First Edition

Volume III Sewer Networks and Pump Stations
Published by : Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN)

Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication Malaysia

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Foreword by the CEO of SPAN

unicipal wastewater treatment technology in Malaysia has evolved through several eras. In the past, only basic facilities were used, e.g. overhang latrines, pit privy, bucket systems and pour flush systems. Some improvement were observed when more modern system like septic tank and Imhoff tank systems were introduced into the country some 40 years ago. The municipal wastewater treatment in Malaysia sees a significant improvement in the last three decades since the introduction of new technologies in the form of oxidation ponds, aerated lagoons, activated sludge system, package systems and a variety of mechanical plants into the country. However, sewage still remains as one of the major pollutants of our inland waterways. In the 1900s, the emergent of new treatment technologies were mainly driven by the basic need to treat the sewage so as to control waterborne diseases. Today, the environmental regulations are becoming stringent with the increasing awareness toward sustainable environmental management. Allowable effluent discharge limits are becoming lower globally. Public are also more educated and more alert on the needs to preserve the environment. Hence the evolution of municipal wastewater treatment technologies now are even more revolutionary and more rapid in order to meet the stricter regulators’ requirements and to compete in the increasing competitive market. While the nation moves towards achieving the status of a developed country, sustainability of our environment, in particularly the Malaysian rivers and streams must be strengthened. With this vision in mind, the Sewerage Services Department published its first edition of the guidelines for sewerage industry titled “Design and Installation of Sewerage Systems” in January 1995. The main purpose of these guidelines is to assist the

developer and his designer to plan and design systems acceptable to the regulatory authorities which, in turn speeds up the approval processes. The Guidelines has clearly guided the nation sewerage industry towards
achieving an improved sewerage system in the country. Subsequently, the Department further improvised the Guidelines in its second edition titled “Guidelines for Developers” which comprise five volumes covering specific topics. As a continuation to the efforts by the Sewerage Services Department, the National Water Services Commission undertake to revise and improvement the Guidelines for Developers. The product of the revision is “Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines” which also comprise five volumes. These new revisions incorporated valuable knowledge gained by various stakeholders over a decade since the implementation of the first Guidelines for Developers and upkeep with the aim towards sustainable environmental management. Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 Sewerage Policy for New Developments Sewerage Works Procedures Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Sewage Treatment Plants Septic Tanks

Volume 3 is specifically developed to provide a clear understanding of policies of the SPAN for the provision, refurbishment or upgrading of sewer networks and pumps stations. This volume covers planning, design, material selection, construction, installation and sewer testing requirements. The implementation of these guidelines since 90’s has undoubtedly achieved some levels of consistency in the design and construction of sewerage network nationwide. Finished sewerage networks quality has also been elevated while the operation and maintenance of the plants have improved significantly in terms of safety, health, operability and robustness. Whilst the adherence to these guidelines is necessary, engineering discretion is also required, especially for large sewers and pumping station with special situations. It is hoped that the publication of the third edition of this Volume further improve the municipal wastewater treatment facilities in this country. Dato’ Teo Yen Hua Chief Executive Officer SPAN

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© Copyright National Water Services Commission. Ministry of Energy.. for internal purposes only. Water and Communications. . Changes may be made periodically to the information herein. distributed. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Ministry of Energy. stored in a retrieval system. National Water Services Commission. Water and Communications. National Water Services Commission and Registered Certifying Agencies employees are permitted to copy and use the information in this publication. This publication is protected by copyright. 2008 All rights reserved. transmitted. or reduced to any electronic medium without the written authority of the Commissioner.

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16 2.2 2.1.1.1.1 Introduction Purpose of This Volume Who Should Use This Volume Related Reference Material Planning.1.1.1.1.1 1.3 2.11 2.20 2.21 2.2 1.1.3 Section 2 2.1.1 2.5 2.General Requirements Flow Rate Estimations Sewer Cleansing Velocities Pipe Roughness Design of Gravity Sewer Design of Force Mains Vacuum Sewerage System Computerised Sewer Designs Design of Inverted Siphon Structural Design of Sewers 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 23 25 36 37 37 .12 2.1.17 2.19 2.1. Material and Design Sewers 2.1.1.1.1.1.10 2.1.1.13 2.14 2.8 2.1.1.15 2.1.6 2.7 2.18 2.22 Pipe Material Selection Factors Pipe Materials and Fittings Pipe Selections PAGE 1 1 1 9 9 10 11 Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe Material 11 Vitrified Clay Pipe Reinforced Concrete Pipe Ductile Iron Pipe Steel Pipe Solid Wall PE Pipe Profiled Wall PE Pipe Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe Sewer Design .TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1 1.9 2.1.4 2.

4.3 Manhole Covers and Frames 2.6 2.3.3 2.2 2.4.1 2.3.15 2. Marking and Surface Finish Seating Casting Protective Coating Water-tightness Safety Features Product Certification Specifying of Network Pump Stations General Requirements Buffer Requirements Pipework Requirements Wet-well Requirements Dry-well Requirements Structural Requirements Ventilation Requirements Odour Control Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings 40 40 42 42 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 2.4 2.9 2.3.2 2.5 2.4.3.16 2.3.1 2.5 2.4.3 2.4.3.17 2.4.4.4.9 2.3 2.4.6 2.4.7 2.2.4 2.3.4 Design of Network Pump Stations 2.3.8 2.4.11 2.4.4.14 2.2 Manhole 2.8 2.18 Acceptable Pump System (Fixed Speed Pumps Only) 50 Valve Requirements Requirements for Level Controls Requirements for Alarms Maintenance Considerations Hazard and Operability Other Requirements 51 52 52 52 53 53 Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance52 .1 2.4.2.13 2.4.2.2.4.4.3.2 2.4 General Manhole Location Pipe Lengths from Manhole Structural Design Considerations for Manhole General Load Class Material Dimensions.2.3.12 2.4.7 2.10 2.10 2.

1 2.2.6.2 Oil Interceptors Grease Traps Concrete Cement Steel Reinforcement and Falsework 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 2.5.3 .2 2.5.6 Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements 2.6.1 2.5 Interceptors 2.6.

3 3.5 3.8.6.1 3.1 3.4.2 3.4.8 Reinstatement Connections to Public Sewers 3.4 General Junction Connections Saddle Connections Manhole Connections .6 Special Requirements For Sewer 3.4 3.3 3.5.4.4 Pipe Laying 3.8.2.1 3.4.2 Construction and Installation Introduction Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling 3.3 3.6. Structures.1 3.3 3.5.Section 3 3.5 Pipe Jointing 3.5.2.3.4.3 Protection of Affected Services.8.3 Trench Excavation 3.6.8.2 3.7 3.2. Pavements and Vegetation 63 Excavation Requirements Bored Excavation Pipe Bedding Pipe and Fittings Placement Pipe Jacking Concrete Pipe Support Pipe Cutting Backfill of Trench Flexible Joints Solvent Weld Joints Flanged Joints Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding) Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes Pipe Embedment and Overlay Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe 64 66 66 66 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 72 72 73 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 3.4.1 3.6.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.3.2 3.6 3.5.3 3.5 3.4 3.5.4 Pipes and Fittings Delivery Pipe Handling at Site Pipe Storage Pipe Damage 59 59 59 60 61 62 63 3.2 3.1 3.3.2 3.

6 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.6.4 4.2 4.2 4.12.9 4.11.11.10.5.1 4.10.10. and Grade CCTV Inspection 4.1 4.10.11.3 4.2 4.1 4.7 4. Obstruction.4.5.10.7.6 4. CCTV Inspection Requirements CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for New Sewer Network 91 Interpretation Of Results From CCTV Inspection Follow -Up Action to Be Taken General Procedure Handling Test Failures General Procedures 93 93 95 95 95 95 95 95 96 4.1 4.2 4.8.5 General Testing of Gravity Sewers Testing of Forced Mains Testing of Manhole and other ancillaries Low Pressure Air Test 4.3 4.7.2 4.3 4.5 4.10.1 4.1 4.11 Infiltration Test 4.12 Water-tightness Test 4.2 4.2 .12.7 Objectives of CCTV Inspection Technical Requirements and References Equipment Specifications and Test Devices 4.5.Section 4 Sewer Testing 4.10 General Procedure for Testing Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure General Procedure Handling Water Test Failures General Procedure General Procedure 79 80 81 81 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 85 86 86 86 87 87 87 88 88 89 89 89 90 Low Pressure Water Test High Pressure Water Test High Pressure Leakage Test Test for Straightness.3 4.8.8 4.10.2 4.6.6.

5m) Figure A5 Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5 Table 2.1b Table 2.2 Appendix A Figure A1 Figure A2 Figure A3 Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer 21 Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe Materials 21 Typical Roughness Coefficient.7 Table 2.LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1a Table 2. ks Typical Manning Coefficient.4 Table 2.2m ≤ Depth < 2.5m ≤ Depth < 5m) Figure A6 (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2. Pipe Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block 105 107 108 109 104 102 100 98 99 22 22 23 36 41 46 54 83 94 Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdro 101 Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole with backdrop 103 Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type 106 Figure A13a Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer (Sheet 1 of 2) 110 .5m ≤ Depth < 5m) Figure A7 Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m) Figure A8 Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m) Figure A9 Figure A10 Figure A11 Figure A 12 Typical Induct Vent Detail Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer Reticulation Pipe for V.5m Figure A4 (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2 Table 2.1 Table 4.8 Table 4. n Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient.C.2m ≤ Depth < 2.3 Table 2.6 Table 2. C Condition/alarm of the station equipment Minimum Manhole Diameters Final inspection and testing Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations Test Duration Defect Grades Descriptions Typical Drawings/ Diagrams Standard Manhole Cover Plan View of Typical Manhole Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.

Figure A13b Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer (Sheet 2 of 2) 111 Figure A14 Figure A15 Figure A16 Figure A17 Figure A18 Typical Details of Receiving Manhole. Force Main and Washout Valve 112 Precast Concrete Chamber (Type A ) and Details of Air Valve and Scour Valve Chamber 113 Standard Pipe Beddings Vacuum sewage collection system House connection 114 115 115 Figure A19a Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel116 Figure A19b Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel117 Figure A20a Collection chambers with interface valves vented through breather pipes 118 Figure A20b Collection chamber with interface valve activated by float118 Figure A20c Multi-valve collection chamber Figure A21 Figure A22 Figure A23 Figure A24 Figure A25 Figure A26 Figure A27 Figure A28 Figure A29 Appendix B Vacuum sewer profiles (not to scale) 119 120 Example of vacuum sewer profiles for uphill and downhill transport (not to scale) 120 Y-branch for vacuum sewer 121 Method of joining crossover pipes and branch sewers to vacuum mains 121 Typical details of dry-well pump station Typical detail of wet-well pump station Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure Tables 127 122 123 124 125 126 Table B1 : Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth Appendix C CCTV Format and Codes Appendix C 1 Report format for CCTV Inspection Appendix C 2 Report format for CCTV Inspection Appendix C 3 Report format for CCTV Inspection Appendix C 4 Report format for CCTV Inspection Appendix C 5 Report format for CCTV Inspection Appendix C 6 Module 129 130 131 132 133 134 .

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Section 1 Introduction .

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some guidelines are provided on the provision of interceptors to protect public sewers from the discharge of oil and grease from garage workshops. sewerage contractors. design and installation of sewer networks and/or network pump stations. MS 522 vii. canteens or any premises that collect such matter. 1. 1. However. the designer shall follow the requirements given in MS 1228. The following documents are also referred to in this volume. planners.2 Who Should Use This Volume This volume is primarily intended for owners. The owner must comply with the requirements set out in this volume when submitting an application for the approval of the Commission. MS 628 Specification for test for water for making concrete Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete Specification for cold reduced mild steel wire for reinforcement of concrete Specification for steel welded fabric for the reinforcement of concrete.Introduction 1. a) Malaysian Standards i. MS 145 v. manufacturers.1 Purpose of This Volume This volume sets out the requirements of the National Water Services Commission (SPAN) (referred to as the Commission in this document) for the design. MS 144 iv. This volume generally does not cover internal plumbing systems within buildings. MS 28 ii. developers. MS 146 vi. Specification for hot rolled steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete. MS 523 viii. MS 1228 shall take precedence over other foreign standards in the event when there are discrepancies on the requirements. construction and testing of sewer networks and network pump stations. Where information is not covered in this volume. Specification for Portland cement (ordinary and rapid hardening) Specification for concrete including ready mixed concrete Specification for unplasticised PVC (uPVC) pipes for water supply Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 1 . restaurants.3 Related Reference Material This volume does not cover all aspects of design and construction of sewer networks and network pump stations. hotels. MS 29 iii. consulting engineers. and Public Authorities who have a direct interest in the planning.

MS 922 Specification for concrete admixtures Part 1 : Accelerating admixtures. MS 980 xvi. MS 1037 xix. MS 1195 xxii. MS 981 xvii. MS 1389 Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains and sewers Code of practice for structural use of concrete Specification for Portland pulverised fuel ash cement Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage Systems Cathodic Protection : Part 1 Code of practice for land applications Specification for rubber seals – water stop for sealing joints in concrete – Specification of materials Specification for Portland blastfurnace cement 2 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . retarding admixtures and water-reducing admixtures MS 923 Specification for joints and fittings for use with uPVC pressure pipes [delete] Part 3: Mechanical joints and fittings. MS 822 xii. MS 1292 xxvi. MS 1061 xxi. MS 1227 xxiii. MS 1347 xxv. MS 1228 xxiv.Introduction Part 1 : Pipes Part 2 : Joints and fittings for use with unplasticised PVC pipes ix. drainage and sewerage pipelines Specification for hot-dip galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles Specification for sawn timber foundation piles Specification for pre-cast concrete pipes and fittings for drainage and sewerage Part 1: Specification for pipes and fittings with flexible joints and manholes xiii. MS 1058 Specification for safety signs and colours : Colorimetric and photometric properties of materials Specification for safety signs and colours : Colour and design Specification for fire safety signs. MS 979 Specification for unplasticizes sewerage pipes and fittings Part 1: Pipes of diameter 100mm and 155mm Part 2: Pipes of diameter 200mm and above xv. MS 982 xviii. MS 881 Specification of rubber seals in water supply. principally of uPVC [delete] xiv. MS 672 x MS 740 xi. notices and graphic symbol Specification for sulphate-resisting Portland cement MS 1058 Specification for polyethylene (PE) piping systems for water supply Part 1 : General Part 2 : Pipes xx.

Specification for cast iron check valves for general purposes. BS 4515 ix. 45011 xxvii MS i. suitable for use in contact with potable water ISO metric precision hexagon bolts. Specification for bitumen-based coatings for cold application. BS 3416 iv. screws and nuts. BS 4248 viii. BS 5153 x. fittings and ducts. BS 5975 xiii. BS 3692 v. [ KIV. Specification for unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes (including jacking pipes) and fittings with flexible joints (complementary to BS EN 1916) Code of practice for falsework. BS 6105 xv. Specification. BS 65 Specification for vitrified clay pipes. fittings and ancillary products. Sewerage [delete] ii. ISO/IEC Guide 65 xxix 04Z005R0 General requirements certification systems for bodies operating product Air Quality – Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry. BS 5911 xii. BS 915 iii. also flexible mechanical joints for use solely with surface water pipes and fittings Specification for high alumina cement. BS 6076 xiv. BS 4147 vi. Specification for polymeric film for use as a protectiv sleeving for buried iron pipes and fittings (for site and factory application) Specification for corrosion resistant stainless steel fasteners. Specification for bitumen based hot applied coating materials for protecting iron and steel including suitable primers where required Specification for coal-tar-based hot-applied coating materials for protecting iron and steel including a suitable primer Specification for Supersulfated cement Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore. BS 5480 xi. Metric unit. joints and fittings for use for water supply or sewerage Part 1 : Precast concrete pipes. BS 7123 BS 7874 BS 8005 Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 3 . Method of test for microbiological deterioration of elastomeric seals for joints in pipework and pipelines.Introduction xxvii MS EN Specification for general criteria for certification bodies operating product certification. [delete] Specification for metal arc welding of steel for concrete reinforcement. Specification for Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes. BS 4164 vii. To be discussed in the Main Committee Meeting ] b) British Standards i. .

1 xviii. BS EN 1091 xxviii. xxvi. Part 1 : General Part 2 : Steels for general engineering purposes 4 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Materials requirement for pipe joint seals used in water and drainage applications. xxxi. BS EN 681 Elastomeric seals. Ingots and castings. xix. Dimensions and masses 10220 per unit length. BS EN 682 Elastomeric seals. BS EN 1561 xxix. bending and cutting of steel reinforcement for concrete. Technical delivery conditions. BS EN 752 Drain and sewer systems outside buildings xxvii. xxv. BS EN Non-alloy steel tubes and fittings for the conveyance of 10224 aqueous liquids including water for human consumption. 10025 xxxii BS EN Seamless and welded steel tubes. BS EN 545 Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and their joint for water pipelines – requirements and test methods xxiii. BS EN 295-1 xxi. construction and installation. BS 8007 xvii. xxxiii. dimensioning. BS EN 1563 xxx. Materials requirement for pipe joint seals used in pipes and fittings carrying gas hydrocarbons fluids. quality control BS EN 295 Specification for vitrified clay pipes and fittings with flexible mechanical joints [delete] Part 7: Requirements for vitrified clay pipes and joints for pipe jacking [delete] xx. BS 80102. Ductile iron Specification for scheduling. xxiv. BS EN 598 Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and their joint for sewerage applications – requirements and test methods.Introduction xvi. Design requirements. type testing. BS EN 295-7 Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains and sewers. marking. BS EN Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels. BS 1982 Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings Specification for flake graphite cast iron Specification for spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast iron EN Copper and copper alloys. BS EN 124 Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular and pedestrian areas. Requirements Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints for drains and sewers. Pipelines on land : design. Technical delivery conditions. xxxiv. BS 8666 Code of practice for design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids Code of practice for pipelines. BS EN 10277 Bright steel products. Requirements for vitrified clay pipes and joints for pipe jacking xxii.

road grates and frames Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes d) German Standards i. AS/NZS 3518 v. Part 2 : Nuts. xxxvii BS EN ISO Construction drawings. Air quality – Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry.Introduction Part 3 : Free cutting steels Part 4 : Case-hardening steels Part 5 : Steels for quenching and tempering xxxv BS EN 10278 xxxvi BS EN 13725 Dimensions and tolerances of bright steel products.12 ix. Loads on buried concrete pipes Paint for steel structure – Ultra high-build piant. screws and studs.2 AS 3750. Paint for steel structure – Alkyd/micaceous iron oxide. AS/NZS 1260 ii. AS/NZS 2566 iv. AS 3750. Underground mining – Slope haulage – coumplings. xxxviii BS EN ISO Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel 3506 fasteners Part 1 : Bolts. Metal access covers. AS 3725 viii. Supplementary cementitious materials for use with portland and blended cement Part 3 : Amorphous silica. DIN 16961 Thermoplastic pipes and fittings with profiled outer and smooth inner surfaces Part 1: Dimensions Part 2: Technical delivery conditions Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 5 . pipes and fittings for pressure applications. drawbars and safety chains. AS/NZS 3582 vi. AS 3751 x AS 3996 xi AS 4060 PVC-u pipes and fittings for drain. AS/NZS 1477 iii. Stationay source emissions Part 3 : Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry. waste and vent application (refer to uPVC profiled wall pipe only) PVC pipes and fittings for pressure applications Buried flexible pipelines Part 1 : Structural design Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) compounds. Simplified representation of concrete 3766 reinforcement. c) Australian / New Zealand and Australian Standards i. AS/NZS 4323 vii.

This shall be the same for any applicable act. WIS 01 iii. specify additional standards to be used in the design and construction of sewerage works.Resin Sewer Pipe D Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible Thermo Plastic Sewer Pipe Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Large Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe D Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fitting Materials D Standard Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals ASTM F 894 ASTM 3350 ASTM 3212 h) i.Specification for mechanical fittings and joints for polyethylene pipes for nominal sizes 90 to 1000 04-32. iii.Classification Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel fasteners TR Underground installation of flexible glass-reinforced thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes Part 1: Installation procedures Part 3 : Installation parameters and application limits f) Water Industry Specifications (U. These standards shall be referred to as appropriate for the design and construction of sewer networks and network pump stations. American Society for Testing and Material ASTM 3262 ASTM 2321 D Specifications for “Fiberglass” Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Thermosetting. iv.Introduction e) International Standards i. All standards used in the design and construction of sewerage works shall be the latest or the most updated. guideline. 6 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . WIS 14 04-32. ISO 1083 ii. Other Reference Materials Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried Pipelines . ISO 10465 Spheroidal graphite cast irons . WIS 15 ii.UK Transport Research Laboratory The Commission will.Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 electrofusion fittings for nominal sizes up to and including 630 g) i. from time to time. v. ii.Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 spigot fittings and drawn bends for nominal sizes up to and including 1000 04-24. related to sewerage works endorsed by the government.K) i. ISO 3506 iii. the latest or updated standards shall be referred to as appropriate. by-law. etc. When any one of the above mentioned standards is withdrawn or superseded.

Introduction Other Guidelines in This Set The Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines comprise of 5 volumes: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Volume I Volume II Volume III Volume IV Volume V Sewerage Policy for New Development Sewerage Works Procedures Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Sewage Treatment Plants Septic Tanks Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 7 .

Introduction 8 (this page is intended to be blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

Section 2 Planning. Material and Design .

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a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) Resistance to acidic condition of which is prevalent in sewer networks in tropical climates Resistance to sulphate attack from aggressive soils and groundwater Resistance to corrosion in contaminated soils Resistance to severe abrasion from sewage flow and usual cleaning methods Resistance of the joint to groundwater entry (infiltration) and sewage escape (exfiltration) Resistance of the joint material to corrosion and microbiological degradation Structural damages and other damages that may occur in handling Handling. Material and Design 2.Planning. laying and jointing care and difficulties Methods of pipe embedment to ensure structural performance Maintenance of structural strength and performance in service Methods of maintenance and repair Cost of supply.1. special tools and trained personal shall be made available during handling and installation of pipes. Where necessary. transportation and installation Range and suitability of fittings where considered for smaller diameter sewers Previous local experience Local availability Pipe pressure ratings The design life of a pipe shall be at least 50 years. All bolts and nuts shall be stainless steel (SS) 304.1 Sewers Pipe Material Selection Factors The following considerations are the important factors to be considered before selecting or approving any pipe material and pipeline system for sewer networks. the following factors should be considered before selecting or approving any pipe manufacturer and supplier.1 2. Additionally. a) b) c) Compliance of products to standards Compliance to additional material and product requirements specified by the Commission Quality control and assurance practised by the manufacturer and supplier to ensure good pipe product quality from manufacturing to delivery Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 9 .

Material and Design 2. The materials and the standards which the pipes are required to conform to are as follows: a) Vitrified clay (VC) i) MS 672 ii) MS 1061 iii) BS EN 295 b) Reinforced concrete (RC) i) MS 881 ii) BS 5911 iii) BS 7874 iv) BS EN 681 v) BS EN 682 c) Ductile iron (DI) i) BS EN 598 d) Mild Steel i) BS EN 10025 i) BS EN 10224 e) Stainless Steel i) BS EN 10220 f) Polyethylene (PE) solid wall i) MS 1058 ii) WIS 04-32-15 iii) WIS 04-32-14 iv) WIS 04-24-01 g) Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) solid wall i) MS 628 : Part 2 : Section 2 ii) MS 923 iii) MS 979 iv) AS/NZS 1477 h) Polyethylene profiled wall i) DIN 16961 i) Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride profiled wall i) AS/NZS 1260 j) Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) i) BS 5480 ii) AS 3571 k) Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) i) AS/NZS 3518 10 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .Planning.1.2 Pipe Materials and Fittings There is an extensive range of pipe materials available in Malaysia for use for gravity. pressure and vacuum sewers.

Also. ii. Additional requirements to those given in the above standards may be specified from time to time by the Commission.1. the following limitations or requirements shall be followed when selecting the pipe materials: 1) a) Gravity Sewer VC i.4 Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe Material Unless the exemption is granted by the Commission.Planning. there are certain limitations for use of each pipe type. linings etc. However. b) Flexible pipes i) GRP ii) Ductile Iron iii) HDPE (Profile) 2. the pipe materials to be used for a specific type of sewer are listed below: 1) Gravity sewers a) Rigid pipes i) VC ii) RC 2) Force mains (Rising mains) i) Ductile Iron ii) GRP iii) ABS iv) HDPE (Solid) v) Steel 3) Vacuum sewers i) ABS – for internal use ii) HDPE (Solid) – for external use There are specific requirements such as pipe class. Only size 150 mm or above shall be used The minimum size for public sewer shall be at least 225 mm Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 11 . only pipes and fittings from manufacturers and suppliers approved by the Commission are permitted to be used for sewerage applications. For other pipe materials not listed above. 2. joint type. Material and Design Marking of all pipes shall comply with available Malaysian or British Standards where applicable. the Commission will publish sewer selection guides which will provide more detailed direction on the selection and use of sewer materials.3 Pipe Selections Except where otherwise specifically approved by the Commission. which the above approved pipe materials must meet in order to suit the above applications. their use will be given considerations in special circumstances.1. These requirements and limitations are specified in the following sections. From time to time.

2) a) Force Mains DI i. ii. ii. GRP Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity Pipe shall be used only when no fittings are required Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed ii. Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground Pipe protection linings and coatings are required Polyethylene sleeving is required for all buried applications Flexible joints are recommended 12 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . iii. ii. iv. Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground Flexible joints are recommended b) RC i. The use is only allowed for applications needed high pipe strength Pipe protection linings and coatings are required Polyethylene sleeving is required for all buried applications e) HDPE i.Planning. iv. iii. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity. iii. iii. ii. Material and Design iii. d) DI i. Only pipe with profile wall is permitted. iii. Pipe protection linings are required Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed in compliance to the policy Flexible joints are recommended c) i. iv.

Fittings shall be made of ductile iron Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed ii. VC pipes which are available in Malaysia are normally manufactured with spigot-socket flexible joints.1.50 m. ii. e) Steel i. polyurethane seal is sometimes offered by some manufacturers. ii.Planning. However. VC pipes are classified according to the pipe ring crushing strength which depends on the manufacturing process and quality. the potential for infiltration is great and must be minimised by careful laying procedures on site. When glazed they need not be glazed on the jointing surfaces of the spigot and socket. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 13 . Most manufacturers commonly offer a rubber ring seal. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity. Vitrified clay pipe that has extra chemical resistance is suitable for sewerage applications. ii. Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade the pipe Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive discharges that may affect the pipe integrity. iii.91 m to 2. Pipe is allowed only for sizes 700 mm or above Pipe protection linings and coatings are required 2. Material and Design b) GRP i. c) ABS i.5 Vitrified Clay Pipe Vitrified clay (VC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters of 100 mm to 600 mm and lengths ranging from 0. This type of VC pipe may be used even under very corrosive sewage environment. iv. Where VC or RC pipes are not suitable Only for nominated projects or as permitted by the relevant authority d) HDPE i. Larger diameters of VC pipe are imported. However. VC pipes and fittings can be produced either unglazed or glazed on the interior and/or exterior.

14 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Pipes can be manufactured using Ordinary Portland Cement. portland pulverised fuel ash cement or portland blastfurnace cement shall be used with the approval from relevant authority. The RC pipes also incorporate rebated joints with joint elastomeric ring seals either integrated in the unit or supplied separately. Other linings may be used if approval from the Commission is obtained. 2. Pipe strength is classified by the crushing strength (FN) value tested in accordance with BS EN 295-3. Material and Design Vitrified clay pipes are permitted for gravity sewers. Glazing of VC pipes and fittings are preferred. For RC pipes greater than 1000mm diameters either PVC or HDPE plastic lining or 38mm thick sacrificial concrete lining shall be employed. RC pipe when used for pipe jacking purpose. The cement used to manufacture concrete pipe shall be factory produced by the cement manufacturer.600 mm.6 Reinforced Concrete Pipe Reinforced concrete (RC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters from 150 mm to 3. The minimum permissible size for public gravity sewer shall not be less than 225mm and service connection shall not be less than 150mm. RC pipes are sometimes manufactured using sulphate resistance cement and where not available. All these types of cements are corrosion resistance. RC pipes are permitted for gravity sewers of diameter DN600 and larger. high alumina cement mortar lining. Low heat and supersulphated cements have also been found in some tests to improve the corrosion resistance. Ogee joint (fixed joint) shall be used in conjunction with concrete bedding haunching only. Portland Blast Furnace Cement. RC pipes below 1000mm in diameter linings shall consist of either 12mm thick high alumina cement or 38mm thick (as appropriate) sacrificial concrete lining. except Ordinary Portland Cement and Rapid Hardening Portland Cement. To improve the corrosion resistance. Common reinforced concrete pipes are not resistant to acidic corrosion which occurs in certain septic sewage conditions. All VC pipes and fittings shall be furnished with spigot-socket flexible joints and rubber ring seals or polyurethane seals. RC pipe is classified according to pipe crushing test load or the three-edge bearing strength which varies with wall thickness and reinforcement. Pipe shall be of Standard Strength or higher as determined from structural design. Concrete pipe junctions shall be fixed to the main pipe by the pipe manufacturer and fabricated to clay pipe dimensions. The standard pipe length is 3. The crushing strength of the pipe with size ≥ DN 225 is classified by class number. PVC lining. Portland Pulverised Fuel Ash Cement and Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement. To resist corrosion by neutral sulphates occurring in aggressive soils and groundwater. Rapid Hardening Portland Cement. VC pipes and fittings shall conform to the requirements of MS1061. The inclusion of calcareous or limestone aggregate is another measure found to improve corrosion resistance.05 m.1. PE lining and sacrificial lining have been used.Planning. Flexible joints which utilise a rubber ring to join a rebated joint and a spigot to a socket are commonly used and are recommended. The crushing strength for pipe with DN150 shall not be less than 22 kN/m. shall be comply with BS 5911.

2. Standard lengths are 6.Planning. shall cover the whole surface of the applied coating and shall prevent defects such as the loss of adhesion. The pressure rating of the pipe increases with an increase in wall thickness.1. Commonly used pipe strength is class K9 and shall comply with BS EN 598 for working pressure exceeding 6 bars. Ductile iron will undergo corrosion when exposed to certain aggressive groundwaters and conveying certain aggressive water. Polyethylene sleeving shall be used for all the buried pipe and fittings. all ductile iron pipes shall have an external coating to be determined by a Qualified Person based on actual soil condition. ordinary Portland cement shall be used.1. Pipes shall have flexible joints. shallow cover sewers subjected to high live load or sewers of above ground applications. which is normally bituminous product. DI pipe is classified according to wall thickness. Flanged and mechanical joints are also available. Buried pipe shall have zinc with bitumen external coating and fittings shall have bitumen external coating. The imported pipe can be up to 2. Pipe joints are normally welded utilising either spigotsocket ends.e. DI pipe shall be used for gravity sewers only where it is needed to take the advantages of the high strength of ductile iron. e. or bitumen. For internal lining of constant full flowing pipe. The end surfaces shall include the internal surface of the socket and external surface of the spigot for flexible connection. sulphate resistant cement lining. bitumen enamel or asphalt enamel and glass fibre. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 15 . Steel pipes will undergo corrosion when in contact with aggressive soil and sewage and. Unless otherwise approved by the Commission. all fittings and accessories shall be provided with external and internal epoxy coating. the internal lining protection is required to protect against corrosions. DI pipe is permitted for force mains and internal pipings of pump stations. coal tar epoxy. plain ends or a collar. spigot-socket rubber seal joints or mechanical joints. the material of the finishing layer shall be compatible with the coating. Pipe internal linings normally include high alumina cement mortar. coal tar enamel. The finishing layer.0 m.7 Ductile Iron Pipe Ductile Iron (DI) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia for diameters from 80 mm to 1200 mm. require an internal lining and an external coating. Therefore. Pipe external coatings often include coal tar enamel. Unless otherwise approved by the Commission. except for pump station pipework and valve connections where flange joints shall be used. thus.8 Steel Pipe Steel pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in a wide range of diameters up to 3000 mm and lengths up to 10 m.000 mm. while high alumina cement mortar or plastic adhesive lining is required for partly full flowing pipes. In addition. i.g. Material and Design 2.

where internal cement mortar lining at joints is not possible and where movement of the pipeline is to be allowed for. The type of external protection shall be determined by the Qualified Person based on soil condition. Ground conditions which provide poor pipe side support are unsuitable for flexible PE pipe. The ribs or corrugations are normally either aligned circumferentially or helically. Solid wall HDPE pipes are suitable for buried pressure sewer and buried vacuum sewer installations.1. This pipe is normally butt fusion jointed. Since PE pipes are flexible. Solid wall pipe for pressure main application shall be of minimum PE80-PB10.1. 2.10 Profiled Wall PE Pipe A profiled wall pipe is a pipe with a plain inside surface and with a ribbed or corrugated outside surface.Planning. 2. A spigot and socket joint welded both externally and internally shall be used for pipe joints except for pump station pipework and valve connections where flange joints shall be used. 16 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . High density PE (HDPE) is used for sewerage applications. These corrugated or ribbed profiles optimise the pipe ring stiffness to weight ratio. Mechanical joints are only permitted for cut pipe lengths. For force main larger than 700 mm. Pipe size of 160mm or less may be flange jointed or electrofusion jointed.9 Solid Wall PE Pipe Polyethylene (PE) pipe is resistant to sulphuric acid of concentrations that might be found in septic sewage under the worst conditions. PE pipe is classified by pressure rating with static working pressures up to 1.000 mm and in standard lengths of 6 m and 12 m. Following the completion of pipe jointing. the stability of flexible pipes relies more on the side support of the earth backfill around the pipe. The use of specific strength shall depend on the depth and nature of the soil as confirmed by the Qualified Person. where the side support may be removed during future adjacent construction of underground services. in an urban environment.6 MPa. The internal and external surfaces of the pipes and fittings shall be coated with thermosetting (epoxy paint or powder or epoxy tar resin) or thermoplastic (polyethylene or polyurethane) material. Solid wall pipes for vacuum sewer shall be minimum of PE80-PN8 and at least PN10 for heavy vehicle loading. Consequently. exposed steel at the joints shall be protected from corrosion by manually applied external tape wrap and internal cement mortar lining. Compared to rigid pipes. uPVC fittings are not permitted for force mains. the design of the pipe/trench system is more critical than for rigid pipe materials. PE solid wall pipe is available locally in diameters up to 1. pipe failures could be more frequent. steel pipe may be used if the approval from the Commission is obtained. Butt fusion joints shall be used for PE pipe. Material and Design Steel pipes are permitted only for inverted siphons (depressed sewers) and internal pump station pipework. The pipe can be designed with double-wall profile or triple-wall profile.

The filament winding GRP pipe uses continuous glass fibres wound helically about the pipe. The design of filament winding GRP pipe shall be in accordance with BS 5480. It also has a resin rich inner surface although the thickness of this resin surface layer is often limited by the manufacturing method. The inner surface of the pipe is usually finished with a resin rich lining which is resistance to attack by sulphuric acid that may result from septic sewage. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe shall be according to AS 3751. Centrifugal casting GRP pipe has a rubber sealing sleeve joint which is supplied fitted to one end. sometimes. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe incorporates silica sand in the wall structure in addition to resin and chopped strand mat glass fibres. and thus much higher ring stiffness than the filament winding GRP pipe.000 N/m2 stiffness and up to 2. which permits centrifugal casting GRP pipe to have a much thicker wall. removed for fabrication purposes. Filament winding GRP pipe currently being offered can be jointed using a sleeve and two rubber O rings. 2.700 mm and standard lengths of 6m and 12m (size dependent).000 N/m2 stiffness and up to 1. Material and Design Corrugated high density PE pipe is available in Malaysia in a range of size from 100mm to 3000mm nominal diameter and in standard 6m lengths.1. Filament winding GRP pipe is available in sizes up to 3. Centrifugal casting GRP is available up to 10.11 Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe is currently required to be imported into Malaysia. Filament winding GRP is available up to 5. The filament winding GRP pipe does not normally incorporate sand. This feature can be essential with this GRP pipe because its resin rich surface (gelcoat) is thinner or. These pipes can also be supplied with flange joints.Planning.400 mm and standard length of 6 m. Machining may be required for the outer surface where rubber sealing rings are used. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 17 . Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance for pressure applications and by pipe ring stiffness for non-pressure applications.5 MPa static working pressure. Flange joints and mechanical couplings are also available for special applications. The standard joint is a flexible spigot-socket joint with rubber seal. Filament winding GRP pipe does not have a smooth outer surface like centrifugal casting GRP pipe. centrifugal casting and filament winding. Some filament winding GRP pipe manufacturers incorporate corrosion resistant glass fibres. sleeve-locking joints and sleeve recessed joints for special applications such as pipe jacking and pipeline towing. So jointing is similar to a spigot-socket joint. There are two principal manufacturing methods for GRP pipes. The silica sand shall have a maximum particles size of 10 mm. Pipes from specific manufacturers in this category may be permitted by the Commission to be used for gravity sewers where special circumstances require the benefits of such pipes.6 MPa static working pressure Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is available in sizes from 200 mm to 2.

The cementing jointing process is more complex than the jointing process of uPVC pipe. Due to its inherent structure. If used. GRP pipe has a much higher modulus of elasticity than uPVC and PE pipe. The most common jointing method is by solvent cementing.1. like uPVC and PE. ABS has found use in industrial and mining applications and also in treatment plants for sewage and water.13 Sewer Design . The minimum pipe stiffness shall be SN 5000 with the appropriate stiffness determined in accordance with structural design to AS 2566. the jointing of ABS pipe requires special trainings. GRP pipe is generally available in higher stiffness than. Because of its excellent resistance to abrasion and UV degradation.Planning. A spigot/socket rubber ring joint is generally not available.General Requirements The design of a sewerage system shall generally be in accordance with the principles set out in this guideline. uPVC and PE pipe. ABS pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance. particularly in larger diameters. ABS pipes may be permitted for force mains under special circumstances which require the benefits of such pipes. the approval of the Commission is required. which is brittle compared to thermoplastic material. For gravity sewers. lining and other requirements. 2. For pressure sewers.1. 18 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . ABS pipes may be permitted for use in buried forced mains and buried interconnecting pipe-works within pump stations. ABS. Because of the care required to make a solvent cement joint.12 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipe is a thermoplastic pipe. ABS is used in a range of applications requiring pressure pipe. Thus. Approval for the use of GRP pipe shall be sought from the Director General for each project intending its use. is resistant to corrosion in the most corrosive sewage environment that could occur. Material and Design GRP pipe is classified as a flexible pipe. GRP pipes are only permitted for sizes of 600mm nominal diameter and larger where no fittings are required. fittings must only be of ductile iron meeting the coating. it may have a much thinner wall than uPVC and PE pipes to achieve equivalent ring stiffness. It is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters up to 630 mm. Unauthorised connections of surface waters or excessive infiltration to the sewerage system are not permitted. GRP pipe has lower strain limits than uPVC and PE pipes since it is made of thermoset resin.5 MPa. It requires sufficient side support to retain its structural integrity in cross-section in the same way as uPVC and PE pipe. It comes in various static working pressure ratings up to 1. The sewerage system shall be suitably designed to carry all sewage flows including sullage to the approved disposal point. GRP pipes are permitted for gravity and pressure sewers. 2. Additional requirements in the Malaysian Standard MS 1228:1991 Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Sewerage System shall also be referred to in design.

leaking joint seals.km of sewer length. The peak factor shall be estimated from the following formula: Peak Factor = 4. Under special circumstances where the sewer cannot be sited in public road reserve then vehicular access of at least 3 m in width and road bearing capacity of not less than 5 tonne shall be provided.14 Flow Rate Estimations Few principal considerations when selecting the diameter and gradient of a sewer are: i) ii) iii) to cater for peak flow to ensure that there will be a sufficient velocity during each day to sufficiently cleanse the sewer of slime and sediment to limit the velocity to avoid scouring of sewers a) Average Flow: The volume of sewage that needs to be treated per day is based on an assumed contribution per person of 225 litres. etc. Material and Design Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission.Planning. 2. joint types. A checklist for sewer reticulation design is given in the Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines. The maximum allowable infiltration rate shall be 50 litre / ( mm diameter. soil type.11 Where PE = assumed population equivalent c) Infiltration: Infiltration is the amount of groundwater that enters sewers through damage in the network such as cracked pipes. The recommended minimum population equivalent values are given in Table B. pipe materials.1. etc. all sewers shall be sited in public road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance purposes. leaky manhole walls. Volume II.1.7 (PE/1000)-0. There are many variables affecting infiltration such as quality of workmanship. The peak factor above has included the contribution of infiltrations. Peak flow is the most severe flow that could occur on any day when considering daily flow fluctuations and infiltrations. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 19 . The peak flow is derived from the average flow by applying a peak factor for daily flow fluctuations. b) Peak Flow: The flow used to determine the diameter and gradient of the pipeline is the peak flow.day ). height of water table above pipeline. Another assumption is made as to the contribution from various types of premises where the contribution from each premise type is defined in terms of an equivalent population.

there is insufficient data to accurately determine the pipeline roughness for a wide range of velocities or at small incremental changes in velocity. 2.e. specific gravity. etc. However. grain size. the velocity of the sewage flow varies due to the factors such as daily fluctuations.5 times of that for sediment cleansing. Abrasion by sediments will also impart a permanent increase in roughness. slime will always be present. It has been found that 85% or more of the sulphide producing slimes are removed when the grade of the sewer is 2. Material and Design 2. The hydraulic requirements for cleansing the sediments of sewer differ from those required for cleansing the slimes of sewer. it may not be practical to design a sewer to achieve such velocities due to the excessive cost of constructing such a deep and steep sewer. Similarly. Although increasing the velocity up to the critical velocity will increase the amount of slime being sloughed off. Also. However. the selection of steep gradient to achieve velocities for full slime stripping is not a design requirement. a) Sediment Cleansing: For the removal of sediments.1. However. Removal of large portion of slimes requires high sewage velocities. Therefore. For design purposes however. Therefore. thus.Planning.15 Sewer Cleansing Velocities The principal accumulants in sewers are slimes and sediments. it has been found that larger pipe diameters require higher velocity to cleanse the sediment. In many instances. different stage of catchment maturity. cohesiveness) also influences the movement of sediment and. the rate of sulphide production remains substantially unaffected by the thinner slime layer. b) Slime Cleansing: The removal of slime depends on the stress needed to shear sections of slime from each other or from the pipe wall. which will increase the pipe roughness. shear stress is a function of pipe diameter.1. 20 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .16 Pipe Roughness Except for very high velocities. Pipeline roughness decreases as the velocity increases. different type of catchment. Conservative roughness values as given in Table 2. The necessary shear stress depends on the thickness of slime to be removed and the pipe material. This is mainly due to higher sediment depths in large diameter pipes The movement of sediment is mainly a function of shearing stress needed to dislodge sediment off the pipe wall. only a single sediment type needs to be assumed. The degree of removal of slimes in any pipe material varies with the sewage velocity. the type of sediment (i.8 m/sec are commonly specified. the shear stress required to remove slimes is not a function of pipe diameter.1 shall be referred to when determining sewer discharge capacity. it is not possible to select the pipe roughness with great accuracy. In addition. Minimum velocity values at full bore of 0. the amount of required shear stress. the traditional design approach has been to set a minimum velocity to be achieved at least once daily.

the minimum depth of soil cover over the sewer shall be 1.15 2.1a Pipe Material Vitrified Clay Concrete: Plastic Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer Roughness.1b Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe Materials Mean Velocity. The minimum size of public gravity sewers shall be 225 mm in diameter. ks (mm) 0. The design shall be based on the worst case scenario.6 0.1.2 m.Planning.0 0.5 0. The maximum design velocity at peak flow shall not be more than 4.8 ≤ V ≤ 1. Sewers are not to be constructed under buildings.0 V ≥ 2.White Equation V = −2 where (2 g D S ⎛ ks log ⎜ ⎜ 3. The minimum size of domestic connections to the public sewer shall be 150 mm in diameter.0 m/s. The selection of the gravity sewer diameter and gradient to cope with the peak flow shall be based on the following equations: 1.17 Design of Gravity Sewer Unless special arrangements have been agreed for the structural protection of pipes.7 D ⎝ + 2.15 3.0 Roughness.5 1.3 0.6 Old and new roughness values shall be used to determine the sewer cleansing and maximum design velocities respectively. V (m/s) 0. Material and Design Table 2.51ν D ⎞ ⎟ 2gDS ⎟ ⎠ V S ν D g ks = = = = = = velocity hydraulic gradient (m/m) kinematic viscosity of water (m2 / sec) internal diameter (m) acceleration due to gravity (m/sec2) roughness coefficient (m) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 21 .5 ≤ V ≤ 2. ks (mm) New Old 0.06 1. Colebrook . Table 2.06 0.

016 Material Uncoated cast-iron Coated cast iron Ductile iron Vitrified clay pipe Concrete 3. Manning Equations V = R 2 / 3 S1/ 2 n = = = = velocity (m/sec) hydraulic gradient hydraulic radius Manning coefficient where V S R n Typical n values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2.Williams coefficient 22 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .3 to 3 0.26 0.046 Material Concrete Cast iron Asphalted cast iron Ductile iron 2.017 0.54 where V S R C = = = = velocity (m/sec) hydraulic gradient hydraulic radius Hazen .3 below: Table 2. Material and Design Typical ks values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2. n Good Condition Bad Condition 0. ks Roughness Coefficient.2 Typical Roughness Coefficient. Hazen .015 0.010 0.012 0.Williams Equations V = 0.12 0.Planning.849 C R 0.012 0. ks (mm) 0.63S 0. n Manning Coefficient.012 0.013 0.015 0.3 Typical Manning Coefficient.011 0.2 below: Table 2.

the other equations. Friction losses are normally calculated using either Darcy .1. For long and undulating force mains. an induct vent shall be provided at manholes receiving pumping discharges. Approval from the Commission is required if any force main is to be designed to withstand pressure less than the pressure stated above. straight and smooth Smooth masonry Vitrified clay Old cast iron Old cast iron in bad condition Colebrook-White Equation has been deemed to give the most accurate results. 2. C Hazen-Williams Coefficient. C 130 to 140 120 110 100 60 to 80 Material Top quality pipes.18 Design of Force Mains The minimum diameter of force mains (also known as rising mains) shall be 100 mm diameter.4 Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient. There shall be no reduction in force main diameter with distance downstream. All bends on force mains shall be securely anchored to resist lateral thrusts and subsequent joint movements. The forms of the equations are different from the equations used to design gravity sewers.5 times the working pressure. hydraulic pressure transient analyses may be required to ensure that the force main can cope with water hammer pressures.4 below: Table 2. such as Hazen-Williams Equation and Manning Equation are easier to use and may be used too. Where retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where concrete pipe are laid downstream of the force mains. Air release valves and washouts shall be provided at appropriate locations along the longitudinal profile. Retention times in force mains must not exceed 2 hours without special precautions to mitigate septicity. Material and Design Typical C values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table 2. The equations are listed below: Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 23 . All force main shall be designed to withstand at least 1. Various design charts and tables have been developed elsewhere to aid the manual computations.Weisbach (ColebrookWhite) Equation or Hazen-Williams Equations.Planning. However.

7D + 2. pipe roughness. f.85 L D1.Planning.51 Re sqrt (f) The Reynolds number is defined as follows: Re = VD v where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.4) Velocity in the pipe Length of pipe Equivalent diameter of the pipe Force mains shall be designed to handle the full range of flows from present minimum to future peak. 2.167 = = = = = Friction loss Hazen-William Coefficient (refer to Table 2. 24 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Re. Darcy-Weisbach Equation hf where hf f V g D L = fLV 2 gD 2 = = = = = = Friction loss Coefficient of friction Velocity in the pipe Acceleration due to gravity Equivalent diameter of the pipe Length of pipe The value of f is known to depend on the Reynolds number. through the Colebrook-White equation as follows: 1 = sqrt (f) -2 log ks 3. Hazen-Williams Equation hf where hf C V L D ⎛V ⎞ = 6. ks. typically equal to 1 x 10-6 m2/s for sewage. Material and Design 1. and pipe diameter. D. The above equations together with the Moody Diagram are used to determine the coefficient of friction.82 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ C⎠ 1.

This Guidelines assumes that all sewage transportation modes have been identified. Isolated. Flat or undulating terrain. where proprietary systems are employed. economic and other relevant criteria over the design life of the asset and that vacuum sewage collection system has been confirmed as the best option.1 General Specification of a vacuum sewage collection system shall only be considered where the life-cycle costs of a conventional gravity sewage collection system are clearly shown to be higher.19 Vacuum Sewerage System The design requirements of this Guidelines are the minimum requirements. iii.Planning. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 25 . The hydraulic resistance of force main fittings and bends shall be included in the hydraulic design. the followings:i. 2.8 to 3. ii. waterways. low density communities.1. Every system must be individually designed. based on the design parameters of the system employed. vi.1. 2. environmental. iv.19. but not limited to. and do not constitute in themselves a comprehensive design guide sufficient to ensure a correctly functioning system. The unit processes shall comprise of. The Commission may request for net present value (NPV) calculations for all options prior to approving construction of a vacuum sewage collection system. A vacuum sewer network for the transport of sewage collected in the collection chambers to a central vacuum station. E x b) Unit Processes Typical unit processes for a vacuum sewage collection system is shown in typical drawing in Appendix A. v. rocky terrains. their respective feasibilities evaluated against technical. Where it is necessary to minimise the environmental impact. it shall be designed in compliance with the requirements of system manufacturers. Poor ground subsurface eg high ground water table. Obstacles to the sewer route eg utility services. ii.0m/sec over the full range of design flows. Where it is necessary to minimise the impact of construction work. C o n c a) Application of vacuum sewage collection system Consideration shall be given to the use of the vacuum system in one or more of the following circumstances: i. financial. Material and Design The design velocity shall fall within the range of 0. Collection chamber for housing vacuum interface valve and also forming a sump from which collected sewage is evacuated.

Typical vacuum station is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The characteristics of the vacuum sewerage system ensure that peak discharges into the sewer are rapidly attenuated. If the sewage rises too high in the vessel then a high level detection probe stops and locks out the vacuum pumps to prevent the flow of sewage into the vacuum pumps.19. Material and Design iii. Air is admitted simultaneously with. The vacuum sewer discharges into the vacuum vessel at the vacuum station. d) Warranty of System Performance Since the vacuum system involves proprietary design and equipment. Typical crossover pipe connection is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The specialist system designers shall also specify clearly the specific maintenance and operational requirements of the system. by vacuum pumps. the valve closes. which is sufficient to cover the IWK’s emergency response time. c) i) Description of System Collection chamber and vacuum pipeline When the volume of sewage draining into a collection chamber reaches a predetermined level in the sump. ii ) Vacuum station The vacuum station is similar to a conventional pumping station with the addition of vacuum pumps and a closed vacuum vessel.Planning. The differential pressure between the vacuum sewer and atmosphere forces the sewage from the collection chamber into the vacuum sewer via a crossover pipe. The sewage is driven along the sewer until frictional and gravitational forces eventually bring it to rest in the lower section of the pipe profiles. K P K T / 2. at a predetermined level. A central vacuum station where the vacuum pressure is generated which allows the sewage to be collected and forwarded to a receiving gravity sewer manhole or a sewage treatment plant.2 Collection Chamber a) General design requirement Collection chambers shall have sufficient capacity to store sewage discharged from all connected properties for at least 6 hours in the event of a valve failure or similar emergency. The level of the sewage in the vacuum vessel is monitored by a level detection probe which activates the sewage discharge pumps.1. or after. specialist system designers shall be accountable to the performance of the entire vacuum system including both design and construction aspects. 26 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . The vacuum in the vacuum vessel is maintained within the operational range by pressure switches. The sewage is generally pumped from the vacuum station by sewage discharge pumps. the admittance of the sewage. the normally closed interface valve opens. The vacuum is maintained. After the sump is emptied.

Where the interface valve is situated over the collection sump. multiple vacuum interface valves shall be installed. The collection sump requires a benching section that allows a scouring action from the sewage as it enters the suction pipe.25 lit/s occur. Sewage flow from the maximum number of existing or future properties that are proposed to be connected to a collection chamber shall be quantified. Separate chambers shall be provided to serve properties at different elevations where there is a likelihood of sewage from one property flooding another property. thereby rendering the sump self-cleansing. The chamber shall resist external forces and internal water pressure. Material and Design The overflow storage time shall be based on the ultimate sewage design flow that will enter the collection chamber. The sump shall be sufficiently vented to allow the intake of air without causing a noise nuisance and to ensure that the operation of the vacuum system does not unseal the water traps on the gravity drainage system. This is accomplished through a screened air pipe known as a "breather". and the retention time of the collection chamber can be then established. The volume that can be used for emergency storage shall be the volume contained in the collection chamber from the base of the collection chamber up to the lowest ground level at any point served by the chamber as well as the volume contained in the gravity lateral sewers entering the collection chamber. The retention shall exceed 6 hrs. The internal surfaces of the sump shall be both strong as well as resistant to corrosive attacks from the collected sewage. K P K T / c) Maximum flows to collection chambers The maximum sewer design flow to a single vacuum interface valve collection chamber shall not exceed 0.Planning. The preferred material of construction for collection chambers is pre-cast concrete.25 lit/s. Typical multi-valve collection chamber is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. Where single point flows in excess of 0. b) Number of properties connected The location of each collection chamber and the number of properties connected to each collection chamber shall be specified in the Design Drawings / Calculations. The two sections (the valve compartment and the collection sump) may be mounted vertically one on top of the other as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. W S A d) Breather pipes Some vacuum interface valves inhale and exhale air during their operation. a working platform shall be provided for allowing maintenance engineers to stand on when carrying out scheduled maintenance to the interface valve. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 27 . The diameter of the sections may be as small as 1200mm or as large as 1500mm.

it may be necessary to mount them externally. The valve shall evacuate at least the batch volume each time it cycles. this sensor shall be designed to be fouling resistant. c) Interface valve controller The controller shall open the valve only if there is a minimum partial vacuum of 0. the controller shall maintain the valve open for a further period. d) Explosion proof The valve mechanism and controller shall be explosion proof if exposed to potentially explosive atmosphere. Each breather pipe shall be fitted inside the "breather bell" located at the top of the collection chamber in an accessible location to allow their removal for maintenance purposes. re-useable “ No Hub” couplings suitable for vacuum service. Level sensor pipes shall not be less than DN/ID 45. The valve shall be installed in the collection chamber using demountable.19. the flow path shall not be obstructed by the valve mechanism. 2. If the design provides for the introduction of air after the sewage has been evacuated. When the valve is open. Material and Design While breather bells are generally mounted inside the collection chamber.3 Vacuum Interface Valves a) General The interface valve shall fail safe in the closed position and shall prevent backflows from the crossover pipes to the collection sump. W S e) Covers and frames E x i Collection chamber covers shall provide an access opening of at least 600 mm diameter. Valves installed in the sump shall be capable of operating when submerged provided that the breather pipe is not submerged. b) Level sensor The valve shall be equipped with a sensor to determine the level of sewage in the collection sump.3.1. Covers and frames shall be installed in accordance with the requirements stipulated in Clause 2.2bar below atmospheric available and shall maintain the valve fully open until at least the batch volume has been evacuated. 28 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Controllers installed in sumps shall be capable of operating when submerged. The controller shall be adjustable so that a range of air to sewage ratios can be obtained.Planning.

Reaction forces due to the operation of isolation valves. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 29 . Supports shall withstand all static and specified dynamic conditions of loading to which the piping and associated equipment may be subjected. Equalise flows on each vacuum main. When sewers are suspended underside walkways or bridges. Provide adequate access for operation and maintenance. and medium in the pipe. comprising the interface valve. b) Sewer depth Vacuum sewers. ultra-violet radiation and possibility of vandalisms. c) Sewer profiles Pipeline profiles shall be self cleansing and prevent the accumulation of solids.9 m to withstand the stresses arising from traffic loads.5 m. Typical pipeline profiles are shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. For crossover pipes. Where the ground has a gradient of 1 in 500 or more in the direction of flow. Material and Design e) Life of valves and membranes Every interface unit. controller and sensor shall be expected to last in excess of 25 years. Wind loadings on outdoor piping. the maximum limit of the pipe length would vary according to the gradient achievable in that line. iv. they shall be rigidly supported so there is no visible sagging between supports. thus allowing the operators to keep the interface units in tip-top conditions at all times.Planning.4 Vacuum Sewer Design a) General For a completely flat area.1. ii. shall have a minimum cover of 0. Minimise lift. When sewers are not buried. branch sewers and crossover pipe connections from the collection chambers. Weights of pipe. As a minimum. fittings. iii. 2. they shall be protected from extremes of temperature.19. Vacuum sewers shall have a minimum gradient of 1 in 500. pipe protection materials. consideration shall be given to the following conditions: i. Specialist system designer shall provide a detailed hydraulic calculation for the vacuum sewer network. the length of a single sewer branch shall not be more than 3km. iii. Vacuum main routes shall be selected to: i. Manufacturers shall clearly specify scheduled maintenance. ii. However. the minimum distance between lifts shall be 1. Minimise length. valves. the vacuum sewer may be laid parallel to the surface as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A.

5 m. Four evenly spaced brown stripes shall be incorporated. Material and Design i) Design tolerances The chainage and invert levels of the pipeline(s) shall be determined to the following levels of design accuracy and specified in the Design Drawings: • • Sewer chainage to the nearest 0. the size of individual lifts shall be kept as small as possible. iv) Branch connections All branch connections to vacuum sewers shall be by a Y-junction connected to the sewer above the horizontal axis as shown in Standard Drawing – Figure Vac8. When power is again available. 30 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . the system shall be capable of recovering to normal operation without intervention by an operator. d) Pipework and Fittings for Vacuum Sewers The recommended material from which to construct vacuum sewers is PE 80 SDR 13.6. ii) Lift design To provide for efficient vacuum transport to sewer extremities.5 m. No connection shall be made within 3m of a lift. The polyethylene pipe is selected because it is both structurally strong and compatible with potentially chemically aggressive and abrasive flows in the sewage. Pipe fittings shall be PE 100 SDR 13. In plan. For vacuum sewers.Planning. iii) Crossover pipe connection Crossover pipe shall initially fall away from the interface valve and shall connect into the top sector of the vacuum sewer contained within the angle of ± 60° about the vertical axis as shown in Standard Drawing – Figure Vac7. Pipes shall be UV stabilised with carbon black which shall give the pipe a black colour throughout.01 m. the angle of the Y-junction shall ensure that flow towards the vacuum station is generated and backflows are minimised. the minimum distances between lifts shall be 6 m. Many small lifts are preferable to one large lift. and the vacuum interface valves continue to operate and admit sewage until the vacuum level reduced to the point when they will no longer open. thus readily identifying that the pipe is transporting sewage. Sewer invert levels to the nearest 0. v) Water-logging The profile shall ameliorate water-logging at any change in gradient even when a prolonged power failure occurs (both TNB supply and standby genset fail).6 rated polyethylene pipe. The change in invert at each lift shall not exceed 1.

Vacuum sewer shall have a minimum diameter of DN/ID 80.8 bar(g). bonnet. This lends itself to a system with multi-branches hence giving added operating and design flexibility.5 Vacuum Station Design a) General It is desirable to have the vacuum station located as centrally as possible within the sewer network. gate and bridge fabricated from ductile or cast iron. the use of a marker tape laid 300mm on top of the pipe is recommended. Pipes and fittings DN 160 and larger shall be jointed with electrofusion fittings or butt fusion welding.19. and be capable of sustaining a vacuum pressure of -0. i) Isolation valve installation Each isolation valve shall be located in a chamber. they shall have extension spindles and surface boxes.000 persons. ii) Isolation valve location Means of isolating lengths of vacuum sewer to permit repairs or to locate faults shall be provided at distances of not more than 500 m and on branch sewers longer than 200 m. The stem shall be stainless steel. 2. and the gate shall be encapsulated with EPDM. e) Isolation valve The isolation valve clear opening shall be not less than the DN/ID of the pipe. the design capacity of a singlevessel vacuum station shall not exceed a population equivalent of 8. Ideally. which shall contain a dismantling arrangement for replacement of the isolation valve if needed. A Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 31 . This shall be a 150mm wide polyethylene and printed with a descriptive warning of the pipework below. Material and Design i) Pipe size The suction pipe DN/ID shall not be greater than the DN/ID of the interface valve. End connections to the valves shall be flanged. When isolation valves are buried. The minimum diameter of crossover pipe shall be DN/ID 50 and shall be greater than the DN/ID of the suction pipe. iii) Warning system To act as a warning to an excavation possibly carried out at a later date. ii) Jointing of PE pipes and fittings PE pipes and fittings less than DN 160 shall be jointed using electrofusion fittings. Isolation valves shall be resilient seated gate valves with the body.1.Planning.

and that the vessel is decommissioned. Wherever possible. The vacuum station shall be divided into two main areas. Sewage discharge pump suction connections shall be provided at the invert of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel shall be provided with a DN 600 access opening. and thus allows adjacent residences to enjoy more buffer spaces. this conserves valuable resource. an above ground plant room and a below ground dry well. c) Vacuum vessel Vacuum vessels shall be designed to meet the requirements of ASME Section VIII Division 1 – 2004 Edition. according to the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) codes of laws.Planning. or more than a single-vessel station that is completely isolated. vacuum pressure gauges. The vessel shell shall be constructed from mild steel or any other approved material. shall be provided when the population equivalent exceeds 8. The floor level of the dry well shall be designed to suit the invert levels of the incoming sewers. safe entry procedures shall be adhered to. The vacuum vessel. with the access opening removed and discharge pipeworks at the two (2) draw-off points dismantled. the vacuum vessel diameter and the dimensions of the selected sewage discharge pumps. and the cover shall be provided with a lifting eye. the sewage discharge pumps. and moisture trap. It is important to ensure that the system would operate continuously in the face of having the vacuum vessel temporarily out of service during an interval inspection. valves and pipework associated with the sewage discharge pumps and a small sump to collect washdown water shall be located in the dry well. reduces the footprint of the building. standby diesel generator. by trained certificated operator. control panel. b) Vacuum station layout A typical vacuum station layout is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. No inlet pipes shall be connected below the system emergency stop level.000 persons. the opening is preferably positioned on the top of the vessel in order to minimise the size of the structure necessary to house the vessel. During the inspection or maintenance works. A vacuum vessel may have up to five (5). Material and Design dual-vessel station. Sewer inlets shall be provided with short radius elbows inside the vessel to direct the sewage inflow away from the sewage discharge pump suction connections and the vessel walls. incoming vacuum sewers connected directly to the vessel. The vacuum vessel shall be fitted with an externally mounted sight glass which is suitable for operation in a vacuum and is easily removed for cleaning without decommissioning the vessel. and a forced air ventilation is applied. C o n cl u d e 32 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . The plant room shall contain the vacuum pumps.

t = system evacuation time. collection chamber and vacuum vessel have been sized.Planning. ii) Selection of vacuum pumps Vacuum pumps shall have sufficient capacity to serve the system. minutes Vvs = volume of vacuum sewers. Typical bypass valve arrangement is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. e) Vacuum pumps Vacuum pump capacity (Qvp) shall be rated. which is defined as the time period between the vacuum pump start and stop. m³/hr NOTE: In normal operation it is assumed that the vacuum sewers will be approximately 1/3 liquid filled. m³ Vo = operating volume of vacuum vessel. m³ Vmt = moisture trap volume (if fitted). Air to liquid ratio employed (ratio not less than 3). i) Evacuation time When the vacuum pumps. The pipe is of an adequate length to reach the bypass valves safely. m³ Qvp = vacuum pump capacity. A minimum of two vacuum pumps of equal capacity shall be installed such that one pump can be Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 33 . shall be between 2 and 5 minutes. Baffles or moisture removing material shall be fitted inside each vessel to assist with moisture removal. m³ Vvv = volume of vacuum vessel. system evacuation time for an operating range of – 0.65 bar(g) shall be calculated using: ⎤ ⎡⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎢⎜ 3 ⎟Vvs + (Vvv − Vo ) + Vmt ⎥ × 60 ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ t=⎣ Qvp Where. The system evacuation time. d) Moisture trap When mechanical vane vacuum pumps are selected. Material and Design The incoming sewage shall manually be bypassed to a mobile vacuum tanker via a flexible ribbed pipe. moisture trap shall be provided for the vacuum pumps. The length of the longest single sewer within the sewer network. The selection of appropriate size of vacuum pump is determined by the following four factors:• • • • The peak flow of the sewage to be collected. The total volume of the sewer pipework within the network.55 bar(g) to –0.

Pipework shall be fully supported. Material and Design removed for maintenance without loss of system capacity. g) Vacuum gauges 150mm vacuum gauges calibrated to read 0 to -1 bar to an accuracy of ±2% shall be fitted to the vacuum vessel and each incoming vacuum sewer.Planning. shall be suitable for both continuous operation and for a minimum of 6 starts per hour. Vacuum gauges shall also have bottom outlets fitted with lever-operated ball valves. 34 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Pumps may have a vertical or horizontal configuration. Vacuum pumps. Each pump shall be sized to discharge sewage at a rate at least equal to the calculated design peak flow for the vacuum system. Sewage discharge pumps shall be capable of pumping unscreened sewage and suitable for immersed operation in the event of the vacuum station dry well flooded. Where the discharge pipework is manifold. where used. Equalizing lines connecting the discharge side of the centrifugal sewage discharge pumps to the vacuum vessel shall be installed if required to prevent cavitation or to ensure that the pump inlet is always flooded. h) Fire-fighting system Fire-fighting system using carbon dioxide at the genset / fuel room shall be provided at every vacuum station in accordance with Bomba’s requirements. the final discharge pipe shall also be fitted with a non return valve. The gauges indicate the vacuum pressure within each sewer and enable pressures within the sewer network to be monitored. The valves shall be able to be operated from the vacuum station floor. Sewage discharge pumps shall be fitted with isolation valves to allow removal of the pump without disrupting the system operation. iii) Vacuum pipework ABS pipes and fittings shall be used for interconnecting pipework between the vacuum pumps and the vacuum vessel within vacuum stations. All gauge diaphragms shall be suitable for use with sewage gases. f) Sewage discharge pumps Two sewage discharge pumps of equal capacity are recommended for use in a vacuum station. Sewage discharge pumps shall be suitable for a minimum of 6 starts per hour. Discharge pipework for each pump shall be fitted with a non-return valve and a resilient seated gate valve on the discharge side. In normal operation the dry well will not contain water.

Any form of float switch. Their purpose is to control the operation of the sewage discharge pumps and to maintain the sewage within the vessel inside the operating range. including magnetic and ultrasonic types shall not be permitted. Biofilters shall be used to remove the odours from the vacuum pump exhaust gases containing toxic and odorous compounds by passing the gases through a natural biologically active filter medium. Their purpose is to control the operation of the vacuum pumps and to maintain the vacuum within the vessel inside the operating range. j) Noise control Vacuum station shall be acoustically designed and fitted with noise control measures. Probes shall be manufactured in one length without any screw joints along their length. Material and Design i) Odour control Effective odour control system shall be provided to treat air vents from a vacuum station to prevent malodour impacts being imposed on downstream residential areas. k) i) Controls and Telemetry Vacuum level control Vacuum levels in the vacuum vessel shall be controlled by vacuum switches with an operating range of 0 to -1 bar(g).starts sewage discharge pump.Planning. .sewage discharge pump operates. iii) Vacuum / sewage discharge pump control The controls shall permit the selection of duty. .stops sewage discharge pump.stops vacuum generation. as required to control noise to levels that comply with local council’s regulations. and to provide a high and a low vacuum alarms. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 35 . A minimum of four vacuum switches shall be provided to operate the duty and assist pumps. duty assist (where provided) and standby vacuum pumps and sewage discharge pumps and shall provide for the automatic introduction of the standby units in the event of failure. ii) Level control The level detection probes shall be mounted on the vacuum vessel. The level control system shall respond to the following sewage levels in the vacuum vessel: Emergency stop level Start level Stop level . .

36 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . 2. Alternatively. system suppliers may install a signal cable to relay this information to a display panel within the vacuum station. these software would be unsuitable. i. The open and closed status of interface valves shall easily be detected by the use of a remote control via infrared/radio signals. Some proprietary softwares may not permit certain adaptations required to conform to the hydraulic design requirements given in this guideline. etc. All monitoring components installed at the collection chambers shall be robust and suitable for use in sewerage application. As such. there are many variations possible for the different aspects of hydraulic design. shall be implemented for larger schemes comprising more than 50 interface valves. The generator shall be capable of providing 120% of power for at least one vacuum pump and one sewage discharge pump and other necessary equipment.20 Computerised Sewer Designs Manual computations for the hydraulic design of a sewer network can be avoided for many aspects using proprietary computer software or in-house computer programs. but. sediment cleansing requirements.5 Condition/alarm of the station equipment DESCRIPTIONS Station power Vacuum pump power Sewage discharge pump power Vacuum pump overload Sewage discharge pump overload Vacuum level Vacuum level Sewage level Intruder alarm Fire alarm INPUT / OUTPUT Failed / OK Isolated / OK Isolated / OK Tripped / OK Tripped / OK Low / OK High / OK High / OK Activated / OK Activated / OK v) Emergency power generation A back-up diesel generator shall be provided to adequately run the station in the event of an electric power disruption. pipeline roughness coefficients.Planning. Material and Design The electrical controls shall allow sequential operation of all pumps so that running times are equalised. quantity of infiltration. quantity of inflow.e.1. Large schemes shall also include a telemetry section with volt-free contacts for each condition/alarm of the station equipment as shown in Table 2. flow contributions from different sources. It is therefore necessary that the computer software or programs adopt the hydraulic design requirements as detailed in this guideline. iv) Valve monitoring system / station telemetry Valve monitoring and station telemetry systems are optional. However. The standby pump shall automatically cut-in should the duty pump fail.5 Table 2.

and so that either may out of service for cleaning.1. The structural design of a buried sewer normally considers only the structural integrity of the pipe cross section. They must be avoided as much as practicable. However. Some design approaches tend to give a more favourable prediction of performance for a particular pipe material than other approaches.9m/sec for average flow. stream. The inlet and outlet shall be arranged so that the normal flow is diverted to one barrel. there are only minor alterations among these different approaches. In general sufficient head shall be provided and pipe sizes selected to secure flow velocities of at least 0. etc). either vertical or horizontal. railway line.21 Design of Inverted Siphon Inverted siphons are introduced along a gravity sewer line in order to pass under an obstacle (e. Longer siphons shall be provided with hatch box with access for maintenance and cleaning. whilst the rising leg shall be limited to 30° to 45° should space permitting. Pipes and pipe joints used for siphons shall be designed at the appropriate pressure rating. culvert. Inverted siphon shall consist of at least two or more parallel pipelines (or barrels).1. and shall be provided with necessary appurtenances for convenient flushing and maintenance. Its choice should be taken into consideration the operational and maintenance aspect of siphons. The profile of an inverted siphon encourages solids settlement and accumulation and therefore they require more frequent cleaning. The siphons shall not have sharp bends. 2. There shall be no change in pipe diameter along the length of the barrel. The use of standard design approaches given in this guideline will prevent the selection of a particular design Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 37 .Planning. These siphons shall have independent washout facilities. The minimum pipe size of a barrel shall be 225mm. the considerations for the ground conditions and sewer installation practices that will affect the longitudinal structural integrity shall not be omitted. But such an option may be economically not viable. The horizontal leg of the siphon shall have a negative gradient of 8° to 10°. An alternative to an inverted siphon for bypassing obstacles is a pump station. Although not as critical as the structural integrity of the pipe cross section. There are many design approaches for each of the two structural design categories.22 Structural Design of Sewers The structural design of a buried sewer can be divided into the following two categories: a) b) rigid pipe flexible pipe All two structural designs shall take account of how the sewer is supported to determine the loading which the sewer can safely withstand. There will be an inlet chamber designed to divide the flow among the pipes by allowing each pipe to come into operation in succession and an outlet chamber designed to prevent eddies from carrying solids and sediments back into the siphons. The manholes shall have adequate clearance for rodding.g. Material and Design 2.

By varying the pipe ring strength and the pipe support. the bedding factor becomes a function of the density of the granular material and the height to which the granular material is placed above the sewer. Point supports or loads which may lead to pipe failure must be avoided. vitrified clay pipe reinforced concrete pipe The failure of a rigid pipe normally occurs by pipe fracture. granular bedding/ Crusher rock ii. When a buried rigid pipe is supported. concrete cradle iii. Thus. for structural performance.Planning. They include the following: i. the designer shall refer to BS EN 752 or any other standards deemed appropriate by the Commission. the load which the pipe can safely withstand is higher than the load which caused failure in the three point loading test. Where the sewer is supported on granular material. Both VC pipe and RC pipe can be made to achieve different ring strengths as defined in the standards. Any design aspects that are not covered by this guideline. The pipe support designs permitted by this guideline are limited to those in typical beddings in Appendix A. Concrete support or arch designs should be avoided. Also. such as crushed rock. It is important that the pipe bedding should be properly constructed to allow for the flexibility at the pipe joints and to ensure uniform pipe supports. different load resistance can be achieved. Material and Design approach purely to favour one material over another. the following recommendations are only meant for general design aspects. This strength is determined using a three point loading test as described in the respective Malaysian standards for the above pipes. the determination of the pipe ring crushing strength/load is required. ii. A higher strength pipe in combination with crushed rock support is preferred over a lower strength pipe in combination with concrete support or arch designs. This is due to the difficulty in achieving full contact of the concrete support with the pipe ring. concrete surround Granular bedding design shall be adopted wherever possible. concrete arch (with granular bedding) iv. The improvement in load resistance provided by different pipe support designs is defined by the bedding factor. 38 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . a) Rigid Pipe Structural Design: Pipes which are classified as rigid are: i.

The ultimate vehicle load to which the sewer will be subjected to shall be used for structural design. the sewer will be subjected to additional loads from such vehicles. structural design must examine such loading conditions to ensure the sewer can withstand such temporary vehicle loadings. ii. a 2% deflection limit shall be used.5 m. the ring stiffness can also be varied by varying the wall structure. the soil load on a rigid pipe differs from that on a flexible or semi flexible pipe. trench wall friction reduces the load applied by the soil backfill. According to the theory. Normally a standard long term allowable ring deflection is applied for all flexible pipe. For PE pipes. The stiffness classification is derived from a two point short term loading test. Determination of vehicle loading shall be in accordance with AS 3725 (Loads on buried concrete pipes) and AS 4060 (Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes. The load on a rigid pipe is a function of trench width. The occurrence of such a GRP pipe failure depends on the wall thickness. The Boussinesq theory should be used to determine the loads from vehicles in the design. It is a function of the loading force divided by the specified test deflection.Planning. backfill soil type and trench depth. For steel pipe with cement lining. Where surface settlement is critical. except for GRP pipe which may be by excessive pipe ring strain. a lower allowable deflection limit may be adopted. A 5% long term deflection limit has been the most commonly adopted limit and shall be used except for steel pipe with cement mortar lining. Material and Design The soil load to which a rigid pipe can be subjected to shall be determined from Martson Load Theory.) Loads on buried rigid pipe for field conditions and for main roads can be found in Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried Pipelines published by the UK Transport Research Laboratory. In a narrow trench. Where vehicles will pass over the sewer and the sewer is laid with a cover depth of less than 2. Flexible pipe can be made to achieve different ring stiffness by varying the wall thickness. b) Flexible Pipe Structural Design: Pipes which are classified as flexible are: i. PE pipe GRP pipe ABS pipe Steel pipe The mode of failure of a flexible pipe is usually by excessive pipe ring deformation. Therefore. wide trench gives a more conservative loading and shall be used to determine the load on rigid pipe. iv. The resistance of a flexible pipe to ring deformation is classified by pipe ring stiffness. Where the sewer may be subjected to construction traffic or may have temporary shallow cover during installation. iii. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 39 .

Therefore. This frictional support may be lost with time and the design using prism load represents a conservative design.Planning. with the rock to be finished at 150 mm over the top of the pipe. Where vehicles will pass over the sewer and the sewer is laid with a cover depth of less than 2. the pipe will be subjected to additional loads from such vehicles. The soil load used for structural design for flexible pipe support shall be the prism load or the weight of the column of soil directly above the pipe. which occurs when the line is out of service. this frictional support of soil column causes the load on the flexible pipe to be less than the weight of soil directly above the pipe.5 m.1 Manhole General Pre-cast concrete manholes shall conform to MS881 and BS5911. when the structural design of flexible pipe for such a force main is undertaken. Where the pipeline may be subjected to construction traffic or have a temporary shallow cover during installations.2 2. The structural design of flexible pipe support must be in accordance with Australian Standard AS/NZS 2566. which uses a modified form of Spangler’s equation for the determination of pipe deflection. different load resistance can be achieved for flexible pipe. the re-rounding effect of internal pressure should be ignored to allow for the worst case design. The Boussinesq theory should be used to determine the loads from vehicles in the design approach in this guideline. Crushed rock will give a uniform support around the pipe. This Spangler equation incorporates Leonhardt’s factor to account for the change in support provided by surrounding soil stiffness when the trench width is varied. For flexible pipes. The ultimate vehicle load to which the pipe will be subjected to shall be used for structural design. Manholes shall be constructed with pre-cast concrete sections surrounded by an in-situ concrete surround. a flexible pipe would fail under the loads applied by usual soil cover for gravity sewers and under vehicle loads for shallow cover force mains. However. this external ring support is more critical. Flexible pipe must be completely embedded in crushed rock.2. Material and Design Similar to rigid pipe. structural design of flexible pipe may not be necessary. 2. By varying the pipe ring stiffness and surrounding soil stiffness. For force mains with shallow cover. Granular bedding design shall be adopted wherever possible. Typical details of granular bedding for flexible pipe is given in Appendix A. Without it. structural design must examine such loading conditions to ensure the pipeline can withstand such temporary vehicle loadings. the loading which a flexible pipe can withstand can be increased when the pipe is supported. Marston Load Theory mentions that this column of soil is partly supported by friction provided by adjacent soil. Protecting lining/coating shall be provided to prevent corrosion of the 40 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

5 Note: a These sizes apply to straight-through pipes. The benching shall be protected with epoxy coating. Any other type of pre-fabricated manhole will require prior approval of the Commission. e.Planning. high alumina cement mortar. The induct vent shall have a diameter of approximately one half of the force mains but shall not exceed 300 mm in Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 41 . PVC or HDPE lining shall be at least 5mm thick.6 Minimum Manhole Diameters Depth to Soffit from Cover Level (m) < 1. Continuity of the lining shall be provided by means of welding or fusing each individual sheet to the next prior to the concrete curing. An induct vent shall be provided at manholes receiving pumping discharges where retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where concrete pipe are laid downstream of the force mains. HDPE or epoxy coating.2 and applied in two or more coats to give a total dry film thickness of not less than 500µm. larger sizes may be required for turning chambers or chambers with several side branches or where specific maintenance requirements are necessary. Straight back type taper top shall be used while reducing slabs type are acceptable as alternative.g disconnecting traps.5 DN Largest Pipe in Manhole (mm) < 150 225 to 300 375 to 450 525 to 710 820 to 900 > 900 < 300 375 to 450 525 to 710 820 to 900 > 900 Min. Material and Design concrete due to sulphide attack. Brick manholes shall not be used. or equivalence. The epoxy coating shall either be high build tar epoxy system complying with AS 3750. or high build micaceous iron oxide pigmented epoxy system complying with As 3750.12 and applied in two or more coats to give a total dry film thickness of not less than 250 µm. due to the high risk of excessive infiltration. Internal Dimensionsa (mm) 1000 1200 1350 1500 1800 Subject to designer’s requirements based on site condition 1200 1350 1500 1800 Subject to designer’s requirements based on site condition > 1. The minimum diameter of manhole chambers constructed from pre-cast concrete rings shall be as given in Table 2. Details of manhole types and construction are shown in Appendix A.6 below: Table 2. Walls shall be either rendered with sulphate resistant cement mortar at least 20mm thick or lined with PVC. Only materials and application processes approved by the Commission may be used.

42 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . back-drop manhole shall be provided when the difference in invert level is equal to 900 mm or more. for pipe size more than 225 mm. a 900mm length short “rocker pipe” shall be provided. and methods of manhole construction not covered in this guidelines shall be in accordance with MS 1228. if unable to match invert level. the current policies of the Commission with respect to safety and operation shall be strictly followed. Provision of back-drop manhole shall be based on the following criteria:a) b) for pipe size equal to 225 mm or less. rotational flexibility in the sewer close to the manhole is required. Material and Design diameter. For sewers with diameter larger than 1. For larger pipe. details. In addition.0 meter. A single flexible joint placed immediately outside the entry to the manhole is not sufficient to solve the differential settlement problem. 2. the spacing between manholes shall not be more than 100 m for sewers less than 1. Manhole shall be provided for the following locations: i. 2. unless graded (governed by gradient permissible range) to connect directly to match invert level of manhole channel.0 m in diameter. Refer to drawings in Appendix A.Planning. The connections.2. the spacing between manholes shall not be more than 150 m. this may be replaced by a terminal layout ii.every change in gradient iv. all manholes shall be sited in public road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance purposes.3 Pipe Lengths from Manhole To prevent the differential settling of the manhole and the connecting sewer from breaking the sewer pipe. A short length of “rocker pipe” having a flexible joint at both ends shall be provided. Details of the induct vent are shown in Appendix A.the starting end of all gravity sewers.every junction of two or more sewers v.2 Manhole Location Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission.every change in direction or alignment for sewers less than 600 mm in diameter iii. back-drop manhole shall be provided when the difference in invert level is equal to 1000 mm or more. The top of the concrete support of the vent shall be built up above flood level.2. Where site conditions prevent manhole construction on the existing public sewer.every change in size of sewer Unless adequate modern cleaning equipment is used for the maintenance of the sewer. a manhole shall be provided on the connection pipe as near to the public sewer as possible. A 600 mm length short “rocker pipe” is sufficient to provide the rotational flexibility required for most circumstances in small diameter pipelines (≤300 mm).

Planning, Material and Design

2.2.4

Structural Design Considerations for Manhole
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. Concrete used in situ shall be 25Mpa Portland cement unless shown otherwise by the Qualified Person. A cement blinding with a minimum of 50 mm thickness shall be placed before pouring the concrete manhole base. The base of the manhole shall not be less than 300 mm thickness, which is measured from the channel invert. Channel inverts shall be laid accurately to meet entry and exit pipe inverts. The channel invert shall be graded evenly between the entry and exit pipes Flexible joints shall be provided at the exit and entry of the manholes and shall be placed immediately outside any poured-in-situ concrete surround. Joints between the pre-cast chamber rings shall be sealed with suitable mortar, which can be high alumina cement mortar or equivalence. The top of the benching shall be sloped at 1 in 12 towards the channel. The finish surfaces of cast in-situ concrete structures shall be trowelled smooth without poke holes or exposed aggregate. A minimum of 150mm thick Grade 25 concrete in-situ shall be encased to the precast concrete section. Brick manholes shall not be used. Box outs sealed with bricks or equivalence shall be made for any proposed connections. Drop connection pipes and fittings in the manhole shall be of the same diameter and material as the connecting sewer. A factory pre-cast intermediate slab shall be provided at every 3 meters depth and placed at half of the manhole depths. The slabs must have holes for ventilation. Pre-cast reinforced concrete landing, cover slap and flat top’s undersides shall be painted with 2 layers of coal tar epoxy. Manhole covers in roads shall be set to the road profile and shall be flushed with the road surface. Manhole covers in unimproved areas shall be set at an elevation to prevent entry of surface water. Manhole frame surrounds shall be filled with 1:3 cement mortar. Field coatings to manhole covers and frames shall be applied to surfaces that are clean, dry and free from rust. Bolted-in steps are not permissible in all manholes. Provision shall be provided for portable ladder for access. The lightweight removable ladders shall be used in manholes where they can easily be inserted and secured from the surface, in order to deter unauthorized access to sewers. Maximum depth shall be equal or less than 9 meter and all manholes deeper than 6 meter are subjected to the Commission’s prior approval. Depending on the catchment are and size of sewer pipe, manholes deeper than 9 meter may be considered for the Commission approval.

xiv. xv. xvi. xvii. xviii. xix.

xx.

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xxi.

Precast or cast in-situ concrete base of minimum grade 20 with 1 layer of A6 BRC, 300 mm thick or to Qualified Person’s design shall be provided under poor soil condition including piling, if necessary.

2.3
2.3.1

Manhole Covers and Frames
General
Manhole covers and frames shall comply with the specifications in this guideline and BSEN124. Where the specifications in this guideline contradict the specifications given in BSEN124, the specifications in this guideline shall take precedence.

2.3.2

Load Class
Manhole covers and frames shall be capable of bearing wheel loads of up to 400 kN and, as such, shall meet the test load requirements for Class D400 manhole covers and frames given in BSEN124.

2.3.3

Material
The material for manhole covers and frames shall be of spheroidal or nodular graphite iron (otherwise known as ductile iron) complying with the requirements specified in BSEN1563 for Grade 500/7. The production, quality and testing of spheroidal graphite cast iron shall comply with ISO 1083.

2.3.4

Dimensions, Marking and Surface Finish
The manhole covers shall be free of defects which might impair their fitness for use. The dimensions, marking and surface finish of manhole covers and frames shall comply with the requirements given in Figure A.1 to A.4 in Appendix A. Tolerance on dimensions shown in Figures A1 to A2 shall be ± 1 mm. The casting of markings shall be clearly legible.

2.3.5

Seating
When a random cover is placed in a random frame, the adjacent top surfaces of the cover and frame shall have flushness of level within ± 1 mm. The manholes covers shall be compatible with their seatings. These seatings shall be manufactured in such a way to ensure stability and quietness in use.

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2.3.6

Casting
All cast units shall be cleanly cast and free from air holes, sand holes, cold shuts and chill. They shall be neatly dressed and carefully fettled. All castings shall be free from voids, whether due to shrinkage, gas inclusions or other causes.

2.3.7

Protective Coating
All surfaces of manhole covers and frames shall be supplied coated with either a:

i. ii.

hot applied bituminous material complying with BS 4147 Type I Grade C cold applied bituminous material complying with BS 3416 Type II

Immediately prior to coating, surfaces shall be clean, dry and free of rust. The coating shall be free of bare patches or lack of adhesion. The mean thickness shall be no less than 70 µm and the local thickness shall be no less than 50 µm.

2.3.8

Water-tightness
No visible leakage shall occur between the manhole cover and its seating in the frame when tested in accordance with Appendix E of AS 3996.

2.3.9

Safety Features
Manhole covers shall be provided with locking device and hinge to prevent rocking due to traffic and to provide a theft proof design.

a)

Locking Devices

Locking devices shall be either bolts and nuts or a mechanism with a special key design. The mechanism shall be able to be integrated with the covers and can also be used as a lifting device. All the mechanism for locking device shall be of stainless steel in accordance with BS EN ISO 3506. Bolts and nuts for locking devices shall be hexagonally headed, complying with BS3692.

b)

Hinge

All manhole covers shall be hinged. The hinge shall be designed such that, when in the open position, they shall be secured by a positive mechanical retainer to prevent accidental closure of the covers. The opening angle of hinged covers shall be at least 100o to the horizontal. If hinge bolt is used for coupling separate sections of covers and frames, it shall be of stainless steel in accordance with BS EN ISO 3506.

2.3.10

Product Certification
Manhole covers and frames shall be certified as complying with the requirements of this specification. The product testing for certification purposes shall be undertaken by SIRIM QAS, IKRAM QA services or other third party certification body. The approval of the product shall be from the Commission.

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1 Design of Network Pump Stations Specifying of Network Pump Stations Network pump stations shall be provided only where: i. Sewage flow by gravity is not allowed by the topography Excessively deep and expensive excavation for sewer installations will be required Sewage needs to be delivered from an area that is outside the natural drainage catchment of a sewage treatment plant 2. ii.4. The type of pump used must be suitable for sewage application.2 General Requirements i.Planning. 46 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . iii. the specifications as shown in Table 2. However. ii. Table 2. All final inspection and test documents shall be retained for at least 5 years. Instead.7 Final inspection and testing Frequency Every unit Every unit Every unit Every unit 1 per 20 1 per 100 1 per 100 1 per 100 1 per 200 Final Test/Inspection Markings legibility inspection Casting defects inspection Protective coating inspection Locking devise inspection Seating flushness of cover in frame Measurements of all dimensions Load Class Test Water-tightness Test (only applicable for covers required to be watertight) Protective coating thickness measurement 2.4 2.4. Network pump stations shall be preceded by screens to protect pumps from being damaged or clogged. the final inspection and tests and the frequency of tests/inspection shall not be as shown in Table A3 of BSEN 124. Water pumps must not be used as they are not designed to transfer sewage.7 below must be followed. Material and Design The quality control of the certified manhole covers and frames shall meet the requirements given in Clause 10 of BSEN 124.

v. Material and Design iii.4. Adequate protection against lightning shall be provided iv. Drainage of dry wells and valve pits shall be provided. vi. the wet well shall not be housed within a building structure with insufficient ventilation. Pipe work shall be adequately supported Flanges shall be located at least 150 mm away from structures. iii. Flexible couplings should be used where they will facilitate dismantling and accommodate vibration. Buried ductile iron pipe shall have polyethylene sleeving. ix. Pipe work shall be of ductile iron with approved internal lining. Under conditions where there exists the potential of odour nuisance to the nearest habitable building property line within residential and commercial development despite having the minimum buffer zone. To minimise the visual impact of surface structures of the pumping station. The zone shall be at least 20 m from the pumping station fence to the nearest habitable building fence. ii. The designer shall ensure that his/her designs comply with all relevant legislation. such odour shall be minimised to the lowest possible level and in compliance with the EQA. vii.4.4 Pipework Requirements i. Other approved material by the Commission may be used. vi. viii. Landscaping shall comprise of trees that are non-shedding to minimise maintenance. and its latest amendments. The buffer requirements are shown in Appendix A. viii. buffer zone shall be provided at all sides.Planning. landscaping shall be provided. guidelines and requirements. The presence of a pumping station in any development may draw negative visual impacts. vii. 2. 2. Dismantling joints such as bends shall be provided. Drainage lines shall be equipped with back flow protection to ensure that the chamber is not flooded. maintenance vehicles and ancillary equipment. iv. External surface of pipe work in chambers and wells shall be epoxy coated. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 47 . Wherever possible. Where separate valve pits are used.3 Buffer Requirements In order to minimise the nuisance of odours from pumping stations. Pumping thrust shall be resisted using pipe supports All internal pipework within the pump station shall have flanged joints unless the pipe selected has special jointing requirements. then the connecting pipes shall incorporate at least two flexible joints to allow for differential settlement. Access and appropriate parking shall be provided at all times for emergency vehicles. standards. v.

e. Access covers shall be capable of being lifted by. 2. the storage volume equal to 2 to 3 times the peak flow into the wet-well in litres per minute merely to protect the starting equipment from overheating and failure caused by too frequent starting and stopping. Minimum hopper bottom slope shall be 1. Self cleansing pumps shall be provided. Material and Design 2.5 vertical to 1. The difference in level between start or stop of duty and assist pumps shall be greater than or equal to 150 mm. v. iii. Safety cages shall be provided for ladders exceeding 6 m. The minimum sump volume required shall accommodate the pumping cycle as per Table 2. xi. viii. vi..0 horizontal. i. if this is not available then discharge to the nearest surface drain is allowed. All wet-well shall be opened and come with stainless steel or other noncorrosive handrails.0m from each of the outboard pumps to the nearest side wall and at least 1. at most. On small pump stations (PE < 500). Access covers shall have a minimum clear opening of 600 mm diameter and be sufficiently large to withdraw pumps vertically. Suction channels shall be designed to avoid "dead zones". Access into wet wells can be by vertical rung ladders with a maximum height of 6 m.5 Wet-well Requirements i. If stainless steel tubing is used. xv.4. ix. iv. it shall be in-filled with concrete. prevent solids and scum accumulation. The minimum slope of benching shall be 45o to the horizontal.4. ii. Benching shall be designed to minimise deposition of solid matter on the floor or walls of wet wells. intermediate platforms shall be provided with a change in direction of the ladder.Planning.4. ii. xii. x. The discharge of the by-pass is preferred to the nearest watercourse and not to the perimeter drain of the pumping station. The requirement of pump installation is to provide at least 1. Benching shall preferably extend up to the pump intake.6 Dry-well Requirements i. However. vii. The difference between stop and start levels shall be a maximum of 900 mm and a minimum of 450 mm. When the height exceeds 6 m. Automatic flushing of grit and solids is required for plants of PE > 2. the practice is to provide difference between the cut-in and cut-out levels. two operators. 48 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . xiii. Emergency by-pass shall be provided either at any suitable manhole or wetwell. The size of dry well depends primarily on the number and type of pumps selected and on the piping arrangement.000.2m between each pump discharge casing. xiv.

iii. Access platforms shall be provided at all locations where dismantling work takes place. Covered pits shall have mechanical ventilation.5 m. Substructure shall be constructed of reinforced concrete with sulphate resistant cement to resist aggressive soils and groundwater. Safe and suitable access to the wells shall be provided. where the drop is equal or exceeds 2. iii. vii. Protection against falling shall be provided by means of handrails at walkways and other working areas.Planning. Penstock greater than 610mm x 610mm shall be motorised and come with manual overwrite switches. Internal walls shall be made resistant to sulphide corrosion by coating with high alumina cement or equivalent coatings. Access covers shall be hinged with a lifting weight not exceeding 16 kg. Ventilation shall be provided for all hazardous zones of the pump station. Edge protection by means of kick plates of at least 50 mm in height shall be provided. Sufficient room is required between pumps to move the pump off its base with sufficient clearance left in between the suction and discharge piping for site repairs. ix. x. For safety and operational reasons. The actuator shall be located above ground level and above flood level for easy access in the event of flooding. PVC lining or epoxy coating. Other materials used under special circumstances are subjected to approval from the relevant authority. The penstock spindle shall extend to pump station ground level and shall be suitably positioned to allow unrestricted operation of the penstock. viii. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 49 . where the fall equal or exceeds 1. A penstock shall be installed upstream of the wet well to isolate the pump station. inspection or removal from the pit to the surface for repairs. Proper drainage shall be provided at the collection bin area to ensure that liquid collected could be channelled back to the pump sump. Consideration should be given to the installation of monorails. xiii. Separate ventilation shall be provided for wet wells and dry wells. lifting eyes in the ceiling and A-frames for the attachment of portable hoist cranes and other devices. iv. 2. vi.4. xii. a double penstock system may be required at specific plant. ii. v. v. iv. xiv. 2. Material and Design iii.8 Ventilation Requirements i. Provision should also be made for drainage of the dry well to the wet well.0 m.7 Structural Requirements i. xi.4. Internal walls shall be made resistant to sulphide corrosion by coating with high alumina cement mortar lining. ii. Below ground walls shall be waterproofed and protected against aggressive soils and ground water.

Material and Design iv. ii. If portable lighting is used. 2. 2. e. v. 50 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .10 Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings i.Planning. then a spotlight system may be used to provide adequate illumination. Dry well mounted pumps shall be equipped with auxiliary services such as cooling and gland seal water supply. If lights are fitted outside the well. iv. v. lifting device and other wet well fittings must be fabricated of stainless steel. ii. iii. The use of hot dip galvanised iron is not recommended. iii.4. vapour proof and explosion proof. 2. Lighting systems shall be interconnected with ventilation. Equipments shall be sited above the highest water level. proper ancillaries shall be made available.11 Acceptable Pump System (Fixed Speed Pumps Only) The acceptable pump types are: i. leakage sensor. that is corrosion resistant.9 Odour Control i. etc. iii. Centrifugal Screw Screw Centrifugal Pumps are to be equipped with an auto restart mechanism to allow for automatic pump restart after power supply has resumed from a power failure. ii.4. Permanent ventilation rate and air changes shall comply with MS 1228. the potential for odour generation. vi.4. shall be considered in all aspects of design isolate odorous gasses from general ventilation exhausts by containing identified odour generating sources with a separate local exhaust system containment of the odour sources shall be by installing lightweight and corrosion resistant covers/enclosures designed for practical operation and maintenance works the local exhaust odorous air shall be conveyed through well designed and balanced ductworks by a centrifugal fan to an effective odour treatment equipment iv. Wet wells and dry wells shall be adequately lit. Electrical installations shall be water proof.g. Pumps shall be equipped with protection accessory. thermal sensor. Guide rail. uPVC pipe is not permitted to be used as ventilation ducting between wetwell and dry-well. its impact and treatment.

vi.3 Check Valve i. v. 2. The wedge of the gate valves shall be coupled and integral to the wedge hut in dezincification resistant high tensile brass (CZ 132) conforming to BS EN 2287 2: 1993. Special protective surfaces finishing by short blasting and finished externally with epoxy corrosion resistant coating shall be provided. iv. All valves shall be anti-clockwise opening. Bodies and cover for all valves shall be made of ductile iron to BS EN 1563: 1997. Resilient seat valves shall have EPDM covered gates with inside screw non-rising stem. Material and Design Pre-fabricated pump stations are acceptable for small installations of PE less than or equal to 2. with a domed access cover and only on moving pant. iii.12. Type non-slam check valve shall be of the full body type.2 Gate Valve i. iv. Disc of check valve shall be of precision molded NBR to BS EN 681-2: 2000.4. v. the disc shall be of one-piece construction. Gate valves shall be of the non-rising screw wedge-gate type. ii. iii.12 2. and contain alloy steel and nylon reinforcement in the flexible use area.000. ii. iv. All valves shall be identified by durable name plate. Check valves of non-slam swing type with extended spindle if necessary shall be provided at the upstream of a flow detection device. precision molded with an integral o-ring type sealing surface. The spindle of the gate valve shall be of the inside screw non-rising with machined square or acme threads and operated by a handed or tee-key.1 Valve Requirements General i. 2.4. Check valve shall be of approved by the Commission and suitable for their intended used and shall comply to BS 12334: 2001. ISO 2872: 1985. double-faced ductile iron made and with resilient seated. ii. Gate valve shall conform to MS 1049. BS 5163 EN 1074 Part 2 or BS EN 1171: 2002.4. 2. Stem shall be stainless steel conform to BS EN 10088-3: 2005. Direction of flow shall be stamped on the valve body. All valves shall be suitable for use with wastewater and shall be designed to prevent retention of solids.12. Only single disc type of check valve shall be used.12.Planning. the flexible disc. The uses of internal counter weights are not permitted for check valve. iii. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 51 .4.

Material and Design vii. Where no such facility exists.15 Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance The followings items shall be provided: i. An alarm system should have an emergency power source capable operating for at least 24 hours in the event of failure of the main power supply and shall be telemetered thereto. iv.16 Maintenance Considerations i. 52 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . v. high water level. electrodes or ultrasonic level controls may be used for startstop level of pumps. Hollow tube electrodes are not acceptable. motor temperature. ii. Either floats. cable hanger shall be installed. power failure and vandalism. iv.Planning. Tapping (12 mm BSP) shall be located upstream and downstream of check 2. Non-mercury type floats are recommended. The provision of appropriate lifting hoists and beams. horsepower. System curves Pump curves Operating point of pumps with respect to flow and total dynamic head (TDH) Operating characteristics such as efficiency. Level controls shall be placed where they are not affected by the turbulence of incoming flow and where they can be safely removed. 2. When floats are used. Those level controls with environmental friendly features are recommended.13 Requirements for Level Controls i. shall be considered.4. iii. Consideration should also be given to the availability of spare parts. an audio-visual device shall be installed at the station for external observation.14 Requirements for Alarms i. viii. ii. Mechanical and electrical equipment selected shall be robust and reliable and shall require minimal maintenance.4. and lifting eyes or similar features on heavy equipment. pump failure. iii. Ultrasonic level control is recommended due to its clog-free nature.4. iii.4. valves. fire. the reverse rotation of the pump shall not exceed 150% of the rated speed or limit set by the manufacturer. ii. bearing temperature. iii. In the absence of check valve. Provision of alarms shall be considered inclusive of flammable gas. 2. motor rating and NPSH 2. ii. vi.

4. circuit diagrams and parts lists shall be supplied and be available at all times. Material and Design iv. The need for HAZOP study shall comply with requirements stipulated the Volume II. iii. 2. HAZOP study may need to be conducted for pumping station design to identify the hazards and operability issues. ii.Planning. Complete sets of current general arrangement and sectional drawings.4. All pumping station design shall give consideration to all potential hazard and operability of design. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 53 .17 Hazard and Operability i.18 Other Requirements Also refer to MS1228 for additional requirements. maintenance and service manuals. 2. operational.

Material and Design Table 2.000 1. Weight > 250 kg: A gantry with motorised hoist shall be arranged to allow items to be projected on a 1. 54 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . In the pump station. motorized hoist is required for lifting weight exceeding 100kg.Planning.2m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level truck tray.000 < PE ≤ 5. 1 stand-by (100 % standby) each at Qpeak 30 75 100 6 min 15 max lifting davit Wet well 2 1 duty.000 Description Type of station Number of pumps (all identical and work sequentially) Pumps design flow Maximum retention time at Qave Min pass through openings min mm Wet well 2 1 duty.2 m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level. 1 stand-by (100 % standby) each at Qpeak 30 75 100 6 min 15 max lifting beam and block Minimum suction and discharge mm openings Pumping cycle start/ (average flow conditions) hour Lifting device* *- Weight < 16 kg: Manual lifting 16 kg ≤ Weight ≤ 250 kg: A davit or ‘A’ frame shall be arranged to allow items lifted by using manual chain hoist to be projected on a 1.8 Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations (continue on next page) Design Parameters Unit PE ≤1.

Weight > 250 kg: A gantry with motorised hoist shall be arranged to allow items to be projected on a 1. 1 assist.15 mechanical Minimum suction and discharge mm openings Pumping (average flow conditions) Lifting device* *cycle start/ hour Weight < 16 kg: Manual lifting 16 kg ≤ Weight ≤ 250 kg: A davit or ‘A’ frame shall be arranged to allow items lifted by using manual chain hoist to be projected on a 1.25 Qpeak 30 75 100 6 . In the pump station. 1 assist.8 Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations Design Parameters Description Unit 5.2 m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level.000 PE 10.000 Type of station Number of (all identical and sequentially) Pumps design flow Maximum retention time at Qave Min pass through openings min mm pumps work wet well or dry well up to 10.Planning. per set (100 % standby) each at 0. motorized hoist is required for lifting weight exceeding 100kg.2m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level truck tray. per set (50 % standby) each at 0.5 Qpeak 30 75 100 6 min 15 max Mechanical and block wet well and dry well 6 (3 sets) 1 duty.000 < PE ≤ 20. Material and Design Table 2.000 PE above – wet well and dry well 4 (2 sets) 1 duty. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 55 .000 PE > 20.

56 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Therefore. 2. parking zones. suitable interceptors must be provided on the sewerage systems of garage workshops. Oil interceptors shall be designed in such a way that pollutants that are lighter than water liquid are trapped in a chamber and are prevented from being discharged to the public sewer.5 Interceptors All development schemes including individual premises that involve any sewerage works are vetted by the Director General. engineering workshops.1 Oil Interceptors Oil interceptors shall be provided in drain lines from areas such as garages. 2.Planning. fats and solid food wastes.6 Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements Unless otherwise specified in other sections of this guidelines. service stations. machine shops and industrial plants where oil sediments and other volatile liquids are generated. The trap shall be sized adequately to contain the volume of liquid to be discharged from the drain line and the accumulated grease. The chamber shall be normally fitted with a device to trap sediments and heavy particles that settle to the bottom.2 Grease Traps Grease traps shall be provided in drain lines from areas such as restaurants. 2. canteens or any premises that collect such matters. petrochemicals. a check is made on the means of protecting public sewers from the discharge of prohibited matters such as oil. constriction and blockage of sewers and pipelines and can also present hazards for sewer operations and maintenance. Intercepted oils shall be capable of being drained off for storage from suitable draw off points on a continuous operational basis. food processing and animal product or feeds factories. The interceptor shall be sized to accommodate the volumes of liquid likely to be discharged into the drainage system and the trapped pollutants. As part of this vetting. Material and Design 2. The removal of these sediments is required periodically.5. These matters can lead to congealment. grease. Grease traps shall be designed in such a way that solidified grease and fats are trapped in a chamber prior to discharge and may be skimmed off by means of a perforated strainer or bucket. all the concrete and reinforcement designed for pump stations and sewer networks shall comply with the following subsections. The design specfication may be acquired from the Director General for such a system.5. where grease and fat are likely to present in wash down waters or sullage. canteens.

3 Steel Reinforcement and Falsework ♦ Steel reinforcement shall comply with: 1. vii.6. and not less than Grade C30 where reinforced Structures that are designed for retaining sewage or other aqueous liquids shall be in accordance with BS8007. Aggregates shall comply with MS 29 and shall be coarse aggregate of maximum 20 mm nominal size 2. Structural use of concrete shall be designed in accordance with MS 1195 Concrete shall generally comply with the relevant requirements in MS 523 Concrete for purposes other than manholes and pumping stations shall have a strength grade not less than Grade C20 where unreinforced. v. All admixtures shall comply with MS 922 iv. Concrete and cement mortar shall be made using a cement with sufficient resistance to sulphate attack if contacted with sewage Approval for admixtures shall be obtained prior to inclusion in the concrete mix. higher strength grades may be specified by the Director General.1 Concrete i.2 Cement One of the following cement shall be used to resist sulphate attack: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Sulphate-resisting Portland cement complying with MS 1037 Portland pulverised fuel ash cement complying with MS 1227 Portland blastfurnace cement complying with MS 1389 High silica content Portland cement complying with AS/NZS 3582 Super-sulphated cement complying with BS 4248 2.6. Material and Design 2. Where required. Concrete exposed to a sewage atmosphere shall be lined with minimum 20 mm high alumina cement mortar complying with BS 915 Part 2 or 2 mm epoxy coating using a method of application approved by the Commission. 3.6.Planning. vi. iii. which specifies C35A concrete. ♦ ♦ ♦ MS 144 for cold reduced mild steel wire MS 145 for steel fabric MS 146 for hot rolled steel bars Scheduling. 2. bending and cutting of steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with BS 8666 Welding of steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with BS 7123 Falsework shall be in accordance with BS 5975 Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 57 . dimensioning. ii.

Material and Design 58 (this page is intended to be blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .Planning.

Section 3 Construction and Installation .

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g. ii. Sewer pipe and components shall be checked for damage before being removed from the delivery truck c) d) e) f) g) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 59 . Adequate site supervision and certification by consultants. iv. The various construction and installation aspects of sewer system can be divided into: i. The pipes stack can be secured by strapping or crating or can be secured by chocks at the outer pipes of each layer. pipe to manhole). carpet or textile paddings. ABS) shall not be supported in such a way that will cause the pipes to be twisted or bowed. Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling Trench Excavation Pipe Laying Pipe Jointing Special Requirements for Ancillaries and Protection Connections to Public Sewers A description of the requirements for each stage is given below. 3. with reference to approved design drawings. iii. vi. Thermoplastic pipes (PE.2.1 Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling Pipes and Fittings Delivery a) b) Materials delivered shall be from approved suppliers. are therefore also required.Construction and Installation 3. Poor construction practice causes defects in the sewer at joints. sockets of adjacent pipe can be placed at opposite ends.1 Introduction The correct installation of sewer systems is critical to the efficient and effective sewer system operation. Sockets of pipe in adjacent layers should be placed at opposite ends. The pipes and fittings shall not be stacked in contact with each other and shall be separated by wooden spacers. Pipes and fittings on the delivery truck shall be secured firmly without damaging the pipe and fittings. Pipes and fittings shall be checked to ensure that they have not moved during transportation. at manholes. etc. Alternatively. v. along pipe barrels. Pipes and fittings shall be protected from any damage from the chain securings by using rubber.2 3. transition points (e.

etc. pipes shall be rolled on smooth timber bearers. f) g) h) i) j) 60 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . fasteners. tree roots. and sufficiently raised above the ground to prevent hitting any rocky ground. For plastic pipes or pipes with external coating. When pipes are delivered in crates. Pipes and fittings shall not be dropped in any way. etc.2 Pipe Handling at Site a) b) c) d) e) Pipes shall not be dragged or pushed over the ground. webbed synthetic slings shall be used. hemp rope slings and chain slings without rubber sleeving are not suitable.. stiffness. edges or other hard and sharp surfaces. pipes and fittings can be removed from the delivery truck by rolling a pipe at a time down the wooden runners. using ropes or by hand to ensure they do not knock against other objects. length.2.) shall be stable or properly stabilised prior to lifting operations to ensure they would not tip and damage pipe and fittings. pressure class. The pipe rolling shall be simultaneously controlled by ropes. Mechanical lifting units (cranes. joint type. Instead. fitting type. Pipes and fittings shall be lifted from the delivery truck using approved slings. etc. diameter. the crates shall be removed intact. This is to avoid the scoring of plastic pipe. wherever possible. i) j) k) l) m) n) 3. these pipe shall be lifted into place. where necessary.Construction and Installation h) The delivered pipes and fittings shall be checked against the design drawings and the delivery docket to ensure the pipe and fittings delivered are of the strength. specified. Pipes and fittings shall not be pushed off the delivery truck and shall not be allowed to drop to the ground. pipes shall not be pushed with a machinery bucket. Pipes and fittings shall not knock against each other or any other objects. When rolled on timbers. The pipe lifting shall be controlled. backhoes etc. Uncrated light thermoplastic pipes shall be lifted manually and carefully off the truck and shall not be dragged across the truck bed. When rolled. which are free of nails. Pipes and fittings shall be lifted using approved slings Pipe lifting equipment shall be of sufficient strength and reach to lift the intended individual pipe or crate of pipes. Alternatively. Pipes with external coatings shall not be rolled. Plastic covered wire mesh slings. The delivery truck shall be positioned on a flat ground or in such a way that pipes and fittings would not fall off the truck when unsecuring the fastenings.

3.3 Pipe Storage a) b) c) The pipe and fittings storage area shall be away from traffic and shall not obstruct any property access or pedestrian route. greases. VC. There shall be no rocks. etc. but placed behind sockets.5 m apart. All other safe lifting procedures not covered above shall be adopted. Pipes shall be stacked on a flat and level firm ground or the base of the pipe stack shall be made level using additional solid timbers under base bearers. The placement of base bears shall not be more than 1. Care shall be taken to prevent scoring and scratching of plastic pipe and fittings. Plastic pipe and fittings shall be stored away from oils. Plastic pipe and fittings shall be kept under a cover that prevents direct exposure to sun light. The cross section of each timber shall be at least 75 mm by 75 mm. For VC and RC pipes that are not crated. The base timber bearers shall be sound and without protrusions. Plastic pipe and fittings shall not be covered with plastic sheeting. which may cause point load. The pipe stacks shall be wedged to prevent them from rolling off the stack. DI. solvents and other aggressive chemicals. These spacers shall not be placed more than 1. RC.2. The sockets shall be alternated to different ends for each pipe stack layer. tree roots. the pipes shall not be stacked more than 3 pipes high. Thermoplastic pipes shall be either stacked in a pyramid with no more than 1 m high or in a square with vertical side supports for more than 2 pipes high. The pipe and fittings storage area shall be at a location that allows lifting machinery to position easily and safely for lifting pipes and fittings. The sockets shall be protruded out of the stack. The base bearers shall provide support near the pipe ends. Plastic pipe shall be stored away from sources of heat such as engine exhausts.5 m apart. Thermoplastic pipes (PE and ABS) shall be stacked in such a way to prevent them from being twisted or bowed. These spacers will prevent pipes in each layer from touching pipes in the next layer. under the pipe stack. d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 61 . Steel and GRP pipe layers shall be separated using timber spacers of at least 50 mm wide and 50 mm thick. The lifting and moving of all the steel pipes and any pipes that contain internal linings shall follow the manufacturer instructions.Construction and Installation k) l) m) The slings or chains used for lifting the load shall be secured to the load in the right manner to ensure the load does not slip or tilt excessively.

Damaged pipe and fittings that are not permitted to be repaired shall be removed from the site as soon as possible. greases or other petroleum products. s) t) 3. Repaired pipes and fittings shall be used only after the approval for reuse from the Commission is granted. rubber rings and other jointing materials shall be stored in a secured area that cannot be accessed by the public. Approval for repair shall be sought from the Commission before the repair. Pipes or fittings that are damaged and are in a repairable state shall be repaired according to the manufacturers instructions. the pipe ends with the rubber ring shall be shielded from sunlight using a hessian cloth. Any safe pipe stacking procedure not covered above. fittings. Damaged pipe and fittings shall be identified and marked with an indelible marking of “Damaged” in a clearly distinguishable colour. Also. shall be adopted. the rubber rings shall be stored in a cool area that is away from oils. b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 62 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .4 Pipe Damage a) Pipes.Construction and Installation p) q) r) Joint lubricants. and rubber rings shall be set aside and separated from the undamaged components. shall have the damaged section and at least 100 mm either side of the damage cut from the barrel.2. immediately before laying and after laying. The rubber rings that are not delivered fitted to the pipe socket or sleeve shall be stored away from direct sunlight or continual artificial light. Damaged rubber rings shall be cut through completely to prevent inadvertent use. When rubber rings are delivered fitted to a pipe socket or sleeve. Damaged pipe. Rubber rings shall be retained in the original sealed packaging until they are required. fittings (including coatings and linings) and rubber rings shall be inspected for damage on delivery. PE and ABS pipes with damage in the barrel. but recommended by the manufacturer. Pipes or fittings shall only be repaired if they can be restored back to a satisfactory state.

Excavations adjacent to roads shall be at least 1 m clear of the road edge except when otherwise approved by the Director General. fuel lines. Structures. fences or other property within the construction zone shall be minimised. Services and other pipelines shall be protected. Damage to any structure. Not more than half the width of a roadway shall be disrupted at any one time. Temporary fencing shall be provided where barriers such as fences and walls are dismantled. or other property not within the construction zone shall not be damaged. bushes. Damages to any affected structure. Structures. access routes. gardens). The length of time that any paved route is out of use shall be minimised. structures.3. Warning signs and temporary fencing shall be provided at the work site for excavation spoils. Spoils shall not be placed on road surfaces. Excavations shall be sufficiently clear of building foundations. steep or loose slopes resulted by excavation work. Where there is no other approved storage area.Construction and Installation 3. service or pipeline shall be informed to the owner and shall be repaired as quickly as possible in accordance with the requirements of the owner. electricity. paving. uncovered. Only fillings approved by the responsible authority for the roads shall be used as refill. b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 63 . kerbs). telecommunications lines. spoil shall be carted away. footways. paved areas (roads. buildings and structures shall be continuously supported until the trench is refilled. service or pipeline shall be avoided. Non-reusable material excavated from roadways shall be disposed of in an appropriate manner. vegetation. Where the shutdown of a service or pipeline cannot be avoided.1 Trench Excavation Protection of Affected Services. Damage to vegetation (trees. arrangements shall be made with the owner of the service or the pipeline on the closure and reinstatement requirements. services and other pipelines (sewer. services. Trenches adjacent to roads. gas. water. Pavements and Vegetation a) Owners of affected property. temporarily supported or temporarily relocated in accordance with the conditions specified by the owner.3 3. chemical pipelines) along or within 3 m of the excavation shall be notified.

The trench shall be excavated to a depth so that the sewer can achieve the specified level and grade when the specified bedding depth is used. services and building foundations are not affected. Manhole locations shall be pegged and the line of the excavation between manholes shall be maintained straight using one or more of pegs. notices and graphic symbols Adequate lighting and reflective signals. Adequate lighting shall be provided for works undertaken in poor lighting or at night. r) s) t) u) v) w) x) y) z) MS 980 Specification for safety signs and colours: colorimetric and photometric properties of materials MS 981 Specification for safety signs and colour: colour and design MS 982 Specification for safety signs. When dewatering. Sufficient top soil that will be used for surface reinstatement shall be removed and stockpiled separately. which can make clearly visible the perimeter of the work site to pedestrians and traffic. The trench shall be excavated precisely along the marked alignment to ensure the sewer will be in the centre of the trench. put onto pavements or flushed down to drains or water courses.2 Excavation Requirements a) b) The required line of the sewer and manhole locations shall be set out using accepted surveying practices. iii. Changes to the line. grade or level due to unforeseen obstructions or proximity to services shall be approved by the Commission prior to making the actual changes. Soils shall not be taken out of the work site. buildings and property where usual means of access are disrupted by the excavation. Over-excavation of the trench depth shall be avoided. gutters and channels shall not be obstructed. care shall be taken to ensure that the adjacent structures. Some of the relevant Malaysian Standards are: i. Lighting in confined spaces shall be explosion proof.3. Road drains. c) d) e) f) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 64 . chalk lines laser beam lines and string line. Alternative means of access shall be provided to rights of way.Construction and Installation q) Warning signs shall be in accordance with the relevant Malaysian Standards. Water removed from the excavation shall be disposed of without damaging other property or causing a public nuisance. shall be provided. ii. Drains disturbed by works shall be rerouted to ensure continual operation. 3.

Where possible. When working with poor ground conditions. and they must be designed individually based on actual locations. minimum soil cover requirements specified by the responsible authorities shall be observed. Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and crosssectional sewer profile drawings. inverted siphons may be necessary. spoil shall be placed only on one side of the trench. The resulting holes shall be refilled with the specified embedment material. This is to prevent the base of the trench from becoming spongy and to prevent the pipe from moving off line or grade. This is to prevent the spoil material from falling into the trench or to prevent the weight of the spoil from collapsing the trench wall. These supports must be adequately designed for. Excessive excavation shall be refilled with approved materials to the specified compaction.5 m. Minimum requirements for inverted siphons are shown in the standard drawings in the Appendix. the excavated trench shall be kept free of water until sufficient backfill is placed above the sewer. and any other obstructions. Where possible. except where a wider trench is needed due to unsupportive soil adjacent to the pipe zone. which give details of construction based on soil reports. construction depth shall be minimised.Construction and Installation g) For open excavation. Sight rails shall be fixed to a uniform height above sewer invert. spongy or puddly) soil in the base of the trench (as determined by the Commission) shall be removed and replaced. When the excavations are required to cross rivers. timber or steel support shall be provided in the trench when the trench is deeper than 1. h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 65 . Unsupportive (very soft. loose. sufficient slope protection must be provided and supported by approved consultant drawings and design. The base of the trench shall be trimmed carefully to level and grade. Spoil shall be placed at an appropriate distance away from the edge of the trench (minimum 600 mm). The trench sides shall be vertical except where permitted otherwise by the Commission. depending on depth of sewer and soil condition. To prevent trench wall from collapsing which may lead to injuries and pipe damage. at least three sight rails shall be used for each manhole length. The trench in the pipe zone shall be excavated to the minimum width limits as given in the specification. In extreme cases. railway lines. The replacement based shall be sufficiently supportive and shall require approval from the Commission. Rocks that cause an uneven trench base shall be removed. Where sight rails are used to determine trench excavation depth.

4 3. where required. Long and large holes that may undermine the pipe barrel support are not allowed. A recess shall be made in the bedding to permit the withdrawal of the sling without disturbing the remaining bedding. These drawings shall be submitted to the Director General. Granular bedding shall be placed.1 Pipe Laying Pipe Bedding a) Only approved materials are allowed to be used for pipe embedment. level and grade and of sufficient diameter to allow pipes to be inserted without over-stressing the joints or damaging the pipes.3. 3. All as-constructed drawings. the pipe shall be raised again to repair the bedding. which shall also provide details of the designed bedding types. They shall be in accordance to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings.Construction and Installation v) Changes to the line. irrespective of whether there are changes to the original design drawings. The bedding material shall be placed as soon as possible after the base of the trench is prepared and excess water has been removed. The compacting. Excavation shall not proceed too far ahead of pipe laying to avoid damages from flooding or spoil. etc. that may project into the bedding. including as-built sewer invert levels. jointing sleeve.3 Bored Excavation a) The bore shall be on the line. grade or level of the sewer shall be properly recorded for incorporation in the as-constructed drawings. shall be certified by consultants and shall include sufficient details. shall achieve a uniform density. The holes shall be of size that is just sufficient for projections to be clear of bedding. A small hole shall be left in granular bedding for each socket. Where the bedding is disturbed. Pegs or other temporary aids to levelling shall be removed before pipe laying. Excavation shall comply with the relevant Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) requirements for safety. compacted and graded so that it offers continuous support to the sewer. flange. Excavation shall not proceed too far ahead of the required trench support placing to avoid trench wall from collapsing.4. b) c) d) e) f) g) 66 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . w) x) y) 3.

The pipe ends shall be sealed with a tightly fitting plug immediately after laying. Pipes shall not be dropped or impacted forcefully into the bedding to obtain the specified level or grade. sheathings and protective paintworks) shall be checked for damage before and after laying in the trench. level or grade. grout. which shall be submitted for approval before work at site is allowed to begin. and with reference to the approved drawings. the pipes shall be blocked or chocked to prevent any rolling. This is to detect a clear ring that indicates soundness. Pipes and fittings (including linings. This is best undertaken while each pipe is lifted in free air with a lifting sling. b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 67 . Concrete pipes with elliptical reinforcement shall be laid with the load line on the vertical axis at the top or bottom position. grade and alignment shall be sighted using sight rails and boning rod or laser and target. VC pipes shall be carefully tapped at mid length and either end with a wooden mallet or. Pipes that are laid on concrete. The pipes shall be placed on the opposite side of the spoil beside the trench with their sockets facing upstream. cleaning of the pipe interior and at the end of the day after laying. Where required. shall be lightly filled where necessary without pushing the pipe/fitting off line. cement stabilised bedding or connected to a concrete structure shall consist of a flexible joint at the upstream end immediately outside such a zone. Instead.2 Pipe and Fittings Placement a) Before lowering the pipes into the trench. Boning rods shall have a foot to rest on the pipe invert with a vertical spirit level attached and shall not be more than 45 m apart. The laying of pipes shall proceed carefully to ensure the line. flanges.Construction and Installation 3. pipes shall be lowered into the trench using approved slings. level and grade are within the specified tolerances. otherwise.4. Bedding shall be checked to ensure continuous support along the pipe barrel. Holes made in granular bedding for projections of sockets. pipes shall be placed next to the trench away from the trench edge. Pipe and fittings shall not be dropped into the trench. The pipe interior shall be cleaned after laying and kept clean and free of water. Further bedding material shall be placed to an even height and uniformly compacted across the trench to ensure the full support of the pipe haunch. Pipe level. They shall be in accordance to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings. a metal bar. etc. The invert level of each pipe laid shall be checked during laying and immediately after laying completion. Pipes shall be laid from the downstream end towards the upstream end.

3 Pipe Jacking a) b) c) d) e) Jacking method of pipe laying shall be employed only when the conditions or the requirements of the responsible authorities require such a method. The pipes used for jacking shall be able to withstand the laterally induced jacking stresses without damage. When purpose-made pre-cast concrete blocks are used. The direction and grade for jacked sewer shall not deviate from the designed alignment for more than 100 mm for every 100 meters of sewer. Any pipe laid that is out of alignment either vertically or horizontally or shows undue settlement shall be taken up and re-laid correctly.4. the block shall have approximately the same width as the trench and shall be positioned just behind each pipe socket. shall be laid in such a way that it is at approximately 45° off horizontal level. A compressible packer of polystyrene or particle board shall be placed between the pipe and the concrete block.4 Concrete Pipe Support a) b) Concrete used shall be 20 MPa Portland cement concrete with a slump no greater than 80 mm. This is to retain rotational flexibility at the joint. s) t) u) 3. The concrete support shall fit the pipe closely after hardening.Construction and Installation q) r) The branch arm of the oblique branch junction fitting. c) d) e) f) g) h) 68 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . 3. Concrete shall be poured in one lift. Junction fittings shall be properly supported using well compacted crushed rock (or. if installed. Photographs shall be taken during pipe laying and after sewer pipe laying for all lengths of pipes and manholes. The coverage of the support shall be across to the trench wall and into the junction trench. Branch connections shall be sealed with an approved plug where connections are to be made at a later time. Concrete shall be allowed to cure for at least 7 days before applying any load. Where the trench base is soft or puddly. Pipes shall be prevented from floating or other movement during concrete pouring.4. A space shall be left between the concrete supports for the pipe socket by use of a polystyrene spacer of 20 mm minimum thickness. The setting out of the guide rails for the pipe and the actual jacking operation shall maintain a high accuracy level of line and grade. where required. concrete). a blinding layer shall be placed on the trench base before the concrete is placed. All the joints used for connecting the jacked pipes shall be watertight and durable.

b) c) d) e) 3.4. a metallic marker tape shall be laid along the line of the sewer at approximately 500 mm below the surface level. There shall be at least 1000 mm of cover over the sewer before heavy mechanical compaction can commence.5 Pipe Cutting a) Only VC. with a minimum width of 6 metres.4. Any damage to the cement lining of DI pipe shall be repaired to the satisfaction of the Commission. which also give the bedding details and the types of fill material. There shall be at least 300 mm of cover over the sewer before light mechanical compaction can commence. Rough edges and burrs shall be removed from inside and outside of HDPE and ABS pipe with a rasp or file. For plastic pipe. Pipes shall be cut perpendicularly to the pipe axis. They shall be in accordance to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings.4. and their design must be must be supported by soil reports. These drawings submitted for approval must include details of bedding types and manhole types.6 Other General Requirements a) Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional drawings of sewer profiles of both gravity sewers and force mains. especially in undulating ground profiles. Pipes shall be cut in a neat and skilful manner by workers experienced in pipe cutting. b) c) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 69 . their layout shall be planted with marker posts at every 200m length and at every change of pipe directions. However prior approval from the Director General is required should the HDPE helically wound profile wall pipe needs to be cut in the field. Valve chambers provided shall have adequate access for operations and maintenance.6 Backfill of Trench a) Selected excavated material shall be placed above the specified pipe support until 300 mm above the sewer. HDPE. Pipe laying shall be such that there is adequate access for operations and maintenance of completed sewers. b) c) d) e) 3. All pipes shall be cut in accordance to approved methods. Trench support shall be progressively removed as the backfill is placed.Construction and Installation 3. which shall be supported by drawings with ground profiles during drawings approval stage. For easy identification of underground forced sewer mains. ABS and DI pipes are permitted to be cut in the field.

The rubber ring shall be placed correctly around the pipe joint. Pipe joints shall be connected using a bar and block (crow bar and a block of wood to protect the pipe end) or a pipe puller. The rubber ring shall not be twisted in any way prior to jointing and shall be seated in the correct position. spigots and sockets or sleeves and rubber seals) shall be checked for damage after delivery. the spigot shall be lubricated with an approved lubricant. the sealing ring remains stationary and does not roll into place). ii. The pipe to be jointed shall be aligned with the laid sewer before pushing in the joint. A machine bucket shall only be used to connect a pipe joint where approval is given by the Commission.Construction and Installation d) There shall be adequate site supervision of construction. The pipe that is already laid and to be connected to another pipe shall be restrained to prevent its pipe joints being further stressed and to prevent the laid pipe from being pushed off grade or alignment. Testing certificates from the consultants (see Section 4 on Sewer Testing) Supervision certification from the consultants As-built drawings certified by the consultants The construction and installation works shall incorporate the consideration of health and safety. For skid type of joints (i. a metal bar to detect a clear ring that indicates soundness. Every part of the rubber ring shall be bent by hand to detect cracks. Pipe jointing surfaces and rubber seals shall be wiped clean immediately before jointing using a clean cloth. iii. iv. This method shall only be used for large diameter pipes (larger than 600 diameter pipe) where the jointing compression force makes it impossible to use a bar and block or pipe puller. The pipe to be laid shall be orientated so that the offset inside the pipe at the joint is minimise at the invert. Steel sleeve collars used for jacking pipe shall be checked for damage to the coating. and at least these documents must be submitted before approval of construction: i. VC pipe sockets shall be gently tapped with a wooden mallet or.5. 3.5 3. e) Photographs showing sewer pipe laying during an after construction for all lengths.e.e. before and after usage.1 Pipe Jointing Flexible Joints a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Joint components (i. A timber shall be placed across the pipe end to protect the pipe from l) m) 70 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . otherwise.

the mark shall be made to ensure that the spigot is inserted to the appropriate length. No contaminants are allowed between jointing surfaces. the seal shall be checked to ensure the seal is correctly located and the spigot is properly inserted. Any allowable deflections at joints shall only be made after the pipe jointing is made. The spigot shall be inserted up to the witness mark. After pushing the spigot into the socket. Where a pipe is to be deflected at a joint. c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 71 .5. dirt.Construction and Installation damage. Joints shall be left to dry for at least 24 hours before pressure testing. Jointing surfaces shall be primed using an approved priming solution. If a witness mark is not already on the pipe. Pressure shall be applied by the bucket gently while the insertion shall be carefully monitored and directed by a person next to the joint. The jointed pipes shall be handled with extreme care for at least another hour. n) o) No excessive force shall be applied to make the joint. The jointed pipes shall not be moved for at least 5 minutes after jointing. The spigot end shall be cut perpendicularly to the pipe and any burrs shall be removed.2 Solvent Weld Joints a) b) The socket and spigot shall be checked for damage before and after jointing. which should then be inserted up to the witness mark. etc. Witness marks drawn on site shall be made with a soft pencil or felt pen marker that would not score or scratch the pipe. The jointing shall be made immediately after the application of solvent cement. p) q) 3. Damaged spigot ends shall be cut from the pipe with 100 mm clearance to the damage. Jointing surfaces shall be wiped clean and dried with a clean cloth. The jointing surfaces shall not be contaminated with water. A dry fit of the joint shall be made before the jointing. After the spigot is pushed firmly into the socket. The joint or pipe shall not have damage from jointing. the deflection shall not exceed the allowable limit for the specific type of joint. the joint shall be hold in the same position for at least 30 seconds without moving. The witness mark shall be of the depth of the socket and shall be measured from the pipe end. A thin and even coat of solvent cement shall be applied to the socket and the spigot. The priming shall be applied with a clean cloth or swab freshly dipped in the fluid immediately before jointing.

Therefore. the solutions shall be stored in a cool place away from any source of spark or fire. The rubber seal between flanges shall be made of an approved compound and shall meet the specified requirements. metal flanges shall be reprimed and painted with two coats of bituminous based coating in accordance with BS 4147 for below ground protection. qualified and approved in accordance with BS 4515. Bolts and nuts shall be tightened with a torque trench set at an appropriate torque. 3. Welding procedures shall be tested.5. Plastic flanges shall not be distorted before or after jointing. d) e) f) 72 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Welds shall be inspected and tested in accordance with BS 4515. Appropriate metal backing plates shall be used on plastic flanged pipe. A steel bar or similar object shall not be used as a lever through the flange holes to bring the bolt holes into line prior to bolting. 3. Bolts shall be tightened evenly and gradually in rotation. After welding.4 Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding) a) b) c) The welded joint shall use a socket-spigot joint with taper sleeve wherever possible. The dry surfaces shall be wrapped in an approved manner with an approved wrapping tape to provide corrosion resistance. After pressure testing. The flange faces and the rubber seal shall be wiped clean with a cloth immediately before jointing.5.3 Flanged Joints a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Flanges. Welding surfaces shall be cleaned to a bright metallic finish before welding. Solvent cement and priming fluid are highly flammable. particularly flange faces and rubber seal shall be checked for damage before and after jointing.Construction and Installation p) q) Containers of solvent cement and primer shall be kept tightly sealed when not in use. exposed external surfaces shall be cleaned by sand blasting or wire brushing. Screwed-on flanges shall have the screw thread sealed with a compound suitable for sewers. Welders shall be qualified in accordance with the requirements of British Standard BS 4515 Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore. Flanged ends shall be correctly aligned before jointing.

The welding machine shall be sheltered from wind and rain during the welding process.6 3. A practice weld shall be performed and discarded to check the operational effectiveness of the machine. A pipe end that has undergone a complete heating cycle but not joined shall not be reheated.Construction and Installation 3. Immediately after the removal of the heating plate (no longer than 15 seconds after heating). the pipe ends shall be pressed together with an appropriate pressure for a specified time appropriate for that pipe size. The ends to be jointed shall be kept free of dirt. The pipe ends shall be trimmed square. The butt welding machine shall be of an approved type and shall be fit for use.6. The joint shall be maintained clamped and pressurised in the machine for a suitable period of cooling time (approx. The unjoined pipe end shall be cut off to at least 250 mm from the end.5 Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) The pipes to be joined shall be of the same grade of polyethylene and of the same wall thickness. The heating plate shall be brought into contact with the pipe ends only after it is at the correct temperature. the joint shall not be stressed until it has completely cooled (approx. The external bead shall carefully be removed. The thrust block shall be constructed equally around the centreline of the fitting. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 73 .5.1 Special Requirements For Sewer Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines a) b) c) d) e) The thrust block shall be extended to approximately 180° around the fitting. After removed from the machine. The trench face which the thrust block bears against shall be freshly cut and undisturbed. j) k) l) m) n) 3. grease and moisture after trimming. The joint zone shall be thoroughly checked. The pipe ends shall be held against the heating plate for the specified time appropriate for that pipe size. 10 minutes minimum). The thrust block shall not cover a flexible joint. The thrust block shall bear firmly against a recess at the side of the trench. The weld shall not be artificially cooled with cold air or water. 10 minutes minimum).

The pipe shall not be pushed off alignment. i) j) k) 3.6. Concrete bulkheads shall be keyed into the base and sides of the trench by at least 100 mm. level or grade while placing the embedment. The restraint or bulkhead shall be placed at the downstream side of the socket.3 Pipe Embedment and Overlay a) b) The embedment material type and its grading shall take considerations of the sewer type or length. Reference shall made to the standard drawings for thrust block to ensure proper shape and size. A weep hole with the upstream end covered with a geotextile filter shall be provided through a bulkhead immediately above pipe invert to allow drainage of groundwater. which shall be designed based on supporting soil reports.Construction and Installation f) g) h) Each thrust block shall have sufficient bearing area. which must be designed for each individual thrust blocks. Embedment material shall not be contaminated with other soils. Each embedment layer shall be placed to a depth that permits the compaction equipment to achieve the specified density. Where the embedment requires tamping. Formwork shall be removed before any testing. Thrust block shall be cast-in-place with 20 MPa concrete. For plastic pipe or pipe with a protective coating. A restraint to prevent sewer slippage shall be used where the gradient of the sewer is steeper than 1 in 6.2 Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes a) b) c) d) e) A bulkhead to prevent soil erosion shall be used where the gradient of the sewer is steeper than 1 in 40. a compressible membrane of rubber. tamping equipment shall not come into contact with the pipe. Formwork shall be used to cast the thrust block to the required dimensions. Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional drawings of the sewers showing the bedding types. c) d) e) f) g) h) 74 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Embedment material shall be brought up evenly in layers on each side of the pipe. felt or cork shall be placed on the pipe to protect it from damage from its movement in the thrust block. Temporary trench wall support shall be lifted when the embedment is compacted.6. 3.

the condition shall be to the satisfaction of the Commission.4 Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe a) Plastic sleeve shall be secured immediately behind the second spigot jointing witness mark with three overlapping turns of adhesive tape. can commence. gardens.Construction and Installation i) j) While placing the embedment for the pipe haunches. After that. the trench fill shall be compacted to the equivalent of that under a pavement. All contours shall be similar to the original condition. Where a structure or service is affected by construction. The sleeve of the preceding pipe shall overlap the sleeve of the next pipe. disturbed by the construction shall be restored within 7 days after backfilling. unnecessarily voided areas shall be avoided. services.7 Reinstatement a) All structures. The pipe shall be placed in the trench with the folding of the sleeve located at the top of the pipe. fences. the sleeve of the preceding pipe shall be brought over to cover the socket and the cover shall follow the socket outer surface closely. Also. Then. b) c) d) e) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 75 . Unimproved surfaces shall be levelled and settled to as near as possible to their original condition in 30 to 40 days after backfill. b) c) d) 3.5 ‘Rocker’ Pipe Connections to Manholes a) The ‘rocker’ pipe connecting sewers to manholes shall have sufficient cast insitu concrete surround and extended concrete base as shown in typical manholes drawings in Appendix A. The restored conditions shall be as similar as possible to their original condition. other responsible authorities and property owners. 3. Then. Road pavements and access ways shall be temporarily restored to a safe condition. After the pipe jointing. drains. Within 7 days after backfilling. improved surfaces. etc.6. the pavements shall be permanently restored to as similar as possible to their original condition within a time frame specified by the responsible authority. The sleeve overlap shall be secured with three overlapping winds of tape. immediately after completion of backfilling. fill over unimproved surfaces shall be placed to a height that will make the filled surface level and the adjacent undisturbed surfaces closely matching after settlement. At least 300 mm of cover shall be placed over the pipe before light mechanical compaction.6. sleeve shall be tightly wrapped around the pipe by folding over surplus sleeving. 3. the sleeving shall be further secured with three winds of overlapping adhesive tape at one meter intervals. such as a hand operated whacker.

the connections may be deemed covered by the original technical proposals. Once approved. The inspection by the authorised inspection person for the connections to existing public sewers shall be subjected to a standard inspection fee.1 Connections to Public Sewers General Severe maintenance problems are often caused by poorly made connections to sewers.Construction and Installation f) Extra excavated material. When the connection is ready for inspection. The type of connection could be a connection to a manhole or a connection to a sewer through junction or saddle fittings. At the same time. he must give a copy of the notice to the authorised inspection person who will make arrangements for the inspection. These individual connections will be inspected as part of the routine inspection by the authorised inspection person. The connection must be completely watertight to prevent infiltration. 3. regardless of whether the work is undertaken by his licensed contractor or a licensed contractor employed by Services Licensee. The design and installations shall incorporate the considerations of health and safety The difference between each premise platform level and the nearest public sewer invert level shall not be less than 1.2 metres to avoid flooding of premises. For a development which contains several connections from individual premises to the proposed public sewers within the development. These may lead to blockages or failure of the sewer structurally. the owner may make the connection only if his contractor is licensed by the Commission for this category of work. b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) 76 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . Any evidence of infiltration in the connection pipe shall be referred to the Local Authority who may withhold issuing the Certificate of Fitness.8 3. The following procedures and formalities must be followed to ensure integrity of the sewerage system. The initial notification must be made on the appropriate form. The connection must be correctly made by the licensed contractor under the supervision of an authorised inspection person. un-reusable excavated material and all rubbish shall be removed from the site and legally disposed of. The type and location of connections shall be determined by the Commission. a) The owner must seek the approval of the Director General for any connections that involve physical work to an existing public sewer.8. The cost of the work in making the connection shall be borne by the owner. the owner must notify the Commission on the appropriate form.

8. Where the location of future connections are known. Y Junction fittings and the accompanying junction connection pipework may be installed at the time of the public sewer construction. The connection of such a junction shall use flexible couplings. any connection to that sewer may be made using a Y junction fitting. Any debris falling into the existing sewer during the connection shall be removed. a Y junction fitting may be installed by removing part of the existing sewer.2 Junction Connections Where an existing public sewer is circular and is of diameter DN 450 or less. The hole shall be made at the middle of the pipe to avoid damages or excessive loading to the existing sewer pipe joints. The location of the hole on the pipe shall be at a 45° to 60° angle to the horizontal. only licensed contractors who can demonstrate suitable qualifications and experience are permitted to make this form of connection.Construction and Installation 3. 3. The saddles for concrete or vitrified clay sewers shall be bedded on cement mortar (mix 3:1) with a depth not less than 40 mm below the base of the saddle. A flexible joint shall be provided between the saddle and the remaining connection pipe. Also. the saddle used shall be approved by the Commission. The hole prepared for the saddle connection on the existing sewer shall not have any rough edges that might cause blockage. the saddle connection joint must be completely watertight to prevent infiltration.12 of Appendix A.8. Where no junction pipework exists. The existing pipe may require extra strengthening by additional concrete surround to withstand the extra load from the connection pipe and fittings. which other forms of connection are preferred. Only saddles specifically designed for the type and size of the sewer to be connected to shall be used. Hence. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 77 .11 and A. On completion. Making a saddle connection is a highly skilled operation.3 Saddle Connections Saddle connections may only be permitted where the existing sewer is at least two pipe sizes greater than the proposed connection pipe. The saddle must be purpose-made by off-site manufacture except when the existing pipe size is 900 mm in diameter or greater. The connection pipe must not protrude into the existing sewer. The typical connection configuration of junction is shown in Figures A.

Where site conditions prevent manhole construction on the existing public sewer.Construction and Installation 3. the manhole may be provided on the connection pipe as near to the public sewer as possible.5 m deep. or the diameter of the connection pipe is 300 mm or greater. or the public sewer is more than 4.8.4 Manhole Connections Manholes may be constructed on the public sewer for private sewer connections where: a) b) c) d) good practice requires a manhole for ease of maintenance. 78 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . or the point of connection is more than 5 m from an existing or proposed manhole.

Section 4 Sewer Testing

Sewer Testing

4.1

General
Sewers and ancillary works shall be tested and inspected for water-tightness to prevent infiltration and exfiltration and to ensure the pipe are laid correctly according to the designed straightness and grade. The testing of the sewers and ancillary works before backfill will facilitate the replacement of any identified faulty pipes and joints. The testing of the sewers and ancillary works after backfill will reveal the leakages caused by the displacement of joints and subsequent damage. The testing shall be supervised by consultants and their testing certificates issued by the consultants shall be submitted to the Commission before final approval. The tests that are required to be conducted are listed as follows:

I)
a)

Before Backfill
Gravity Sewer:

i. ii.
b)

Exfiltration Test (Either low pressure air or water tests) Check for straightness, obstruction and grade

Force Main:

i. ii. iii. iv.
c)

Exfiltration Test (When required) High pressure water test High pressure leakage test (Following high pressure water test) Check for straightness, obstruction and grade

Manhole and others:

i. ii.

Visual inspection Water-tightness test (when required)

To prevent movement of the sewer, embedment material shall be placed around and over the sewer prior to testing. The section of the joints above spring line shall be exposed. For pipe or part that is made of material that will deteriorate under the sun, the exposed parts of the pipe shall be shielded from direct exposure to the sun during testing. The concrete used for supporting the pipe or resisting thrust shall be cured for at least seven days prior to testing.

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The test length for water test may be shorter where the gradient is so steep as to cause too high a head at the downstream end. 80 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . In every stage of the works. or laying errors. After backfilling. the sewer pipeline to be tested shall be clean. traffic crossings or site safety requirements. the sewer length to be tested shall be the length between manholes or proposed manhole locations. an exfiltration test is required again on the sewer laid. An exfiltration test. damages. This is to prevent any faulty joint to go unnoticed until it is revealed by a test on the complete length. frequent tests of straightness and obstruction shall be conducted. 4. Testing of shorter lengths may also be necessary where it is required to backfill the sewer to surface level quickly. which shall be flushed clean when necessary. a video and written record of the CCTV inspection shall be provided to the Commission no later than 7 days after the inspection. If a CCTV inspection is conducted. Any leaks or defects identified from any test shall be located and repaired. which will be more costly and time consuming to rectify the defects. In addition.Sewer Testing II) a) After Backfill Gravity Sewer: i) ii) iii) Exfiltration Test (Either low pressure air or water tests) Infiltration Test (when required) CCTV Test (when required) Before and after any test. when required. This early backfill may be encountered when there is wet weather. After testing has been completed. an infiltration test shall be conducted if: a) b) required by the Commission detected high groundwater table When infiltration has been confirmed by the infiltration test. which can be either a low pressure air test or a water test shall be performed on the sewer before any concrete pipe encasement or backfill. to ensure there is no line obstruction and the straightness or grade is correct. light and mirror method or CCTV may be used to isolate the locations of leaks. the cleaned sewer shall be plugged at open ends to prevent dirt or soil from getting into the sewer.2 Testing of Gravity Sewers The tests of gravity sewers are generally conducted to ensure there is no leaks. the air and water tests may be undertaken on shorter lengths of the laid sewer before backfill. The pressure head on the sewer being tested shall not be less than 2 m above pipe crown at the upstream end and shall not be more than 7 m above pipe crown at the downstream end. When desired. For gravity sewers.

If a CCTV inspection is performed.4 Testing of Manhole and other ancillaries Manhole and other ancillaries shall be constructed in such a way that no appreciable amount of infiltration or exfiltration will occur.e. i. the sewer support and thrust block shall be allowed to develop the sufficient strength. as determined by the authorised inspection person.Sewer Testing 4. The maximum lengths for subsequent tests may be progressively increased. the low pressure air or water exfiltration tests on short individual sections. suitable anchorage for temporary end closures the time permitted to leave the trench open without backfill taking considerations of weather. Before conducting these high pressure tests. Also.3 Testing of Forced Mains For pressure sewers. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 81 . the normal tests during the sewer laying may include. When the manhole and other ancillaries are constructed in an effective manner. traffic etc. to ensure that the joints are watertight. the location of permanent anchorages the maximum volume of water available to fill the pipeline the requirement to have the pressure at the highest point not less than 0. In addition. For the high pressure water test. 4. Where required. cautions shall be taken when dealing with high pressure. However. but shall not exceed 1500 m. safety. manholes and other ancillaries suspected of very poor workmanship shall be tested with exfiltration test before backfill or concrete surrounded. a CCTV inspection should be performed on the pipeline after backfilling the trench. where required. initially a maximum of 300 m length of pipe shall be laid and tested to verify that pipe laying practices are to an acceptable standard. Its water-tightness shall be tested through high pressure exfiltration test. force main is required to be tested for its mechanical stability through the high pressure water test. visual inspection is normally sufficient. the force mains should be checked to ensure the straightness is correct and to ensure no obstruction in the force mains. when required. the test length will depend on: a) b) c) d) e) the length which can be isolated effectively. a video and written record of the CCTV inspection shall be provided to the Commission no later than 7 days after the inspection. As in gravity sewers. These low pressure air or water exfiltration test are conducted.8 times the pressure at the lowest point After taking the above considerations.

1 Low Pressure Air Test General Low pressure air test is one of the two sewer exfiltration tests recommended for sewer testing. these tests on the shorter length should not replace the final test. using approved plugs. Manhole covers and surrounds shall be checked for leakage of surface water.Sewer Testing Connections between sewer and manholes shall be constructed with extended castin-site concrete base and surround over the top of the rocker pipe in accordance to the standard drawing attached. Furthermore. Provide temporary bracing where necessary to prevent pipeline movement during testing. 82 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . The air test is quicker to conduct than the water test. (One of the end plugs will require a connection point to permit injection of air. 4. Sometimes the test is conducted on a short length to prevent damage pipe or joints from passing without noticed until the final sewer test. including sideline ends.5 4.2 Procedure for Testing a) Seal the open ends.5. joints in the structure quality of concrete finish water-tightness of manhole cover and surround.5. no large quantity of water needed to be disposed of after the test. This test provides a quick mean for checking any damage pipe or joints. However. joints to pipes. 4.) b) Connect a hand or motorised pump to the pressure injection line at the end plug. Drop manholes shall be constructed in such a way that no appreciable amount of blockage will occur with construction details as in the standard drawings which provide for proper pipe outlets and proper sizing of drop pipes. A visual inspection is required on all the external and internal sections of each manhole before backfill. Particular attention shall be given to: a) b) c) d) e) f) the slope of benching. transitions at entry and exits. Pressurise the test length at a slow and constant rate. The internal surfaces of manholes shall be inspected visually for sources of infiltration after backfill and stabilisation of groundwater table. which could be more costly and time consuming to rectify. Strut the plugs to prevent movement.

30 kPa for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipelines 50 kPa for all other pipelines (Two gauges in series shall be used so that the accuracy of one gauge can be confirmed by the other. Repair leaks and repeat testing where leaks are found at joints. Start the test and record the pressure loss for the test duration after the final gauge adjustment to the test pressure. b) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 83 .5.3 Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure I) a) Before Backfill Readjust the pipe pressure to the specified test pressure and examine for leakage by pouring a solution of soft soap and water over the exposed joints if the test fail. e) f) Table 4.1.1 Test Duration Pipeline Nominal Size 150 225 300 375 450 525 600 g) Test Duration (minutes) 2 4 6 8 11 14 17 Pass the test if the pressure loss over the test duration does not exceed: i) ii) 7 kPa for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipes 2 kPa for all other pipes 4.Sewer Testing c) Use dial pressure gauges to measure pressure. Repressurise the sewer pipeline in accordance with the preceding steps again. Conduct the test for the test duration given in Table 4. The dial gauges shall be able to be read to an accuracy of ± 0.1 kPa. Check for leaks at plugs and test apparatus.) d) Wait five minutes for air pressure to stabilise due to temperature absorption into pipe wall and other effects. ii. Apply an air pressure of: i. Make necessary repairs and adjustments of apparatus to prevent leakages. Release the air pressure where leakage occurs. Adjust the pressure to the required test pressure during this period.

this test will show the location of the leaks more clearly than the low pressure air test. (Acceptable arrangements include: b) i. Repeat the air test. to identify the leakage if the fail section can not be isolated by the air test or water test. 4. which should then be connected with a vertical riser of straight pipe to used as a standpipe 84 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . using approved plugs.6 4. along the pipeline to isolate lengths with leakage. the one that is not used to exert air pressure. when required or available. Replace leaking pipe lengths and repeat testing. Uncover pipe barrels in the isolated lengths where leakage in pipe barrels is suspected.6. Conduct water testing to check that the air test was not erroneous when failed lengths could not be isolated using the air test. Provide temporary bracing where necessary to prevent sewer movement during testing. temporarily fitting a 90° bend to the upstream end. Unlike the high pressure water test. d) II) a) b) c) d) e) After Backfilling: Move the plug up from the other end along the sewer pipeline to isolate the lengths that fail the air test. 4. this test requires more time to set up the test. move the plug. Exhume the failed length of pipeline and replace pipe lengths. the water used for the test require disposal in an appropriate manner. Strut the plugs to prevent movement.2 Procedure a) Seal the open ends.1 Low Pressure Water Test General The low pressure water test is commonly used for checking the water-tightness of the joints and the integrity of the sewer pipes. Conduct low pressure water testing to verify that the air test was not erroneous where the test length fails the air test but no source of leakage can be identified. Use CCTV.6. However. Compared with low pressure air test.Sewer Testing c) Where leaks are not found at joints. this test can not be used to check the mechanical strength of the sewer pipe. including sideline ends. Also. Establish appropriate arrangements involving a standpipe to apply the water head at the upstream end.

Examine visually for leakage at the external surface of joints. Top up the water as required. Make the necessary repairs and adjustments before repressurising again. which can be connected to a tube acting as a standpipe) Fill in water from the upstream end. (Air may be released by slightly loosening the plug and pushing in a piece of wire between the seal and the pipe. d) sealing the upstream end with a plug which has a connection point for a hose. where necessary. Release the water pressure if leakage occurs. b) c) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 85 . 4. Repair or replace pipes before repeating the low pressure water test until the sewer passes the test.) e) f) g) Maintain the water head for two hours.6. Check for leakage at the plugs and the test apparatus during the pressurising period and the constant pressure holding period. ii. Add water to maintain the starting water head every 5 minutes during the test period of 30 minutes. these is no visible leakage at the joints for all pipe types. Ensure water head is not less than 2 m above pipe crown at the upstream end and not greater than 7 m above pipe crown at the downstream end.Sewer Testing ii. Record the total amount of water required for readjustment. the loss of water does not exceed 1 litre per hour per linear metre per metre internal diameter for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipes. iii. Commence the test immediately after the last adjustment of water head in the preceding two hours period.3 Handling Water Test Failures I) a) Before Backfill: Readjust the internal water head to the specified test head if the test section fails the water test. there is no loss of water for pipe other than vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipe. Pass the water test if: h) i) j) i. Shorten the test length if the sewer gradient is so steep as to cause these water head requirements not to be met. Fill the sewer slowly to the required head and bleed air from behind the upstream plugs. Uncover pipe barrels and inspect for leakage if leakage is not evident at joints. Drain the water and move the downstream plug towards upstream. to isolate pipe lengths that fail the water test.

Sewer Testing

II) a)

After Backfill:
Isolate pipe lengths that fail the water test by moving the downstream plug towards the upstream end in sections when the test sewer fails the water test. Alternatively, conduct a CCTV inspection, where required, to identify the source of leakage if the source of leakage can not be isolated. Exhume failed pipe lengths and replace. Repeat test until the sewer pipeline passes the test.

b) c)

4.7
4.7.1

High Pressure Water Test
General
High pressure water test is normally used for testing the pressure sewers and pipe works within the pump station. The main aims of the test are to ensure the mechanical stability of the pipe and joints to withstand the working pressure. Since the test is conducted under high pressure, the anchorage of the sewer is more critical than the low pressure tests. Preferably, the test should be conducted before backfill. During the test, the test pumps should not be subjected to hydrostatic pressure.

4.7.2

Procedure a)
Seal the sewer pipeline ends using “test-end” units consisting of short lengths of pipe permanently fitted with caps or valves. Connected the “testend” units to the test pipe section using a standard coupling, which permits easy removal of “test-end” units after testing. (The “test-end” units should have a valve with pressure gauge to allow filling of the test length with water or for venting air. The gauge shall be a conventional circular gauge not less than 200 mm diameter and shall be able to read to an accuracy of ± 0.01 Mpa.)

b)

For sewer on level grade, fit tees along the test length, where necessary, to ensure all the air can escape. Fit air valves to such tees. Remove air valves and blank off tees after the test is applied. Fit the test pressure gauge at the lowest end of the test length. (This prevents the test pressure from exceeding the permitted maximum pressure in the test length.)

c)

d)

Place pre-constructed temporary thrust blocks behind the test end units to brace against thrust from the test pressures. (No temporary bracing is permitted along the sewer pipeline. All specified thrust blocks must be constructed and left to cure before testing.)

e)

Fill the test length slowly with water through the valve at the lowest testend unit.

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Sewer Testing

(The water shall be of fair quality and free from sediment. A firm foam swab placed ahead of the water column will improve the expulsion of air.)

f) g) h)

Set all valves at high spots to vent air. Close the air vents after thorough venting of all air. Fill the test length with water. Leave the filled test length undisturbed for 24 hours prior to testing to allow for absorption of water into the pipes and /or jointing materials. Wipe the exposed fittings and joints clean and dry and check for leakage and other irregularities during this preparatory period. Check also the test pipe for any appreciable movement and disturbance of anchorages. Drain the water and repair any damage found. Repeat the water filling again to start the test. Pump more water into the test length to raise the pressure. Raise the pressure slowly in increments of 1 bars, with pauses of one minute between each increment until achieving the lower of:

i)

j)

i. ii. k)

the maximum rated pressure of the pipes laid, or 1.5 times the design operating pressure of the pipeline (includes surge allowance)

Stop the test immediately should any appreciable drop in pressure be noted during one of these pauses. Determine the cause of the pressure drop. Drain the test length where repairs are required. Start the test again after repairing. Pass the pressure test if there is no reduction from the test pressure in the next 10 minutes after the test pressure is achieved. Do not reduce the pressure since the high pressure leakage test should be conducted immediately next.

l)

4.8
4.8.1

High Pressure Leakage Test
General
High pressure leakage test normally follows the high pressure water test immediately. This is to avoid any unnecessary pressurising and water filling, which could take time and is costly. The purpose of this test is to ensure the pipe and joint will remain intact under the pressure environment.

4.8.2

Procedure a)
Conduct the test immediately after the high pressure water test. Maintain the following test pressures (whichever is lower) for 24 hours by pumping in make-up water if necessary:

i. ii.

the maximum rated pressure of the pipes laid, or 1.5 times the design operating pressure of the pipeline (includes surge allowance)

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Sewer Testing

b) c)

Measure the amount of make-up water pumped into the pipe to maintain the test pressure. Pass the test if the measured amount of make-up water does not exceed 0.1 litre per millimetre of pipe diameter per kilometre of pipe per day for each 3 bars of pressure applied. Reset the test pressure and check all visible joints to locate leakage when the test length fails the test.

d)

4.9

Test for Straightness, Obstruction, and Grade
The sewers shall be check for straightness, obstruction, and grade whenever possible. For gravity sewers and force mains, the grade and straightness are important to achieve the designed velocity. The following tests are recommended for testing the laid sewer:

I) a) b) c)

Test for freedom from obstruction:
Visual inspection Insertion of mandrel CCTV inspection

It should be noted that the visual inspection is only for checking a short length. Sufficient light shall be provided when carrying out the inspection. For checking a long sewer, insertion of a mandrel should be adopted.

II) a) b) c) d) e)

Test for grade and straightness
Laser beams with sighting targets Sight rails and boning rods CCTV inspection lamp and mirrors Insertion of a smooth balls

The first three methods will provide a more exact assurance for both the grade and straightness of sewers, which shall be used whenever possible. The latter two methods will provide a rough ideas on whether the sewers are laid graded or straight, which should be used only for a quick check.

4.10

CCTV Inspection
The following subsections outline details on how the CCTV inspection requirements shall be implemented. These guidelines are also aim to enhance professionalism in line with progress in sewerage field, and promote efficiency and

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f.1 Objectives of CCTV Inspection a) b) Enable detection of sewer defects such as cracks.Sewer Testing cost effectiveness as well as transparency and accountability in sewerage system development. h.2 Technical Requirements and References a) b) c) Analysis of defects shall be based on WRc Manual for Sewer Condition Classification Latest Edition. c. 4. d.10. specifications. Test device for the CCTV camera using 'Marconi Resolution Chart No. b. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 89 . deforms.10.10. For sewer with diameter larger than 1050 mm. together with a lighting unit. Solid state colours CCTV camera with pan & rotate features.3. crawler control and screenwriter. Test device for the monitor and video recorder to establish the effectiveness and accuracy of the 'on-site' monitor and video recorder. which are not detected by normal means.10. workmanship as well as materials and fixtures used. collapse. As a quality assurance measure to ensure sewers and sewer appurtenances are constructed in conformability with approved design. Calibration chart for various sizes of sewer for the camera used. A video recorder for recording high quality video images. As a means to establish record to enhance accountability and professionalism on quality assurance for sewer construction. e. automatic date/ metre age. Equipment and test devices to be used are as listed in Section 4. The control unit comprises the camera unit. g. This console can be mounted permanently in a vehicle or use as portable system. c) 4. A means of producing still images from the monitor screen. 4. Man-entry CCTV survey mode may be adopted unless it can be demonstrated that the CCTV can be maintained in a stable position on or near the central axis of the sewer and images captured are satisfactory and not distorted.3. A self powered tractor or crawler on which the camera is conveyed along a pipeline under inspection in a stable manner.1' or its derivative to demonstrate satisfactory performance of the camera. dislocate and etc.3 4.1 Equipment Specifications and Test Devices Specifications for CCTV unit’s equipment a.10.

a) 4.4. it shall have zooming capabilities. All single private developments (with PE > 30). CCTV Inspection Requirements The following areas area identified as the minimum coverage for CCTV inspection. 4. 4. Two copies of digital records and one copy of hardcopy report shall be forwarded to JPP office.g.3. connecting to existing main sewer. For the diameter pipe greater than 600mm. 4.10.10. based on WRc format.4.10.2 Software Requirements Software standardisation using databank software that can produce report. central business district). Ground slopes greater than 30o inclination.3. Crossings under buildings.Sewer Testing i.10.1 High Risk Areas A 100% CCTV inspection shall be conducted for sewers laid in the ground with high risk of failure and having the following characteristics: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Deeper than average 6m or more Pipe diameter above 600mm.10. A PC-based site reporting system capable of producing reports customized to the Contractor's needs and to include photographs captured directly from video.2 General Inspection Coverage (for Sewer. Areas that have restricted vehicular access for repair (e. 90 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . roads and railway including their reserve. rivers. lakes.4. All sewers installed using pipe jacking method. Manholes and Lateral Connections) a) Initial CCTV testing & inspection shall be conducted for a minimum 10% random selection of sewers including all manholes and lateral property connections in accordance with standard procedure. All diversion or re-alignment of existing sewer networks. 4.3 Report Format Report in VCD or other digital form to be submitted in MPEG format with minimum 352x240 pixels.

A CCTV Inspection Contractor licensed with the Commission has been appointed to carry out the inspection.10.10.Sewer Testing b) If the mandatory requirement of Clause 4.4. Prior to taking over existing network that has been approved from any owner or after rehabilitation works have been completed.2a. found in Stage 2 inspection. Sewer networks have been cleared of debris and are ready for inspection.5. 4.4 or 5 conditions as defined in the Manual for Sewer condition classification approve by the Commission. found in Stage 1 inspection. Stage of Inspection a) Stage 1. Stage 2 .Should any Grade 3. shall be randomly selected and CCTV inspected.10. b) c) 4.4. a) b) c) before submitting for final 4.5 CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for New Sewer Network Activities to be completed Intermediate Inspection. Random selection of sewer to be inspected. a) The list of sewer segments and house connections selected for CCTV inspection shall be recorded and the parties witnessing the selection process shall duly sign the record. All new network undergoing intermediate inspection except: c) d) i.4 or 5 conditions as defined in the Manual for Sewer Condition Classification approve by the Commission.1.10. 4. ii. Vacuum sewer.4.10.4.All projects are to start with stage 1 inspection where 10 % (by length) of sewer network and property connections involved.3 Single Phase development with total sewer length less than 500m long with no interval. the CCTV inspection shall proceed to Stage 3 where all the remaining network shall be CCTV inspected. Stage 3.1 is more than 5%. the minimum CCTV testing & inspection is 10% as in Clause 4.5. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 91 .2. If the mandatory requirements of Clause 4. the minimum CCTV testing & inspection shall have an additional of 10%. the CCTV inspection shall proceed to Stage 2 inspection. Stage 2 inspections shall include another 40% of the sewer network to be randomly selected for CCTV inspection.1 is less than 5% of the entire development area.10.Should any Grade 3.10. All construction works have been completed and tested by the supervising qualified person.

CCTV inspection on site. consultant representative and contractor responsible for the construction of the sewer shall be present at the onset of CCTV inspection at each project site. Report on the CCTV inspection together with the recording and recommendations shall be prepared by the CCTV contractor and submitted to the relevant the Commission branch office or the appointed agency not more than 7 days after the date of inspection. Project name and location Names and designation of persons involved (i. the random selection process shall be repeated to select the remaining sewer segments for the inspection. ii. c) 4. Inspection shall be carried out in within 24 hours after random selection has been completed. b) At the beginning of each CCTV recording for every segment of sewer shall be marked with their respective code number with chainage together with the date. CCTV inspection for a project shall be carried out without any break.10. a) b) c) The CCTV inspection shall be carried out 7 days after notice issued by the Commission. The random selection process shall be completed in a single session.4.5. consultant & contractor and CCTV contractor). Record of the sewer segments randomly selected for CCTV inspection shall be included as appendix to the report. The copy of the tape (or other recording media used to store the record) containing the CCTV inspection records shall be submitted to the Commission Branch office or the appointed agency together with a certificate duly signed by the qualified person responsible for the CCTV inspection declaring the authenticity of the recording submitted and that the c) 92 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .3.10. After the CCTV inspection and recording have been completed for a project. Documentation on CCTV recording a) At the start of the CCTV recording. date and place where the selection were carried out shall be recorded in the report on the random selection process. Reasons for the break/delay shall be recorded. d) 4. Date and starting time of inspection. iii. Representative from the Commission or authorized person. start and end times of the recording.e representative of the Commission or authorized person.5. Once started. Should for any reason a break/delay of more than 24 hours become necessary. a copy of recorded CCTV shall be handover to the Commission or authorized person immediately.Sewer Testing b) Names and designations of all persons involved in the random selection process as well as the time. the following details must be recorded: i. The format of reporting shall follow the standard that had been given (Appendix C).

iii. Further CCTV inspection shall be carried out before acceptance.1 provides the description of various defect grades Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 93 . c) 4. iv.Sewer Testing CCTV inspection has been done in accordance with the procedure stated in this guideline. the developer shall rectify and make good to all the defects in 30 days. Colour to show the defect grade description shall be follow as: i. Relaid of the affected sewer segments is necessary. Under these grade classifications. replace. b) Grade 1: Green Grade 2 : Blue Grade 3 : Orange Grade 4 : Brown Grade 5 : Red Grade 1 and 2 is acceptable constructional defects but may have other minor defects.7 Follow -Up Action to Be Taken a) For Grade 1 and Grade 2. 4 or 5 conditions has major structural defects and shall be accepted.10. Sewer with Grade 3. relay or reconstruct the rejected works. JPP may require the developer to carry out further CCTV inspection to determine the cause and extent of the problems that arises. These rectification works shall be witnessed by the parties concerned and agreed together that the works had been completed.10. seepages and etc to the sewer networks during the defects liability period. v. CCTV inspection shall be carried out immediately within 24 hours. 4. b) c) Table 4. the letter of recommendation for CFO will be released by the Commission or the authorised agency. ii. The letter of support for CFO will be released upon acceptance.6 Interpretation of Results from CCTV Inspection a) Classification : Grade 1 to Grade 5 as per the Commission approve Sewer Assessment Classification. the developer shall change. It can be accepted provided a performance bond has been submitted and the contractor undertake to rectify the defect within 30 days. 4 or 5 classifications. damages. In the events of any blockages. For Grade 3. The Commission or the authorised person may instruct CCTV inspection to be carried out again.

operational and maintenance deficiencies diminishing static. corroded pipe wall. Debis. encrustation medium. Examples: collapsed or collapsed eminent.Sewer Testing Table 4. any drainage obstructions. Cracks – joint. Grade 4 Constructional and structural damages with no sufficient static safety. cracks. circumference. etc. cavities in pipe-wall. hydraulic or tightness.g. Examples: Infiltration dripping. badly torched intakes. Examples: axial/radial pipebursts. Grade 3 Constructional. major deformation. silt – 15%. (OMD). Grade 2 Constructional and sewer product deficiencies or occurances with insignificant influence to tightness. visually noticeable infiltration/exfiltration. severe corrosion of pipe wall. longitudinal. individual root penetrations. minor erosions. safety and tightness. hydraulic. protruding laterals. severe protruding. flexible pipe deformation >15% Grade 5 Major structural damaged where pipe is already or will shortly be impermeable.2 Defect Grades Descriptions Grade 1 Occurances without damage and no cracks of pipe but only acceptable displacement on joint where no visual infiltration can be observe: e. minor deformation. Examples: Joint displaced large. minor damages to pipe wall. Encrustation light. Lining defect. Infiltration running. deeply rooted pipe. untorched intakes. flexible pipe deformation (>5%). laterals severe root penetrations. pipe loses water or danger of backwater in basements etc 94 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . hydraulic or static pressure of pipe. infiltration seeping. Open joint. minor deformation of plastic pipes (<5%). minor drainage obstructions such as calcide build ups.

11.2 Procedure a) b) c) d) Plug the inlets at all upstream open ends. Move an inflated rubber plug toward downstream end to isolate lengths of leakage. When severe infiltration is found during sewer laying. Repeat the test procedure after each plug relocation Conduct a CCTV inspection if the location of the infiltration can not be identified by the light and mirror test or moving the inflated rubber plug.11. Although design has allowed for certain amount of infiltration. Exhume and repair the fail section of the pipe.Sewer Testing 4. Measure any infiltration from the sewer to the manhole or within manhole itself. To avoid any extra infiltration.1 Infiltration Test General Infiltration is an extraneous flow not contributed from households. Pass the infiltration test if the infiltration does not exceed 1 litre per hour per metre diameter per meter of pipe run. However. the source shall be investigated immediately. a significant amount of unexpected infiltration will overload both the collection sewers and the treatment plant.11. Conduct the measurement of infiltration for at least 24 hours. water-tightness test may be required if: a) b) c) Instruction from the authorised inspection person Unsatisfactory features identified from the visual inspection Suspicion of poor workmanship or poor materials Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 95 .12.11 4. The procedures are as follows: 4. If the force main is significantly below the groundwater table. Infiltration test is normally conducted after backfill and after the groundwater level has stabilised.3 Handling Test Failures a) b) c) d) Conduct a light and mirror test to identify the location of the infiltration if the pipe is small and short.12 4. a test maybe conducted on the gravity sewer laid. 4. after the groundwater level has stabilised following backfilling.1 Water-tightness Test General Visual inspection is usually sufficient to ensure the water-tightness of manhole and other ancillary structures. 4. an infiltration test is also highly recommended.

For other ancillary structures. The procedures for testing the manhole are listed below. Investigate any appreciable water loss. Drain the water to repair the leakage if necessary.5 m in depth. However. a potable submersible pump might be sunk into the test structure to remove the water. Secure the plug/stopper to resist the full test pressure. Observe visually to identify any water leakage to the outside of the structure. the water shall be filled to the top of the structure unless otherwise specified by the authorised inspection person. allow the water to stay in the test structure for 8 hours. 96 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . the procedures can still be adopted. For manhole less than 1. the height which the water level should be tested shall follow the instruction from the authorised inspection person. Fill slowly to avoid any intense pressure impact from the water.5 m in depth. Where possible. For manhole more than 1. 4. Otherwise.) d) e) f) g) Fill the structure with clean water. the test shall be carried out before backfilled or concrete surrounded. Alternatively.12. whichever is larger.5 m or the mean groundwater level.Sewer Testing d) e) Leakages revealed from other tests Frequent surcharging of the structure is possible The test should be carried out only after the structures have achieved sufficient strength to withstand the test pressure. the manhole shall be filled with clean water to the bottom of cover. For any other ancillary structure.2 Procedures a) b) c) Fit a plug or stopper in all the openings. Provide a mean to remove the plug/stopper from the ground level safely if test water is allowed to be discharged to the downstream. Drain and dispose of the test water from the test structure in an appropriate manner and to an suitable location. (The plug/stopper may need to be remove while the structure is still full of water. the water head for the test shall not be less than 1.

APPENDIX A .

.

3 : Standard Precast Concrete Manholes (Shallow.18 : Figure A. Page 118.Iron steps in b) c) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 97 .Standard drawings for inverted siphons to be included. Page 50. Page 122. b. 1 (Oil & Grease Trap) . as not applicable. and > 5 metres depth): Add standard drawing for large diameter manhole with RC chamber. 300 mm above crown of sewer pipe.2. Page 117. Buffer Zone for Pump Station with and without Super Structure: Buffer zone for fence to fence. for safety.Page 109.5 to 5 metres. and > 5 metres depth): Add standard drawing for large diameter manhole with RC chamber. brickwall fencing may be specified for safety”. Figure A.5 to 5 metres.5 : Figure A. Page 108. Page 123. (Structural Design Consideration for Manholes) manholes shall not be provided. Standard Precast Concrete Manholes (Shallow. OTHER COMMENTS a) Clause 2.5 : Figure A. 2.Appendix A APPENDIX A Figure A. Improve construction details to minimise blockage Page 110. to raise to min. Size of drop pipe min.14 : Outlet for 90 deg bend pipe. Clause 2. add note “where located in high risk areas. Typical Details of a Wet Well Submersible Pump Station: Review. 300 mm dia. Buffer Zone for Pump Station with and without Super Structure: Buffer zone for fence to fence. Page 109. but they must be designed for individually based on actual locations. Standard Precast Concrete Manholes (Shallow. jetting hose). Standard External Drop Junction: Present susceptible to blockage. include also typical details not using the circular wet well type (which is now not common). a. 2. add note “where located in high risk areas. To include a section on Inverted Siphons . Page 6. Page 107.5.19 : Note: Other figures added are distributed as hard copies for incorporation in the documents. Figure A.4 : Figure A.5 to 5 metres.2. 2.13 : Figure A.Drawings submission by developers must show O&G traps have been provided for these premises where grease and fat are likely to be discharged to sewers. as landing may obstruct operations activity (eg.6 : Typical Induct Vent Detail: Delete this figure. Standard Deep Precast Concrete Manhole: Remove or reposition landing for clear passage from manhole top. and > 5 metres depth): Add standard drawing for large diameter manhole with RC chamber. brickwall fencing may be specified for safety”. . Figure A.4.

MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME (SECTION Y-Y) 290 350 DETAIL `X' : EMBOSSED LOGO Z 14 Z 6 22 ALL CORNERS TO BE ROUNDED OFF NOTES: DETAIL `1' ( TYPICAL SURFACE DETAIL ) 6 1.X TYPICAL LOCKING DEVICE SECTION Y .Y COVER HINGE OPEN AT 90° SECTION Y .Z Page 98 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines 55 20 20 20 140 250 20 652 . AND THE MARKING "BSEN 124 CLASS D400 " MANUFACTURER'S NAME AND PLACE OF MANUFACTURE SEE DETAIL `3' EMBOSSED LOGO(SEE DETAIL `X') SERIAL NO.5 RUANG TERKURUNG DILARANG MASUK SEE DETAIL `2' 20 5 SEE DETAIL `1' 60° 840 50.Appendix A Figure A1 : Standard Manhole Cover 840 5 HINGE DEVICE BOLT HOLES 25 50. MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME MUST COMPLY WITH THE SPECIFICATION AND BE MANUFACTURED BY A MANUFACTURER APPROVED BY SPAN 22 3 SECTION Z-Z 100 20 120 20 120 SECTION X .Y TYPICAL HINGE 20 20 120 120 SECTION Y . CONFINED SPACE DO NOT ENTER 91 20 5 DANGER LOCKING AND LIFTING DEVICE PLAN TYPICAL DETAILS OF HEAVY DUTY D.Y COVER HINGE OPEN AT MINIMUM 100° SECTION Z .5 20 25 10 5 MODEL NO.I. MANHOLE DETAIL `2' & '3' : EMBOSSED DESIGN COVER AND FRAME 665 655 652 9 100 60 20 600 55 55 55 65 55 840 TYPICAL SECTION OF HEAVY DUTY D.I.

CONCRETE SURROUND 1:12 FALL FALL 1:12 SEWER PIPE (DIA.90° BEND) INLET HALF ROUND V. MIN. VARIES) MANHOLE OPENING PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK. CONCRETE SURROUND PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK. CONCRETE SURROUND HALF ROUND V. VARIES) INLET FA L 1:1 L 2 ET OUTL OUTLET INLET INLET OUTLET MANHOLE OPENING 1:12 FALL FA 1:1 LL 2 1:12 FALL FALL 1:12 SEWER PIPE (DIA. CHANNEL SEWER PIPE (DIA. MIN.C. CONCRETE SURROUND SEWER PIPE (DIA.C. VARIES) SEWER PIPE (DIA. VARIES) SEWER PIPE (DIA. MIN. SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW OF MANHOLE TYPE F SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW (TWO INCOMING SEWER) OF MANHOLE TYPE E Appendix A Page 99 (MULTIPLE INCOMING) . CHANNEL HALF ROUND VC FALL 1:12 Sewer Networks and Pump Stations SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW OF MANHOLE TYPE C (CHANGE OF DIRECTION . VARIES) MANHOLE OPENING PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK. MIN.C. CONCRETE SURROUND HALF ROUND V. DIAMETER OF PIPE INSIDE MANHOLE BASE TO BE OF EQUAL SIZE OR LARGER THAN THE INCOMING PIPE DIAMETER. CHANNEL HALF ROUND V.C. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED 2. CHANNEL FALL 1:12 SEWER PIPE (DIA. VARIES) HALF ROUND V. MIN. VARIES) SEWER PIPE (DIA.PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK.C. CONCRETE SURROUND MANHOLE OPENING MIN 1200 MIN 1200 MANHOLE OPENING MIN 1200 OUTLET SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW OF MANHOLE TYPE B (STRAIGHT THROUGH) MIN 1200 SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW OF MANHOLE TYPE D (CHANGE OF DIRECTION) OF MANHOLE TYPE A 1:12 FALL 1:1 FA LL 2 OUTLET INLET INLET INLET INLET FALL 1:12 LL FA 2 1:1 INLET FALL 1:12 Figure A2 : Plan View of Typical Manhole LL FA 2 1:1 LL FA 2 1:1 LL FA 2 1:1 2 MANHOLE OPENING MANHOLE OPENING HALF ROUND V. MIN. CONCRETE SURROUND SEWER PIPE (DIA. CHANNEL HALF ROUND V. VARIES) 1:1 FA LL 2 OUTLET OUTLET SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW OF MANHOLE TYPE H MIN 1200 INLET MIN 1200 MIN 1200 (DIAMETER CHANGE) SECTIONAL PLAN VIEW OF MANHOLE TYPE G (THREE INCOMING SEWER) NOTE : 1. VARIES) INLET OUTLET FA 1:1 LL 2 1:1 FA LL (FIRST MANHOLE) Volume 3 MANHOLE OPENING MIN 1200 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK. CHANNEL PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK.C. MIN. MIN. CONCRETE SURROUND PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK.C. VARIES) SEWER PIPE (DIA. CHANNEL PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE RING WITH 150 THK.

) 350 (MAX. BASE Volume 3 MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.) PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R.) 1:12 HALF ROUND PIPE AND BENCHING SHAPED TO DIRECT FLOW IN DIRECTION OF MAIN FLOW MIN.) PRECAST R. 3. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR PRECAST R. B B A Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines PLAN VIEW . BASE T12-150 B/WAY FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS 50 THK. MIN. MIN.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL Appendix A 350 (MAX. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.2 < D < 2.2m ≤ Depth < 2.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.) PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL EPOXY (100 THK.) 350 (MAX. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX STANDARD MANHOLE D.) 600 PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL EPOXY (100 THK. MIN) CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.2 < D < 2.Figure A3 : Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2 < D < 2. MIN.5 METRES) SECTION A-A (FREE DROP < 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.5 METRES) SECTION A-A (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS. 2. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR PRECAST R. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL EPOXY (100 THK.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. MIN) CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN. BASE T12-150 B/WAY 50 THK.5m Ø 0 60 Page 100 STANDARD MANHOLE D.5 METRES) A NOTES: 1. MIN) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 600 (MAX. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING 50 THK.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS STANDARD MANHOLE D. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING SECTION B-B (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R.

INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. MIN. Ø12 GALVANISED RAG BOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUTS AND WASHERS FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS T12-150 B/WAY FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS 50 THK. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.5 METRES) SECTION B-B (BACK DROP > 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.) PRECAST R. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING 375 125 3 nos.5 METRES) A 12 DIA.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS 350 (MAX.2m ≤ Depth < 2. A . MIN) 1/2Ø+100 12 THK.) FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R.STANDARD MANHOLE D. MIN. 2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.2 < D < 2.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. 3.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL EPOXY (100 µm THK. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. MIN) PRECAST R.) FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R. M.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH UNDERSIDE PAINTED WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL EPOXY (100 THK.) STANDARD MANHOLE D. BEND Volume 3 MIN.2 < D < 2.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS 350 (MAX. GALVANISED RAGBOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUT AND WASHERS COVER PLATE DETAILS DETAIL 'A' NOTES: 1. BASE SECTION A-A (BACKDROP > 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 1.5m) Appendix A Page 101 PLAN VIEW 00 Ø6 Sewer Networks and Pump Stations SEE DETAIL 'A' 600 CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 CLEAR AND ROUGHEN SURFACE OF MANHOLE AND APPLY NEAT CONCRETE PASTE PRIOR TO POURING SUPPORT FOR DROP SECTION 1:12 1:12 DROP MANHOLE 90 DEG. BASE 50 THK.S PLATE 375 125 B B Figure A4 : Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdro (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY MIN.

400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 PRECAST R.C. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING.5 < D < 5 METRES) A B A . ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS.5 < D < 5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.) Appendix A 350(MAX.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS STANDARD MANHOLE D. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY 50 THK. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR PRECAST R. MIN) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 1:12 1:12 600 (MAX.) FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R.Figure A5 : Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2. BASE Volume 3 SECTION B-B (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY SECTION A-A SECTION A-A (FREE DROP < 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS 350 (MAX.C. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS 50 THK. 2. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.5m ≤ Depth < 5m) Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines B PLAN VIEW Ø6 00 Page 102 STANDARD MANHOLE D. MIN) PRECAST R. 50 THK.) HALF ROUND PIPE AND BENCHING IN GRADE 2O HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT SHAPED TO DIRECT FLOW IN DIRECTION OF MAIN FLOW FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN.C.5 < D < 5 METRES) NOTES: 1.) STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS 350(MAX.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.C. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R. 3.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 PRECAST R.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING MIN. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX 600 PRECAST R. MIN) CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.

DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED. BASE 50 THK. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.STANDARD MANHOLE D.) STANDARD MANHOLE D. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING 375 125 3 nos. MIN) SEE DETAIL 'A' CLEAR AND ROUGHEN SURFACE OF MANHOLE AND APPLY NEAT CONC PASTE PRIOR TO POURING SUPPORT FOR DROP SECTION FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX Sewer Networks and Pump Stations CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) I : 12 600 PRECAST R. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) I : 12 I : 12 DROP MANHOLE 90 DEG.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. GALVANISED RAGBOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUT AND WASHERS 1/2Ø+100 00 Ø6 B B COVER PLATE DETAILS DETAIL 'A' NOTES: 1. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. BEND Figure A6 : Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole with backdrop (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.) 600 PRECAST R. M. 3. 2.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R.5m ≤ Depth < 5m) Volume 3 MIN.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R.5 < D < 5 METRES) A 12 DIA. MIN) PRECAST R.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS 350 (MAX.S PLATE 375 125 FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. Ø12 GALVANISED RAG BOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUTS AND WASHERS 12 THK. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS 50 THK. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS. A Appendix A Page 103 PLAN VIEW . CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY SECTION A-A (BACKDROP > 600) SECTION B-B (BACK DROP > 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 350 (MAX.5 < D < 5 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 2.

2. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL PRECAST R.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX 600 PRECAST R.C. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING 50 THK.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. MIN) PRECAST R.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX Appendix A 350(MAX.) 350(MAX. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY SECTION A-A (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) SECTION B-B SECTION A-A (FREE DROP < 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) A B NOTES: 1. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR PRECAST R.Figure A7 : Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m) Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines PLAN VIEW 60 B Ø 0 Page 104 STANDARD MANHOLE D. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS 350 (MAX. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS STANDARD MANHOLE D.) STANDARD MANHOLE D. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY 50 THK. BASE MIN.) 600 PRECAST R. TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R.) HALF ROUND PIPE AND BENCHING IN GRADE 2O HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT SHAPED TO DIRECT FLOW IN DIRECTION OF MAIN FLOW FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN. BASE Volume 3 50 THK.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 PRECAST R. 3.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R. MIN) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) 1:12 1:12 1:12 600 (MAX. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. MIN) CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.C.C. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK.C. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING. A .

ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING T12-150 B/WAY T12-150 B/WAY SECTION A-A (BACKDROP > 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) SECTION B-B (BACKDROP > 600) (GROUND LEVEL TO INVERT LEVEL OF PIPE 5 < D < 9 METRES) A 00 Ø6 B B 375 125 3 nos.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 600 350 (MAX. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING. M.) PRECAST R.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R. GALVANISED RAGBOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUT AND WASHERS 1/2Ø+100 12 THK. BASE FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMETER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R.) STANDARD MANHOLE D.I FRAME AND COVER TO DETAILS FILL WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR MIX PRECAST R. DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.C MAKE UP RINGS AS REQUIRED TO MATCH TOP OF MANHOLE COVER TO FINISHED SURFACE LEVEL 350 (MAX.C CHAMBER RING WITH 20 MIN. Ø12 GALVANISED RAG BOLTS WITH GUNMETAL NUTS AND WASHERS 12 DIA. INTERNAL LINING OF HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR CAST INSITU CONCRETE SURROUND (150 THK. A Appendix A Page 105 PLAN VIEW . MIN) SEE DETAIL 'A' CLEAR AND ROUGHEN SURFACE OF MANHOLE AND APPLY NEAT CONC PASTE PRIOR TO POURING SUPPORT FOR DROP SECTION CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) I : 12 600 CONCRETE BENCHING (20 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT RENDERING) DROP MANHOLE 90 DEG. MIN) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations PRECAST R. 400 GRADE 20/20 CONC. BEND FORM CHANNEL USING 40 THICK HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT MORTAR WHERE CHANGE IN DIRECTION OR DIAMATER OCCURS THROUGH MANHOLE OR THERE ARE 2 OR 3 INCOMING SEWERS MIN. CEMENTITIOUS BLINDING 375 125 50 THK.C TAPER TOP PAINTED INTERNALLY WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY PRECAST R. BASE Figure A8 : Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop (Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5m ≤ Depth ≤ 9m) Volume 3 50 THK.S PLATE COVER PLATE DETAILS DETAIL 'A' NOTES: 1. 2.STANDARD MANHOLE D. 3.

GRD. 1200 1350. HEAVY GMS (REFER TO DETAIL `A') MAIN SEWER T INVERT LEVEL GRADE 30 CONCRETE WITH 12mm INTERNAL HA LINING 1800 MIN. 1500 1650.O DIA AIN W SE ER Page 106 T 150mm CONC. PLASTIC SAFETY CHAIN PLASTIC SAFETY CHAIN MOULDED CHANNEL PLAN SECTION A-A BRANCH SEWER BRANCH SEWER STANDARD LENGTH OF PIPEWORK TO BE SET IN MANHOLE D (V ARIE D MAIN SEWER DIA. SURROND E E BRANCH SEWER 1200mm DIA. CONC.5 N. HEAVY GMS CONC. WALL 6mm DIA. OPENING WITH GRATING Appendix A D T W 150mm CONC. CHAMBER 30 50 6mm DIA. LEV. 1050 1200. SURROUND W A W T 675mm DIA. 90 900. ACCESS CHAMBER WITH 12mm HIGH ALUMINA LINING B B C 675 DIA. SCREED GRADE 20 WITH 12mm INTERNAL HA LINING INSTALL 2 NOS. (mm) 3/4 D S) 1/4 D SECTIONAL PLAN C-C TYPE INTERNAL CHANNEL STRAIGHT THROUGH TO BENDS N. CHAMBER Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines TO SUIT INVERT LEVEL 50mm THK. GRADE 20/20 SECTION D-D GRD. 1650 1050. SURROND 38 50 50mm THK. ACCESS CHAMBER WITH 12mm HIGH ALUMINA LINING 150 150 COVER PLATE A A MASS CONC. ONLY Volume 3 12mm HA LINING MAIN SEWER 500 BRANCH SEWER 300 500 300 INVERT LEVEL CONC. 1800 D E 2200 2500 F 1900 INTERNAL WIDTH. 22. SURROUND 1200mm DIA.C. CONC. CONC. 975. SURROUND FOOT HOLES AT 300mm C/C MANHOLE TO BE IDENTICAL TO STANDARD PRECAST MANHOLE A 1:12 FALL GRADE 20/20 CONC. (V IE AR Figure A9 : Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type SECTION B-B LARGE DIAMETER MANHOLE WITH INVERT LEVEL OF INCOMING BRANCH SEWER ABOVE R. LEV. `A' (mm) 50mm THK. 150 W 150mm CHAMBER 12mm HA LINING TO CHANNEL BENCHING WALLS AND TOP SLAB 6mm DIA. APPROPVED STAINLESS STEEL CHAIN AT D/S SIDE OF MH. STAINLESS STEEL BOLT AND NUT 20 GRADE 20/20 CONC. 22.E. SCREED EXPANDITE EXPOCRETE UA OR SIMILAR APPROVED SECTION E-E DETAIL `A' .E. 1350 1500. HEAVY GMS HEXAGON BOLT S) APPROVED STAINLESS STEEL CHAIN 6mm DIA. SCREED FM .E.5 INTERNAL CHANNEL BENDS N. 150mm CONC. OPENING C DEPTH VARIES MIN.

750 Min. All dimmensions are in millimetres. Column Support Notes : 1.Appendix A Figure A10 : Typical Induct Vent Detail Induct Vent Centreline of manhole 150 Min. 2. Inside face of Manhole 150 Min. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 107 . Diameter of induct vent shall be approximately 1/2 of the forcemain but shall not exceed 300mm.

Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .R T C A 45° BEND W O FL D SADDLE CONCRETE HUNCH 150x375 225x375 300x375 REFER TO DETAIL `A' 150x300 L R T 259 353 447 259 225x300 PIPE R1 C 217 308 389 217 SHORT LENGTH OF PIPE (WITH SOCKET END UNDAMAGED) TO BE INSERTED INTO EXISTING SEWER MAIN SEWER PIPE S 353 150x225 259 308 217 A 150 225 300 150 225 150 D 67 80 82 67 80 67 L 310 310 318 255 255 225 S 193 284 355 193 284 193 R 224 224 224 178 178 142 R1 188 188 188 151 151 113 MAXIMUM 2000 MASS CONCRETE (GRADE 15) SECTION VIEW MAIN SEWER PIPE LATERAL SERVICE CONNECTION NOTES: THIS END OF PIPE TO BE FLUSHED WITH INSIDE SURFACE OF EXISTING SEWER SECTION VIEW 1. THE HOLE SHALL BE MADE AT THE MIDDLE OF THE EXISTING PIPE AT 45° TO 60° ANGLE TO THE HORIZONTAL. 2. SLOPE 1% 300 MIN. DETAIL `A' SADDLE 1. NOTES:- 3. TWO 45° BENDS 1% MIN. SPECIAL CORING EQUIPMENT TO BE USED FOR SADDLE CONNECTION. Pip Volume 3 300 MIN. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING. ENSURE CONNECTION IS DONE ONLY ON THE TOP HALF OF THE EXISTING PIPE. GRADE 25 CONCRETE SURROUND CONCRETE GRADE 20/20 MORTAR (10 THICKNESS) SECTION R . SADDLE CONNECTIONS ONLY PERMITTED WHERE EXISTING SEWER IS OF GREATER DIAMETER THAN THE PROPOSED CONNECTION PIPE. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED 2.C.FL O W FLOW Page 108 BUILDING LOT ONE LENGTH OF PIPE LIMIT OF WORKS FOR SEWER LINE ONE LENGTH OF PIPE ROAD RESERVE / BACK LANE BUILDING LOT MAIN SEWER PIPE 150 Ø PIPE Appendix A C L 45° 150 Ø PIPE STANDARD WYE OR TEE R R 45° BEND C L CONC. HAUCHING (GRADE 20) 150 Ø PIPE 150 Ø PIPE ROAD SIDE DRAIN INSPECTION MANHOLE WITHIN PROPERTY BOUNDARY MASS CONCRETE (GRADE 20) MAIN SEWER PIPE 150 MAIN SEWER PIPE STANDARD WYE OR TEE PLAN PLAN BUILDING LOT ONE LENGTH OF PIPE LIMIT OF WORKS FOR SEWER LINE ROAD RESERVE / BACK LANE BUILDING LOT ONE LENGTH OF PIPE C L TRENCH WIDTH PLAN VARIES Figure A11 : Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer Reticulation Pipe for V. GRADE TO MANHOLE 150 CONCRETE SURROUND STANDARD WYE OR TEE OR SADDLE MAIN SEWER PIPE INSPECTION MANHOLE WITHIN PROPERTY BOUNDARY 150 Ø PIPE INSPECTION MANHOLE WITHIN PROPERTY BOUNDARY DEEP CUT LATERAL SERVICE CONNECTION VARIES 150 Ø PIPE FLOW MAIN SEWER PIPE 150 THK.

B SECTION C . GRADE 20/20 Figure A 12 : Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block Volume 3 CONC. DIMENSION `A' OF THRUST BLOCK TO BE ADJUSTED BY THE E. GRADIENT EXCEEDING POSITION OF ANCHOR BLOCK 4.A C B B B B D B A A C C WID TH A A TRENCH WIDTH C TR EN CH TRENCH WIDTH C CH EN TR A C D DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR BEND 45 DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR BEND 90 TH ID W B Sewer Networks and Pump Stations DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR TEE TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. 3. 7. REINFORCED CONCRETE GRADE 25/20. DIMENSIONS OF THRUST BLOCKS TO BE INCREASED IF ACTUAL 2 BEARING PRESSURE IS FOUND TO BE LESS THAN 50 KN/M . GRADE 15 /20 CONCRETE BLINDING G GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL CONC. MASS CONCRETE GRADE 20/20. PIPE EVERY 2ND.F . PIPE 20 % EVERY PIPE 5. TEST PRESSURE FOR THRUST BLOCKS IS BASED ON 50mm HEAD OF WATER. GROUND LEVEL GROUND LEVEL TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. GRADE 20/20 CONC. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED.O DIA D D D CONC. GRADE 15 /20 CONCRETE BLINDING 450 DETAIL OF THRUST BLOCK FOR VERTICAL BEND Y12 @ 300 C/C BOTHWAYS EACH FACE 50mm THK. GROUND LEVEL OF A.R. DI DETAILS OF THRUST BLOCK FOR BEND 1 11 4 OR 1 222 TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. TO BE CAST AGAINST ORIGINAL SOIL SURFACE SECTION A . TO BE CAST AGAINST ORIGINAL SOIL SURFACE SECTION B . 6.O DIA OF E PIP PE PI PE PI PE PI CONC.5 % EVERY 3RD.G 50mm THK. 2 C 150 C Appendix A 150 B Page 109 B CONC. ALLOWABLE BEARING PRESSURE = 50 KN/M . TRENCH WIDTH 150 MIN. DI F . GRADE 20/20 CONC.C SECTION D . BLINDING CONCRETE GRADE 15/20. TO BE CAST AGAINST ORIGINAL SOIL SURFACE CONC.1 IN M m m GRADE 25/20 CONCRETE PLAN DETAIL OF ANCHOR BLOCK FOR VERTICAL BEND (ACTING UPWARD) PLAN SECTION G . GRADE 20/20 CONC. 8. GRADE 20/20 NOTES : 1. ELEVATION ANCHOR BLOCK SCHEDULE OF ANCHOR BLOCK 2.E SECTION F . TO BE CAST AGAINST ORIGINAL SOIL SURFACE CONC. GROUND LEVEL D A.D 300 PIPE TRENCH WIDTH B GROUND LEVEL 300 RECESSED INTO SIDE OF TRENCH B G 300 300 0 15 E E F F TRENCH WIDTH TRENCH WIDTH ADDITIONAL 4Y12 EACH FACE 0 00 . 8% 12.A F . IF NECESSARY TO SUIT TRENCH WIDTH. GRADE 20/20 SECTION E .

C 400 232 375 125 INVERT ELEVATION OF 750 INLET 375 250 232 INVERT ELEVATION OF 750 INLET NOTES: 1.B SECTION D . ROCKER PIPE SHALL BE 600 LONG FOR SEWERS UP TO 300 DIAMETER AND 900 LONG FOR LARGER DIAMETER SEWERS SECTION B .D 2.A SECTION C .Page 110 D 500 Ø 500 Ø 750 Ø 350 Ø 350 Ø Appendix A B 750 Ø A 400 Ø 400 Ø A C C B INLET CHAMBER OUTLET CHAMBER D PLAN OF INLET CHAMBER PLAN OF OUTLET CHAMBER 2000 750 Ø 500 Ø SLIDE GATE GUIDE (TYPICAL) SLIDE GATE GUIDE (TYPICAL) 750 Ø Figure A13 : Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer Volume 3 500 Ø 350 Ø 350 Ø SECTION A . ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILIMETERS UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . QUALIFIED PERSON TO JUSTIFY MANHOLE INSTALLATION WITHOUT PILING 3.

Ø50 HOLES 300 THK.I. ORIENTATION OF MANHOLE POSITION ACCESS COVERS AND CENTERLINE OF SEWERS SHALL BE DETERMINED ON SITE. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETRES UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED. CONCRETE SURROUND Ø1200 STANDARD PRECAST CONCRETE RING THRUST BLOCK Ø150 WASHOUT VALVE TO DRAIN OR SUITABLE OUTFALL 3 NOS. CAREFULLY COMPACTED 20 MAX. CAST INSITU RC MANHOLE GRADE 20 WITH 2 LAYER OF BRC A8 VENT DUCT TO VENT CHAMBER CLAY BRICKWALL (SINGLE COURSE TO BE USED UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED BY THE SO 4 COURSES MAX. DETAIL OF INSTALLATION OF WASHOUT VALVE NOT TO SCALE DETAIL `A' TYPICAL SEWAGE AIR VALVE INSTALLATION (ABOVE GROUND) Appendix A Page 111 NOT TO SCALE . Ø50 AIR VALVE Ø50 SLUICE VALVE WELDED TO D. LEAN CONC.) 12 THK. Force Main and Washout Valve Volume 3 50 THK.S. GRADE 7 FLEXIBLE COUPLING ANCHOR BLOCK TO SUIT 1000x1000x12 THK. ALL PRECAST MANHOLE COMPONENTS JOINTS SHALL BE FILLED WITH 1:3 CEMENT MORTAR.FORCE MAIN (FORCE MAIN ABOVE GROUND TO BE PAINTED GREY) ANCHOR BLOCK TO SUIT FLEXIBLE COUPLING 45° BEND ANCHOR BLOCK TO SUIT FLANGE JOINTS A A FILL WITH CEMENT MORTAR 1:3 FLANGE ADAPTOR Ø150 SCOUR VALVE HEAVY DUTY PRECAST RC COVER SLAB WITH 2 LAYERS OF COAL TAR EPOXY ON UNDERSIDE Sewer Networks and Pump Stations HEAVY DUTY DUCTILE IRON COVER AND FRAME (FRAME BEDDED ON CEMENT MORTAR) PLAN PLAN 225 THK. EXTENSION PIECE TO SUIT 2. 3. SPIGOT SOCKET JOINT 300Ø SEWER PIPE SLUICE VALVE FORCE MAIN (FORCE MAIN ABOVE GROUND TO BE PAINTED GREY) Figure A14 : Typical Details of Receiving Manhole. CONCRETE GRADE 20 BASE 300 THK. CHEQUER PLANT STIFFENED BRACED WITH STEEL FRAME COMPLETE WITH KEY AND LOCKING GEAR AND PAINTED WITH BITUMINOUS PAINT INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY GROUND LEVEL 150 THK. PLATE ON FLANGED END OF THE TEE Ø50 D.I.I. RENDERING IN 1:2 HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT & SAND WITH SLOPE 1:12 45° ANGLE CHAMBER 2 LAYER OF BRC A7 ELEVATION TYPICAL FORCE MAIN CROSSING OVER CULVERT DETAIL OF RECEIVING MANHOLE NOT TO SCALE NOT TO SCALE NOTES: 1. UNBREAKABLE M. AGGREGATE ROCKET PIPE FLANGE JOINTS 45° BEND CAST INSITU CHAMBER BASE GRADE 20 ANCHOR BLOCK TO SUIT 20 THK. ALUMINA LINING DETAIL `A' APPROVED TEE AIR VALVE BELL MOUTH 200Ø D. CONCRETE GRADE 20 SUPPORT 100 THK.

Appendix A Figure A15 : Precast Concrete Chamber (Type A ) and Details of Air Valve and Scour Valve Chamber 300 225 900 75 150 150 225 75 75 MIN. 150 150 150 225 900 225 50 50 380 50 50 150 380 150 50 50 430 50 900 (NTS) 630 250 430 580 75 Page 112 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines 150 50 430 150 .

3.D.D + 300 0. THE REMAINDER SIDE TO FILL AND TOP WITH MONOLITHIC PLAIN CONCRETE CRUSHED RUN BEDDING FACTOR 1. GRADE 20/20 CONCRETE BACKFILL SEWER PIPE SELECTED COMPACTED BACKFILL SEWER PIPE 300 MIN GRADE 20/20 CONCRETE SURROUND 150 MIN SEWER PIPE 0. AGGREGATE EXTENDING HALFWAY UP TO SIDE OF THE PIPE.9 FINAL BACKFILL (SELECTED BACKFILL) VARIES BACKFILL WITH WELL COMPACTED SOIL (HAND HELD COMPACTOR) COMPACTED SELECTED BACKFILL MATERIAL SEWER PIPE GRADE 20/20 CONCRETE 300 MIN BACKFILL WITH SAND (HAND HELD COMPACTOR) 0. FORCE MAINS AND INVERTED SYPHON.D.25 O.Appendix A Figure A16 : Standard Pipe Beddings LOAD FACTOR 2. 150 O. O. PIPE SIZE MAXIMUM TRENCH WIDTH TABLE 2 TABLE 1 MAXIMUM TRENCH WIDTH NOTE : FOR FILLING OF TRENCHES ALONG/ACROSS CARRIAGEWAY.25 O. WITH 100 MIN. 0. AGGREGATE EXTENDING HALFWAY UP TO SIDES OF THE PIPE. WITH 100 MIN. 2. TABLE `A' Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 113 . INCREASED IN BAKAU PILES LENGTH AND NUMBER. 150 0. THE REMAINDER SIDE FILL AND TOP COMPACTED CAREFULLY WITH BACKFILL. THE BACK FILL MATERIAL SHALL BE PLACED OVER THE FULL WIDTH OF THE TRENCH AND WELL COMPACTED IN LAYERS NOT EXCEEDING 300. WITH 100 MIN.D + 300 CONCRETE ARCH BEDDING FACTOR 2.D. BACKFILL MATERIAL SHALL USE SAND FROM AN APPROVED SOURCE. 300mm MIN. WITH 100 MIN.9 100 MIN. CONCRETE SURROUND BEDDING FACTOR 3.D + 300 CONCRETE GRADE 25 N/mm ONE LAYER OF A8 (BRC) 150 THICK SAND 2 HAUNCHING SEWER PIPE 150 to 300mm (20mm Ø) CONCRETE CRADLE BEDDING "X' NO. SI IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE SOIL CONDITION AND REQUIREMENT FOR PILING.D.25 O.25 O.25 O.8 PIPE EMBEDDED IN CAREFULLY COMPACTED 20 DIA. INITIAL BACK FILL PIPE EMBEDMENT (CRUSHER RUN) SEWER PIPE 32mm Ø SPRING LINE 0.9 PIPE EMBEDDED IN CAREFULLY COMPACTED 20 DIA.0 (FOR SEWERS WITH LESS THAN 1M COVER.) DETECTABLE MARKER TAPE GROUND LEVEL BACKFILL & COMPACT WITH SUITABLE SOIL TO REQUIRED LEVEL LOAD FACTOR 1.50 O.D + 300 0.D + 300 O.50D 20 AGGREGATE 20 AGGREGATE 0. OF 70 Ø BAKAU PILE (REFER TABLE `A') 70 Ø BAKAU PILE AT 300 C/C ALONG PIPE BAKAU PILES SHALL BE DRIVEN TO SET OR 10m DEPTH (2 x 5m LONG) WHICHEVER ACHIEVED FIRST CRUSHER RUN BEDDING FOR FLEXIBLE PIPES SEWER PIPE LAYING ON UNSUITABLE SOIL NOTES: 1. 0.D.8 LOAD FACTOR 1. THE SELECTED COMPACT BACKFILL FOR VITRIFIED CLAY PIPE SHALL BE COMPACTED DRY SOIL (FREE FROM VEGETABLE ORGANIC MATTERS & EXCAVATION/COMPACTED DRY RED EARTH/SAND/CHIPPING/STONES NOT GREATER THAN 25.D.

18 House connection Page 114 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . 17 Vacuum sewage collection system Figure A.Appendix A Figure A.

19 (a) Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 115 .Appendix A Figure A.

Appendix A Figure A. 19 (b) Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel Page 116 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

Appendix A Figure A. 20 (b) Collection chamber with interface valve activated by float Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 117 . 20 (a) Collection chambers with interface valves vented through breather pipes Figure A.

20 (c) Multi-valve collection chamber Page 118 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .Appendix A Figure A.

Appendix A Figure A. 22 Example of vacuum sewer profiles for uphill and downhill transport (not to scale) Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 119 . 21 Vacuum sewer profiles (not to scale) Figure A.

24 Method of joining crossover pipes and branch sewers to vacuum mains Page 120 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .Appendix A Figure A. 23 Y-branch for vacuum sewer Figure A.

DUTY PUMP START 1st.C GUTTER TO ENGR'S DETAIL MECHANICAL COARSE SCREEN RAIN WATER DOWN PIPE TO NEAREST SUMP SCREENINGS COLLECTION BIN PENSTOCK DOOR BRICKWALL C/W CEMENT PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES WINDOW HANDRAIL CHEQUER PLATE 3 LAYER CONC. STANDBY PUMP START (FLOAT SWITCH) STOP LOG GATE VALVE SUMP BWL N. THRUST BLOCK. CONCRETE VENTILATION BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL CHAIN GUARD. 3 LAYER CONC. DN R. STANDBY PUMP START 2nd. G.Appendix A Figure A.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL WET WELL PERFORATED SLAB CAT LADDER OPENINGS DRY WELL CHECK VALVE INCOMING SEWER 2nd. VENTILATION BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL FORCEMAIN MECHANICAL COARSE SCREEN A A GATE VALVE. VENTILATION BLOCK HANDRAIL R.I CHAIN GUARD.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL.I CHAIN GUARD PENSTOCK GRATING COVER 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 AIR EXTRACTOR FAN CHECK VALVE. DUTY PUMP START ALL PUMP STOP ALARM 1st. : The discharge level for dewatering pump shall be higher than the invert level of overflow pipe to prevent sewage from back flowing into the dry well during flooding DEWATERING PUMP DRY PIT PUMPS SECTION VIEW Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 121 . 25 Typical details of dry-well pump station OVERFLOW PIPE DISCHARGE TO MONSOON DRAIN OVERFLOW CHAMBER DRAIN CONC.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL DN 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 SPOT LIGHT CHEQUER PLATE BRICKWALL C/W CEMENT PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES DRY PIT PUMPS ADJUSTABLE GLASS LOUVRES WINDOW DOOR PLAN VIEW COPPER TYPE LIGHTNING ARRESTOR LIFTING I-BEAM C/W CARRIER R. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 INCOMING SEWER G.B. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONC.. VENTILATION BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL CONC. THRUST BLOCK. APRON LAID TO FALL RAMP DOWN LIQUID RETURN FROM OTHER UNIT PROCESSES WP 3 LAYER CONC. EXTRACTOR FAN R.

APRON COLLECTION BIN CLEAR SPACING S.STEEL HANDRAIL STEPS PENSTOCK 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 DELIVERY PIPE OVERFLOW CHAMBER PRIMARY SCREEN A EXPLOSION PROOF SPOT LIGHT CHECK VALVE FLEXIBLE COUPLING GATE VALVE INFLUENT PUMP PUMP SUMP R. SLAB IL FRP STOP LOG C/W HAND WHEEL IL R. COARSE SCREEN INCOMING SEWER STEPS OVERFLOW PIPE DISCHARGE TO DRAIN GRATING COVER V.Appendix A Figure A.C WALL TO ENGR'S DETAIL 1: 2 IL OPENING ALARM START MANUAL COARSE SCREEN STOP SECTION A-A Page 122 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .STEEL MANUAL FINE SCREEN A GRATING COVER 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 S.C.P STAND PIPE CONC. 26 Typical detail of wet-well pump station MECH. COARSE SCREEN HANDRAIL CHAIN GUARD CLEAR SPACING MANUAL FINE SCREEN OVERFLOW PIPE DISCHARGE TO DRAIN PENSTOCK CHECK VALVE FLEXIBLE COUPLING GATE VALVE DELIVERY PIPE NON-EXPLOSION SPOT LIGHT OVERFLOW CHAMBER DELIVERY PIPE GUIDERAIL S.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL PLAN VIEW LIFTING I-BEAM C/W CARRIER MECH.S PERFORATED TROUGH PUMP SUMP LIFTING CHAIN PRIMARY SCREEN CHAMBER CONC.

Non-Habitable buildings may be located within buffer zone. 20m buffer zone shall be provided from the external edge of the P. 3. additional buffer zone may be specified for the purpose of beutification. The buffer zone shall be sufficient to allow for pump station access and working area . Where the pump station is located in sensitive areas. 2. 27 Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure Typical Section 1.S super-structure fence/boundary to the nearest habitable building fence/boundary as required by building by-laws.Appendix A Figure A. Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 123 .

Non-habitable buildings may be located within the buffer zone but shall not obstruct operation. additional buff er zone may be specif ied f or the purpose beutification. 4. Page 124 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines . The v ent cowl shall be at least 20m away f orm the nearest building windo w. 3. 28 Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure Vent Vent H Properties Fence P. H is the height of the v ent pipe which shall be at least higher than roof eav es lev el for buildings up to 2 storey s high. maintenance and access.Appendix A Figure A. Where the pump station is located in sensitiv e areas.S Fence G P. 20m Buff er zone shall be prov ided f rom the perimeter (f ence/boundary ) of the pump station to the nearest habitable building f ence/boundary as required by building by -laws. The buffer zone shall be sufficient to allow f or pump station access and working area.S Fence Properties Fence 20m (Mi ) Buffer 5m ( ) Access and Beutifician 5m Access and Beutificatio 20m ( ) Buffer Sectional Plan Note 1. 2.

P RET.(ø) D. V. CONC. R. MOD.M. VERT.C. DRG.T. ASBESTOS CEMENT CAST CHAINAG CLASS CONCRET CENTRE DUCTILE DIAMETE DROP NOMINAL DRAWIN EXISTIN GROUND GRADE HIGH HORIZONTA INSIDE INVER JALAN KAMPUN LORON LEFT MAXIMU MANHOL MINIMU MODIFIE NUMBE N. MIN.D. LO OR RESERVE T SEPT IC T ANK PROVISION FOR T -JOINT FOR SEWER CONNECT ION ST BOREHOL Abbreviations A. R.C. O.C. EXIST. GD.5m DEEP) PROVISION FOR BACKDRO FOR P SEWER CONNECT ION STREET LIGHT SIDE E T P OLE SIDE PROPERT Y. LRG. CL. SPEC STD.A. TYP.I. H. SHT.H.C. INV. DIA.P 1:72 PROPOSED MANHOLE AND SEWER IN PLAN BUILDING (MASONRY) GATE POND FIRE PAVED RAIL ROAD CULVER BRIDGE PAVED CHANNEL AND FLO W UNPAVED SIDE SLOPES CHAINLINK FENCE UT ILIT Y T ELEPHONE POLE ELECT RIC DIRECTION OF SEW ER PON H PROPOSED MANHOLE AND SEWER IN PROFILE EXIST ING MANHOLE AND SEWER IN PLAN EXIST ING MANHOLE AND SEWER IN PROFILE G GAS W WATER MAIN (GENERALLY 1m DEEP) ELECT RICAL T RANSMISSION LINE OR CONDUIT (GENERALLY 1m DEEP) T ELEPHONE CONDUIT (GENERALLY 1.C. LT MAX. GR. STL. CRS D.S. VAR.H. JLN.P 1:80 DN 375 R.P.D. HORZ I. STA. CH.C.Appendix A Figure A. M.P HDPE NOT TO OUTSIDE REINFORCED REINFORCED CONCRETE RETICULATION RIGHT SLOPE STREAM OR SHEET SPECIFICATI O STANDAR STANDARD CUT-OUT STEEL STATIO TYPICA VARIE VERTICA VITRIFIED CLAY HIGH DENSITY Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 125 . 29 Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure Symbols BUILDING (WOODEN OR PI PE DN 375 R. C. RT S SG. KG. DN. SCW. NO.I.

Appendix A Page 126 (this pages is intend to blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

APPENDIX B .

.

1 CLASSES OF RIGID PIPE REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS DEPTH Page 127 .Appendix B Table B1 Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth Sewer Networks and Pump Stations CLAY PIPE Volume 3 TABLE B.

Appendix B 128 (this page intended to be blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

APPENDIX C .

.

Mail : : : : : : : : : : Site Contact Position Road Town State Telephone Fax Mobile E-Mail : : : : : : : : : : Contractor Contact Position Road Town State Telephone Fax Mobile E-Mail : : : : : : : : : : Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 129 .Appendix C Appendix C 1 Contractor : Report format for CCTV Inspection Project-Information Project Name : Project Number : Contact : Date : Client Contact Position Road Town State Telephone Fax Mobile E.

Position Code Observation Counter Photo Grade 130 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .: Size/Shape: Material: Lining: Category: Start MH: End MH: Total Length: Comment: Location details: Slope MH No.Appendix C Appendix C 2 Contractor : Report format for CCTV Inspection Inspection Report Date: Present: Job nr: Vehicle: Weather Camera: Operator Preset: Section Number Cleaned: PLR: Grade: Road: Place: Location: Purpose: Use: Catchment: Division: District: Tape No.

Appendix C Appendix C 3 Contractor : Report format for CCTV Inspection Inspection Photos Town : Road : Date : Section Nmber : PLR : Sewer Networks and Pump Stations Volume 3 Page 131 .

(mm) Material Pipe Infiltration Wide Cracks or Others Section Total Comments Length (M) Seeping Dripping Running Joints Fractures N. the most severe defect is counted.Appendix C Appendix C 4 Report format for CCTV Inspection DEFECT SUMMARY OF PIPE SECTIONS INSPECTION From MH : Item Start MH End MH To MH : Pipe Dia.B : When more than one defect is recorded at the same chainage. Prepared By : ( Name : Qualified Person & Company) Date Of Report : Date Of Report : Prepared By : ( Name : Qualified Person & Company) Date : Approved By : ( Qualified Person ) 132 Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

Appendix C

Appendix C 5

Report format for CCTV Inspection

DEFECT SUMMARY OF PIPE SECTIONS INSPECTION

From MH : Item No. Start MH Finish MH

To MH : Position (M) Code Description Grade

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Appendix C

Appendix C 6
Section 5 - Structural Defect Coding (Module 6A) C CL CC CM CS S SRI SRIM SRIC SRIZ S SMV SMWM SMWC SMWZ CRACK Longitudinal Circumferential Multiple Spiral SURFACE DAMAGE Roughness Increased Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident SURFACE DAMAGE Missing Wall Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.31 5.32 F FL FC FM FS S SAV SAVM SAVC SAVZ FRACTURE Longitudinal Circumferential Multiple Spiral SURFACE DAMAGE Aggregate Visible Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 B BROKEN BSV Soil Visible Beyond Defect BVV Vold Visible Beyond Defect S SAP SAPM SAPC SAPZ S SURFACE DAMAGE Aggregate Projecting Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident 5.14 5.14 5.14 H HOLE HSV Soil Visible Beyond Defect HSV Vold Visible Beyond Defect S SAM SAMM SAMC SAMZ S SURFACE DAMAGE Aggregate Missing Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident SURFACE DAMAGE

Modules
5.16 5.16 5.16 D DV DH DEFORMED Deformed Vertically (brick) Deformed Horizontally (brick) SURFACE DAMAGE Reinforcement Visible Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident LINING FAILURE Detached Lining Defective End Blistered Lining Service Cut Shifted Abandoned Connection 5.18 5.18 5.18 X XP XB COLLAPSE Pipe Collapse Brick Collapse 5.22 5.22 5.22 J JO JS JA JOINT Joint Offset (Displaced) Joint Separated (Open) Joint Angular 5.25 5.25 5.25 5.25

5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.31 5.32

5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 5.30

S SRV SRVM SRVC SRVZ LF LFD LFDE LFB LFCS LFAC

5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44

S SRP SRPM SRPC SRPZ LF LFOC LFUC LFBK LFW

SURFACE DAMAGE Reinforcement Projecting Mechanical Chemical Attack Not Evident LINING FAILURE (continue) Overcut Service Undercut Service Buokled Lining Wrinkled Lining

5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44 5.44

S

SURFACE DAMAGE

5.30 5.30 5.31 5.31 5.32 5.56 5.56 5.56 5.56 5.56 5.56

SAP Aggregate Projecting SAPM Mechanical SAPC Chemical Attack SAPZ Not Evident WF WELD FAILURE WFL WFG WFM WFS Longitudinal Circumferental Multiple Spiral

SURFACE DAMAGE SSS Surface Spalling SSSM Mechanical SSSC Chemical Attack SSSZ Not Evident

S

5.30 5.31 5.31 5.31 5.32

SURFACE DAMAGE SZ Other SZM Mechanical SZC Chemical Attack SZZ Not Evident

SCP Corrosion (metal pipe)

5.31 5.31

LFZ Other

WFZ Unidentified

RP RPR RPRD RPP SMWZ

POINT REPAIR Pipe Replaced Defective Patch Repair Not Evident

5.62 5.62 5.62 5.62 5.32

POINT REPAIR (continues) RPL Localized Pipeliner RPLD Defective RPZ Other

RP

5.62 5.62 5.62 5.62

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Appendix C

Appendix C 6
Section 6 - Operational and Maintenance (Module 6B) D DA DAE DAGS DAR DAZ I IW ID IR IG DEPOSIT Attached Encrustation Grease Ragging Other INFILITRATION Weeper Dripper Runner Gusher 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.13 6.13 6.13 6.13 6.13 D DS DSF DSG DSC DSZ OB OBB DEPOSIT (continue) Settled Fine Gravel Hard/Compacted Other OBSTACLES/ Obstructions Brick or Masonry D DEPOSIT (continue) DN Ingress DNF Fine Material (silt & sand) DNGV Gravel DNZ Other OBSTACLES/ Obstructions (cont) OBI Object protruding through wall OBI Object wedged in joint OB 6.1 6.1 6.3 6.3 6.3 R RF RFB RFL RFC

Modules (Con’t)
ROOTS Fine Barrel Lateral Connection 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 R RT RTB RTL RTC ROOTS (continue) Tap Barrel Lateral Connection 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 R RM RMB RML RMC ROOTS (continue) Medium Barrel Lateral Connection 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 R RB RBB RBL RBC ROOTS (continue) Ball Barrel Lateral Connection

6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2

6.19 6.19

6.19 6.19 6.19

OBM Pipe Material in Invert 6.19

OBSTACLES/ Obstructions (cont) OBC Object through connection/juriction OBP External Pipe Cable

OB

OB 6.19 6.19 6.19 OBS OBN OBR OBZ

OBSTACLES/ Obstructions (cont) Built into structure Construction Debris Rocks Other

V 6.19 6.19 6.20 6.20 6.20 VR VC VZ

VERMIN Rat Cockroach Other

6.31 6.31 6.31 6.31

Section 7 - Construction Features Coding (Module 6C) T TF TFA TFC TFD TFL TAP Factory Made (junction) Active Capped Defective Leaking 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 T TB TBI TBA TBC TBD TFL A TAP (continue) Break in/Hammer (connection) Intruding Active Capped Defective Leaking 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.13 7.14 7.14 7.14 7.14 T TS TSI TSA TSC TSD TSL A ACO ACOM ACOP ACOH TAP (continue) Saddle (connection) Intruding Active Capped Defective Leaking ACCESSPOINT (continue) Clean Out Machine Property House 7.10 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.13 7.14 7.14 7.14 7.14 IS INTRUDING SEAL MATERIAL ISSR Sealing Ring ISSRH Hanging ISSRB Broken 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 IS INTRUDING SEAL MATERIAL ISGT Grout ISZ Other 7.8 7.8 7.8 L LINE
(of sewer)

7.11

LL LLLU LLD LR

Left Left & Up Left & Down Left & Right

7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11

LINE (of sewer) (continue) LRU Right & Up LRD Right & Down LU Up LD Down

L

A AMH AWA ADP ATC

ACCESSPOINT Manhole Wastewater Access Discharge Point Tee Connection

7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13

ACCESSPOINT (continue) Other Special Chamber AM Meter AWW Wet Well AJB Junction Box AOC

A

ACCESSPOINT (continue)

7.13

ACB Catch Basin AEP End of Pipe

7.14 7.14

Section 8 - MiscellaneousFeatures Coding (Module 6D) M MCU MGO MGP ACCESSPOINT Cmaera Underwater General Observation General Photograph 8.1 8.1 8.1 8.1 M MSC MISC.FEATURES (continue) Shape/Size Change (Sewer Dims/ Vertical/Horizontal) Pipe Joint Length 8.1 8.1 M MLC MMC MSA MWL MISC.FEATURES (continue) Lining Change Material Change Survey Abandoned Water Level 8.1 8.10 8.10 8.20 8.2 M MWM MY MYV MYN MISC.FEATURES (continue) Water Mark Dye Test Dye Visible Not Visible 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2

MJL

8.1

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Appendix C 136 (this page is intended blank) Volume 3 Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines .

my e-mail : webmaster@ktak.my .Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines Suruhanajaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN) Kementerian Tenaga.gov. Air dan Komunikasi Block E4/5 Parcel E Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan 62668 Putrajaya Malaysia Tel: 03-8883 6000 Fax: 03-8889 3712 http://www.ktak.gov.

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