MAPEH 101 | Music Education | Pop Culture



LEGAL BASIS OF MAPEH 1987 Philippine Constitution Article XIV Education, Science And Technology, Arts, Culture And Sports EDUCATION Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Section 2. The State shall: 1. Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; 2. Establish and maintain, a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age; 3. Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the under-privileged; 4. Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as selflearning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and 5. Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills. Section 3. 1. All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. 2. They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency. 3. At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong, without additional cost to the Government.


Section 4. 1. The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. 2. Educational institutions, other than those established by religious groups and mission boards, shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, however, require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any school. The provisions of this sub section shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and, unless otherwise provided by law, for other foreign temporary residents. 3. All revenues and assets of non-stock, non-profit educational institutions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be entitled to such exemptions, subject to the limitations provided by law, including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. 4. Subject to conditions prescribed by law, all grants, endowments, donations, or contributions used actually, directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax. Section 5. 1. the State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. 2. Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. 3. Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements. 4. The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. Non-teaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. 5. The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.


LANGUAGE Section 6. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. As it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system. Section 7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. Section 8. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major regional languages, Arabic, and Spanish. Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake, coordinate, and promote researches for the development, propagation, and preservation of Filipino and other languages. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Section 10. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. The State shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization; and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities, and their application to the country's productive systems and national life. Section 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships, grants-inaid, or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students, researchers, scientists, inventors, technologists, and specially gifted citizens. Section 12. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups, local governments, and community-based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such period as may be provided by law.

as well as artistic creations. REPUBLIC ACT NO. with music allotted at . It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies. grants and other incentives. POLICARPIO BEED II-C ARTS AND CULTURE Section 14. with music allotted three days a week in all the grades in elementary schools. Section 17. 4723 . AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR SECTION 1. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the State. 2. and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. scholarships. promote. including training for international competitions. enrichment. to foster self-discipline. 2. music shall be taught together with arts as a separate subject area. and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures. and amateur sports. The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs. The State shall foster the preservation. 1. Commencing with the school year nineteen hundred sixty-six — sixty-seven. 1. public or private cultural entities. respect. All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. and institutions. traditions. The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture. and popularize the nation's historical and cultural heritage and resources. The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system. teamwork.AN ACT GIVING IMPORTANCE TO THE TEACHING OF MUSIC IN THE CURRICULA OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. whether public or private. and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. The State shall conserve. Section 18. league competitions. All the country's artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition. and community cultural centers. SPORTS Section 19.JESSIE REX V. The State shall recognize. Section 16. and other public venues. and shall be taught together with arts. 4723 REPUBLIC ACT NO. physical education and health as a separate subject field. Section 15.

1957.1963 was issued pointing out that Arts and Physical Education in the elementary grades were often neglected for the sake of instructional and administrative expediency.for those who wish to learn the trombone. Through Art Education.O. #1. 1956 gave specific instructions that music should have a definite period or time on the day's program in addition to its correlation with appropriate subjects. singling out Arts & Physical Education as the proper vehicle for DECS' cultural revival program. DECS Memorandum #11. (DO Memorandum #1.s. Music Education in Philippines Primary and Secondary Schools To study music is to study the basics. was a follow up of D. #1. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. and is inherently worth knowing. to carry out the purpose of this Act during the fiscal year nineteen hundred sixty-six — sixty-seven. 1957. Prescribed in this bulletin was for music to be combined with Art Education and Physical Education . all such subjects were to be allotted a 40-minute and 50-minute instruction time in the primary and intermediate grades respectively. POLICARPIO BEED II-C least one day a week in all the years in general or vocational secondary schools. courses on orchestral instruments 3.cultural Revival.s. The sum of five hundred thousand pesos is hereby appropriated.JESSIE REX V. As early as 1950.s. SECTION 4. . observations being that "music has for some years not been seriously taught". Thereafter.within its study students come into contact with other basic areas of the curriculum: math. Music is a comprehensive art . out of any funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated. Music and Physical Education in the Elementary Schools). Memorandum #72. courses on band instruments . SECTION 2. Courses in Second. It called for the proper implementation of D.s. 1963 .for those inclined to singing 2. SECTION 3. In 1963. third and fourth year were likewise suggested: 1. languages and physical education.O. General Letter #23. dated July 21.O. science. its comprehensive nature serves as a foundation for a unified and comprehensive educational setting. such sums as may be necessary for the same purpose shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. voice culture . social studies.s. and not as erroneously concluded from the title 'Art Education and Physical Education' where Music seemed to have been scrapped from the daily schedule of subjects. The Secretary of Education shall issue such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this Act. titled Improving the Teaching of Music. whether public or private. D.1959. Under Arts and Physical Education. While music is a subject with its own body of knowledge. Bulletin #6. It was further stated that the above mentioned subjects should not be sacrificed for the sake of any other subjects in the elementary school curriculum. came out with a prescription of "Music courses in the Secondary Schools' General Curriculum".The directive also aimed to make Art Education. Music and Physical Education required subjects in the elementary grades.

With the implementation of the Music Law. Music instructors from the nearest regional normal schools. Not until recently.s. the Music Law was the first legislative Act in the history of the country to directly benefit school music education. The memo mentioned further that a school should not offer any music course unless a qualified teacher is available. It specially provide for 10 music supervisory positions in ten school divisions of the Bureau of Public Schools. Music and Art 2.1970 with the advent of the 1970 Revised Elementary Education Program. . Music instruction may be given once or twice a week for the total time allotted to the subject during the week.1959 from the Bureau of Public Schools. 4723 (Music Law) was embodied in the bureau of Public Schools Circular #24. saxophone. The increasing importance given to music education was reflected in the passage of R. Some sectors did come to have band instruments via donations or private sponsorship as fundings for their procurement was yet to be appropriated. Enacted in 1968. the time allotted for each of the three subjects: Arts.s. 80 minutes a day. and 50 minutes daily for Grade V-VI. It states that a teacher of Music should be one with a special aptitude.A. not only because he can sing or play an instrument but also because he possesses a knowledge of Music reading and notation. namely: 1. titled Improving the Teaching of Music underlined that not any teacher can teach music. the subjects were subdivided into distinct areas. xylophone. were 40 minutes daily for Grades I-IV. POLICARPIO BEED II-C cornet. The explanatory work was either vocal or instrumental and should be for 6 weeks. It deemed essential that a teacher of music must have a thorough academic and professional training experience. the law has created various school division positions.JESSIE REX V. 5523. The setback to the suggested music course offerings were and still is the absence of orchestral and band instruments which were/are very expensive. etc. The latter provides that Music and Arts be treated as separate subject areas with Music allotted 3 days a week and Arts 2 days.s. The second Republic Act that has benefited Music education is R.A. a pleasant and dignified personality alongside the provision of a well-equipped music room.A.1967 but was rescinded by Department Order #10. The Bureau of Public Schools likewise encouraged the training of all music teachers: consultants from the General Office. 4723 (Music Law). The law envisioned the upgrading of Philippine Musical Culture through the improvement of Music instruction on the elementary and secondary school levels of both public and private schools. Physical Education Implementing regulations of R. and lay music leaders of the community. The initial implementation of the above stated laws has firmly rooted music in the curriculum of both public and private schools in the country. Music and Physical Education. Enacted in 1966. A subsequent bulletin #6. If there is only one qualified music teacher in a school.

three music organizations . was a nationwide scholarship program for public and private teachers from elementary and high school. Gloria. had its beginnings on November 23.JESSIE REX V. and the Piano Teachers' Guild of the Philippines were likewise founded. Music Pre-Military Training (PMT) and Scouting Program for School Year 1973-1974. A 40-minute weekly schedule per period were to be followed for both semesters. to help produce competent music teachers. One such notable program undertaken under Dr. now National Artist for music as founding president. Health and Music for the fourth year. 1975.the Philippine Choral conductors' Association. Its primary intent was to improve music education in all its areas. The course name was changed to Youth Development Training (YDT) to replace Physical Education. workshops and annual general assemblies marked the infant years of PSME with Dr. To date. secondary and tertiary (music majors and none-music majors) level of music education. Lucrecia S. to share new knowledge and ideas on music and music education. Health. From 1975 onwards. As a direct effect of its historic formation. all distinguished Filipino educators. PE. the succeeding president Dean Corazon S. Weekly schedules of 40 minutes per period were as follows: Second First Semester Semester Scouting Physical Education Health Music 2 days 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 2 days 1 day 1 day Citizens' Arm Training (CAT). CAT 2 days Physical Education Health Music 1 day 1 day 1 day . came up with well-articulated goals for elementary. the Philippine Society for Organists. Music and PMT in the first to third years of high school. This program was implemented in cooperation with the National Commission on Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and the Philippine Normal University (PNU). Twenty-nine workshop participants. PSME continued on its mission to improve music education through yearly seminars and workshops and lecture series. In November 7-9. a non-profit association composed of music educators all over the country.1973 which was a "Clarification on the Revised Physical Education and Health.s. replaced PMT. Symposia. Maceda spearheaded a workshop aimed at the formulation of goals of Music Education in the Philippines. with completion seen by summer of 2000. Loreto C. POLICARPIO BEED II-C The Philippine Society for Music Education (PSME). The Department of Education and Culture (DEC) issued an Order #21. two groups of Scholars have completed their training while a third batch is presently being readied for the second summer session by 1999. Kasilag. 1971.

Baguio city. sponsored jointly by DECS. also included the rondalla competition. 1971 saw the start of the National Music Competitions as an annual undertaking aimed to discover and nurture young music talents from among school children. From then on.s. The gradual implementation of NESC in Grades I through Grade VI saw the absence of Music in Grades I and II. 1974. The theme was: "Innovative Musical Dimensions for the furtherance of the Quality of School Music Education in the New Society" with foreign music experts as resource speakers. Beginning school year 1983-84. the Ministry of Education and Culture issued MEC Order #6. The above national seminar-practicum came after the conclusion of a 5-year UP-BPS (University of the Philippines and Bureau of Public Schools) Scholarship Program from 19681973. dated September 7-8. the Philippine National Society for Music Education and the UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines.VI . The DECS in various regions through regional levels. POLICARPIO BEED II-C As a YDT component. Teachers prepared their choirs and students to compete. An average of 30 to 40 scholars a year attended the program highly benefitting Music Education in the country. This coincides with the National Music Week (Presidential Proclamation #1173 dated August 7. The period covered 2 semesters and 1 summer with a stipend for books and a living allowance including regular salaries. foreign music. Approximately 65% of the total number of music pieces to be learned in each curriculum year should consist of Philippine folk and composed music and the rest. the competition expanded to include not only children's choirs but also solo instruments. to include internationally known music matters. Concerned music educators of varied expertise and persuasions voluntarily came together to contribute their time and experiences towards the yearly endeavor.JESSIE REX V. in 1970-71. piano solos. Music Education was offered in all curriculum years. Annual scholarship recipients were teachers teaching music both in the elementary and secondary schools.1982 outlining the New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC).Practicum in School Music Education ". youth choirs. the Revised Elementary Education curriculum gave Music and Arts. In the Revised Elementary Education Curriculum effective 1970-71. and the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) was mainly responsible for the week-long National finals held every last week of November. to schedule as follow: Second First Semester Semester >Music Art 3 days 2 day 2 days 3 days Department of Education and Culture (DEC) Memorandum #65. 1973).1974 announced a "Third National Seminar . time allotment (minutes daily) for Music and Arts was: I II III IV V . The creative uni-segmented and integrative conceptual approaches are suggested for music teaching-learning situations. It was held at Teachers' Camp. 30 minutes per day. college choirs and eventually. Meanwhile. In 1982.s. the new curriculum was introduced by grade levels.

s. Arts and PE was on a 2-2-2 plan the whole year round. Citizen's Army Training (CAT) remained a component of PEHM in the fourth year. Arts became integrated with Music in the 3rd and 4th year levels. In the mid-90's Physical Education regained its foothold in Grades I and II through Gr. Physical Education.40 minutes Second Semester . Health and Music. time allotment for PEHM/CATwas scheduled as follows: First and Second Year First Semester . Since 1973-74 with D. Meanwhile Music and Arts remained integrated in Civic and Culture in Grades I and II. they were eased out of the equal time sharing and given only 80 minutes a week divided by the 2 areas.Minutes per week for Arts and Physical Education: I II III IV V VI 200 200 200 200 Equal distribution of time for Music. under the Revised Rating System. Music. once-a-week-subject per period. The preparation of students for Olympic competitions became the thrust of DECS up to present.JESSIE REX V. Time allotment . 2-1 arrangement) Third Year First Semester Health . time allotment for Arts and Physical Education became: I II III IV V VI 40 40 40 40 Music lost its identity with its marked absence in Grades I and II. Memorandum #16.O. Music for the elementary grades was offered only from Grades III to VI. Music became a 40-minute. The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) became effective by School Year 198990.two days (Health opposite Music on a 1-2. VI with 120 minutes per week time allotment.2 days (40 minutes) . Music and Art.Music was given a 40-minute once-a-week time allotment at all levels.v"Classification on the Revised PE and Health. POLICARPIO BEED II-C 30 30 30 30 30 With the advent of the New Elementary School Curriculum effective school year day a week . PMT and Scouting Program .1973. This continued with the 1989 NSEC but by 1997. while in Grade III and VI.

Formal ways of learning are however practiced among many culture groups.2 days (60 minutes) Fourth Year Health Music and Arts Physical Education CAT 1 day 1 day 2 day 1 day 40 minutes 40 minutes 60 minutes 80 minutes History of Music Education in the Philippines Music education is the dissemination of music knowledge. harvesting. He stays with the goro (teacher) and does daily chores for free instruction.1 day (40 minutes) . Music permeates the daily lives of indigenous culture groups.1 day (40 minutes) Arts PE . skills and appreciation. it is used in connection with lifecycle events such as birth. hunting and fishing and functions such as peace pacts and victory celebrations are occasions for music making.JESSIE REX V. The process may occur in the structured setting of a school or in a more informal manner. courtship.2 days (40 minutes) Second Semester Health Music .1 day (40 minutes) Music and . A Maranao lad who wishes to specialize in singing certain types of the extensive Maranao vocal repertoire studies with a professional singer in a kasombak (apprenticeship) system. In these communities. marriage and death. The training of the morit (student) begin with the learning of songs by rote. instruments are played to drive away evil spirits and songs and chants accompany the playing of children. Lullabies are sung to put babies to sleep. singing of songs and playing of instruments are naturally learned through participation. board and lodging.1 day as Music and Arts (40 minutes) . POLICARPIO BEED II-C Music PE . Occupational activities such as planting. gradually progressing to creating .

the Colegio existed until the outbreak of the Second World War (Banas. Content of instruction consists of a study of Philippine. 1972). This was brought about by a large number of visiting foreign musicians. theory and literature as well as academic subjects. mixed vocal-instrumental genres such as the paggabang. Fulgencio Tolentino. These musical events contributed greatly to the music education of the Filipinos along secular forms of Western music. Many years later. Asian and Western music. 1981). Among the Tausug highly formalized systems of instruction are practiced in the study of the purely vocal tradition.JESSIE REX V. 1972). 1971). music scholars are given instruction in performance. wrote books on music and taught young Filipino boys to sing the Gregorian chant and play instruments for church services. schools of education offer PEHM specialization and 6 units of music for students studying for a Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education degree. The Philippine High School for the Arts (PHSA) is a special secondary school established by the government in 1977 which provides training in music. required the teaching of music as a separate subject only from grades III to VI and its integration with other subjects in Grades I & II. Laguna in 1606 where 400 boys were trained in singing and playing of instruments. singers and opera companies who performed in the theaters and concert halls of Manila and in some cities in the South. Trimillos. In 1966. offered classes in solfeggio. 4723 popularly known as the Music Law which provided for the teaching of music and art as a separate subject in the elementary level and the teaching of music once a week for one hour in the secondary level (Yamzon. 1972). The first teachers were American soldiers who were later replaced by the Thomasites. dance and the visual arts. In the tertiary level. Founded in 1742. the Philippine Congress passed Republic Act No. and other aspects of performance (Cadar. In the high school. POLICARPIO BEED II-C improvisations and variations and ends with the student singing in his own style songs prepared by the teacher. and solo instruments such as the tata gabbang (solo gabbang) and tata biyula (solo biyula. 1969). composition and the playing of organ and other stringed instruments. Curricula of these schools included music in the elementary level. and Simplicio Solis. Antonio Garcia. The American colonial government established public schools all over the islands. the Colegio de los Niños Tiples de la Santa Iglesia Cathedral. and a Philippine edition of the same series by Norberto Romualdez. (Guevara. In the 1800's a rich musical life developed in the urban areas particularly in Manila and the more affluent provinces. The Spanish colonizers who arrived in the 1500's brought with them missionaries who established churches. music was made a part of a subject area. Similar materials which were used much later were the 6 volumes of the Bureau of Public School Series which consisted of basic songs (the Philippine National Anthem and other patriotic songs) folk songs of the Philippines and other countries. PEHM. a school noted for its excellent training of boy's. works of Filipino and foreign composers and suggestions for the teaching of rondalla and rhythm band. Training includes learning the vocabulary and grammar of specific song languages. Among the schools established was a Franciscan seminary in Lumban. choirs. which includes Physical Education and Health. Here. (Yamson. The New Elementary School Curriculum of 1982 however. Music instruction concentrated based on the Progressive Music Series. . vocalization. convents and schools in different parts of the islands. a graded foreign collection of songs. Among them were church musicians and music teachers who composed and performed liturgical music. Graduates of the school included musicians such as Salvador Pinon.

the College today has strong multicultural thrust reflected in the integration of non-western music courses of studies in the fabric of its over-all curriculum program. marching band. or jazz band. Isabel College. strings. Various courses range from a Diploma in Music. additional music classes may also be available. Although music education in many nations has traditionally emphasized Western classical music. Bachelor of Music and Master of Music in Performance (major in piano. music usually continues to be a required part of the curriculum. or percussion) Composition. Sta. and the National Music Competitions for Young Artists (NAMCYA) Foundation. or school band: concert band. In junior high school or its equivalent. Asian Institute of Liturgy and Silliman University. sing in small choirs. including music appreciation and sensitivity. which was founded in the early 1960's and was active until 1970. including the psychomotor domain (the development of skills).JESSIE REX V. Other schools with strong departments offering music degrees are: the University of Sto Tomas (UST). is an accomplishment that distinguishes us as humans. The Philippines Society for Music Education (PSME) founded in 1971 is the main organization in the country actively engaged in upgrading the standards of classroom music teaching in the elementary and secondary schools today. in recent decades music educators tend to incorporate application and history of non-western music to give a well-rounded musical experience and teach multiculturalism and international understanding. voice. Scholastica's College. orchestra. students may often have the opportunity to perform in some type of musical ensemble. In primary and secondary schools.[2] . The incorporation of music training from preschool to postsecondary education is common in most nations because involvement in music is considered a fundamental component of human culture and behavior. and music organizations that hold seminars and workshops to improve the quality of instruction in their specific fields of specialization. Centro Escolar University. Musicology. In some secondary schools. like language. Kodaly Society of the Philippines. the Philippine Federation of Choral Music. Paul's College. Conducting and Music Education. numerous private studios teaching art and popular music. Overview In Elementary schools. Philippine Women's University. Originally a conservatory patterned after European and American music schools. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Colleges and universities offer undergraduate and graduate courses in music.the affective domain. Music. It touches on all domains of learning. children often learn to play instruments such as keyboards or recorders. such as a choir. Aschero Society of the Philippines. and. Music instruction are also being provided by tutors. St. It took over the work begun by the Philippine National Society of Music Education (PNSME). winds. MUSIC EDUCATION Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. The University of the Philippines (UP) College of Music is one of the leading schools of music in the country. in particular and significant ways. and learn about the elements of musical sound and history of music. to a Diploma or Certificate in Performance. Other music organizations are the Piano Teachers Guild of the Philippines. the cognitive domain (the acquisition of knowledge). St.

Japan. concert band. . Amateur musicians typically take lessons to learn musical rudiments and beginner. students in most arts and humanities programs may receive academic credit for taking music courses. Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures. Gamelan music). and musical expression using movement. and is the concept for which Dalcroze is best known. allowing their students to become certified educators of primary and secondary school ensembles as well as beginner music classes. improvisation. According to the Dalcroze method. Music education also takes place in individualized. or orchestra. sociomusicology. Music education departments in North American and European universities also often support interdisciplinary research in such areas as music psychology. which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music. private instruction. life-long learning. The method is divided into three fundamental concepts . POLICARPIO BEED II-C At the university level. The study of Western art music is increasingly common in music education outside of North America and Europe. short private sessions with an individual teacher. and philosophy of education. as well as even rock music (see popular music pedagogy). many teachers rely heavily on one of many instructional methodologies that emerged in recent generations and developed rapidly during the latter half of the 20th Century: Major international music education methods Dalcroze method The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. numerous ensembles. music is the fundamental language of the human brain and therefore deeply connected to what human beings are.the use of solfege. or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. Many universities also offer degree programs in the field of music education. marching band. These degrees come with the completion of varied technique classes.g. including Asian nations such as South Korea. particularly kinesthetic. and in depth observations of educators in the intermediate-level musical techniques. music education historiography. It focuses on allowing the student to gain physical awareness and experience of music through training that takes place through all of the senses. such as the music of Africa or Bali (e. educational ethnomusicology. Both amateur and professional musicians typically take music lessons. At the same time. and community contexts. Instructional methodologies While instructional strategies are bound by the music teacher and the music curriculum in his or her area.JESSIE REX V. most North American and European universities have some type of music ensemble in which students from various fields of study may participate such as a choir. structure. and China. and eurhythmics. Advanced degrees can lead to university employment. Sometimes referred to as "rhythmic gymnastics". In addition. eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm.

The Orff Schulwerk is considered an "approach" to music education. and rhythm solmization (verbalization). Even though most countries have properly used their own folk music traditions to construct their own sequence of instruction. drum. and other percussion instruments to accommodate the requirements of the Schulwerk courses. Some of Kodály's trademark teaching methods include the use of solfege hand signs. Kodály's primary goal was to instill a lifelong love of music in his students and felt that it was the duty of the child's school to provide this vital element of education. xylophone. Carl Orff developed a special group of instruments. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Kodály method Depiction of Curwen's Solfege hand signs.JESSIE REX V. Orff Schulwerk Carl Orff was a prominent German composer. The approach encourages improvisation and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill. Although not really an educational method. America primarily uses the Hungarian sequence even though Hungarian folk music is completely different from American.[3] . Orff considers the whole body a percussive instrument and students are led to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. musical shorthand notation (stick notation). educational framework built on a solid grasp of basic music theory and music notation in various verbal and written forms. including modifications of the glockenspiel. This version includes the tonal tendencies and interesting titles for each tone. his teachings reside within a fun. It begins with a student's innate abilities to engage in rudimentary forms of music. metallophone. using basic rhythms and melodies. Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967) was a prominent Hungarian music educator and composer who stressed the benefits of physical instruction and response to music. fostering student self-discovery.

founded by Genichi Kawakami in association with the Yamaha Music Foundation. high-quality examples. The primary method for achieving this is centered around creating the same environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. The movement rests on the double premise that "all children can be well educated" in music. within Japan its influence is less significant than the Yamaha Method. praise. Music Learning Theory provides the music teacher a comprehensive method for teaching musicianship through audiation. Pioneers of the movement. influenced a second generation of music educators (including Bryan J.[4] World Music Pedagogy The growth of cultural diversity within school-age populations prompted music educators from the 1960s onward to diversify the content of the music curriculum. and that learning to play music at a high level also involves learning certain character traits or virtues which make a person's soul more beautiful. Burton. The philosophy of this method is to view music as an aural art with a literature based curriculum. this method follows . Feierabend. especially Barbara Reeder Lundquist and William M. Ellen McCullough-Brabson. Gordon and others. rote training and repetition. chair of music education at the Hartt School at the University of Hartford.JESSIE REX V. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Suzuki method The Suzuki method was developed by Shinichi Suzuki in Japan shortly after World War II. Conversational Solfege Deriving influence from both Kodály methodology and Gordon's Music Learning Theory. other approaches have been influential. Other notable methods In addition to the five major international methods described above. The sequence of this methodology involves a 12 step process to teach music literacy. Gordon's term for hearing music in the mind with understanding. Anderson. and a time-table set by the student's developmental readiness for learning a particular technique. and to work with ethnomusicologists and some of the world's artist-musicians in establishing instructional practices relevant to the musical traditions. John M. Mary Goetze. While the Suzuki Method is quite popular internationally. and Mary Shamrock) to design and deliver curricular models to teachers of music of various levels and specializations. Unlike traditional Kodály method. and it uses music education to enrich the lives and moral character of its students. Lesser-known methods are described below: Gordon Music Learning Theory This method is based on an extensive body of research and field testing by Edwin E. This 'ideal' environment includes love. Teaching methods help music teachers establish sequential curricular objectives in accord with their own teaching styles and beliefs. Conversational Solfege was developed by Dr. 'World music pedagogy' was coined by Patricia Shehan Campbell to describe world music content and practice in elementary and secondary school music programs. Steps include rhythm and tonal patterns and decoding the patterns using syllables and notation.

This approach involves using props." American Classical tunes such as Copland's "Hoedown. William Billings. conduct.JESSIE REX V.A New American School of String Playing[6] for string teachers and students of the violin designed to "guide students gradually through the development of pedagogical and musical techniques necessary to become a proficient. Teacher training sessions based on the method take place around the country. The teacher gives the student freedom to create. The concrete environment of the specially planned classroom allows the child to learn the fundamentals of music by exploring through touch. 2009. the first singing school was created in 1717 in Boston. This creative approach centers around the student being the musician and involved in the discovery process. Reverend John Tufts published An Introduction to the Singing of Psalm Tunes Using Non-Traditional Notation which is regarded as the first music textbook in the colonies. History of music education in the United States 18th century After the preaching of Reverend Thomas Symmes. more than 375 tune books would be published by such authors as Samuel Holyoke. Massachusetts for the purposes of improving singing and music reading in the church. the history of Gypsies and Mariachi. and O'Connor's "Appalachia Waltz. and toys for children to learn basic musical concepts of staff. and investigate different facets of music in a spiral curriculum. Carabo-Cone Method This early-childhood approach sometimes referred to as the Sensory-Motor Approach to Music was developed by the violinist Madeleine Carabo-Cone. These singing schools gradually spread throughout the colonies." two themes from Dvorak's New World Symphony. costumes. Francis Hopkinson. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Kodály's actual instructions and uses a sequence based on American folk songs instead of using the sequence that is used in Hungary based on Hungarian folk songs. O'Connor Method On November 16. Mark O'Connor released books 1 and 2 of his 10-book O'Connor Method . and Oliver Holden. perform. and include: folk melodies such as "Amazing Grace. well-rounded musician through a carefully planned succession of pieces." "Cielito Lindo" and "Buffalo Gals.[5] MMCP The Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project was developed in 1965 and is an alternative method in shaping positive attitudes toward music education. Between 1700 to 1820."[7] The series also contains short essays about topics including famous American fiddlers such as Thomas Jefferson and Davy Crockett. note duration. and various dances." Pieces cover a wide range of genres.[8] 19th century . and the piano keyboard. improvise. research.

later MENC: The National Association for Music Education in 1998. Directors . Mason published his Manuel of Instruction in 1834 which were based upon the music education works of Pestalozzian System of Education founded by Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. Growth in music methods publications. Lowell Mason and George Webb formed the Boston Academy of Music with the purposes of teaching singing and theory as well as methods of teaching music. During the middle of the 19th century. Frances Elliot Clark develops and promotes phonograph record libraries for school use. Rise of the school band and orchestra movement leading to performance oriented school music programs. In 1838 the Boston School Committee approved the inclusion of music in the curriculum and Lowell Mason became the first recognized supervisor of elementary music. McCarthy. From 1837-1838. Rights in Music[10] The American 1953 School Band The band movement becomes organized. and currently The National Association for Music Education NAfME) in Keokuk. and high school). Oberlin Conservatory first offered the Bachelor of Music Education degree. Middle 20th century to 21st century The following table illustrates some notable developments from this period: Date Major Event Historical Importance for Music Education The Child's Bill of 1950 A student-centered philosophy was formally espoused by MENC. (See also: Music education in the United States) Early 20th century In the United States. This handbook gradually became used by many singing school teachers. [9] Music methodology for teachers as a course was first introduced in the Normal School. POLICARPIO BEED II-C In 1832. Boston became the model to which many other cities across the United States included and shaped their public school music education programs. Osbourne G. Notable events in the history of music education in the early 20th century also include:      Founding of the Music Supervisor's National Conference (changed to Music Educators National Conference in 1934. Carl Seashore and his Measures of Musical Talent music aptitude test starts testing people in music. and American music educator introduced details for studying music for credit in Chelsea High School. the Boston School Committee allowed Lowell Mason to teach music in the Hawes School as a demonstration. The concept of classroom teachers in a school that taught music under the direction of a music supervisor was the standard model for public school music education during this century. In later years Luther Whiting Mason became the Supervisor of Music in Boston and spread music education into all levels of public education (grammar. Iowa in 1907. primary.JESSIE REX V. teaching colleges with four year degree programs developed from the Normal Schools and included music. This is regarded as the first time music education was introduced to public schools in the United States.

Emphasized the impact of learning theory in music education in the The Ann Arbor 1978 areas of: auditory perception. The MENC 1994 for Music Education standards were adopted by some states. memory processing. special education symposium music. 1984). 35 Objectives listed by MENC for quality music education programs 1969 GO Project in public schools. Juilliard Project leads to the 1963 Yale Seminar compilation and publication of musical works from major historical eras for elementary and secondary schools. the three-day Symposium for music Multicultural teachers was co-sponsored by MENC. child development. and motivation. Emphasized the importance of symposium cultural context in music education and the cultural implications of rapidly changing demographics in the United States. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Association formed Increased curricular focus on science. while other states have produced their own standards or largely eschewed the standards movement. Association formed Federally supported development of arts education focusing on quality music classroom literature. Leads to the Comprehensive Musicianship movement. 1957 Launch of Sputnik . Establishment of a unified and ecletic philosophy of music Tanglewood 1967 education. materials. and the Smithsonian Institution. Growing out of the awareness of the increasing diversity of the American School population. National Endowment Federal financial support and recognition of the value music has in 1965 for the Arts society. The purpose of the project was to make contemporary music relevant Contemporary Music in children by placing quality composers and performers in the 1959 Project learning environment. urban music. For much of the 1980s. "The Wesleyan Symposium on the Perspectives of Social Becoming Human Anthropology in the Teaching and Learning of Music" (Middletown. Specific emphasis on youth music.JESSIE REX V. technology with less emphasis on music education. 1984 Through Music Connecticut. Published and recommended for music educators to follow. motor learning. affect. math. The Housewright Examined changing philosophies and practices and predicted how 1999 Symposium / Vision American music education will (or should) look in the year 2020. there was a call for educational reform and accountability in all curricular subjects. This led to the National National Standards Standards for Music Education[11] introduced by MENC. and electronic music. in order to Education provide models. August 6–10. American Choral 1961 Directors The choral movement becomes organized. the Society for 1990 Symposium in Music Ethnomusicology. and methods for teaching music of the world's cultures to school children and youth. Symposium cognitive skills.

Many states and school districts have adopted their own standards for music education. developing a declaration regarding priorities for the next forty years. Standards and assessment Standards are curricular statements used to guide educators in determining objectives for their teaching. Improvising melodies. Understanding relationships between music. the other arts. POLICARPIO BEED II-C 2020 Tanglewood 2007 Charting Future[12] II: Reflected on the 40 years of change in music education since the first the Tanglewood Symposium of 1967. and accompaniments. a varied repertoire of music. analyzing. Music education can play a vital role in the development of the whole child and their scholastic journey. the curriculum for music education in the United States was determined locally or by individual teachers. It is designed to assess standards expected to be attained by all students. alone and with others. 6. variations. created nine voluntary content standards. [13] Sight singing is a learning requirement in the state at the 8th grade level. 5. or English. 8. Reading and notating music. and the fields of world music pedagogy and popular music pedagogy have also seen notable expansion. Other states are evaluating possible performance assessments as well. and describing music.[1] These standards call for: 1. Performing on instruments. Evaluating music and music performances. 4. It is thought that by integrating the different curricula will help each subject to build off of one another. 7. Music course offerings and even entire degree programs in online music education developed in the first decade of the 21st century at various institutions. 2. Washington State has piloted a classroom based performance assessment which requires 5th and higher grade students to compose music on a staff and sight sing from sheet music without the aid of instruments. In recent decades there has been a significant move toward adoption of regional and/or national standards. Singing. 3.JESSIE REX V. alone and with others. For much of its existence. Use of standards became a common practice in many nations during the 20th century. science. called the National Standards for Music Education. Integration with other subjects Some schools and organizations promote integration of arts classes. a varied repertoire of music. such as math. . Understanding music in relation to history and culture. MENC: The National Association for Music Education. with other subjects. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines. such as music. 9. and disciplines outside the arts. Listening to. enhancing the overall quality of education.

JESSIE REX V. music. for the Imani Winds).[21] ."[19] Music not only inspires creativity and performance. Notable interdisciplinary educational works they have created in collaboration with writers and scientists include "Tyrannosaurus Sue: A Cretaceous Concerto" (for the Field Museum of Natural History. social studies. and/or responding to the arts while still addressing content in other subject areas.[20] Schools that have high academic performance in the US are spending 20 to 30% of their budget in the arts with emphasis on music education. Wizards. and "Witches. It was founded by Julian Fifer and composer Bruce Adolphe. visual arts. architects. The National Report of SAT test takers study indicated students with music performance experience scored higher on the SAT: 57 points higher on verbal and 41 points higher on math. "Self Comes to Mind" (created with neuroscientist Antonio Damasio. visual arts.[14] The Learning Maestros is a company whose goal is to create new interdisciplinary musical works and educational materials that explore connections between music and science. "Zephyronia" (with writer Louise Gikow. POLICARPIO BEED II-C One example is the Kennedy Center's "Changing Education Through the Arts" program. CETA defines arts integration as finding a natural connection(s) between one or more art forms (dance. physical education. New York).‖ [18] William Earhart... premiered by Yo-Yo Ma at the American Museum of Natural History. former president of the Music Educators National Conference. ―Music and the Fine Arts have been a significant portion of every culture’s educational system for more than 3. foreign language. mathematics. history. puppetry. and others) in order to teach and assess objectives in both the art form and the other subject area. The human brain has been shown to be ―hard-wired‖ for music. performing. and vocational training. Spells. but academic performance over all is seriously impacted. Chicago). premiered by the Washington National Opera). Music and the Arts surround daily life in our present day culture. and musicians acquired their interests during public school Fine Arts classes. literature.000 years. and issues of social conscience. English language arts. "Red Dogs and Pink Skies: A Musical Celebration of Paul Gauguin" (in conjunction with an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Let Freedom Sing: the story of Marian Anderson" (with writer Carolivia Herron. science. geography. This allows a simultaneous focus on creating. storytelling. ―Music enhances knowledge in the areas of mathematics. drama/theater. FolkDC (for primary)[16]. there is a biological basis for music being an important part of human experience. Lullabies of Europe (for pre-school and early learners)[15]. Education without the Fine Arts is fundamentally impoverished and subsequently leads to an impoverished society. natural history. New York). and/or creative writing) and one or more other curricular areas (science. Most present day artists. and Elves: The Magic of Shakespeare" (for the Chicago Chamber Musicians and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater). A research study produced by the Harris Poll has shown that 9 out of 10 individuals with post graduate degrees participated in music education. and the recent PopuLLar (for secondary)[17] Significance of music education According to the Florida Music Educators Association. The European Union Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 has funded three projects that use music to support language learning.

Another experiment studied text recall without music. participants recalled the words 48 hours later. This perceived need to change public opinion has resulted in the development of a variety of approaches commonly called "music advocacy". ―It is not unusual to see program cuts in the area of music and arts when economic issues surface.[19] Music advocacy In some communities .[23] Music also improves learning." [18] Unfortunately. each verse had different music. Even though the ―Mozart Effect‖ is a controversy it has some significance in proving that it is reliable.[24] Smith (1985) studied background music with word lists. as the other academics. music aids in text is provided little support as an academic subject area. or socioeconomic circumstance. which is the part of the brain that is used when doing mathematics. and engineering. each verse had exactly the same music.[26] Dr. science. Patricia Powers states.JESSIE REX V. some of which are based upon legitimate scholarly arguments and scientific findings. The Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction with Chesapeake Public Schools in Chesapeake.‖ What some school boards do not know is that cutting music might cause test scores to fall due to the positive effect on everything from academics to citizenship and even personal hygiene. and music teachers feel that they must actively seek greater public endorsement for music education as a legitimate subject of study. One experiment involved memorizing a word list with background music. A second experiment created a three verse song with a repetitive melody. Participants who memorized word lists with background music recalled more words demonstrating music provides contextual cues. Research done at the University of Wisconsin has indicated that students with piano or keyboard experience performed 34% higher on tests that measure spatial-temporal lobe activity. while other examples rely on unconvincing data and remain rather controversial. therefore. Virginia. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Music education also increases one's success in society. music serves as a mnemonic device. participants also recalled the words 48 hours later. The repetitive music produced the highest amount of text recall. music in our schools are being cut at a drastic rate due to budget cuts being forced upon the schools. Specifically.and even entire national education systems . The test . The Texas Commission on Drugs and Alcohol Abuse Report noted that students who participated in band or orchestra reported the lowest lifetime and current use of all substances. ethnicity. the National Anthem Project. Among the more recent high-profile music advocacy projects that have become the subject of widespread controversy are the "Mozart Effect" (which is now widely believed to be based on misinterpretation and exaggeration). Another experiment involved memorizing a word list with no background music. One experiment created a three verse song with a non-repetitive melody. It is indeed unfortunate to lose support in this area especially since music and the art programs contribute to society in many positive ways. and the movement referred to as Cultural Diversity in Music Education which seeks out means of equitable pedagogy across students regardless of their race. Wallace (1994) studied setting text to a melody.[25] It is important to note that "While studies show positive influences in other academic areas. an independent way of learning and knowing. music and the Fine Arts are an academic discipline that are. Music advocacy comes in many forms.[22] An education in music also increases overall brain activity.

design.). John Paynter and Keith Swanwick. This position regarding music advocacy has especially been advanced by music education philosophers (such as Bennett Reimer. and design in jewelry. fabrics. such as a visual culture approach to art education. .[citation needed] Others would assert though. and prisons among many other possible venues. places of worship. This is an empirical activity which involves seeing. David J. The first recorded art schools were established in 400 BC Greece as mentioned by Plato. a group that has music taught and a group with no music taught. Within art school's "visual arts education" encompasses all the visual and performing arts delivered in a standards-based. pottery. a model which has existed since the Renaissance. this lasted for several days. youth. tangible arts— drawing. social service agencies. film.). recreation centers. painting. yet a gap remains between the discourse of music education philosophy and the actual practices of music teachers and music organization executives. etc. Some assert that the core discipline of Western art education is the practice of drawing. Its core is the study of inseparable artistic and aesthetic experience and learning. Children. POLICARPIO BEED II-C has two. When this test was given to three-year-olds their temporal test improved by 35% over those with no music. the older you are the less of the effect it will have on you. Approaches There are thousands of arts education curricular models or models for arts or arts-based professional development for teachers that schools and community organizations use. etc. design has had some precedence over the fine arts with schools of design being established all over Europe in the 18th century. that issue based approaches. ART EDUCATION Art education is the area of learning that is based upon the visual. computer art. Contemporary topics include photography.JESSIE REX V. During the Renaissance formal training took place in art studios. local arts agencies. sculpture. Estelle Jorgensen. video. Overview Historically art was taught in Europe via the atelier Method system where artists' took on apprentices who learned their trade in much the same way as any guild such as the Masons (stonemasons or goldsmiths etc. Historically. define K-12 art learning today. Elliott. and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. Education in art takes place across the life-span. It can be asserted that other art activities involve imaginative interpretation. weaving. interpreting and discovering appropriate marks to reproduce an observed phenomena. sequential approach by a qualified instructor as part of the core curriculum.[27] Many contemporary music scholars assert that music advocacy will only be truly effective when based on empirically sound arguments that transcend political motivations and personal agendas. The only flaw to this test is the different age groups. and adults learn about art in community based institutions and organizations such as museums.

studio praxis (empirical investigation) and phenomenology.) and their many schools. In the seventies of last century were national examinations common in almost all secondary schools. ―criticism‖ is understood to be criteria-based analysis established on acknowledged elements of composition and principles of design which often vary in their verbal articulation. between the different art discipline forms (applied. Others have shifted to visual culture and diversity models.[1] Also see Betty Edwards' Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. discussions about the right way and fights for equal qualification supposedly . fine. Other art educational systems include the study of Aesthetics. Over the years struggles and problems. Current literature in the United states has shifted away from DBAE but many classrooms still use this model. In the UK the art curriculum is prescribed by the government's National Curriculum except in public or fee paying schools. performing. varies greatly between communities and between schools in various cultures. due to art activities' exercising their brains' right hemispheres and delateralizing their thinking. One form of this teaching style is the Atelier Method as exemplified by Gustave Moreau who taught Picasso. The Netherlands Art education in schools is in The Netherlands strongly improved by the founding of the Dutch Art Teachers Association in 1880 and their Magazine (in 1881). Prince Charles has created The Prince's Drawing School in Hoxton to preserve the teaching of academic drawing. United Kingdom Prince Albert was particularly influential in the creation of schools of Art in the UK. semantics. Some professional artists specialize in private or semi-private instruction in their own studios. Some studies show that strong art education programs have demonstrated increased student performance in other academic areas. There is no set art education curriculum content – it is a process of continual often acrimonious cultural negotiation. Art education is not limited to formal educational institutions. TAB suggests that students should be the artists and so guided on their own individual artistic interests through technique lessons and critiques. Braque and many other artists. In most systems. however. & etc. ontology. Another is an artist apprenticeship in which the student learns from a professional artist while assisting the artist with their work. Teaching for Artistic Behavior (TAB) is a theory that began in the 1970s in the United States. while being exposed to art history as it relates to their own work.JESSIE REX V. Cultural-Historical and CriticalResponsive‖ components in Canada Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE) came to favor in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. and it focused on specific skills including techniques. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Prominent models include:      A sixfold model divided into "Creative-Productive. Current UK's curriculum is focus on interdisciplinary approach. Support for art education. art criticism and art history.

Princeton and Yale had emerged as the leading American art academies. After 2010. which was known as ―Art in Daily Living‖.[2] The picture study movement died out at the end of the 1920s as a result of new ideas regarding learning art appreciation through studio work became more popular in the United States. the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. an estimate of 25% of the nation's public high schools will end all art programs.[citation needed] With No Child Left Behind (NCLB)[when?] (which retains the arts as part of the "core curriculum". home.[citation needed] National organizations promoting arts education include Americans for the Arts[4] including Art. American artists who might once have studied at bohemian. Ask For More. Bill in 1944.[3] This trend spread from the United States around the world.. and contemporary art has become an increasingly academic and intellectual field. but does not require reporting or assessment data on this area) there has been additional decline of arts education in American public schools. The idea was to bring culture to the child to change the parents.[citation needed] The United States Department of Education now awards Arts in Education Model Development and Dissemination grants to support organizations with art expertise in their development of artistic curricula. which sent a wave of World War II veterans off to school.[citation needed] Enrollment in art classes at the high school level peaked in the late 1960s—early 1970s. By the 60s. The School of Visual Arts. and community. University art departments quickly expanded.. the San Francisco Art Institute. United States The study of art appreciation in America began with the Picture Study Movement in the late 19th century and began to fade at the end of the 1920s.JESSIE REX V. The details however are of great interest for who will compare these developments with those in his own country. Picture study was an important part of the art education curriculum. Pratt Institute. Association for the Advancement of Arts Education. With his books on how to educate children in their free expression (Hidden possibilities | Verborgen Mogelijkheden (8 volumes | delen). the School of the Museum of Fine Arts. Leiden 1961)) he changed the entire educational landscape. facilitated by "the passage of the G.[citation needed] American educational philosopher and school reformer John Dewey was influential in broadening access to art education in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century. Attention to the aesthetics in classrooms led to public interest in beautifying the school. The painter Maarten Krabbé (1908–2005) changed the whole approach towards children drawing and painting.[5] its national arts education public awareness campaign. Since that time the Bachelor of Fine Arts and then the Master of Fine Arts became recommended degrees to be a professional artist. POLICARPIO BEED II-C coloured the history of art education in the Netherlands as in other countries.I. Arts Education Partnership. craft-intensive schools like the Art Students League. began enrolling at universities instead. Prior to World War II an artist did not usually need a college degree. or the Hans Hofmann School of Art in Greenwich Village. He showed how to handle the very delicate talents of children and how to treasure these. artist training has moved to colleges and universities. Since World War II. uitbeeldingsmogelijkheden voor jonge handen (Sijthoff. art school included.[6] . Black Mountain College. and Cooper Union in New York City and other art schools across the country like the Kansas City Art Institute. Boston.

. can be achieved. ages.[7] which publishes the practitioner's magazine Art Education and the research journal Studies in Art Education. sensing the possibilities and problems of those selves within oneself. Olivia Gude. in a way that allows children to understand and practice democracy within their immediate surroundings. but also learn to perceive their individual works of art as representations of themselves. the self becomes vitally interested in other selves. With the encouragement of art education. rather. students not only learn how to manipulate traditional and modern tools and mediums in the art creation process. more open self who incorporates the sensations and experiences of others into one’s own perceptions of the world and into one’s contributions to collective decision making. engagement with the arts teaches youth to perceive complexity as pleasure and possibility. She asserts that: Through art education. and it will not prevail if these ideas are not recognized. youth develop the capacity to attend to nuances of meaning. from an early age. for the betterment of their existence. . respect of differences is the only way unity can be attained. and abilities. And they realize that. A democracy cannot long function as the tyranny of uncaring majorities over various minorities of interest. Democracy requires that difference be perceived not as an assault on selfhood.[citation needed] . while every human being perceives reality in a way that is unique to them. Through art. spoke about the numerous ways in which art education is instrumental in forming an informed self. students develop enhanced skills for understanding the meaning making of others. Through quality art education. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Professional organizations for art educators include the National Art Education Association.JESSIE REX V. and that individual characteristics need not be lost in a collective – but. The vividness of art experiences blurs the boundaries between self experience and the experiences of another. and to openly attempt to understand the emotional representations in the work of fellow artists. the 2009 recipient of the prestigious National Art Education Association’s Lowenfeld Lecture Scholarship. [10] Art education promotes the very values after which the United States was fashioned. nor can it long function when powerful minorities disregard the interests and needs of the majority. genders. complement and enhance the process of creation of a better civilization. Education through the visual arts is an important and effective influence in allowing students. embodied in other races. USSEA (the United States Society for Education through Art) and InSEA (the International Society for Education through Art[8]). democracy requires that individuals within a society believe in a philosophy of equality. Through artworks. individuals believe that they can impact the world around them. Heightened self-awareness is extended to heightened awareness of others .and world-aware citizen. to comprehend and implement the foundational democratic process emphasized within the United States societal structure. as their natural enthusiasm for discovery of self and others prospers. students absorb the perceptions of others— situated in other times and places. They believe that a common goal. but as an invitation to be a fuller. not as irritating uncertainty. [9] On a fundamental level. classes. Most significantly. In a society established on a democratic process.

ideas and resources. PhD. 2. Fajardo. games. teachers and students of varied discipline. PHYSICAL EDUCATION Definition of Physical Education | Body Fitness and health Education Physical Education is the process by which changes in the individual are bought about through movements experiences. and the sharing of materials. gymnastic. culture and education. It has supported art educators through in-service sessions. through the years. According to Webster’s Dictionary Physical education is a part of education which gives instructions in the development and care of the body randing from simple callisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene. other art and crafts applications and techniques. The two ladies laid the cornerstone in creating what has to become of our art education: a noble profession. PAEA. and integration of creativity into the different subject areas.JESSIE REX V. Barrow defined Physical Education as an education of and through human movement where many of educational objectives are achieved by means of big muscle activities involving sports. It has maintained connections with other organizations here and abroad through art exchanges and representations in international conferences. in order to strengthen its foundation. and Araceli Dans. two of the country’s creative minds merged their ideas and founded the Philippine Art Educators Association. dance and exercise. The PAEA has now become what they have dreamed of. encourages membership from diverse domains: people who are engaged in multifarious interests in life but who has unquenched passion for art. teaching methodologies. Physical Education aims not only at physical development but is also concerned with education of the whole person through physical activities. It has provided opportunities for cooperative study while discussing common problems and experiences related to the teaching of art. flourish and spring into something very new from its roots of rich background. there are more than two hundred members from private and public schools and other institutions in the Philippines being supported by this association. newsletters. Presently. has conducted art workshops on different topics: art education. Various Definitions of Physical Education are – 1. membership meetings. POLICARPIO BEED II-C Art Education In The Philippines In 1968. trainings and workshops. They were Brenda V. artists and educators and are both luminaries of art education in the country today. These are the people whose commonality is to be a part of the art education in the country and help it go forward. cultural workers and practicing artists. PAEA. gymnastics and the performance and management of athletics games. art educators who are currently involved in school at any level. .

Arizona. Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. or Frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. . Jackson R. or P. this is an important lesson learnt through PE as a preparation for future life.for a growing child. USA). etc. etc. . . is a field of endeavour which has as its aim the development of physically. strengthening of bones.acts as motivation.‖ 5. body tone.. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing. Central Advisory Board of physical Education and Recreation defines Physical education as an education through physical activities for the development of total personality of the child to its fullness and perfection in body. Sharman points out that physical education is that part of education which takes place through activities. children look forward to the PE class . while teaching a unit about lacrosse (in.PE takes the child out of the confines of the classroom & out into the open air ..mere academics is not enough to build a well-grounded personality. bring one closer to nature/natural surroundings. say.[1 Trends Physical education trends have developed recently to incorporate a greater variety of activities. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above). numerous studies have shown that proper exercise started at any age [including the 60s & above] can benefit the individual. Bucher defines physical education. where lacrosse originated. For example..Leadership qualities are also inculcated. . 4. relax the mind. which involves the motor mechanism of human body which results in an individual’s formulating behaviour patterns.winning & losing are part of any sport/game. healthy competition. students can also learn a little bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada. walking/hiking. mentally. Introducing students to activities like bowling. instills discipline. are all very essential. and can help students learn about different cultures. . Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity. POLICARPIO BEED II-C sports provide & enhance social skills like cooperation.) or gymnastics (gym or gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting. being a team-player. mind and spirit General reasons of having Physical Education it is for all-round development of helps relieve stress.JESSIE REX V. . the development of muscles. as well as delegating & working together.E. Charles A. you require a healthy body which translates into a healthy & alert mind. act as a 'break' from studies. emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view to realizing these outcomes. Ed. an integral part of total education process. .

Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. as well as state-of-the-art exercise machines in the upper grades. This is more prevalent at the elementary school level. individual/dual sports. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum. including lessons on bullying. important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut. and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have on young children. The Child Nutrition and WIC Re-authorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. team sports.JESSIE REX V. gymnastics. Educators also found the use of other technologies . Indonesia and Malaysia. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports. dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully reviewed drills and exercises. It is. the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities. Technology Use in Physical Education New technology in Physical education is playing a big role in classes. are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves.[3] Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex.E. One of the most affordable and effective would be a simple tape recorder. flag football. school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics.[2] While teaching students sports and movement skills. and heart rate monitors. In the USA. mental. such as dodge ball. the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. The four aspects of P. and dance. This push towards health education is beginning in the intermediate level. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics. a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources.E. self esteem and stress and anger management. With the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu. teachers. like wrestling in the United States. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification. In these areas. Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. rhythms. including exposure to the education with the use of pedometer. POLICARPIO BEED II-C which may now be required of many P. where students do not have a specific Health class. Studies show that students do find this more effective than having someone just telling them what they are doing wrong and trying to correct it[5]. conditioning activities. are physical. social. With the use of a tape recorder students can see the mistakes they're making in things such as a throwing motion or swinging form[4]. and emotional. fitness. In 1975. Some martial arts classes. P. Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education curriculum. and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. GPS. however. and Pencak Silat in France.E.

physical exams are rarely done. football. pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every week. sports such as golf. sit-ups. tennis. badminton. third and fourth year. standing broad jump. rounders. shooting. silver. Projectors can be used to show students things such as proper form or how to play certain games. usually after examination. In Scotland. except during examination seasons. and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam. Pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher. using them to make step and heart rate goals for students[6]. second. is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. NAPFA. sepak takraw. In most secondary schools. From middle school to secondary school pupils must participate in PE classes 2 hours per week. and basketball during most sessions. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges. it is mandatory for pupils to take 3 hours of PE through primary and secondary schools. PE is voluntary. games like badminton. Sport Festival can be held during vacuum period. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/Inclined pull-ups for girls. futsal. Kindergarten until Grade 3 of Elementary students have gymnastics. pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as an extra-curricular activity.6 km for primary [10-12 yearolds]/2. PE find its place in extracurricular forms. pupils are expected to do at least two periods of PE in first.[citation needed] In Indonesia. captain's ball. In Malaysia. basketball. sit-and-reach and 1. GPS systems can be used to get students active in an outdoor setting and Wii systems like Wii Fit can be used by teachers to show students a good way to stay fit in and out of the classroom setting[7] Worldwide In Korea. schools record pupils' heights. GPS and even Wii systems such as Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution. In Singapore. Starting from Junior High School. fencing. Students are graded by gold. At this time students . bronze or fail. soccer. In Portugal. starting from Grade 4 of Elementary School. tennis. Unorthodox sports such as touchball. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail. basketball and tennis are available. Other technologies that can be used in a Physical Education setting would include projectors. students will be introduced into traditional martial arts Pencak Silat and some team games such as badminton. In fifth and sixth year. where students can specialize themself in one kind of sports they choose. Pupils are able to play games like football. students ranging from Kindergarten to High School have PE integrated with their curriculum. POLICARPIO BEED II-C such as pedometers and heart rate monitors very successful. Both gender are separated during PE class. etc. weights and how many push-ups they can do. pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination.JESSIE REX V. and skateboarding are occasionally played. In most secondary schools.4 km for secondary and junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]).

communities. • By focusing on prevention. • Health education reduces premature deaths. institutional. • The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities as well as the living and working conditions that influence their health. 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11. physical and medical sciences to promote health and prevent disease. group. employers. • Health education enhances the quality of life for all people. because it is very scoring subject and very interesting. attitudes. pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight. Educational Bodies in India like Central Board of Secondary Education and Punjab School Education Board are in those which conduct examination on Physical Education in affiliated schools and collages. some schools have integrated martial arts training into their Physical Education curriculum.JESSIE REX V. communities. disability and premature death through education-driven voluntary behavior change activities.[15] Universities must also organise at least 60 hours of physical education classes at undergraduate courses. skills and behavior. pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7. Many students chose Physical Education as a subject against Language Subject Like English. and the nation. WHY IS HEALTH EDUCATION IMPORTANT? • Health education improves the health status of individuals. • Health education is the development of individual. families. states. by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes. In England. the state and the nation would spend on medical treatment. Some universities such as ITB include PE in curriculum for freshmen In the Philippines. community and systemic strategies to improve health knowledge. POLICARPIO BEED II-C can compete each other by bringing own class' flag. pupils are expected to do at least three hours of PE a week during primary and secondary education. HEALTH EDUCATION Health education is any combination of learning experiences designed to help individuals and communities improve their health. families. medical facilities. insurance companies.[14] In Poland.[16] In India. some time national language Hindi and some time local languages like Punjabi. Physical Education is an important subject in schools.[13] In Wales. Assignments on Physical education increase the interest in Sports. psychological. health education reduces the costs (both financial and human) that individuals. WHAT IS HEALTH EDUCATION? • Health education is a social science that draws from the biological. environmental. . French.

skills. They identify needs. counselors. conduct staff training and consult with other health . CHES are re-certified every five years based on documentation of participation in 75 hours of approved continuing education activities. substance abuse prevention. • Nationally. human growth and development. etc. implementation and evaluation.). and/or advocates. employee health risk appraisals. and train peer educators. Inc (NCHEC). • In health care settings health educators educate patients about medical procedures. This will limit their effectiveness with clients and communities. They help companies meet occupational health and safety regulations. POLICARPIO BEED II-C WHO PROVIDES HEALTH EDUCATION? • Some people specialize in health education (trained and/or certified health education specialists). voluntary credentialing as a Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) is available from the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. and evaluate programs. workplaces. Lay workers learn on the job to do specific. • Working on a college/university campus. concerns. Others perform selected health education functions as part of what they consider their primary responsibility (medical treatment. resource communication) are generic to the practice of health education. health promotion and other related titles. safety and disaster preparedness. student. health educators are part of a team working to create an environment in which students feel empowered to make healthy choices and create a caring community. operations. health educators perform or coordinate employee counseling as well as education services. social work. physical fitness. promote. • Health education requires intensive specialized study. and nutrition and eating issues. substance abuse prevention. lead and/or evaluate programs about weight control. and research. medical care settings. teach whole courses or individual classes. nor is it their primary interest or professional development focus. nutrition. theories. create activities and incentives to encourage use of services by high risk patients. and Health Education needs. and promote healthy school environments and school-community partnerships. first aid. and write funding proposals. and write grants for money to support these projects. develop educational materials.JESSIE REX V. hypertension. advocate and do community organizing. services and therapeutic regimens. service coordination. stress management and smoking cessation. 2 WHERE ARE HEALTH EDUCATORS EMPLOYED? • In schools health educators teach health as a subject and promote and implement Coordinated School Health Programs. At the school district level they develop education methods and materials. Over 250 colleges and universities in the US offer undergraduate and graduate (Masters and Doctorate) degrees in school or community health education. nursing. environmental. • CHES competencies (health education needs assessment. They may manage grants and conduct research. They address issues related to disease prevention. physical therapy. • Para-professionals and health professionals from other disciplines are not familiar with the specialized body of health education knowledge. emotional. and health screenings. colleges. • In companies. promote. consumer. work with the media. develop mass media campaigns. and their cost-effectiveness. including health services. program planning. and identify community health resources for employees. coordinate. oral hygiene. whether it takes place in schools. They design. staff and parent health education. public health settings or other educational settings of the community. sexual health. limited educational tasks to encourage healthy behavior.

promote or maintain their health and reduce risky behaviors. cultural or social barriers to health. proper nutrition. alcohol and drugs. sanitation. Health Education Health Education It is concerned with communicating on those areas that are related to water supply. community health. WHAT DOES A TRAINED HEALTH EDUCATOR DO? Assess individual and community needs Plan health education programs Develop health education programs 3 Coordinate health education programs Implement health education programs Manage health education programs & personnel Evaluate health education programs Write grants Build coalitions Identify resources Make referrals Develop social marketing and mass media campaigns Organize/ mobilize communities for action Handle controversial health issues/content Advocate for health related issues Encourage healthy behavior Use a variety of education/training methods Develop audio.advocacy and develop. mental health. grantwriting. disaster management cycle. The Aim of Health Education should be - . educate individuals to protect. make appropriate community-based referrals. promote self-care. Health educators do community organizing and outreach. • In community organizations and government agencies health educators help a community identify its needs. It is the communication of information that enables people to make decisions about to follow those health-related activities at all stages of life which are conducive for proper health.JESSIE REX V. draw upon its problem-solving abilities and mobilize its resources to develop. promote. reducing the risk of communicable disease and its transmission. develop activities to improve patient participation on clinical processes. disease control. accident and first aid etc. produce. and evaluate mass media health campaigns. coalition building. and write grants. visual. print and electronic materials Conduct research Write scholarly articles Concept of Health Education – Health education is one important activity that is commonly undertaken to promote health. personal hygiene. POLICARPIO BEED II-C care providers about behavioral. implement and evaluate strategies to improve its own health status.

2. An understanding of appropriate factual information and concepts. To promote research all over the world to curb health hazards. To encourage continuing educational programmes on accurate information on diagnosis and treatment of diseases. 4. . 5. independence. To increase public awareness of symptoms and signs of disease. leadership and co-operation with others. 5. An understanding of human sexuality. 3. quit smoking and drugs. Expose students to a variety of activities and experience related to health education. treatment and control of disease.JESSIE REX V. increased self-awareness and a positive self concept. 4. To promote the family and community educational material essential for positive lifestyle habits. To create public awareness about the ill-effects of alcohol. 4. 3. To improve the knowledge and attitudes of patients about detection. physical and emotional development. Health education can be obtained through traditional college programs or through virtually such as with an online nursing degrees. To encourage health professionals to treat patients carefully. To increase public awareness that disease are significant public health problem. and a sense of responsibility. etc. To develop resource and material for use of health professionals. For Health professionals 1. A positive attitude towards physical fitness and good health. 5. attitude and skills of all health professionals regarding sign. 4. from the types of drugs that are commonly sold in our streets to how facilities like detox centers work to eliminate illicit substances from a drug addict’s system. For Patients and Public 1. 2. To increase knowledge. 2. 6. Help students to assimilate the body if knowledge appropriate to health education. interdependence. Objectives of Physical Education For Students 1. 3.People must be educated about drug addiction. 5. Help individuals develop a sound understanding of their total development and enable them to attain positive self-images. Provide opportunities for students make personal decisions related to their intellectual. A personal value system and satisfactory relationship with peers. POLICARPIO BEED II-C 1. 2. symptoms and management strategies for health hazards to improve disease control. Allow students to experience social relations that will encourage desirable behaviour. 3.


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