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2 Water for Living
Focus 1 & 2
Name: John Nkpolukwu Class: Science B for best
Water for Living Focus 1 & 2 – Contents
1. Syllabus 2. Glossary 3. Solutions 4. Experiment: Solubility of Materials 5. The Importance of Water as a Solvent 6. Known Water Content of Living Things 7. Experiment: Water Content of Living Things 8. Optimising Water Uptake in Plants 9. How Plants Reduce Water Loss 10. Experiment: Adaptations in Plants that Assist in Reducing Water Loss 11. How Animals Reduce Water Loss 12. The Water Cycle 13. Experiment: Representing the Earth’s Water 14. Types of Water 15. Mapping Water in the Local Area (Liverpool) 16. Problems with Groundwater 17. Catalyst Special: Groundwater 15/3/07 18. Salinity 19. Australia’s Ecosystems 20. Water Wise Rules
7. the Papua-New Guinea Highlands.5c) describe aqueous mixtures in terms of solute. which limits rain coming in from the east.5b) identify.5a) describe the water cycle in terms of the physical processes involved .1a) identify that living things are made of cells 4.9.8. which limit rain entering Australia from the south. pollution-free drinking water. There are now limits regulating the discharge permitted into the river systems and the health of these systems is continuing to improve. The NSW river systems have been disturbed by many factors. the importance of water as a solvent 4.8. Assumed Knowledge Refer to the Science Years 7–10 Syllabus for the following: 4. Free water exists in liquid form as surface and ground water and it is this water which is available for living things. Large areas of land have been set aside as catchment regions for dams supplying urban environments and experience has shown that care of these catchments is essential for clean. the applications and uses of science and the implications of science for society and the environment. It is also in the atmosphere as the main gas that absorbs back-radiation from the Earth to assist in stabilising the Earth’s surface temperatures and climatic conditions.7. The terrain and climate determine the amount of water available for an individual continent. using examples. Australia has an arid environment because its water budget is limited in most areas due to a combination of factors. which limit rain entering inland from the north.2 Water for Living Contextual Outline The Earth’s water budget was essentially fixed as it cooled when gaseous water condensed and settled on the cooling planet. such as the Great Dividing Range. including run-off from pastoral systems and the damming and re-routing of others. solvent and solution 4. This module increases students understanding of the nature and practice. and very cold atmospheric and ocean currents coming in from Antarctica.
that plants reduce water loss such as: – thick outer coating (cuticle) on leaves – reduced leaves – dropping leaves in times of drought discuss ways.Students learn to: 1. State or Federal Government policy on water-related issues in relation to increasing problems Students: perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate that substances dissolve in water and identify the solute and solvent in each case plan. using examples. Water is an important factor in the maintenance of Australian environments outline types of surface and ground waters in the hydrological cycle such as: bore water artesian water the water table dams rivers lakes wetlands – cave environments discuss the effects of water pollution and ground salinity on the continued supply of fresh water to living things and provide examples of these occurring in Australian environments identify possible solutions to environmental problems associated with the use of ground water outline one local. choose equipment or resources for and perform a first-hand investigation to determine the amount of water present in a variety of fruits. using examples. analyse and present information from secondary sources to assess human impact on one aquatic ecosystem or water source in Australia and identify some consequences of this impact and one possible rehabilitation technique . process and analyse information to identify the different ways in which a range of terrestrial animals reduce water loss Students: process information from secondary sources to map the location and type of surface and ground water in the local area analyse information from secondary sources to outline the relationships between rainfall and types of Australian ecosystems process. that animals reduce water loss such as: – excrete uric acid instead of urea – nocturnal behaviour – reduced activity – lying in the shade – burrowing underground Students learn to: 2. Water is essential for the health of humans and other living things identify the relative amount of water in a variety of living things describe the importance of water as a solvent in the – bloodstream – cells – transpiration stream discuss ways in which plants optimise water uptake discuss ways. vegetables and meat perform a first-hand investigation to identify adaptations of some plants that assist in reducing water loss gather.
with water supplies across NSW .
choose equipment and resources for. using examples. such as: – oils – detergents – bleaches and toilet cleaners – insoluble materials – sewage identify the use of and impact on water systems of substances such as: – heavy metals (lead and mercury) – phosphates – nitrates identify the impact on aquatic ecosystems of factors such as – accumulated sediment – leaching from tips – bioaccumulation 4. process and present information from secondary sources on the latest technologies being used to purify and treat water . why each is used in the Australian context identify the conditions under which fertiliser and pesticides may be carried into water systems assess the impact on water systems of the release of substances produced or used by households. herbicide and pesticide and explain.Students learn to: 3. A wide range of chemicals used in human activity may impact on water systems define the terms fertiliser. and perform a first-hand investigation to determine the effect of various concentrations of fertiliser on plant growth process information from secondary sources on methods of bioassay for water purity gather information from secondary sources to identify causes and impacts of algal blooms in waterways in NSW perform a first-hand investigation to determine the amount of water used per household for one activity such as water used per toilet flush water used per shower − water used per washing machine cycle and identify ways in which it can be reduced gather. Strategies to reduce water pollution can be a result of personal initiative or government legislation describe some of the strategies that households can use to reduce water pollution identify conditions under which algal blooms may occur in the rivers of New South Wales describe impacts of algal blooms in rivers discuss alternative strategies to the use of chemicals in agriculture to reduce water pollution identify an example of technology being used and developed to reduce water pollution and discuss possible long-term effects of this strategy Students: plan.
Students learn to: 5. Water pollution at the local level impacts on global water quality discuss types of indicator organisms that are found in safe water supplies and those found in polluted water define what is meant by a catchment area identify a local catchment area and the sources of water feeding into this catchment describe possible sources of contamination that may enter catchments describe the types of tests that are used to monitor and assess local water quality explain how water quality in one area can impact on the water quality in other areas
Students: plan, choose equipment or resources for, and perform a first-hand investigation to determine the indicator organisms present in a local catchment area and from these deduce the chemical purity of water gather information on the source of water feeding into the local catchment area using maps or field trips gather information from secondary sources concerning the use and treatment of local water gather, process and present information from secondary sources to identify some major disasters involving water pollution
Water for Living – Glossary
Accumulated sediment Artesian water Aquifier Bioaccumulatio n Bioassay Bore water Catchment area Cyanobacteria Dam Eutrophication Fertiliser Ground salinity Ground water Herbicide Indicator organism Lake Leaching Pesticide pH
River Solute Solution Solvent Surface Water Transpiration stream Turbidity Water pollution Water table Wetland
others are soluble in ethanol. Besides aqueous solutions. The salt is said to be dissolved in the water. When a solution is made. This is because there are many other solvents. such as oxygen. It is the dissolved oxygen in the waters of . they can also be liquids or gases.Solutions You can taste the salt in sea water but you cannot see the salt. There are some generalizations that can be made about aqueous solutions • Solutions are mixtures of solute and solvent • Solutions are homogeneous (uniform throughout) • The extent to which a substance dissolves in water is called its solubility • Substances. Liquid inks can dissolve. special names are used. In this situation.no particles of the solute can be seen as they are too small and are spread evenly throughout the solvent. The total mass of a solution is always equal to the mass of the solvent plus the mass of the solute. A solution is formed when one substance (called the solute) dissolves in another (called the solvent). We say that a sugar solution has been formed. One characteristic of solutions is that they are transparent (though they may be coloured) . some are soluble in water. giving salt water. when sugar is mixed with water. For example. that do not dissolve in water are said to be insoluble • Mixtures like sand in water are known as suspensions (because the sand doesn’t dissolve in water) Solutes are not necessarily solids. Ethanol will dissolve some solutes that water does not dissolve. the solute does not disappear. Water is sometimes called the universal solvent because so many substances dissolve in it to form aqueous solutions. we have a solid substance (salt) dissolved in a large amount of liquid (water). dissolve to a certain extent in water. • The solid salt is called the solute • The salt is said to be soluble in water • The liquid water is called the solvent • The salt water is called a solution • Water solutions are called aqueous solutions Solutions are the most common type of mixture. there are many other solutions. In this example. Solvents other than water are referred to as non-aqueous solvents. One example of a non-aqueous solvent is ethanol (alcohol). All of the solute added is still in the solution even though you can’t see it. like sand. the solute is the sugar and the solvent is the water. Some gases.
Indeed without this dissolved oxygen.the Earth that fish can use. fish would drown in water. and gills to obtain it from water. .
Label the diagram below: 2. liquids or gases 4. and salt is called the _____ 5. Use the information from the diagram to complete the statements below. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) + + sugar solute → → sugar solution (syrup) Answer true or false to the following statements.1. The term ‘aqueous’ refers to a solution with as the solvent 6. water is called the _____. In aqueous salt solution. (a) solvent (b) 3. A substance that dissolves in water is said to be _____ . All solutions are mixtures Sand is soluble in water A suspension is another name for a solution The substance dissolved to form a solution is called the solvent Water is the only solvent Oxygen is insoluble in water Ethanol is a non-aqueous solvent Sugar is insoluble in water Solutions are homogeneous Solutes can be solids.
7. Sand in water is an example of a _____ .
if we taste it we know that salt has been __________________ in it because of the salty flavour. The blue colour due to the dissolved copper sulfate crystals is obvious. we can usually tell that the solid has __________________. is blue. In a __________________ no solid particles are visible. It is also a solvent for copper sulfate. The most common type of solution is formed when a solid. A copper sulfate solution. Read the passage below and insert the correct word from the following list. That is. Copper sulfate and salt are both __________________ in water. However. such as copper sulfate __________________ in a __________________ such as water. Water is not a __________________ for sand because sand will not dissolve in water. or __________________ evenly into another. However. or any other solid which will dissolve in a solvent is called a __________________. neither of them is a __________________ for a liquid like methylated spirits because they do not __________________ in it. dissolve(2) dissolved(3) evenly solvent(2) solution(4) mixes dissolves solute(2) liquid solutes soluble A __________________ is a special kind of mixture. Water is a solvent for salt. The salt. A sodium chloride __________________ looks just like water. We call a liquid (like water) which will __________________ another chemical (like salt) a __________________ for that chemical. We say that copper sulfate and salt are __________________ in water. Some words may be used more than once. for example. A __________________ of copper sulfate is formed. they both dissolve in water. Both chemicals are __________________ by the water. They have all mixed __________________ into the liquid. but insoluble in methylated spirits. However. . A solution is formed when one chemical dissolves.8.
Place ½ a spatula full of each substance into different test tubes 3. The more soluble the substance is. which did not and which partially dissolved . Place 40 mL of water into each test tube 2. Estimate how much of the teaspoon is dissolved. the less will settle or float. What factors or conditions may influence the solubility of a substance? Conclusion: State which substances dissolved in water. What variables were controlled? (the factors that were kept the same to make the experiment a fair test) 4. What was the dependent variable? (the factor you measured as your results) 3.Syllabus dot point: perform a first-hand investigation to demonstrate that substances dissolve in water and identify the solute and solvent in each case Experiment: Solubility of Materials Aim: To determine which kitchen substances are soluble in water Materials: • Measuring cylinder (50 mL) • Salt • Bicarbonate of soda • Test tube rack • • • • 6 Test tubes Sugar Cocoa/Milo Tap water • • • • Spatula Flour Coffee Stirring rod Method: 1. What was the independent variable? (the factor you changed on purpose each time) 2. Observe whether the substance being tested dissolves or not. Record your results Results: Use the words solute and soluble to complete the headings of the table. To do this. Stir each test tube evenly for the same amount of time 4. compare how much solid settles or floats. What is the solvent in each test? Sol Salt Sugar Flour Bicarbonate of soda Cocoa/Milo Coffee Is it sol in water (yes/no/partially) Discussion: 1.
It also facilities the transfer of gasses into cells. Transpiration Stream . In the bloodstream.Syllabus dot point: describe the importance of water as a solvent in the – bloodstream – cells – transpiration stream The Importance of Water as a Solvent Bloodstream water has a very important role in the human body because it helps to transport substances around the body in the blood. Wtaer acts as urea and carbon dioxide. water is a solvent and many substances being moved y the blood are carried in solution Cells In cells water acts as a solvent for oxygen and many nutrients to organs. oxygen hormones and waste products. Substances transported include digested food.
Organism Jellyfish Chicken Tomato Cabbage Apple Water Content (%) 98 66 92 91 84 Organism Potato Lettuce Human Banana Orange Water Content (%) 78 95 66 73 87 2. Fresh samples of a number of plant products were tested for moisture content. Complete the table by converting the water content of each plant tested to a percentage. Use the information below to graph the percentages of water in different organisms. The results obtained are below.The movement of water throught the plant from root to leaf is referred to as the transpiration stream. The information should be presented as a column graph. Syllabus dot point: identify the relative amount of water in a variety of living things Known Water Content of Living Things 1. Water acts as a solvent for mineral nutrients as the plant relies on water to carry nutirents up from the soil so that it can grow and develope. .
Sophie’s mass is 60 kg.Type of Plant Peas Tomatoes Potatoes Apples Moisture Content 35 g water in 50 g peas 9.5 g water in 10 g tomatoes 77 g water in 100g potatoes 63 g water in 75 g apples Percentage Moisture Content (%) 3. How much water does her body contain? (Assume 1 litre of water has a mass of 1 kg) . Which of the following contains the most water? a 120 g tomato (92 % water) a 140 g banana (73 % water) a 135 g orange (86 % water) 4.
of water in various fruits. vegetables and meat Experiment: Water Content of Living Things Introduction: You probably already know that organisms (living things) are made up of cells and that plant and animal cells are slightly different. To be sure that all the water has been lost from the cells you should continue warming and weighing until you obtain identical consecutive readings. 2. Record the undried weight in the results table below. This is known as obtaining a constant weight. Record the dried weight in the results table below. Weigh each sample every day.plan. 3. 6. Place a crucible on the electronic balance and record the weight in the results table below. Fill the crucible with small pieces of apple. Aim: To determine the percentage. by weight. Repeat steps 1-2 for the other food samples (Use an evaporating dish instead of a crucible for lettuce) 4. Calculate the percentage of water present in each sample using the following formula Percentage weight of water = weight of undried food – weight of dried food 100 weight of undried food x . choose equipment or resources for and perform a first-hand investigation to determine the amount of water present in a variety of fruits. vegetables and meats Materials: • Electronic Balance • Incubator/oven • 5 Crucibles • 1 Evaporating dish • Knife • Chopping Board Lettuce Steak Potato Tomato Apple Orange • • • • • • Method: 1. Place the samples in an incubator/oven at 40OC 5. One property that plant and animal cells share is that both kinds of cell are mainly composed of water.
93 5.6 10.44 Calculations (See step 6 in method) 25.Results: Food Weight of empty crucible/evaporating dish (g) 1.5 10. Compare your results with that of published data.0 1.71 7.33 15.62 8.0 1.45 Weight of dried food (g) (mass of crucible with food .0 1.08 15.74 4.3% 62.0 1. (a) Are your results accurate? yes it is very accurate as we repeated it (b)Explain any difference between your results and that of the published data My results may differ from the resukts of a published data because as they may have done it a different way Conclusion: Place the fruits.34 14. steak.46 5.5% 68.10 15.64 9.01 % weight of water 36.84 3. potato.3 15. What is the name of process by which the water is lost? The process is evaporation 2.mass of empty crucible) 44.0 Weight of undried food (g) (mass of crucible with food mass of empty crucible) 70.4% 77. Why do we use the procedure of heating to a “constant weight”? We should keep wieghting constantly till we constantly get the same wiegh 3. orange.15 9.6% 37.0 1.4% Lettuce Steak Potato Tomato Apple Orange Discussion: 1. vegetables and meat in order from highest water content to lowest water content the fruits vegetbles and meat from highest water content to lowest were tomato. apple& lettuce .3% 45.
Plants grow sparsly to reduce competition for water areas where water is scarce. Root hairsensure close contact with soil to increase the rate of water uptake.Plants have thousands of root hairs that increase the srface area for water aborption. .Leaves slope steeply upward to catch rain and direct the rain to dense shallow . .Syllabus dot point: discuss ways in which plants optimise water uptake Optimising Water Uptake in Plants . They have large deep penetrating root systems.
using examples. Rapid life cycle 4o 5p 6H 7Y 8T 9S How does this adaptation allow the plant to conserve water? E. Sunken stomates. Sunken stomates The stomata are located in sunken grooves which results in humid air being concentrated above the stomate. sometimes with the stem taking over the role of photosynthesis. 1x 2E 3R Adaptation 1. Reduces the surface area of the leaf and . that plants reduce water loss such as: – thick outer coating (cuticle) on leaves – reduced leaves – dropping leaves in times of drought How Plants Reduce Water Loss • • • A waxy cuticle (a cuticle is the outside coating) This surface reflects light from the sun. reducing water loss • • • • • Question Match the numbers in the left hand column of the table with the letters in the right hand column. Leaves rolling. which reduces exposure to sun Hairy leaves Hairy surfaces on under surface reduce air movement and increase humidity over stomates. Shiny or hairy leaves 2. Provides a waterproof coating to reduce water loss from the leaf by evaporation S. Use your results to decode the mystery word below. Leaves reduced to small spines or scales. This reduces heat on the leaves which prevents water from evaporating from the leaves Reduced leaves and dropping leaves in times of drought Fewer leaves means less transpiration (movement of water from the root to the leaf) so water is conserved Thin and needle like leaves This conserves moisture by reducing water loss by transpiration Leaf curling The leaf curls so that the stomata are enclosed in a tight area. which is a term used to describe plants that are adapted to areas where water is in short supply. so reducing water loss by evaporation R. Water can move out of the plant through these pores).Syllabus dot point: discuss ways. leaves hanging vertically 5. This reduces the ability of water vapour to leave the area and thus reduces water loss. curling up or falling during dry conditions 8. Allows the plant to store large quantities of water P. Reduces evaporation of water from stomates because they are reduced in number or partly enclosed by the leaf H. Increases the plant’s ability to draw water from the soil O. stomates reduced in number or stomates on undersurface of leaf only 6. Reflect heat from the plant. (Stomata are tiny pores found on the leaves of plants. Waxy cuticle on leaves such as eucalypts 3. which reduces water loss Water storage Water is stored in trunk. Closure of stomates during the hottest part of the day 7. leaves or roots Hanging leaves Leaf hangs down rather than being held horizontal to the ground. Extensive root system 4. Prevents water being lost by evaporation during the warmer hours of the day Y. Behavioural adaptations that reduce the surface area of leaves exposed to drying conditions X.
Allows the plant to flower and produce seeds when water is available to it . Swollen stems reduces water lost through stomates during photosynthesis T.9.
Aim: Materials: A number of plants that have adaptations to minimise water loss.Syllabus dot point: perform a first-hand investigation to identify adaptations of some plants that assist in reducing water loss Experiment: Adaptations in Plants That Assist in Reducing Water Loss Background information: Adaptations in the roots. Examine the plant slides under the microscope to observe sunken stomates 5. spinifex grass (hairs rolled inwards) Hand lenses Plant slides Microscope - Method: 1. Compare and discuss results with other students in the classroom Discussion 1. Collect a variety of leaf samples from Australian native plants from around the school 2. sunken stomata. reduce leaf surface. reduced numbers of stomata. Carefully observe each of the plant structures that minimise water loss using a hand lens eg waxy cuticle. hairs on the leaf surface 3. acacia/wattle. stems. eucalyptus species and hakea. grevillia and banksia species. a variety of Australian plants are available for examination so that first hand information may be gathered about them. cacti (reduced leaf surface). Prepare a table to summarise the adaptations you have observed . for example casuarina. Make a labelled diagram of each leaf highlighting the appropriate structures and state how each structure helps to minimise water loss 4. leaves and flowers of native Australian plants help them to conserve water. In this investigation.
Identify two safe work practices needed during this investigation .2.
Experiment: Adaptations in Plants That Assist in Reducing Water Loss .
How adaptation minimises water loss Adaptation: Diagram: Plant: .
How adaptation minimises water loss Adaptation: Diagram: Plant: .
How adaptation minimises water loss Adaptation: Diagram: Plant: .
Experiment: Adaptations in Plants That Assist in Reducing Water Loss .
How adaptation minimises water loss Adaptation: Diagram: Plant: .
How adaptation minimises water loss Adaptation: Diagram: Plant: .
How adaptation minimises water loss Adaptation: Diagram: Plant: .
using examples. that animals reduce water loss such as: – excrete uric acid instead of urea – nocturnal behaviour – reduced activity – lying in the shade – burrowing underground How Animals Reduce Water Loss .Syllabus dot point: discuss ways.
process and analyse information to identify the different ways in which a range of terrestrial animals reduce water loss How Animals Reduce Water Loss Complete the following table by giving an example of an adaptation to conserve water for each animal.Syllabus dot point: gather. Animal Adaptation How water is conserved Hopping mouse Wombat Possum Kangaroo . Include an explanation of why each adaptation is effective in reducing water loss.
The diagram below shows a simple form of the water cycle. You will now use coloured pencils to colour in sections of the water cycle above. snow and glacier – yellow b) sun – orange c) trees – green d) transpiration and evaporation – light blue e) precipitation (rain) – purple f) percolation. ground water. evaporation. Draw a flow chart including the following terms in the order they appear in the water cycle: ground water. This will help to better understand the processes involved. The term 'water' comes from the Greek word hydra so anything relating to water can have hydra or hydro in the term. a) clouds. Some books or reference sources will refer to this as the hydrological cycle. as electricity is generated by water and hydration is the process of adding water to a substance. The many forms of water and the processes that link them are shown. . precipitation. Two examples of this is hydro-electricity. This is just another name for water cycle. ocean and lakes – dark blue g) run off and rivers – red. percolation.The Water Cycle You have no doubt read or learnt about the water cycle previously.
Use the dropper to remove 5 drops of water from beaker D and place these on the wax paper. This water represents the water available for drinking (1 mL = 20 drops). Label each with the type of water represented. The water in beaker B now represents inaccessible freshwater tied up in glacier and polar icecaps. ‘C’ and ‘D’. Materials: • • • • 1 L graduated beaker (with 1 L of water) 10 and 50 mL graduated cylinders 100 mL beakers (3) wax paper (one piece 5 cm square) • • • • 20 g NaCl stirring rod dropper texta Method: 1 Label the beakers: the 1 L beaker ‘A’ and the three 100 mL beakers ‘B’. Experiment: Representing the Earth’s Water Aim: To represent and compare the types and respective quantities of the Earth’s total water supply.5 mL from beaker B into beaker C. . The water in beaker C now represents inaccessible ground water. 4 Add 20 g of NaCl to beaker A. 2 Fill beaker A with 1000 mL of water. Questions: 1 Draw diagrams to show the beakers (and wax paper) and their contents. 3 Pour 28 mL of water from beaker A into a 100 mL beaker labelled B.) 5 The water in beaker B represents all the Earth’s fresh water. but much of this water is polluted or otherwise unavailable for human use. 7 The water in beaker D now represents the entire supply of fresh water on the Earth.4 mL from beaker C into beaker D. (This now represents the salt water in the Earth’s oceans — unfit for drinking. (This could be put in the freezer.) 6 Pour 3. Pour 6.
4 What are the implications or significance of these quantities for: a national government leaders? b farmers? c local government councils? d individuals? .Draw a column graph to represent these figures. 3 Comment on the varying amounts and types of water.
• When ground water that is flowing through aquifiers becomes trapped and is confined under pressure between layers of rock and is unable to move it is called artesian water. mudflats and mangroves 2. Rocks that can store water are called porous rocks. Surface Water This water occurs on the surface of the Earth and is easy for people to access. Identify the different types of water and the water table labelled a-e (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) . • Bore water is underground water that must be pumped to the surface if it is to be used. salt marches. Ground Water This includes any water that is beneath the Earth’s surface • Water can be stored under the ground in rocks. It naturally rises to the surface under its own pressure. Rocks that are both porous and permeable are called aquifiers. Water from wells is called bore water.– – – – – – – – Syllabus dot point: outline types of surface and ground waters in the hydrological cycle such as: bore water artesian water the water table dams rivers lakes wetlands cave environments Types of Water 1. It includes both fresh and salt water (a) Rivers: A moving body of fresh water (b) Dams: An artificial (man made) body of surface water (c) Lakes: A naturally occurring body of surface water (d) Wetlands: A continually waterlogged area such as billabongs. • The upper surface of ground water is called the water table • Water can also be found in underground rivers and pools in cave environments Questions 1. swamps. These are called permeable rocks. Other rocks do not store water but water can pass through them.
Look at the diagram below.2. In this diagram use an arrow to show where would you find: (a) Artesian water (b) Bore water 3. formed where the water table meets the surface porous or permeable underground rock that can hold water the upper surface of ground water an artificial body of surface water a body of underground water. Use the information in the text you have just read to match the following water terms with the appropriate explanations. usually within a cave . artesian water river water table dam underground lake bore water lake wetland a moving body of surface water a continually water logged area where the water table meets the surface underground water that must be pumped to the surface if it is to be used a naturally occurring body of surface water.
aquifer underground water that naturally flows to the surface .
The following diagram provides a model to show the distribution of the world’s water. Examine this model and use the information it contains to answer the questions below. Distribution of the World’s Water Fresh water 3 % All water Oceans 97 % Fresh water Easily accessible surface fresh water 1 % Ground water 20 % Icecaps and glaciers 79 % Easily accessible surface fresh water Atmospheric vapour 8 % Water within living organisms 1 % Rivers 1 % Soil moisture 38 % Lakes 52 % .4.
(a) Identify the following percentages: (i) percentage of the world’s water that is fresh (ii) percentage of easily accessible surface fresh water that is not from rivers or lakes (iii) percentage of the world’s water that is in ground water (b) State whether each of the following statements is true or false: (i) Most of the world’s water occurs in the oceans (ii) Most of the world’s fresh water occurs in lakes (iii) Eight per cent of the world’s water occurs as vapour in the atmosphere (iv) There is more water underground than in all the rivers and lakes of the world combined .
Key Cabramatta Creek Prospect Creek Lake Gulawarna Dhurawal Bay Floyd Bay Lake Moore Chipping Norton Lake Georges River .Syllabus dot point: process information from secondary sources to map the location and type of surface and ground water in the local area Mapping Water in the Local Area (Liverpool) Use a street directory to map the location of the creeks. Make sure you complete the key. lakes. river and bay below.
The water being withdrawn from the aquifer becomes increasingly saline and unsuitable for most uses. such as for drinking. act as a reservoir for groundwater. (a) Water usage balances rainwater added to aquifer (b) If too much water is withdrawn from the aquifer. The quality of groundwater can be naturally highly variable. such as shales. An example of the sustainable use of groundwater can be seen around Stockton Beach. irrigation and industry. Normally. . north of Newcastle. where it slowly makes it way downhill under the pull of gravity – around 10 metres per year on average. where as non-porous rocks. Saltwater Intrusion Saltwater intrusion occurs when the human removal of ground water causes salt water to move into parts of an aquifer that previously held fresh water. Water quality can even be variable within the one aquifer. This typically occurs in aquifers adjacent to the sea that are not sealed by an overlying layer of clay. the drop in water pressure acts like a straw to draw salt water into the aquifer. However if too much of this fresh groundwater is removed for human uses. water authorities know how much water they can safely remove without risking intrusion by sea water. with central areas being replenished more rapidly than the more stagnant margins. the water becomes increasingly saline and unsuitable for most uses. fresh groundwater seeps its way downhill through the aquifer until it discharges into the sea water. It is by far the largest reservoir for drinking water and a as such signifies an important natural resource that needs to be carefully managed to ensure sustainability. Others have very murky or highly saline water. such as salt. making it unsuitable without secondary treatment. Fresh groundwater is removed from this unsealed aquifer to form part of the water supply for Newcastle and the surrounding areas. This form of saltwater intrusion is believed to have occurred in the groundwater around Botany Bay. By carefully studying the aquifer and its rates and patterns of flow. Some aquifers – geological formations that store groundwater – release water that is very clear and low in dissolved minerals. such as sandstone. Ground water comes from rainwater soaking its way through the soil into the underlying rocks. with the unregulated removal of groundwater by various industries in decades past. The movement of ground water is also strongly influenced by the types of rocks it encounters: porous rocks. act as a barrier to it.Syllabus dot point: discuss the effects of water pollution and ground salinity on the continued supply of fresh water to living things and provide examples of these occurring in Australian environments Syllabus dot point: identify possible solutions to environmental problems associated with the use of ground water Problems With Ground Water Ground water represents a significant component of the total global freshwater reserve.
ammonia. This cleaned water is then pumped back into the aquifer. chlorides and sulfates. such as cyanide (used in concentrating gold from crushed rock) Agriculture Chemical. herbicides. iron. Industry Waste • • • disposal: Water and sewage Garbage in landfill Hazardous wastes Potential Pollutants Disease-causing viruses and bacteria. groundwater can be polluted by a variety of activities. the more stagnant and saline water of the outer margins can be drawn into the centre. unregulated activities in the past are the source of much of the contaminants now detected in groundwater around the country. If too much water is removed from the central part of an aquifer. and bacteria Petroleum hydrocarbons. Ground water used for cotton irrigation around the Mooki and Namoi rivers of Northern New South Wales is becoming increasingly saline in this way. nutrients. organic compounds. and hazardous substances. Industries are now regulated to try and prevent the pollution of groundwater. Pollution The pollution of groundwater is a serious problem. heavy metals.Saltwater intrusion can also occur without the involvement of sea water. pesticides. Most pollutants from human activities move through aquifers at even slower rates than water. An alternative method involves the use of microbes to break down pollutants into less harmful forms. heavy metals. heavy metals. such as dioxins and PCBs Nitrogen. such as faecal coliforms and enterococci. benzene and ethyl benzene Acidic water. phosphate and potassium from fertilizers. If safe practices are not in place. This can be done within the aquifer itself by . Unfortunately. organic materials. meaning any contamination will not just quickly flush away. petroleum and transport Mining The treatment of polluted groundwater is very expensive and time consuming. This impacts on soil fertility and crop yields. One method that has been attempted is to pump polluted water to the surface where it can be treated to remove the contaminants. sulfates.
such as petroleum products. .either introducing microbes or encouraging the growth of microbes already present by adding nutrients and/or oxygen to the aquifer. This method can be used to treat contamination by hydrocarbons.
Use of Ground Water Description (cause) Environmental Problem Saltwater Intrusion Impact (effect) Solution .
4. Discuss how the Botany Sands aquifer can be used to support Sydney’s water supply. . Discuss one of the solutions proposed to ‘recharge aquifers’ in Western Australia. Outline some of the problems for ecosystems when groundwater is overused. 3. 2. Approximately what percentage of the world’s drinking water is groundwater. Describe the problems facing the supply of water in Western Australia. Describe the current sources of drinking water in Western Australia. 5. 6.Catalyst Special: Groundwater 15/3/07 1.
more commonly. farmers in Australia have available to them the technology and finance to find ways of overcoming the salinity problem. The success of our agricultural industries depends very much on the quality of the land used for crop and livestock production. The level of salinity in an area influences the types of crops or pastures grown on farms. In countries throughout Africa much of the land used for agriculture has been overused to a point where output from the soil is extremely low – the land has become degraded. Salt can be found naturally in nearly all things in nature – rocks. Fortunately. soil and water. In many farming areas of Australia the quality of the land being used for agriculture is affected by salinity. How did Salinity Become a Problem? At certain depths below the ground level. Salinity becomes a problem when the level of salt increases above what would normally be expected in an area. The upper limit of ground water is known as the water table. their growth can be affected and some plants may die. This zone or area of saturated soil is called the ground water. One common form of land degradation is salinity. If the ground water has a high level of salinity and the water table rises and comes into contact with the roots of plants.Syllabus dot point: process. analyse and present information from secondary sources to assess human impact on one aquatic ecosystem or water source in Australia and identify some consequences of this impact and one possible rehabilitation technique Salinity Much of Australia’s wealth comes from agriculture. It can occur naturally but. It is estimated that salinity reduces the value of production of Australian agriculture by $100 million each year. it results from misuse of the land by humans. Land degradation can be caused in many ways. soil is fully saturated (or soaked) with moisture. which is an increase in the level of salt in the soil. .
2. . Dryland salinity is a problem in the wheat and sheep producing lands of south-west Western Australia and parts of North Africa. As the ground water flows to low points or depressions in the land. less moisture is released back into the atmosphere (the process of transpiration) and so more moisture soaks into the soil. a build-up of salt occurs at these depressions.There are two main forms of salinity: 1. where much of the natural vegetation of this area has been cleared. Salinity caused by over irrigation of farmlands. With fewer plants. Dryland salinity. This is usually the result of clearing trees and shrubs or overgrazing. Too much water on crops or pastures causes the soil moisture to increase. The built-up salt may come up to the surface as patches of very salty soil. which may cause the water table to rise and come into contact with plant roots.
It was necessary to come up with a number of different types of projects. Under this plan the Murray Darling Basin Commission has set up a number of projects aimed at reducing the causes and effects of salinity. This brought the salty ground water into contact with the roots of trees and plants. • Local communities are being educated about sustainable agriculture techniques. When large areas of the valley were irrigated. Over the years the salt was covered by sediment (sand and . What was also unknown in the early days was that the Murray Valley was once covered by sea water. This lowers the water table. Deniliquin and Wentworth in New South Wales and Berri and Renmark in South Australia grew mainly because of irrigation agriculture. In the past. the sea extended from the area that is now the mouth of the Murray. The ground water under the Murray Valley has a high level of salinity due to this salt-rich layer below the surface. ground water is being pumped out and stored in basins. a thick bed of salty se sand was left in its place. wine. Water for household use in Adelaide has four times more salt in it than Sydney’s water supply. inland into New South Wales and Victoria. which eventually finds its way into the Murray River. When irrigation was introduced to the Murray Valley. When the sea level fell and the ‘inland’ sea was gone. This creates a further problem because Adelaide obtains most of its water from the Murray. The stored water is allowed to evaporate and the salt that is left is ‘harvested’ for use in industry. Towns such as Shepparton and Mildura in Victoria. and in some cases right to the surface. vegetables. farmers received water at a price that was much lower than the cost to the government of providing it. because the causes and effects of salinity differ across the Murray Valley. • Membership of local Landcare groups is encouraged The Murray Valley is one of Australia’s most important agricultural areas. Irrigation has played an important role in the development of agriculture in the Murray Valley. but it also flows towards the lowest point.Case study: Salinity in Australia’s Murray Valley silt) carried by the Murray River and other streams. however. winds blowing from the Great Australian Bight carried large amounts of salt inland and deposited them. The lowest point may be a creek or river. beef and dairy products. Millions of years ago. • In irrigation areas. Some of the different methods being used to reduce salinity are as follows: • In grazing areas in the west of the Murray Valley farmers are being encouraged to replant natural vegetation in areas affected by dryland salinity and to increase plant growth by reducing the sizes of herds. In addition. few people realised that salinity would be a problem. It produces fresh and dried fruits. rice. increased water soaking into the soil caused the water table to rise. The salty ground water not only damages and in some cases kills plants. near Adelaide. • Irrigation framers are being encouraged to use water more wisely by paying a higher price for their water. Dealing with the salinity problem In 1989 the Commonwealth and state governments agreed to a management plan for the Murray Valley known as the Salinity and Drainage Strategy.
Describe the human activities (both past and present) that have caused salinity in the area . Identify an Australian aquatic ecosystem affected by salinity. Describe the area and what it is used for 4.Salinity 1. Salinity can be classified into different types Describe: (a) Dry salinity (b)Irrigation salinity 3. What is salinity? 2.
Describe why salinity is a problem for: (a) farmers (b) people in Adelaide (c) the Australian economy 6. Outline the impact of this human activity. Outline TWO measures taken to manage or rehabilitate the area .5.
temperature. cloud cover. you were correct. aspect. In this section. 1. you would have noticed a large difference between the plants in the outback compared to those on the coast. Use the diagrams of Australia’s ecosystems and Australia’s annual rainfall to determine what rainfall is mostly associated with each ecosystem (low. What do you think causes these ecosystems to be so different? If you answer was ‘the amount of rain they receive’. animals and many more. however this is only one factor affecting ecosystems. Desert Grassland Shrubland . you will learn about the different ecosystems of Australia and their various water requirements. Others are soil. medium and high). sunlight.Syllabus dot point: analyse information from secondary sources to outline the relationships between rainfall and types of Australian ecosystems Australia’s Ecosystems Have you been to the Australian outback? If so. topography.
Fill in the missing information in the annual rainfall column for each ecosystem. . Ecosystem desert grassland shrubland woodland forest (rainforest and sclerophyll forest) Vegetation saltbush grasses bluebush spinafex grasses herbs mallee mulga brigalow box trees colabah shrubs jarra bluegum stringy bark karri Annual rainfall Temperature high temperate or tropical high temperate or tropical warm temperate 3. a) Colour in or shade the areas of Australia below that match each of the ecosystem types. d) Record the temperature for each box. herbs and grasses all belong to a d) Desert ecosystems mainly exist in the middle of e) A forest’s annual rainfall is d) Two vegetation types of deserts are e) Coolabahs and box trees belong to f) Rainfall in woodland is g) An ecosystem that requires low rainfall with a temperate or tropical climate is h) Jarra and stringy bark require rainfalls that are 4. b) List the common plant species found in each ecosystem in the boxes provided. Use the information above on Australia’s ecosystems to complete the following exercise. The table below outlines the characteristics for each type of ecosystem shown in the diagram. Fill in the final word(s) for each sentence.Woodland Forest 2. The desert ecosystem has been done for you as a guide. c) Record the rainfall for each box. a) A typical forest plant is b) Woodland’s temperature is c) Spinafex.
State or Federal Government policy on water-related issues in relation to increasing problems with water supplies across NSW www. Outline these rules and the reason for their introduction. State or Federal) has imposed the restrictions? 4.sydneywater.Syllabus dot point: outline one local. To which areas do the restrictions apply? 5. What are the consequences for NOT following the restrictions? . (a) When were level 1 water restrictions introduced and why? (b) When were level 2 water restrictions introduced and why? (c) When were level 3 water restrictions introduced and why? 2. 3.au Water Wise Rules 1. We no longer have water restrictions but water wise rules. Which level of government (Local.com.
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