 5 - Structural Defect Coding (Module 6A)

C CRACK 5.1 F FRACTURE 5.7 B BROKEN 5.14 H HOLE 5.16 D DEFORMED 5.18 X COLLAPSE 5.22 J JOINT 5.25
CL Longitudinal 5.2 FL Longitudinal 5.7 BSV Soil Visible Beyond 5.14 HSV Soil Visible Beyond 5.16 DV Deformed Vertically 5.18 JO Joint Offset (Displaced) 5.25
CC Circumferential 5.2 FC Circumferential 5.7 Defect Defect (brick) XP Pipe Collapse 5.22 JS Joint Separated (Open) 5.25
CM Multiple 5.2 FM Multiple 5.7 BVV Vold Visible Beyond 5.14 HSV Vold Visible Beyond 5.16 DH Deformed 5.18 XB Brick Collapse 5.22 JA Joint Angular 5.25
CS Spiral 5.2 FS Spiral 5.7 Defect Defect Horizontally (brick)

S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE DAMAGE 5.30
DAMAGE DAMAGE DAMAGE DAMAGE DAMAGE DAMAGE
SRI Roughness 5.30 SAV Aggregate Visible 5.30 SAP Aggregate 5.30 SAM Aggregate 5.30 SRV Reinforcement 5.30 SRP Reinforcement 5.30 SAP Aggregate Projecting 5.30
Increased SAVM Mechanical 5.31 Projecting Missing Visible Projecting
SRIM Mechanical 5.31 SAVC Chemical Attack 5.31 SAPM Mechanical 5.31 SAMM Mechanical 5.31 SRVM Mechanical 5.31 SRPM Mechanical 5.31 SAPM Mechanical 5.31
SRIC Chemical Attack 5.31 SAVZ Not Evident 5.32 SAPC Chemical Attack 5.31 SAMC Chemical Attack 5.31 SRVC Chemical Attack 5.31 SRPC Chemical Attack 5.31 SAPC Chemical Attack 5.31
SRIZ Not Evident 5.32 SAPZ Not Evident 5.32 SAMZ Not Evident 5.32 SRVZ Not Evident 5.32 SRPZ Not Evident 5.32 SAPZ Not Evident 5.32

S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 S SURFACE 5.30 LF LINING FAILURE 5.44 LF LINING FAILURE 5.44 WF WELD FAILURE 5.56
DAMAGE DAMAGE DAMAGE DAMAGE (continue)
SMV Missing Wall 5.31 SSS Surface Spalling 5.31 SZ Other 5.31 LFD Detached Lining 5.44 LFOC Overcut Service 5.44 WFL Longitudinal 5.56
SMWM Mechanical 5.31 SSSM Mechanical 5.31 SZM Mechanical 5.31 SCP Corrosion 5.31 LFDE Defective End 5.44 LFUC Undercut Service 5.44 WFG Circumferental 5.56
SMWC Chemical Attack 5.31 SSSC Chemical Attack 5.31 SZC Chemical Attack 5.31 (metal pipe) 5.31 LFB Blistered Lining 5.44 LFBK Buokled Lining 5.44 WFM Multiple 5.56
SMWZ Not Evident 5.32 SSSZ Not Evident 5.32 SZZ Not Evident 5.32 LFCS Service Cut Shifted 5.44 LFW Wrinkled Lining 5.44 WFS Spiral 5.56
LFAC Abandoned 5.44
Connection LFZ Other 5.44 WFZ Unidentified 5.56

RP POINT REPAIR 5.62 RP POINT REPAIR 5.62


(continues)
RPR Pipe Replaced 5.62 RPL Localized Pipeliner 5.62
RPRD Defective 5.62 RPLD Defective 5.62
RPP Patch Repair 5.62 RPZ Other 5.62
SMWZ Not Evident 5.32

134 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Appendix C

Appendix C 6 Modules (Con’t)


Section 6 - Operational and Maintenance (Module 6B)

D DEPOSIT 6.1 D DEPOSIT (continue) D DEPOSIT (continue) 6.1 R ROOTS 6.7 R ROOTS (continue) 6.7 R ROOTS (continue) 6.7 R ROOTS (continue)
DA Attached 6.1 DS Settled 6.1 DN Ingress 6.1 RF Fine 6.7 RT Tap 6.7 RM Medium 6.7 RB Ball
DAE Encrustation 6.2 DSF Fine 6.2 DNF Fine Material 6.3 RFB Barrel 6.7 RTB Barrel 6.7 RMB Barrel 6.7 RBB Barrel
DAGS Grease 6.2 DSG Gravel 6.2 (silt & sand) RFL Lateral 6.7 RTL Lateral 6.7 RML Lateral 6.7 RBL Lateral
DAR Ragging 6.2 DSC Hard/Compacted 6.2 DNGV Gravel 6.3 RFC Connection 6.7 RTC Connection 6.7 RMC Connection 6.7 RBC Connection
DAZ Other 6.2 DSZ Other 6.2 DNZ Other 6.3

I INFILITRATION 6.13 OB OBSTACLES/ OB OBSTACLES/ OB OBSTACLES/ OB OBSTACLES/ V VERMIN 6.31


IW Weeper 6.13 Obstructions 6.19 Obstructions (cont) 6.19 Obstructions (cont) 6.19 Obstructions (cont) 6.19
ID Dripper 6.13 OBB Brick or Masonry 6.19 OBI Object protruding 6.19 OBC Object through 6.19 OBS Built into structure 6.19 VR Rat 6.31
IR Runner 6.13 through wall connection/juriction OBN Construction Debris 6.20 VC Cockroach 6.31
IG Gusher 6.13 OBM Pipe Material in Invert 6.19 OBI Object wedged 6.19 OBP External Pipe Cable 6.19 OBR Rocks 6.20 VZ Other 6.31
in joint OBZ Other 6.20

Section 7 - Construction Features Coding (Module 6C)

T TAP 7.1 T TAP (continue) 7.1 T TAP (continue) 7.10 IS INTRUDING 7.8 IS INTRUDING 7.8 L LINE 7.11 L LINE
TF Factory Made 7.1 TB Break in/Hammer 7.2 TS Saddle 7.2 SEAL MATERIAL SEAL MATERIAL (of sewer) (of sewer)
(junction) (connection) 7.2 (connection) 7.2 ISSR Sealing Ring 7.8 ISGT Grout 7.8 (continue)
TFA Active 7.2 TBI Intruding 7.2 TSI Intruding 7.2 ISSRH Hanging 7.8 ISZ Other 7.8 LL Left 7.11 LRU Right & Up
TFC Capped 7.2 TBA Active 7.2 TSA Active 7.2 ISSRB Broken 7.8 LLLU Left & Up 7.11 LRD Right & Down
TFD Defective 7.2 TBC Capped 7.2 TSC Capped 7.2 LLD Left & Down 7.11 LU Up
TFL Leaking 7.2 TBD Defective 7.2 TSD Defective 7.2 LR Left & Right 7.11 LD Down
TFL Leaking 7.2 TSL Leaking 7.2

A ACCESSPOINT 7.13 A ACCESSPOINT 7.13 A ACCESSPOINT 7.13 A ACCESSPOINT 7.13


AMH Manhole 7.13 (continue) (continue) (continue)
AWA Wastewater Access 7.13 AOC Other Special 7.14 ACO Clean Out 7.14
ADP Discharge Point 7.13 Chamber ACOM Machine 7.14 ACB Catch Basin 7.14
ATC Tee Connection 7.13 AM Meter 7.14 ACOP Property 7.14 AEP End of Pipe 7.14
AWW Wet Well 7.14 ACOH House 7.14
AJB Junction Box 7.14

Section 8 - MiscellaneousFeatures Coding (Module 6D)

M ACCESSPOINT 8.1 M MISC.FEATURES 8.1 M MISC.FEATURES 8.1 M MISC.FEATURES 8.1


MCU Cmaera Underwater 8.1 (continue) (continue) (continue)
MGO General Observation 8.1 MSC Shape/Size Change 8.1 MLC Lining Change 8.10 MWM Water Mark 8.2
MGP General Photograph 8.1 (Sewer Dims/ MMC Material Change 8.10 MY Dye Test 8.2
Vertical/Horizontal) MSA Survey Abandoned 8.20 MYV Dye Visible 8.2
MJL Pipe Joint Length 8.1 MWL Water Level 8.2 MYN Not Visible 8.2

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 135


Appendix C

136 (this page is intended blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage


Industry Guidelines
Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

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