Unit 10

Appointments and Invitations
Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit you will be able to: Extend invitations Set, accept or decline appointments Follow the general outline of a telephone conversation in Amharic Describe different cultural celebrations Review major verb tenses

Dialog 1
Karen, a PCV, invites an Ethiopian friend to lunch. k@rN: TGST Mœ LUBZ> Karen: Tïgïst, mïsa lïgabïzïš? TGST: xY YQR¬ ²Ê xYmcኝM l@§ g!z@ Yh#N Tigist: Ay, yïk ΄ïrta, zare aymäčäñïm. Lela gize yïhun? k@rN: YÒ§L mc& XNgÂኝ Karen: Yïčalal, mäče ïnnïgänañ? ትግስት: ማክሰኞ Tigist: Makïsäño? ኬረን: Eሺ የት Eንገናኝ Karen: Ïšši. Yät ïnnïgänañ? ትግስት: ራስ ሆቴል Tigist: Ras Hotel? ኬረን: ይቻላል በስንት ሰዓት ይመችሻል Karen: Yïčalal, bäsïnt sä’at yïmäčïšal? ትግስት: በሰባት ሰዓት Tigist: Bä säbat sä’at.

Grammar Point
Making Suggestions Using “Let’s” Making suggestions involves use of the jussive form of the verb. The jussive is formed by adding an appropriate prefix to the male form of the imperative verb. A common use of the jussive expresses “let’s” do something:
XN

ïnnï + imperative verb form for male person = let’s

The dialog makes use of the jussive form of ¥GßT mägäñät [tgß tägäñä], as in: Mc& XNgÂኝ Mäče ïnnïgänañ? When shall we meet?

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Look at the following examples: Infinitive mäblat mät΄ät΄at mÿD mähed mÅwT mäč΄awät mGÆT mägbat mät΄änk΄äk’
mB§T m-ÈT

Command (male form) B§ bïla -È t΄ät΄a £D hid tÅwT täč΄awät GÆ gïba tät΄änk΄äk΄

Let’s ___! ïnnïbïla ïnnït΄ät’a XN£D ïnnïhid XNÅwT ïnnïč’awät XNGÆ ïnnïgïba ïnnït΄änk΄äk΄
XNB§ XN-È

Let’s eat! Let’s drink! Let’s go! Let’s play/chat! Let’s go in! Let’s take care.

Notice that if the command form starts with the prefix “tä-“, this prefix is dropped in forming the jussive.

Grammar Point
Expressing “Let me” or “May I?”/“Shall I?” Extending an invitation or offering something involves another form of the jussive. This form is represented in the dialog by: LUBZ> Lïgabïzïš? May I invite you? You also saw some verbs of this type in the previous unit: LlμW Lïläkaw? Can I try it? LG²L> Lïgïzalïš? Shall I buy for you (♀)? §MÈLH Lamt΄alïh. Let me bring for you (♂) When phrased as a question, this form of the jussive indicates either, “Shall I?” or “May I?”. As a statement, the sense is, “Let me” (i.e. allow me to). These sorts of phrases are formed as follows:
L

lï + imperative verb form for male person

Examples: LöY Lïk΄oy L£D Lïhid

Let me wait. / Shall I wait? Let me go. / Shall I go?

Common uses: LUBZH Lïgabïzïh? (♂)/LUBZ> Lïgabïzïš? (♀) / LUB²Ch# Lïgabïzaččïhu (pl)? May I invite you? LRÄH Lïrdah? (♂)/LRÄ> Lïrdaš? (♀)/LRÄCh# Lïrdaččïhu (pl)?Shall I help you?

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Notice that these verbs attach the indirect object suffix –H-ïh (♂)/->-ïš? (♀) / -xCh#aččïhu (pl) to express to whom the action refers. Object suffixes are always attached to the end of the jussive verb.

Practice
Take the following commands, and turn them into a “Let’s!” suggestion: 1. Mœ b!ዪ Mïsa bïyi. 1. Xz!H öY Ïzzih k’oy. 2. ðLM GÆ Film gïba. 2. -§ -À T’älla t’äč’i. 3. b@T £©! Bet hïji. 6. tÅwt$ Täč’awätu. Translate the following into Amharic. 1. Shall I come to your (m.) office? 2. Let me invite you (f.) to lunch. 3. May I call you (m.) at night? 4. Shall I wait for you (plural) at Meta Café? 5. Shall I buy you (f. child) a candy from the shop?

Dialog 2
gBÊ: dH êLK ¶ÃN Xh#D sRG xl LUBZH?

Gebre: ¶ÃN: Ryan: gBÊ: Gebre: ¶ÃN: Ryan: gBÊ: Gebre: ¶ÃN: Ryan:

Dähna walk, Ryan. Ïhud särg allä, lïgabïzïh? y¥N sRG nW? Yäman särg näw?
ywND»

Yäwondïme.
SNT s›T §Y nW?

Sïnt sä’at lay näw?
sÆT s›T

Säbat sä’at.
X¹! dS Yl¾L xmsGÂlh#Ý

Ïšši. Däs yïläñal! Amäsägïnalähu.

Vocabulary
Important Occasions Common Meeting Places LdT lïdät birthday çt&L hotel hotel KRST krïstïna christening μØ kafe café sRG särg wedding mÂfš ï¬ mänafäša bota park MR”T mïrïk΄at graduation, blessing TÃTR b@T tiyatïr bet theater qBR k΄äbïr funeral s!n!¥ b@T sinima bet cinema GBÏ gïbža party/get-together -§ b@T t΄älla bet t’älla house SBsÆ sïbsäba meeting [bL s΄äbäl a feast held in the name of a Christian holy figure

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Practice
Practice vocabulary by inviting a classmate to the following places or event. If possible, try this without looking at your vocabulary list above! 1. birthday 4. christening 2. juice house 5. party or get-together 3. park 6. graduation

Dialog 3
släN: QÄ» ks›T MN TS‰lH?

Solomon: ¥RK: Mark: släN: Solomon: ¥RK: Mark:

Kïdame käsä’at mïn tïsäraläh? MN nW? Mïn näw?
TÃTR LUBZH

Tiyatïr lïgabïzïh?
xY YQR¬ QÄ» b@t& XNGÄ YmÈL½ xYmcኝMÝÝ

Ay, yïk΄ïrta, k΄ïdame bete ïngïda yïmät΄al. Ayïmäčäñïm.

Grammar Point
Asking If and Saying Whether It Is “Suitable” or Not The verb mmcT mämäčät [tmctämäčä] “to be suitable” is used in extending, accepting or declining invitations. Examples from the dialogs: xYmcNM Ayïmäčäñïm. It doesn’t work for me. (Lit: “It doesn’t suit me.) YmCšL Yïmäčïšal? Does that work for you (f.)? (Lit: “Does that suit you (f.) ? ) Various forms of mämäčät [tämäčä] “to be suitable” (passive verb form) Singular Plural Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative Ymc¾L YmcÂL xYmcNM xYmcኝM Xn@ ïne X¾ ïñña yïmäčäñal yïmäčänal ayïmäčänïm ayïmäčäñïm Ymc¦L xYmCHM xNt antä yïmäčïhal ayïmäčïhïm XÂNt YmÒC“L xYmÒCh#M YmCšL xYmC>M xNcE anči yïmäčïšal ayïmäčïšïm Yïmäčäčïhual ayïmäčačïhum ïnnantä
XRSã YmCw¬L xYmCãTM

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

yïmäčïwotal
YmcêL

ayïmäčïwotïm
xYmcWM

yïmäčäwal
YmÒ¬L

ayïmäčäwïm
xYmÒTM Xns# YmÒcêL xYmÒcWM

ïssua

yïmäčatal
YmÒcêL

ayïmäčatïm
xYmÒcWM

ïnnäsu

yïmäčäčäwal

ayïmäčäčäwïm

XúcW

ïssačäw

yïmäčäčäwal ayïmäčäčäwïm

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Cultural Note
Invitations in Ethiopia It is quite common in Ethiopian culture to invite friends out for lunch, dinner, šY/b#Â šay/buna, and other more formal events. Be aware that if you are the one inviting, it is expected that you will pay for the one you have invited. Similarly, if you are invited, you can typically expect that the person who has invited you will pay for you. When coming to a special event, such as a LdT lïdät, KRSTÂ krïstïna, or any other, it is common to bring a gift. For a LdT lïdät, it is common to bring food or drink for the gathering. For a KRSTÂ krïstïna, a gift of clothing for the infant may be brought, but it is not required. When attending a särg, a good gift for a close friend is some sort of yb@T :” yäbet ïk΄a, as in BR+ö bïrč΄ïk΄o. For a recent graduate, photo frames, neckties, and shirts are common, but choose your gift according to what your friend will like. People may be very insistent when extending an invitation. To be polite in refusing an invitation, you should offer a reason that you will not be able to attend.

Practice
1. Your boss has just invited you to a lunch at a restaurant tomorrow. Construct a dialog in which you decline the invitations politely. 2. You would like to go to Sodere (a recreation park) with an office mate next weekend. Create a dialog in which you propose the appointment and get accepted.

Cultural Note
Dating and Romantic Relationships Dating (the way it is done in the western culture now) among boys and girls was introduced to Ethiopian life recently through modernization. However, in the rural societies boys and girls practice romantic friendship called ykNfR wÄJnT yäkänfär wädajïnät, literally means “lip friendship” similar to boy-and–girl-friendship. This usually doesn’t go beyond kissing (not in the open) and exchange of love lyrics in public ceremonies and wedding. For some, this relationship may lead to marriage. Traditionally, marriages were arranged by the parents with the help of elder intermediaries called >¥Gl@ šïmagïle. Today dating is becoming common among young people in bigger towns. Preparatory and college students in particular widely practice this modern kind of relationship. Ethiopians are not direct in love affairs. Girls are particularly indirect in this regard. Girls are not expected to express their interest to the guys they are attracted to. Most of the time the male takes the initiative and the female’s role is just to accept or to refuse. Women are not expected to accept the invitation immediately, either. Rather, they can show their interest not verbally but by using body language such as smiling. Whatever the response may be, the male for his part is not expected to give up his

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attempt till he gets her acceptance. This may cause some issues for volunteers, as the refusal of a relationship is not always accepted by a pursuing man. Therefore, one must be very strong and clear about his or her disinterest in starting a relationship. Homosexuality and Bisexuality Homosexuality and bisexuality are considered to be very taboo and inappropriate in Ethiopian culture. You may find that your friends and colleagues are reluctant to even talk about homosexuality. It is illegal in Ethiopia, and someone who is known to be homosexual will be outcast from his family, and may face legal consequences such as imprisonment. There are small pockets of homosexuals in Addis Ababa, but you will probably never meet an openly gay person.

Vocabulary
Telephone Conversation ¥N LbL? Man lïbäl? Who is speaking? (Lit: “Whom shall I say?) ¥N nH/n>? Man näh/näš? Who is this speaking? ____N fLጌ nbR ____n fälïge näbär. I would like ____. ____N ÃgÂß#ኝ ____n yagänañuñ Can you put me through to _______? mL:KT xlãT? Mäl’ïkt aaläwot? Can I take a message? TN> Y-Bq$ Tïnïš yït΄äbïk΄u. Just a moment, please. mL¹@ XdW§lh# Mälïše ïdäwïlalähu. I’ll call back. SLk# tY²*L Sïlku täyïzoal. The phone is busy. xYs‰M Aysäram. It is not functional. xND g!z@ Aand gize. One moment.

Dialog 4
An Informal Phone Conversation ¥„: ÿlÖ ¥N LbL? Maru: Hello man lïbäl? úéN: ÿlÖ ¥„ úéN nኝ Saron: Hello Maru. Saron näñ. ¥„: ¬Ä!ÃS úéN XNÁT n> dH n>? Maru: Tadias Saron. Ïndet näš? Dähna näš? úéN: XGz!xB/@R YmSgN dH XyWLH ng wd ¥¬ [bL QmS Saron: Ïgziabher yïmäsgän dähna. Ïyäwlïh…nägä wädä mata s΄äbäl k΄ïmäs. ¥„: X¹! Maru: Ïšši. úéN: bL X¹! ng XNgÂኝ Saron: Bäl ïšši nägä ïnnïgänañ. ¥„: Eሺ በይ ቻው Maru: Ïšši bäy, čaw.

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Dialog 5
Formal Phone Conversation xbb: ÿlÖ pES ÷R Abebe: Hello, Peace Corps. tSÍü: XÆKã wYzé xL¥ZN ¥nUgR fLg@ nbR Tesfaye: Ïbakwo Woyzäro Almazïn manägagär fälïge näbär. xbb: Y-Bq$ Abebe: Yït΄äbïk΄u. tSÍü: X¹! Tesfaye: Ïšši. … xL¥Z: ¥N LbL Almaz: Hello man lïbäl? tSÍü: tSÍü nኝ Eንደምን ዋልሽ Aልማዝ? Tesfaye: Tesfaye näñ. Ïndämïn walš Almaz? Aልማዝ: Eንደምን ዋልክ ተስፋዬ? Almaz: Ïndämïn walk Tesfaye.

Practice
Create a telephone conversation for the following situations: 1. You would like to invite your counterpart next Saturday for lunch in a restaurant. Call her/him and make the invitation. Assume it will be declined. 2. You are calling head office to speak to the doctor. Unfortunately, she is out on a field trip. Leave a message and say that you will call back.

Grammar Point
Present and Past Perfect Verb Tenses A. The Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense usually indicates something that has happened in the past (often in the near past), something that has been ‘perfected’, as it were, but also some effect on the present. This tense is usually expressed in English by, “have” or “has” done something, as in, “I have arrived”. Look at the following question and answer exchanges: A: b#ÂW xLdrsM XNÁ Bunnaw aldäräsäm ïnde? B: dRú*L Därsoal. dRS Därs + å o + xL al It is ready. (Lit It has arrrived.) [YdRúL yïdärsal (future)] A: ¬Ks!W xLmÈM? Taxiw alïmät΄am? B: m_aL Mät΄ïtoal. m_T Mät΄ït + å o + xL al It has come. [YmÈL yïmät΄al (future)] 90

A: B:

xSt&R xLÿdCM? ÿÄlC

Aster alhedäčïm? Hedaaläč. ÿD Hed + x a + xlC aläč She has gone.

[TÿÄlC tïhedaläč (future)]

The present perfect tense builds upon the gerundive, which you were introduced to in Unit 10 but is outlined in more detail in the Grammar Appendix. Note that the whole sentence ‘dRú*L Därsoal’ = root(stem) + å o + xL al, has two suffixes. The first suffix, i.e. ‘o’, marks the subject ‘he’; the second indicates present perfect. Present Perfect Forms of mÿD mähed [ÿd heddä] (to go) Person Gerundive Perfect Sentence Form Affix Marker Suffix (Present Perfect) Xn@ ïne -e-xlh# -alähu ÿ©lh# Hejealähu. I have gone.
xNt xNcE

anta anči

-äh-äš-äw-o-a-äw-än-aččïhu-äw-

-xL -all -xL -all -xL -all -xL -all -xlC -alläč -xL -all -xL -all -xL -all -xL –all

ÿd¦L ÿdšL ÿdêL

Hedähall. Hedäšall. Hedäwall. Hedoall. Hedaalläč. Hedäwall. Hedänall.

You ♂ have gone. You ♀ have gone. You (polite) have He has gone. She has gone. He/She (polite) has We have gone.

XRSã

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

gone.
ÿìxL ÿÄlC ÿdêL

ïssua

XúcW

ïssačäw X¾ ïñña
XÂNt

gone.
ÿdÂL ÿÄC“L

ïnnantä
Xns#

Hedaččïhuall. You all have They have

gone.
ÿdêL

ïnnäsu

Hedäwall.

gone.

Points to Note: You can see from the table below that the present perfect marker is -xL –all, except for in the ‘I’ and ‘she’ forms. If the verb stem ends in a consonant that palatizes, such as in –hed- above, this consonant will palatilize in the first person “I” form: hejeaalähu. Notice in the question-response examples given above that the verb mämt΄at [mät’a] “to come”, adds a “t” after its verb stem to form “mät΄ït”. There are complicated rules as to when this is done, but as a rule of thumb, if the infinitive adds a “t” to the end, the gerundive will also add a “t”. mS¥T mäsmat sMè¾L sämtoal He has heard. mGÆT mägbat gBtÂL gäbtänal We have entered. mS-T mäst΄ät s_tÂL sät΄ïtäšal You (f.) have given.

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In the first person “I” form, the combination of “t” + “e” becomes palatallized to “ïčč”: mGÆT mägbat gBÒlh# gäbïččalähu mS¥T mäsmat sMÒlh# sämïččalähu m-ÈT mät’ät’at -_Òlh# t’ät΄ïččalähu B. The Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense is expressed in English by, “had” (had done something), as in, “I had gone.” To express past perfect, we add nbR näbär to the verb root + gerundive affix indicated above (i.e. the present perfect without the “-xL al”, “-xlh# alähu”, “-xlC alläč” marker). The näbär is not affixed; it is written as a separate word. Look at the following examples: a.
b 1965 ys§M ÙD çß@ wd x!T×ùÃ mÈh#ÝÝ

Bä 1965 yäsälam guad hoñe wädä

ityop΄ya mät΄ahu. kz!à bðT Käzia bäfit: - lÖNìN ÿË nbR London heje näbär. I had gone to London. - ymjm¶Ã Ä!G¶üN sRc& nbR Yämäjämäriya degreeyen särïče näbär. I had done my first degree. b. b 1965 ys§M ÙD ç wd x!T×ùà mÈCÝÝ Bä 1965 yäsälam guad hona wädä ityop΄ya mät΄ač. Käzia bäfit: - kz!à bðT lÖNìN ÿÄ nbRÝÝ London heda näbär. She had gone to London. - ymjm¶Ã Ä!G¶êN sR¬ nbRÝÝ Yämäjämäriya digriwan särta näbär. She had done his first degree.

Practice
Conjugate the verb mB§T mäblat [b§ bäla] in the present perfect tense. Have your LCF help you. Then, try to conjugate it in the past perfect tense, in your own. Translate the following sentences into Amharic. Use the table above for help. 1. The office manager has left. 2. We have waited here all day. 3. The bread has run out [xlq aläk΄ä]! (As in, “We are out of bread.”) 4. Almaz has made a good lunch 5. I have sent a letter to my brother. 6. They have spoken. Now translate the following into Amharic using the past perfect tense. 1. They had wanted to go to the park, but the rain came. 2. By the time I left Ethiopia [x!T×ùÃN SlQ it΄yop΄yan sïläk΄], I had learned Amharic perfectly! 3. She had told me this. 4. When they arrived, we had already gone.

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Application
Ask your training manager for details about the Host Family Celebration that will occur at the end of your PST. Then, extend an invitation to your host family members. Practice accepting and declining invitations that you might receive from community or host family members. Remember to be polite and give an appropriate excuse. You are organizing a workshop on measures to be taken to protect the environment. Create telephone conversation dialogs in which you are trying to invite the following people to the workshop: a. Ministry of Agriculture district officer. (He is out on a business trip- leave a message with his secretary) b. Director of the local health center. (You are lucky this time. Tell her about the meeting.) c. A friend in the Ministry of the Environment. (Tell her about the meeting and invite her for a lunch in the local branch of the Ras Hotel.)

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script mGÆÆT mnUgR mwÃyT መጨዋወT NGGR Ùdኛ ማ-Âqቅ ማSfጸM ¥μሄD

m-Ãyቅ ፍቅረኛ ጥN”ቄ

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Unit 11
Dealing with Harassment
Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit you will be able to: Respond to both verbal and non-verbal forms of harassment Use appropriate language to reject sexual advances

Dialog 1
: Emily: x@l!ÃS: Elias: x@¸l! : Emily: x@l!ÃS: Elias: x@¸l! : Emily: x@l!ÃS: Elias: x@¸l! : Emily:
x@¸l! ¬Ä!ÃS x@l!ÃS s§M nW?

Tadias Elias. Sälam näw? x@¸l!! dHÂ n> yT XyÿD> nW? Emily! Dähna näš? Yät ïyähedš näw?
wd b@t& XyÿDk# nWÝ

Wädä bete ïyähedku näw. L¹ኝ>? Lïšäñïš?
YÒ§LÝ

Yïčalal.
lMN šYb#Â xNLM?

Lämïn šay bunna anïlïm.
dS Yl¾LÝ

Däs yïläñal.

Vocabulary
Words and Expressions that Might Indicate Sexual Advances ( to a female) xBrN XN£D Abrän ïnhid? Shall I accompany you? b@t&N §úÃ> Beten lasayïš? Can I show you my house? SLK xl>? SLK>N SÀኝ Sïlk alläš? Sïlkïšïn sïč’ïñ. Do you have a phone? Give me your (phone) number. xMéBšL Amrobïšal. You look beautiful. L¹ኝ>? lïšäñïš? May I accompany you? nFS n>Näfïs näš. You are beautiful, sexy. LúM> Lïsamïš. Can I kiss you? xBrN XNdR Abïrän ïnïdär? Shall we spend the night together? šY b#Â XNbL Šay buna ïnïbäl. Let’s have tea/coffee. lMN šY b#Â xNLM? Lämïn šay bunna anïlïm? Why don’t we have tea/coffee?

Dialog 2
Read the dialog below and find out how Sarah rejects the sexual advance. ÄêET: nFሴ ¬M¶Ãl>! Dawit: Näfïse tamrialäš! ú‰: xmsGÂlh# Sarah: Amäsägïnälähu. ÄêET: XwDšlh#! 94

Dawit: ú‰: Sarah: ÄêET: Dawit: Sarah:

Ïwädšalähu!
xZÂlh# Ùd¾ xlኝ

Aznalähu.guadäña alläñ. b!ñé>S? Binorïšïs? (keeps silent)

Vocabulary
Phrases to Reject Sexual Advances xY xLfLGM Ay! Alfälïgïm. No, I don’t want. xYÒLM Ayïččalïm. That is not possible. xY Xck#§lh# Ay, ïčäkulalähu. No, I am in a hurry. Ùd¾ xlኝ Guadäña alläñ. I have a boy/girl friend. Xô¾ xlኝ Ïč’oña alläñ. I have a fiancée (fiancé). xGBÒlh# Agbïčalähu. I am married. ÆlTÄR nኝ Balätïdar näñ. I am married. (stronger and formal) dS xTLM Däs atïlïm. You don’t look good. xSqø Asïk΄äyami. Ugly. x¬FRM Attafïrïm? Don’t you feel ashamed? øR bL/bY Zor bäl! / bäy! Go away! (to a ♂/♀) BÒüN mçN XfLUlh# Bïčayen mähon ïfälïgalähu. I would like to be by myself. Ælg@ Baläge! Rude! Rejecting Sexual Advances:
XwDšlh# xZÂlh# Ùd¾/ Xô¾ ÆL/ xlኝ Azïnalähu guadäña / ïč΄oñña / bal aläñ. xLfLGM / xYÒLM / BÒüN mçN XfLUlh# Alfälïgïm. /Ayïčalïm. / Bïčayen mähon ïfälïgalähu. xLfLGM/ xY l@§ g!z@ Alfälïgïm./ Ay lela gize. xmsGÂlh#

Ïwädïšalähu
L¹ኝ>

Lïšäñïš?
b@t&N §úY>

Beten lasayïš?
¬M¶Ãl>

Tamrialäš.
LúM>

Amäsägïnälähu. (Or pretend you heard nothing.)
xLfLGM/ xYÒLM x¬FRM

Lïsamïš.
xBrN XNdR

Abïrän ïnïdär?
XwDšlh#

Alfälïgïm. / Ayïčalïm. / xSqø / øR bL Atafïrïm? / Asïkäyami. / Zor bäl!
Xn@M

Accepting Sexual Advances: Ïwädšalähu.
L¹ኝ>

Lïšäñïš?
b@t&N §úY>

Beten lasayïš?
¬M¶Ãl>

Tamrialäš.
LúM>

Ïnem. (Me too.) X¹! / YÒ§L Ïšši. / Yïčalal. X¹! / YÒ§L Ïšši. / Yïčalal. xmsGÂlh# / xNtM ¬M‰lH Amäsägïnälähu. /Antäm tamraläh. X¹! /YÒ§L / xF‰lh#

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Lïsamïš
xBrN XNdR

Abïrän ïnïdär?

Ïšši. / Yïčalal. / Afralähu.(I’m shy.) X¹! / YÒ§L Ïšši. / Yïčalal.

Cultural Note
Sexual Harassment in Ethiopia Even though sexual harassment is illegal in many countries, the perception each community has towards unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or any other verbal or physical behavior of a sexual nature may differ slightly. Among Ethiopian communities most of the time it is males who harass females. Harassing behaviors may include, but are not limited to, written or spoken epithets; derogatory or sexually suggestive comments or slurs about an individual’s body or dress; sexual jokes and innuendo; whistling or suggestive sounds; stalking, impeding or blocking movement; and touching, fondling, or intentional brushing against an individual’s body. Relatively speaking, verbal sexual harassment is common in Ethiopia. Ethiopian women tend to ignore or “turn a deaf ear” to these overtures. Verbal harassment is often not considered to be outright harassment by people of either gender. However other (especially physical) types of harassment are taken seriously and will generally result in consequences being taken against the harasser.

Grammar Point
Negative Imperatives You have already worked with the imperative, or command, form of the verb. To form the negative imperative form (“don’t go”, “don’t say”, “don’t eat”), simply add the prefix atï- to the imperative form. Positive Command Negative Command Touch! Don’t touch! Don’t touch me! Nμ nïka xTNμ atïnka xTNμኝ atïnkañ! To a male Nk! Nïki xTNk! atïnki xTNk!ኝ atïnkiñ! To a female Nk# nïku xTNk# atïnku xTNk#ኝ atïnkuñ! To plural Nk# nïku / xTNk# atïnku / xTNk#ኝ atïnkuñ! / Polite YNk# yïnku xYNk# ayïnku xYNk#ኝ ayïnkuñ! Note that the first “ï” sound of the positive command often is not pronounced in the negative command (i.e. Nμ nïkka, but xTNμ atï-nkka).

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Practice
Change the following commands into the negative form: 6. ÚF s’af 1. Nμ nïka 2. 3. 4. 5.
Ws©! B‘ £Ç „-#

wïsäji

7. 8. 9. 10.

Y¬-b# -À G²

yïtat’äbu

bïyi hidu rut’u

t’äč’i “You! You!” bälu.

gïza

† † bl#

Cultural Note
Threatening, Harassing, or Disrespectful Body Language Wagging the fingers to and from you with the palm down and with (usually) the arms stretched means ‘come.’ Pointing the index finger towards an individual and then moving the hand forward and backward (“don’t you dare”) indicates warning. Waving the index finger left and right means no. Biting ones own lower lip, especially if it is accompanied by nodding forward and backward, means threatening someone. Putting hands in the pocket while talking with elders shows disrespect. As in America, raising a middle finger with the palm up while the remaining fingers are folded is an obscene and offensive gesture.

Cultural Note
Safety Tips for Female Volunteers You will commonly be asked about your marital status, so don’t say you are single unless you want to be with someone. Dressing in a culturally inappropriate way (short skirts, revealing tops, see-through clothing) will attract attention and harassment. Sitting with open legs, showing upper part of knees, or laughing loudly in the presence of older persons, especially for girls, is considered culturally inappropriate. It is not usually appreciated if Ethiopian women drink alcohol in a bar and get drunk. Therefore, it may not be appropriate – or safe! – for you.

Vocabulary
mäsam [úm samä] to kiss mNμT mänkat [nμ näka] to touch ¥fqR mafïk΄är [xfqr afäk΄ärä] to love
múM

mäfrat [f‰ fära] to be afraid ¥fR mafär [xfrafärä] to be shy ¹RÑÈ šärmut΄a prostitute, bitch, slut
mF‰T

Application
1. Use the vocabulary and negative imperative forms that you have learned to respond appropriately to harassment you might receive within your training community. Report the phrases you used in the next class. 97

2. Create a skit for the following situations and perform it in class: a. A child is following you down the street, calling, “frNJ Färenj! frNJ Färenj! Money money money!” React to the behavior appropriately. b. Someone has expressed to you what might be considered to be a sexual advance. React appropriately, giving reasons.

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
XNÁT nW? s§M nW? -@ÂYS_Lኝ XÂmsGÂlN ÒW dHÂ êl#

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Unit 12
Telling a Story

Learning objectives
At the end of this unit you will be able to: Tell a simple story Use the simple past and the past and present continuous tenses including negative forms Use time adverbs and time clauses Use definite direct objects appropriately in the simple past and the compound imperfect tenses

Grammar Point
The Simple Past The following tables describe how to conjugate verbs for the simple past tense. I.
mçN

Mähon [çn honä] “to be” (irregular) Plural Present nN nän
ÂCh#

Affirmative Pronoun Xn@ ïne xNt antä xNcE anči
XRSã

Singular Present Past n" näñ nbRk# näbärku nH näh nbRK näbärk n> näš nbR> näbärš
nãT nW ÂT

Pronoun X¾ ïñña
XÂNt

Past
nbRN

näbärn

ïrswo Xs# ïssu Xú* ïssua
XúcW

näwot

nb„ nbr

näbäru

ïnnantä

näčïhu

nb‰Ch#

näbäračïhu

näw nat/ nC načäw

näbärä nbrC näbäräč
nb„

näč ïssačäw
ÂcW

Xns#

näbäru

ïnnäsu

ÂcW

načäw

nb„

näbäru

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Negative Pronoun Xn@ ïne
xNt xNcE

Singular Present Past
xYdlh#M xYdlHM xLnbRk#M xLnbRKM

Pronoun

Plural Present
xYdlNM

Past
xLnbRNM

aydälähum alnäbärkum aydälähïm
xYdl>M

ïñña

aydälänïm
xYd§Ch#M

alnäbärnïm
xLnb‰Ch#M

antä anči

alnäbärkïm
xLnbR>M XÂNt

aydäläšïm
xYdl#M

alnäbäršïm
xLnb„M

ïnnantä

aydälačïhum

alnäbäračïhum

XRSã

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

aydälum
xYdlM

alnäbärum
xLnbrM

aydäläm
xYdlCM

alnäbäräm
xLnbrCM Xns# xYdl#M xLnb„M

ïssua

aydäläčïm
xYdl#M

alnäbäräčïm
xLnb„M

ïnnäsu

aydälum

alnäbärum

XúcW

ïssačäw II.

aydälum
mçN

alnäbärum

Mähon [çn honä] “to become” simple past tense (irregular)

Practice
Underline the roots in the following verb forms. Singular Pronoun Present Past Pronoun Xn@ ïne n" näñ çNk# honku X¾ ïñña xNt antä nH näh çNK honk
xNcE

Plural Present nN nän näčïhu

Past
çNN

honïn honačïhu

anči

n>

näš näwot näw nat/ nCnäč načäw

çN> çn# çn

honš

XÂNt

XRSã

ïnnantä

ÂCh#

çÂCh#

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

nãT nW ÂT

honu honä honäč
Xns#

ïssua

çnC çn#

XúcW

ïnnäsu

ÂcW

načäw

çn#

honu

ïssačäw

ÂcW

honu

Note: the negative of the verb ‘to become’ is not common, but follows a regular pattern (xLçNk#M alhonkum, etc.)

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Reading About Famous People I. Michael Jackson

¥YKL

©sN

¤Q

zÍ"

tw²ê™

nbrÝÝ

bm§W ›lM

y¬wq

Michael Jackson talak΄ zäfañ ïnna täwazawaž näbärä. Bämälaw aaläm yätawäk΄ä nbrÝÝ näbärä. Supplementary Vocabulary bm§W ›lM bämälaw aaläm in the whole world tw²ê™ täwazawaž dancer y¬wq yätawäk΄ä famous’ lit. known II. Pele

p&l@ B‰z!§êE xh#N yB‰z!L

nWÝÝ

bLJnt$

l!STé

nbrÝÝ

s!ÃDG ¬§Q

XGR μ*S

tÅêC

çnÝÝ

Pele Brazilawi näw. Bälïjïnätu listro näbärä. Siadïg talak΄ ïgïr kwas täč’awač honä.
yS±RT ¸n!STR nWÝÝ

Ahun yäBrazil yäsport ministïr näw. Supplementary Vocabulary l!STé listro a shoeshine boy XGR μ*S ïgïr kwas football tÅêC täčawač player yS±RT ¸n!STR yäsport ministïr Minister of Sports

101

Grammar Point
Time Clauses The formation of the clause s!ÃDG siadïg = s! si + xDG adïg in example II above. s! Si- is a prefix and means “when”. ÃDG Adïg is a root of ¥dG madäg [xdg adägä] and means to grow up. So s!ÃDG siadïg means “when he grows up”. Combining s!ÃDG siadïg with the past tense verb çn honä makes the meaning past, as in, “when he grew up”. Siadïg talak΄ ïgïr kwas täč’awač honä. When he grew up, he became a great football player.
s!ÃDG ¬§Q XGR μ*S tÅêC çn ÝÝ

There are two verbs in this sentence and only the second one shows the tense. The first one is part of the time clause. The verb honä determines the tense; he became (past tense). Time clauses can be used to express the present or future:
kTMHRT b@T SmlS œÑ Xg²lh#

Kä tïmïhïrt bet sïmäläs, samuna ïgäzallähu. When I come back from school, I will buy soap. Kä tïmïhïrt bet sïmäläs, samuna gäzahu. When I came back from school, I bought soap.

kTMHRT b@T SmlS œÑ g²h#

SmlS

Sïmäläs = S sï + mlS mäläs. The full conjugation is given in the table below.

mmlS

Mämäläs [tmls tämäläsä] “to return” Singular/ n-§ Nät΄äla Plural/ Bz# Bïzu Xn@ ïne SmlS sïmäläs X¾ ïñña xNt antä STmlS sïtïmäläs XÂNt ïnnantä xNcE anči STml> sïtïmäläš XRSã ïrswo s!mls# simäläsu Xs# ïssu s!mlS simäläs Xns# ïnnäsu Xú* ïssua STmlS sïtïmäläs XúcW ïssačäw s!mls# simäläsu

SNmlS STmls#

sïnnïmäläs sïtïmäläsu

s!mls#

simäläsu

Notice that in addition to the changing prefixes, some forms add a gender or number marker to the end. In the “xNcE anči” form, an “-i” is added to the end, OR the consonant geminates, as above. In the “XÂNt ïnantä” and “Xns# ïnnäsu/ XRSã ïrswo/ XúcW ïssačäw” forms, a “-u” is added.

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Practice
Complete the table of time clauses below with the verb madäg [adägä] “to grow up”. Singular/ n-§ Nät΄äla Plural/ Bz# Bïzu Xn@ ïne X¾ ïñña úDG sadïg xNt antä
xNcE

anči ïrswo
s!ÃDG

XÂNt

ïnnantä

XRSã Xs# Xú*

ïssu ïssua ïssačäw

siadïg
Xns#

ïnnäsu

XúcW

Translate the following into English: Xs# s!ÿD ïssu sihed ___________________________
Xú* STÿD Xn@ SmÈ

ïssua sïthed ïne sïmät΄a antä sïtmät΄a zïnabu sizänb ïne sirïbäñ

___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

xNt STmÈ ZÂb# s!zNB Xn@ s!Rb"

XÂNt ST=Rs#

ïnnantä sitč΄ärïsu ___________________________

Grammar Point
Time Phrases In the phrase bLJnt$ bälïjïnätu (in Example II above) b bä means when as in “when he was a child” or “in his childhood”. (LJnT lïjïnät means childhood). More examples of this use are: bäwät΄atïnätu in his youth bädïro gize once upon a time lit. in ancient or past times

bwÈTnt$ bDé g!z@

Practice
I. Choose a few famous people from American history. Tell your LCF about these people. Use the past form of the verb ‘to be’. Ask your LCF to tell you about a few famous people from Ethiopian history. II. Answer the following questions using a form of verb to be. 1. b1960 X.x.x. yx»¶μ PÊz!ÄNT ¥N nb„? Bä 1960 G.C yäAmerica president man näbäru?

103

2. ymjm¶Ã dr© TMHRT b@T Ùd¾H/> ¥N nbr nbrC? Yä mäjämäriya däräja tïmïhïrt bet gwadäňah/š man näbärä/näbäräč? Describing a Process: Look at the following sequence of pictures depicting the process of making coffee in the Ethiopian way. Then read the description beneath each picture and underline the sequence markers.

bmjm¶Ã kz!à kz!à q_lÖ b#ÂWN wq-C

b#Â ö§C

x-bC

Bämäjämäriya bunna at΄äbäč Käziya bunnawn k΄olač. Käziya wäk΄ät΄äč.
xf§C

First, she washed the coffee beans. Then, she roasted the coffee Then she ground it. Next she boiled it.

Kät΄ïlo afälač.
bm=ršM xqrbC

Bämäč’äräšam ak΄äräbäč.

Finally, she served it

Grammar Point
Simple Past Tense Forms of Other Verbs (Affirmative) Examples m- Mä verbs A). mÿDMähed [ÿdhedä] “to go” Singular Plural Present/Future Past Present/Future Past XÿÄlh# X¾ XNÿÄlN Xn@ ïne ÿDk# hedku ÿDN hedïn ïhedallähu ïñña ïnnïhedallän xNt antä TÿÄlHtïhedalläh ÿDK hedk XÂNt TÿħCh# ÿÄCh# Tÿ©l> xNcE anči ÿD>hedš ïnnantä tïhedalläččïhu hedaččïhu tïhejialläš XRSã ïrswo YÿÄl# yïhedallu ÿÇ hedu Xs# ïssu YÿÄL yïhedal ÿd hedä TÿÄlC Xú* ïssua ÿdC hedäč tïhedalläč

104

XúcW

YÿÄl#

ïssačäw B). ïne

yïhedallalu
mG²T

ÿÇ

hedu

Xn@

xNt

antä
xNcE

anči
XRSã

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

Mägzat [g² gäza] “to buy” Singular Present/Future Past Xg²lh# g²h# gäzahu X¾ ïñña ïgäzallähu Tg²lH g²H gäzah tïgäzalläh XÂNt Tg™Ãl> g²> gäzaš ïnnantä tïgäžiyalläš Yg²l# yïgäzallu gz# gäzu
Yg²L yïgäzal Tg²lC

Plural Present/Future Past
XNg²lN

ïngäzallän
Tg²§Ch#

g²N

gäzan

g²Ch#

tïgäzallačïhu

gäzačïhu

ïssua
XúcW

ïssačäw

tïgäzalläč Yg²l# yïgäzallu

gäza g²C gäzač
g² gz#

Xns#

Yg²l#

gäzu

ïnnäsu

yïgäzallalu

gz#

gäzu

Singular Present/Future Past
Xn@

Plural Present/Future Past ayyähu ayyäh
XÂNt ¬Ã§Ch# xÃCh# X¾

ïne

xÃlh#

xNt

antä
xNcE

ayällähu ¬ÃlH täyaläh
¬Ãl> ÃÃl# ÃÃL

xyh# xyH xy>

ïñña

XÂÃlN

ïnayallän

xyN

ayyän

anči
XRSã

tayialläš

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

yayallu

ayyäš x† ayyu ayyä xyC ayyäč
xy x†

ïnnantä

tayallačïhu

ayyaačïhu

ïssua
XúcW

yayal ¬ÃlC tayalläč
ÃÃl#

Xns#

ïssačäw

yayallu

ayyu

ïnnäsu

ÃÃl#

yayallu

x†

ayyu

Grammar Point
Simple Past Tense Forms of Other Verbs (Negative) Note: To form the negative simple past, simply add the prefix al- and the suffix –m to the affirmative simple past tense. hedku ÿDk# xL- al- hedku –m xLÿDk#M alhedkum xyh# ayyähu xL- al- xyh# ayyähu –m x§yh#M alayyähum Note: if the first letter of the verb starts with a vowel, the next consonant changes in the fourth order.
ÿDk#

105

Examples Mä verbs: mÿD Mähed [ÿd hedä] “to go” – Negative Conjugation Singular Plural Present/Future Past Present/Future Past xLÿDM xLÿDk#M xLÿDNM ïne X¾ ïñña xNÿDM alhedïm alhedkum anhedïm alhedïnïm
xTÿDM xLÿDKM m-

Xn@

xNt

antä
xNcE

athedïm
xTÿJM

alhedkïm
xLÿD>M XÂNt xTÿÇM xLÿÄCh#M

anči
XRSã

athejïm
xYÿÇM

alhedšïm
xLÿÇM

ïnnantä

athedum

alhedačïhum

ïrswo Xs# ïssu
Xú*

ayhedum
xYÿDM

alhedum
xLÿdM

ayhedïm
xTÿDM

alhedäm
xLÿdCM Xns# xYÿÇM xLÿÇM

ïssua
XúcW

athedïm
xYÿÇM

alhedäčïm
xLÿÇM

ïnnäsu

ayhedïm

alhedum

ïssačäw
¥-

ayhedum

alhedum

Ma verbs: ¥yT Mayyät [xy ayyä] “to see” – Negative Conjugation Singular Plural Present/Future Past Present/Future Past x§yh#M x§yNM Xn@ ïne x§YM alayyïm X¾ ïñña xÂYM anayyïm alayyähum alayyänïim xNt x§yHM x¬YM atayyïm antä alayyähïm XÂNt x§ÃCh#M xNcE x§y>M x¬‘M atayyim ïnnantä x¬†M atayyum alayyaačïhum anči alayyäšïm XRSã xÆM ayayyum x§†M alayyum ïrswo Xs# ïssu xÃYM ayayyïm x§yM alayyäm Xú* x§yCM x¬YM atayyïm Xns# xÆM ayayyum x§†M alayyum ïssua alayyäčïm ïnnäsu XúcW x§†M xÆM ayayyum ïssačäw alayyum

Practice
Fill in the blank spaces with the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3.
TÂNT œÑ Tinant sammuna (mG²Tmägzat) ___________.

(mG²T mägzat) ____________
ng ðLM

²ÊM

zarem

Tinant camera (mG²T mägzat) _______ mägzat) ________________.
TÂNT 컉 ÆlfW ›mT lXÂTê q¸S

nägä film (mG²T

Balläfäw amät läïnnatwa k΄ämis (mG²T mägzat)

_____________.

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4.

xÆt& wd |‰ ÿd XÂt& wd gbÃ

(mÿDmähed) _________ . __________.

Xn@

Abbate wädä sira hedä ïnnate wädä gäbäya wd Xz!H Ïne wädä ïzih (mMÈT mämït΄at)

Grammar Point
Simple Gerundive Consecutive actions in the past In English, we express consecutive actions in the past with the conjunction and. “I went to school and took a test.” “She arrived at the restaurant and drank coffee.” In Amharic, however, it is more common to see these sequences addressed using a verb form called the gerundive, which has no exact equivalent in English. Look at the following examples of how two consecutive actions in the past can be combined: 1. 2. 3. Suuk΄ hedä. Ïskripto gäza. s#Q ÿì XSK¶Pè g² Suuk΄ hedo ïskripto gäza. “He went to the store and bought a pen.” ( going to the store, he bought a pen.)
s#Q ÿd XSK¶Pè g²

The first action in all of these examples precedes and is somehow subordinate to the “main” action of the sentence: I had to go to school before I could take the test; she had to arrive at the restaurant before she could take some coffee; he had to go to the store before he could buy the pen. (look at the table below) This pattern also applied to consecutive actions in the future: (e.g. TMህRቴN XጨRúlh# tïmïrten ïč’ärsalähu ÆNK ውSጥ Xs‰lh# bank wust’ ïsäralähu TMህRቴN ጨRሼ ÆNK ውSጥ Xs‰lh# tïmïrten č’ärše bank wust’ ïsäralähu (finishing my studies, I will work at a bank) This tense can also be used in the present tense to indicate precedence of actions. It can also be used with the approximate meaning of verbs in English ending in “-ing” (e.g. éÈ mÈC rota mätač = she came running). Look at the following example of a verb in the simple gerundive. Singular/ n-§ Nät΄äla Xn@ ïne ÿË heje xNt antä ÿdH hedäh xNcE anči ÿd> hedäš XRSã ïrswo ÿdW hedäw Plural/
X¾ Bz#

ïññ

ÿdN

Bïzu hedän

XÂNt

ÿÄCh#

ïnnantä

hedaččïhu

107

Xs#

Xú* XúcW

ïssu ïssua

ïssačäw

hedo ÿÄ heda ÿdWhedäw
ÿì

Xns#

ïnnäsu

ÿdW

hedäw

The construction of this tense will be left for the Grammar Appendix. However, listen for this tense when you hear native speakers speaking.

Grammar Point
The Past and Present Continuous Tenses Observe the following sentences. Present continuous: a. [g#ÊN Xy¬-Bk# nW S΄guren ïyätat΄äbku näw. I am washing my hair. b. q$Rs@N Xyb§h# nW K΄ursen ïyäbälahu näw. I am eating my breakfast. Past continuous: i. Xn@ wd b@t& SÿD Lí XytÅwt$ nbR Ϊne wädä bete sïhed lïjoč ïyätäč’awätu näbär. When I went home, kids were playing. ii. Abbate simät΄a ïne yäbet sïrayen ïyäsärahu näbär. When my father came, I was finishing my work.
xÆt& s!mÈ Xn@ yb@T S‰üN Xys‰h# nbRÝÝ

The generalized formula for these forms is: Present continuous (affirmative) = Xy- ïyä + simple past tense verb + nW näw Past continuous (affirmative) =
Xy-

ïyä + simple past tense verb + nbR näbär

Practice
Use the correct present continous form to complete the following sentences. 1. yT XyÿD> nW? wd TMHRT b@T Yät ïyähedïš näw? Wädä tïmïhïrt bet (mÿD mähed) nW näw. 2. 3.
MN Xys‰H nW? m{/F Min ïyäsärah näw? Mäs΄ähaf manbäb) nW näw. xL¥Z μ*S

(¥NbB (mÅwT mäč΄awät) nW näw.

Almaz kwas

Use the correct past continous form to complete the following sentences. 1. ¥YKL ©KsN s!äT Xn@ ÷l@J nbR (m¥R) Michael Jackson simot ïne college (mämar)

näbär.

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2. 3.

ZÂB s!zNB X¾ ðLM nbR

Zïnab sizänb ïñña film (¥yT mayät)

näbär.

QÄ» :lT Bz# sW wd gbÃ

K΄ïdame ïlät bizu säw [wädä] gäbäya (mÿD mähed) nbR näbär.

Note: To form the negative of the continuous tenses, replace nW näw with xYdlM aydäläm in the present continuous, and nbR näbär with xLnbrM alnäbäräm in the past continuous.

Grammar Point:
Definite Direct Objects in the Simple Past The direct object is a word or phrase which identifies the one(s) affected by the action of the verb. For example: He broke the window. The action is ‘broke’; the thing affected by the action is ‘the window’. Thus, ‘the window’ is called the direct object. Look at the following examples: 1.
L° mS¬wt$N sbrW Lïju mästawätun säbäräw. The boy broke the mirror. (Lit. The boy the mirror he broke it.)

Note: The suffix –N –n is the object marker and the – x#–u is the definite article ‘the.’The suffix – W –w on the verb marks that the breaking was done to the mirror: sbr säbärä he broke sbrW säbäräw he broke it 2. 3.
wND» b„N zUW

Wändïme bärun zägaw. My brother closed the door. (Lit. My brother the door he closed it.) Ϊne mäskotun käfätkut. I opened the window. (Lit. I the window I opened it.)

Xn@ mS÷t$N kfTk#T

Note: The suffix –t rather than –w is added on the verb to indicate “it” in this case, because the verb ends in a vowel (-u). 4.
Xn@ m{/F g²h#

Xn@ m{/ûN g²h#

Ϊne mäs’haf gäzahu. Ϊne mäs΄afun gäzahut.

I bought a book. I bought the book.

The suffixes –un and –t on the object and verb indicate definiteness of the object and the action.

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5.

sBl b@T x[ÄC sBl b@t$N

Seble bet as’ädač. x[ÄCW Seble betun as’ädačïw.

Seble cleaned a house. Seble cleaned the house.

To summarize, in the simple past, as in the examples above, the definite direct object is indicated in the verb by adding the suffix –w, -ïw, or –t for verb forms ending in –o or –u. For example: sbrW säbäräw, x[ÄCW as’ädačïw, zUW zägaw, g²h#T gäzahut

Practice
Translate the following sentences into Amharic. 1. I broke the glass 2. I bought the notebook. 3. I sold the house. Note: m¹_ mäšet΄ [¹- šet΄ä] “to sell” .

Grammar Point
Definite direct objects in the present/future tense In the present/future (compound imperfect) tense, direct object markers are somewhat more complicated. We will present here a basic introduction. For more details see Unit 12 and the Grammar Appendix. Consider the following examples: 1. Lïjju mästawotun yïsäbïräwal. The boy breaks (or will break) the mirror. (Lit. The boy the mirror he breaks (/will break) it )
L° mS¬wt$N YsBrêL

The infix –w between the root sbR säbär and the ending based xl allä (‘-xL-al’) indicates that the action is done or will be done to the mirror. He breaks YsB‰L yïsäbïral = Y yï + sBR säbïr + -xL al He breaks it YsBrêL yïsäbïräwal = Y yï + sBR säbïr + w w + -xL al 2. Almaz bärun tïzägawaläč. Almaz closes (or will close) the door. (Lit. Almaz the door she closes (/will close) it.) She closes TzUlC tïzägalläč = Ttï +zG zäg + xlC alläč She closes it TzUêlC tïzägawalläč = Ttï + zUzäga + w w + xlC alläč
xL¥Z b„N TzUêlC

The infix –w is used between the root of the verb and the ending based on allä to indicate the direct object and to make it more definite. –w is used for singular male or neuter (inanimate) direct objects. As with the simple past, the infix –t is substituted for –w following an o– or a u– (as in the forms for XRSã ïrswo, XúcW ïssačäw, XÂNt ïnantä and Xns# ïnnäsu). See the following table of the verb mägzat (gäza) with the direct object infix –w/–t. Meaning ‘buy it’

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Singular/Nät΄äla n-§ Plural/ Bz# Bïzu Xg²êlh# ïgäzawallähu XNg²êlN inïgäzawallän Tg²êlH tïgäzawalläh Tgz#¬§Ch# Tg™êl> tïgäžiwalläš* tïgäzutallačïhu** Ygz#¬L yïgäzutal Yg²êL yïgäzawal Ygz#¬L yïgäzutal** Tg²êlC tïgäzawalläč Ygz#¬L yïgäzutal** * The final consonant in the root of the second person feminine form palatalizes following the previously discussed pattern. ** Note: An additional –u falls before the object marker in the second and third person plural forms. The final –u disappears from the third person plural (yïgäzutal, rather than Ygz#¬l# yïgäzutallu). The –x§Ch#–allačihu ending in the second person plural remains unchanged. In Unit 12 and the Grammar Appendix, we will introduce the patterns for feminine, personal and plural direct objects.

Practice
Complete the sentence with the correct direct objects in the present/future tense 1. I break (will break) the glass 2. I buy (will buy) the notebook. 3. I sell (will sell) the house. Complete the table below with the correct pronouns. (Do not follow the pronoun listing pattern from above) Singular/ n-§ Nät΄äla ÿdH hedäh ÿÄ heda ÿd> hedäš ÿdW hedäw ÿdN hedän ÿË heje ÿdW hedäw ÿÄCh# hedaččïhu ÿì hedo ÿdW hedäw

Application
Study the following picture story and tell the story

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Practice:
1. Telling a story Tell your classmates the story of what you did in the last two days, using the tenses you have just learned. You will have to take time to write the story and rehearse it before you narrate it in class. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script S±Rt¾ TMHRT b@T §²¾ s‰t¾ Ùd¾ ¥Hb‰êE HYwT tr¾ zb¾ ¥Hb‰êE n#é

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Unit 13
Shopping II
Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit you will be able to: Describe, compare, and contrast items Complain about faulty items purchased Use indirect object pronouns

Dialog 1
Julie goes to the boutique to buy new clothes. : Julie: Æls#Q: Baaläsuk΄: °l! : Julie: Æls#Q: Baaläsuk΄: °l! : Julie: Æls#Q: Baaläsuk΄: °l! : Julie: Æls#Q: Baaläsuk΄:
°l! -@Â YS_Lኝ

T΄ena yïst΄lïñ.
-@Â YS_Lኝ ምን ልስጥሽ

T΄ena yïst΄lïñ. Mïn lïst΄ïš?
¹¸Z xl

Šämiz allä?
MN ›YnT

Mïn ayïnät?
qY

K΄äy.
xã xl l@§S?

Awo, allä. Lelas?
_q$R s#¶ XfLUlh#

T’ïk’ur suri ïfälïgalähu.
Y,W

Yïhäw.

Vocabulary
Common Clothing LBîC lïbsoč clothes ¹¸Z šämiz shirt s#¶ surri pants/trousers Ñl# q¸S mulu k’ämis dress g#RD q¸S gurd k΄ämis skirt q$MÈ k΄umt΄a shorts μLs! kalsi socks Å¥ č΄amma shoes qbè k΄äbäto belt ©k@T/÷T kot / jaket jacket ¹#‰B šurab sweater krÆT käräbat tie
Ñl# q¸S

mulu k΄ämis
s#¶

surr

¹¸Z

šämiz

g#RD q¸S

gurd k΄ämis

113Ñl# LBS mulu lïbs

sädärïya vest šRP šarp scarf’ ѬN¬ mutanta underpants WS_ LBS wïst΄ lïbs underskirt/slip pE©¥ pijama pajamas Ñl# LBS mulu lïbs suit ÷Fà kofïya hat ÆRn@È barnet΄a wide-brimmed or sun hat
sdRÃ

sdRÃ

sädärïya
q$MÈ

Other Accessories hBL habïl necklace yíé g@_ yäjoro get΄ earrings mn{R mänäs΄ïr eyeglasses xNÆR anbar bracelet qlbT k΄äläbät ring xLï albo anklet ©N_§ jant΄ïla umbrella

k΄umt΄a

μLs!

kalsi
Å¥

č΄ama

Practice
Name for the class the different items of clothing you are wearing today. Now name the items of clothing that your classmates are wearing today.

Dialog 2
How does the buyer describe the jacket in the following dialog? G¢E Æls#Q! Gäži: Baläsuk΄! Æls#Q: xb@T Baaläsuk’: Abet! G¢E: XSk! ©k@T xúyኝ Gäži: Ïski jaket asayäñ. Æls#Q: MN ›YnT Baaläsuk’: Mïn ayïnät? g¢E: s¥ÃêE Gäži: Samayawi. Æls#Q: TLQ wYS TN> Baaläsuk’: Tïlïk΄ wäys tïnïš? g¢E: mhkl¾ Gäži: Mähakäläña. Æls#Q: s¥ÃêEW TLQ nW GN mhkl¾ xrNÙÁ xl Baaläsuk’: Samayawiw tïlïk΄ näw. Gïn mähakäläña aränguade allä. g¢E: Yh#N Gäži: Yïhun.

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Vocabulary
Colors (qläC k΄älämoč)
xrNÙÁ

aränguade (green)

BRt$μN

Bïrtukanama (orange)

n+

näč΄

(white)

s¥ÃêE

sämayawi (blue)

wYN -J

wäyïn t΄äj (purple)

_q$R

t΄ïk΄ur

(black)

b!Å

bič΄č΄a (yellow)


(red)

éZ

roz

(pink)

G‰Å

gïrač΄a

(gray)

qY

k΄äy

b#Â¥

bunnama (brown)

Practice
yx!T×ùÃ ÆNÄ!‰ MN MN qläC xl#T

Yäityop΄ïya bandira mïn mïn k΄älämoč allut? 1.________________________________ 2.________________________________ 3.________________________________

yx»¶μS

YäAmericas?

1. ______________________________ 2. ____________________________ 3. ____________________________

Vocabulary
Describing Items TLQ tïlïk΄ big, large TN> tïnïš small mhkl¾ mähakäläña medium sized r™M / rJM räžïm / räjïm long x+R ač΄ïr short sð säfi wide -ÆB t΄äbab narrow, tight yW+ yäwïč΄ foreign yxgR WS_ yäagär wist΄ domestic, local yP§StEK yäplastic plastic yöÄ yäk΄oda leather
Lk@ nW ÃM‰L

Lïke näw. It’s my size. Lk@ xYdlM Lïke aydäläm. It’s not my size. Yamïral. It’s beautiful, nice.xÃMRM Ayamïrïm. It’s not nice, not beautiful.

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Practice
Using the new descriptive words you have learned, including colors, talk to the class about the different items of clothing you are wearing today. Now describe the clothes that your classmates are wearing today.

Dialog 3
g@t$: yöÄ ©k@T yxgR WS_ Yš§L wYS yW+

Getu: ä§$: Molla: g@t$: Getu: ä§: Molla:

Yäk΄oda jaket yäagär wist’ yïšalal wäys yäwïč΄?
yxgR WS_ Yš§L

Yäagär wist’ yïšalal.
lMN

Lämïn?
MKNÃM yxgR WS_ ÃM‰L

Mïkïnïyatum yäagär wist΄ yamral.

Practice
What reason does Molla give to prefer local leather jackets? Other reasons can be given in the following ways: 1. MKNÃt$M yxgR WS_ TKKl¾ öÄ nW Mïkïnïyatum yäagär wist΄ tïkïkïläña (genuine) k΄oda näw. 2. MKNÃt$M yxgR WS_ êUW YqNúL Mïkïnïyatum yäagär wist΄ wagaw yïk΄änïsal. Complete the following sentences: 1. 2.
rJM nW GN

Räjïm näw gïn Saizu (the size) lïk näw gïn _____.

____.

úYz# LK nW GN

Now translate the following into English. 1. ÃM‰L GN WD nW Yamral gïn wïd näw. 2. Rμ> nW GN xÃMRM Ïrkaš näw gïn ayamrïm.

Cultural Note
Dämbäña System in Ethiopia It is common in Ethiopia to have a dMb¾ dämbäña, or a shopkeeper to whom you go every time you need a certain item. You trust your dMb¾ dämbäña to always treat you well and give you a fair price. Often, because you are a regular customer, this price will be reduced for you. Bargaining is not necessary with your dMb¾ dämbäña, and he or she will also advise you honestly about the quality of his or her items. Sometimes, your dMb¾ dämbäña will also give you credit at his or her store.

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Grammar Point
Comparing and Contrasting Here are some adjectives, and their verb forms, which are commonly used in Amharic to compare and contrast items: tïlïk’ -ÆB t’äbab r™M räžïm/ räjïm TN> tïnïš x+R ač΄ïr
TLQ

yïtälïk’al Y-ÆL yï t’äbal YrZ¥L yïräzïmal ÃNúL yansal Ã_‰L yat’ïral
YtL”L

Examples:
YH ¹¸Z YtL”L kz!H g#RD q¸S þW YrZ¥L

Yïh šämiz yïtälïk΄al. Ã GN ÃNúL Yïh gïn yansal. Käzzih gurd k΄ämis yaññaw yïräzïmal.

Other adjectives, including color words, may be used in this verb form to compare: Xs# kú* Y-q$‰L Ïssu kässwa yït΄äk΄ural. He is darker skinned (lit: blacker) than her. Xú* ks# Tq§lC Ïsswa kässu tïk΄älaläč. She is lighter skinned (lit: redder) than him. Adding the adjective bÈM bät’am shows a greater degree, equavialent to the English “very”: YH ¹¸Z bÈM YtL”L Yïh šämiz bät΄am yïtälïk΄al. This shirt is very large. YH g#RD q¸S bÈM Ã_‰L Yïh gurd k΄ämis bät΄am yat΄ïral. This skirt is very short. Bät΄am is used with descriptive adjectives as well as verbs. The words bÈM bät΄am and XJG bÈM ïjjïg bät΄am show greater degrees, according to the following: “very” “so very”
bÈM TLQ ©k@T bÈM TLQ ©k@T XJG bÈM TLQ ©k@T

tïlïk΄ jaket
r™M s#¶

bät΄am tïlïk΄ jaket
bÈM r™M s#¶

ïjïg bät΄am tïlïk΄ jaket
XJG bÈM r™M s#¶

räžïm surri
-ÆB Å¥

bät΄am räžïm surri
bÈM -ÆB Å¥

ïjïg bät΄am räžïm surri
XJG bÈM -ÆB Å¥

t΄äbab č΄amma

bät’am t΄äbab č΄amma

ïjjïg bät΄am t΄äbab č΄amma

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Examples:
YH ©k@T TLQ nW YH ©k@T bÈM TLQ nW YH ©k@T bÈM XJG TLQ nW

Yïh jaket tïlïk΄ näw. This jacket is big.

Yïh jaket bät΄am tïlïk΄ näw. This jacket is very big.

Yïh jaket ïjjïg bät΄am tïlïk΄ näw. This jacket is so very big!

Compare the above examples to: YH ©k@T YtL”L Yïh jaket yïtälïk΄al. This jacket is big (compared to another).

Practice
Make sentences to compare the following things between yourself and your classmates. 1. The houses of your respective host families 2. The respective heights of your host fathers (or mothers) 3. The “beauty” of your respective sites 4. The size of the bag you each carried to class today 5. Your feelings about injera

Vocabulary
Making Complaints or Expressing Displeasure Expressing the fault
ytb§¹ nW xYs‰M Y-b¾L Ys;L

Asking for replacement

Yätäbälašä näw. It has gone bad qYRLኝ k΄äyïrïlïñ to a ♂ Ayïsäram. It doesn’t work. qY¶Lኝ k΄äyïrilïñ to a ♀ Yït΄äbäñal. / T΄äboñal. It is too tight. YqY„Lኝ yïk΄äyïrulïñ (polite) Yïsäfañal. / sFè¾L Säftoñal. It is too big. qY„Lኝ k΄äyïrulïñ (plural)

Practice
You have bought a faulty iron [μWà kawïya]. Create a dialog in which you complain about the product and request a replacement. Express displeasure with the following items: tE¥tEM timatim, ¹¸Z šämiz, and ÊÄ!× radiyo.

Dialog 4
Laura visits her clothing dMb¾ dämbäña to buy a new pair of trousers. lÖ‰: XNdMN êL>? Laura: Ïndämïn walš? dMb¾: dHÂ XGz!xB/@R YmSgN Dämbäña: Dähna, ïgziabïher yïmmäsgän. lÖ‰: s#¶ xl>? Laura: Surri alläš? dMb¾: xã xlኝ MN ›YnT TfLg!Ãl>? Dämbäña: Awo, alläñ. Mïn ayïnät tïfälïgialäš?

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lÖ‰:

b#Â¥ LlμW

Laura: Bunama. lïläkäw dMb¾: Y,W lk!W Dämbäña: Yïhäw, läkiw. -- Laura tries on the pair of trousers. -lÖ‰: Y-b¾L l@§ sð xl? Laura: Yït’äbäñal. Lela säfi allä? dMb¾: xã xl GN _q$R nW Dämbäña: Awo, allä, gïn t΄ïk΄ur näw. lÖ‰: Yh#N LlμW Laura: Yïhun, lïläkäw. -- Laura tries on the black pair of trousers. -lÖ‰: YH LK nW Laura: Yïh lïke näw. Note: LlμW lïläkäw, ‘let me try it on’ is from the verb mlμT mäläkat [lμ läka], to try. This verb is expressed in the jussive verb tense, which will be explained more fully in Unit 17.

Cultural Note
Cultural Clothing yabäša k’ämis yangät lïbs n-§ nät΄älla š> šaš mqnT mäk΄änät Ub! gabbi +‰ č΄č΄ira kz‰ käzära ǧ dulla
Ãbš q¸S ÃNgT LBS

traditional dress traditional scarf traditional single sheet wrapper or shawl hair cover traditional women’s belt cloth traditional double sheet wrapper traditional horsehair flyswatter carried by men hooked stick; cane, carried by men walking stick, carried by men

The people of Ethiopia wear many different types of traditional clothes. The traditional costume of the Christian highland peasantry includes a wrap or scarf made of woven cotton. Ethiopian men and women wear this traditional costume called Ub! gabbi (thick white cotton wrap worn when it is cold) or n-§ nät΄älla (thinner white wrap with embroidered borders). Women often wear traditional dresses called q¸S k΄ämis and n-§ nät΄älla mostly in rural areas. Other ethnic groups and tribes in the south and west of the country wear different costumes that reflect their own traditions. Some tribes partially cover their body with leather but others do not wear any clothes at all, merely decorating their faces and bodies with distinctive images. In many of the northeastern Muslim areas, traditional Arab dress is still worn, including the hijab, headscarf, and burka. The Muslim of Harar wear very colorful dress, the men in shorts and a colorful wrap and the women in fine dress of red, purple and black. The lowland Somali and Afar 119

people wear long, brightly colored cotton wraps, and the Oromo and Bale people are often to be seen in the decorated leather garment that reflect their economy, which is based on livestock. Costume to some extent reflects the climate where the different groups live- highlanders, for instance, use heavy cloth capes and a wraparound blanket to combat the night chill. In the heat of the lowland plains, light cotton clothes are all that is required by men and women alike. Traditional dress, though often now supplanted by Western attire, may still be seen throughout much of the countryside. National dress is usually worn for festivals, when streets and meeting places are transformed into a sea of white as finely woven cotton dresses, wraps decorated with colored woven borders, and suits are donned. A distinctive style of dress is found among the Oromo horsemen of the central highland, who, on ceremonial days such as mSqL Mäsk΄äl, attire themselves in lions’ mane or baboon-skin headdresses and, carrying hippo-hide shields and spears, ride down to the main city square to participate in the parades. Ethiopians are justifiably proud of the range of their traditional costumes. The most obvious identification of the different groups is in the jewelry, the hair styles and the embroidery of the dresses. The women of Amhara and Tigray wear dozens of plaits (¹#„Æ šuruba) tightly braided to the head and billowing out at the shoulders .The women of Harar part their hair in the middle and make a bun behind each ear. Hamer, Geleb, Bume and Karo men form a ridge of plaited hair and clay to hold their feathered headwear in place. Arsi women have fringes and short, bobbed hair. Bale girls have the same, but cover it with a black head cloth, while young children often have their head shaved. Jewelry in silver and gold is worn by Muslim women and by Christians, with amber or glass beads incorporated. Heavy brass, copper and ivory bracelets and anklets are also worn.

Dialog 5
Jessica talks to her host sister on a market day. Ës!μ: XNdMN xdR> Ñl# wÁT XyÿD> nW? Jessica: Ïndämïn addärš, Mulu? Wädet ïyähedïš näw? Ñl#: wd gbà Mulu: Wädä gäbäyä. Ës!μ: XÆK> xND xND ngR Tg™L¾l> Jessica: Ïbakïš, aand aand nägär tïgäžïlïñaläš? Ñl#: X¹! MN MN LG²L> Mulu: Ïši! Mïn mïn lïgïzalïš? Ës!μ: xND k!lÖ Sμ*R G¥> k!lÖ tE¥tEM X xND šY Q-L G™Lኝ Jessica: Aand kilo sukuar, gïmmaš kilo timatim, ïnna aand šay k΄ït΄äl gïžïlïñ. Ñl#: X¹! Xg²Lšlh# Mulu: Ïšši, ïgäzalïšalähu.

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Grammar Point
Indirect Object Pronouns You can see in the dialog many uses of the indirect object pronoun: Tg™L¾l> Tïgäžïlïñaläš? Will you buy for me? LG²L> Lïgïzalïš? Shall I buy for you? G™Lኝ Gïžïlïñ. Buy for me.( to ♀) [NB: LG²L> lïgïzalïš represents what is called the “jussive” form of the verb, which we will cover in detail in the next unit.] Indirect object pronouns indicate “for whom” or “to whom” an action is done. Therefore, indirect objects include a form of the Amharic pronoun “lä”, which becomes shortened to “lï” when combined with the pronoun marker.
L

lï + pronoun marker

(Note that when the pronoun marker starts with an “a”, as in “-xCh# -aččïhu”, “- xT -at”, and “-xcW-aččäw”, the “a” replaces the “ï” in “lï”.) In the simple past, imperative, and jussive forms, the indirect object is attached at the end of the verb: TÂNT XÂa SLK dwlC§T Tïnantïna ïnnatua sïlk däwäläčïlat. Yesterday her mother called (to) her. £úB xMÈLኝ Hisab amt΄alïn. Bring (to) us the bill. Mœ §MÈLH Mïsa lamt΄alïh? Shall I bring (to) you lunch? In the compound imperfect (present-future) tense, the indirect object marker (lï + pronoun marker) is inserted within the verb as follows: Xg²Lšlh# X ïg² gäza -X> ïš -xlh#alähu l ïgäzalïšalähu Ys‰§C“L Y yïS‰ sära -xCh# -xL al l yïsäralaččïhual aččïhu dWL TdWLL§C“lC -xcW -xlC aläč T tïl Däwïlï tïdäwïlïlaččäwaläč aččäw
XNq$§L Xg²Lšlh# X‰T Ys‰§C“L §St¥¶ê

Ïnk’ulal ïgäzalïšalähu. I will buy (for) you (f.) eggs. Ïrat yïsäralaččïhual. He will make (for) you all dinner. TdWL§cêlC Lastämariwa tïdäwïlïlaččäwaläč. She will call (to) her teacher (formal).

Remember, from Unit 12, that the second and third person plural forms require the insertion of a “x# -u-” before the object marker, and that the ending of the third person plural form reduces to simply “xL -al”.

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b# Ãfl#LÂL Mœ

Buna yafälulïnal. Ts„L¾§Ch# Mïsa tïsärulïñalaččïhu?

They will boil coffee for us. Will you all make me lunch?

Practice
Change the following sentences to incorporate the given indirect object. [for you (f.)] 1. >Nk#RT Xg²lh# Šïnkurt ïgäzalähu. 2. q$RS Ts‰lC K΄urs tïsäraläč. [for him] 3. TÂNTÂ x!»YL §k Tïnantïna email lakä. [to me] 4. SLK TdWÃl> Sïlk tïdäwiyaläš? [to her] Practice translating the following sentences into Amharic. 1. I will buy an umbrella for you (f.) at the market. 2. I will call you tomorrow (m.)? 3. They boiled coffee for us. 4. Bring me the money tomorrow. (to a male)

Application
Take an item of clothing or a household item to class (choose a nice multi-colored one). Display it in class and: 3. Describe it to your classmates: colors, material, origin, price, and function. 4. Assume you are going to sell it to one of your classmates. Let your buyer ask you questions about the item, bargain, and buy it from you. (It is just a role play!) 5. Bargain and buy an item from one of your classmates. Make a complaint about the item and ask for a replacement.

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
btdUU¸ s§M¬ Ng¶Lኝ ÃNcE b@tsB XNÁT nW? SNT ›mTH nW? ÑøC ln@ ÂcW

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Unit 14
Months, Seasons, and the Weather

Learning objectives:
At the end of this unit you will be able to: Name Ethiopian seasons, months, days, and holidays Say the full date Describe the weather Use time adverbs Review compound imperfect Learn more prepositions

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Cultural Note
Ethiopians follow the Julian Calendar, which consists of 12 months of 30 days each and a 13th month of five days (six days in a leap year)*. The calendar is seven years and eight months behind the Western (Gregorian) calendar.

Vocabulary
Ethiopian Months European equivalent Date range in the European months September 11 September – 10 October mSkrM Mäskäräm October 11 October – 9 November _QMT T΄ïk΄ïmt November 10 November – 9 December HÄR Hïdar December 10 December – 8 January ¬HúS Tahïsas January 9 January – 7 February _R T΄ïr February 8 February – 9 March yμtET Yäkatit March 10 March – 8 April mUb!T Mägabit April 9 April – 8 May ¸ÃZà Miyaziya May 9 May – 7 June GNïT Gïnbot June 8 June – 7 July sn@ Säne July 8 July – 6 August hMl@ Hamle August 7 August – 6 September n/s@ Nähase The 13th month 6 September – 10 September Ôg#» P΄agume *Once every four years (leap year) all dates of the calendar will change one day ahead eg. In the year 2007 the Ethiopian New Year began on September 12. Yähïzb bäallat Public Holidays xÄ!S xmT Addis Amät (XNq$ÈÈ> ïnk΄ut΄at΄aš): Ethiopian New Year (11 September) mSqL Mäsk΄äl: Finding of the True Cross (27 September) rmÄN Rämädan: Eid Al Fater (13 October* Lunar) xrÍ Aräfa Eid Al Aldaha (9 December* Lunar):) g Gänna Ethiopian Christmas (7 January) _MqT T΄imkät Ethiopian Epiphany (19 January:) mWl!D Mäwlid Birthday of Prophet Mohammed (20 March*Lunar):) SQlT Sïk΄ïlät Ethiopian Good Friday (25 April*) Ís!μ TNœx@ Fasika (Tïnsae) Ethiopian Easter (27 April*) »Y ÁY May day International Labor Day (1 May:) yDL b›L Yädïl bäal Ethiopian Patriots’ Victory Day (5 May) GNïT ¦Ã Gïnbot haaya Downfall of the Dergue (28 May) *- Date varies annually

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The Seasons idY S΄ädäy mSkrM Mäskäräm _QMT T΄ïk΄ïmt HÄR Hïdar Bäga Tahïsas _R T’ïr yμtET Yäkatit
bU ¬HúS

Bälg mUb!T Mägabit ¸ÃZà Miyaziya GNïT Gïnbot
bLG

Kïrämt Säne /Ml@ Hamle n/s@ Nähase Ôg#» P΄agume
KrMT sn@

Practice
Give American equivalents for the following Ethiopian seasons. 1. 2. 3. 4.
idY bU

S΄ädäy Bälg Kïrämt

Bäga

bLG

KrMT

Vocabulary
Other Date Words LdT Lïdät birthday’ mwlD Mäwäläd (twld täwälädä) to be born
yxyR [ÆY

Yäayär s΄äbaay The Weather

[hå

s΄ähayama

ZÂÆ¥

zïnabama

nÍú¥

näfasama

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dm¥

dämänama

+UU¥

č’ïgagama

Forming adjectives describing the weather 1. ZÂB zïnab → ZÂÆ¥ zïnabama rain → rainy i/Y s΄ähay → i/Ã¥ s΄ähayama 2. sun → sunny 3. nÍS näfas → nÍú¥ näfasama wind → windy dm dämäna → dmÂ¥dämänama 4. loud → cloudy 5. +Uግ čïgag → +UU¥ čïgagama (g#M gum (alternate word)) fog → foggy Verbs for describing the weather Yä”L yïmok΄al (from mäQ mämok΄ [äq mok΄ä]) to be hot YbRÄL yïbärdal (from mBrD mäbïräd [brd bärädä]) to be cold YqzQ²L y ïk΄äzäk΄ïzal (from mqZqZ mäk΄äzï k΄äz [qzqz k΄äzäk΄äzä]) to be very cold YzNÆL yïzänbal (from mZnB mäzïnäb [znb zänäbä]) to rain/to be rainy YnFúL yïnäfsal (from mNfS mänfäs [nfs näfäsä]) to be windy

Practice
Describe the kind of weather indicated by each picture. Write your description in complete sentences beneath each picture. Example: ²Ê dmÂ¥ nW zare dämänama näw.


________________ _ __________________ 126

Dialog
Saying the Full Date
xSt&R ²Ê qn# SNT nW?

Aster
Ñl#

Mulu
xSt&

Zare k΄änu sïnt näw? bhbš wYS bfrNJ? Bähabäša wäïs bäfäränj?
bhbš

Aster
Ñl#

Bähabäša
12

Mulu
xSt&R

12
MN 12?

Aster
Ñl#

Mïn 12?
_QMT 12

Mulu
xSt&R

T΄ïk΄mït 12
X¹! xmsGÂlh#

Aster
Ñl#

Mulu
xSt&R

Aster
Ñl#

Mulu
xSt&R

Ϊši amäsägïnallähu. xSt$?$ Astu? xb@T? Abet? mc& twlD>? Mäče täwälädïš?
HÄR 21 1978

²Ê qn# SNT nW?

Zare k΄anu sïnt näw?

Aster
Ñl#

Hïdar 21, 1978.
xmsGÂlh#Ý

Mulu
xSt&R

Amäsägïnalähu
MNM xYdLÝÝ

Aster

Mïnïm ayïdäl

Practice
Matching Match the questions under column A with their appropriate answers under column B A B. 1. ²Ê qn# SNT nW? Zare k΄änu sïnt näw? A. mSkrM 12 Mäskäräm 12 2. mc& twlD> Mäče täwälädïš? B. ¸ÃZà 3 qN twlDk# 1987 Miaziya 3 täwälädku 3. LdT> mc& nW Lïdätïš mäče näw? C. ²Ê HÄR 15 nW Zare hïdar 15 näw

Grammar Point
Time Adverbs Note: means ‘every’ bäyä- (as a prefix attached to words denoting periods of time)

by

127

bäyäsäatu every hour byg!z@W bäyägizew every time byqn# bäyäk’änu every day byúMNt$ bäyäsamïntu every week by›mt$ bäyäamätu every year
bys›t$

Note: b bä- or ‘in’ or during Examples

Æ

ba- (as a prefix attached to words denoting periods of time) means

bäkïrämt in summer bbU bäbäga in winter bz!H úMNT bäzih samïnt during this week ÆlfW wR baläfäw wär last month
bKrMT

Vocabulary
Denoting Periods of Time qN k΄än day úMNT samïnt week wR wär month ›mT ‘amät year yqN mq$-¶Ã y äk΄än mäk΄ut΄äriya calendar xM amna last year μCxM kač amna the year before last zNDé zändïro this year mÀW ›mT mäčiw amät next year

Practice
Translation Translate the following sentences into English. 1. ÆlfW wR ZêY /YQ ÿDk# Baläfäw wär Zïway haik΄ hedku. __________________ 2. 3. 4.
bKrMT TMHRT b@èC YzUl# bz!H úMNT dBÄb@ yl"M

Bäkïrämt tïmïhïrt betoč yïzägallu. _______________ Baläfäw amät yäkolej tämari näbärku. ___________

Bäzih samïnt däbdabe yäläñïm. _____________________

ÆlfW ›mT y÷l@J t¥¶ nbRk#

Practice
Sentence Completion 1. Xn@ byg!z@W Ϊne bäyägizew 2. 3.
bKrMT xy„ b

(mMÈT mämt΄at). (mqZqZ mäk΄äzï k΄äz). wär gänna yïkäbäral (is celebrated).

Bäkïrämt ayäru
wR g Ykb‰L

128

Application
Compare and contrast American and Ethiopian calendars. Write your comparison and contrast, rehearse it and present it in class. You have to talk about: a. months b. years c. seasons and weather and d. major holidays

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
ÌNÌ §B‰¶ t&MBR FLSF xSt¥¶ KTÆT

129

Unit 15
Personal Health and Wellbeing
Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit you will be able to: Name body parts, common diseases and symptoms, and objects in the clinic Describe feelings and emotions Express good wishes to a sick person Use personal pronouns, suffixes, and object markers

Vocabulary
Parts of the Body

130

1. GNÆR gïnbar 2. xYN ayn 3. ቅNDB 4. xFNÅ afïnč΄a 5. xF af 6. M§S mïlas 7. kNfR känfär 8. xg+ agäč΄ 9. g#N+ gunč΄ 10. Tkš tïkäša 11. drT därät 12. ጀRÆ järba 13. ጡT t’ut 14. ÈT t΄at (yXJ yäïj) 15. XGR ïgïr (foot and/or leg)

16. q$R+M+¸T k΄urïč΄ïmïč΄ïmit 17. yXGR ÈT yäïgïr t΄at 18. +N č΄ïn 19. Äሌ dale 20. g#LbT gulïbät 21. trkZ täräkäz 22. ÆT bat 23. qE_ k΄it΄ (impolite) mqmÅ mäkämäč΄a (euphemisim) 24. wgB wägäb 25. çD hod 26. XJ ïj (hand and/or arms) 27. xNgT angät 28. íé joro 29. [g#R s΄ägur 30. _RS t΄ïrs

Expressing Aches and Pains Ãm¾L Yamäñal “I am not feeling well” (¥mM mämäm) n-§ Näťäla/Singular Bz#Bïzu/Plural Affirmative Negative Affirmative Ãm¾L ÃmÂL xÃmኝM Xn@ ïne X¾ iñña yamäñal yamänal ayamäñïm ÃM¦L xÃMHM xNt anta yamïhal ayamïhïm XÂNt Ã¥C“L ÃMšL xÃM>M xNcE anči ïnnantä yamačïhual yamïšal ayamïšïm ÃMã¬L xÃäTM XRSã ïrswo yamïwotal ayamotïm ÃmêL xÃmWM Xns# xs# ïssu yamäwal ayamäwïm ïnnässu Ã¥cêL Ã¥¬L xÃ¥TM xú* ïssua yamačäwal yamatal ayamatïm
xúcw Ã¥cêL xÃ¥cWM

Negative
xÃmNM

ayamäñïm
xåCh#M

ayamačïhum

xåcWM

ayamačäwïm

ïssačäw
YwU¾L

yamačäwal

ayamačäwïm

Yïwägañal. I have a sharp pain. Ô_l¾L Yak΄at΄lä ñal. I have a burn. Ãør¾L Yazoräñal. I feel dizzy. Object Markers ‰s@N Rasen çÁN Hoden xYn@N Aynen

131

Stating the Body Parts, Using Object Markers ‰s@N Ãm¾L Rasen yamäñal. çÁN Ô_l¾L Hoden yak΄at΄lä ñal. Ãør¾L Yazoräñal. _Rs@N T΄ïrsen. Doctor’s Questions MN çn¦L? Mïn honähal? What’s your problem? ♂ (Lit. what’s happened to you?) MN Ys¥¦L? Mïn yïsämahal? How do you feel? ♂ mc& jmr>? Mäče jämäräš? When did it start? ♀

Practice
Create a dialog between a doctor and a patient (takami) employing the expressions above. Note: b>t¾ bäšïtäña is sometimes used for ‘patient’, but is impolite and/or has a negative connotation.
/k!M ¬μ¸ /k!M ¬μ¸ /k!M ¬μ¸ /k!M ¬μ¸

Hakim: __________________________________________________________ Takami: Hakim: __________________________________________________________ Takami: Hakim: __________________________________________________________ Takami: Hakim: __________________________________________________________ Takami:

Vocabulary
b>¬ãCBäšïtawoč

Diseases wÆ wäba malaria tSï täsïbo typhoid úMÆ nqRú samba näkärsa tuberclosis dM GðT däm gïfit blood pressure =Ù‰ č΄äguara gastritis yk#§l!T b>¬ yäkulalit bäšïta kidney problem LB DμM lïb dïkam heart problem x@C xYv! x@DS HIV/AIDS x»Æ ameba amoeba q$R_¥T ‘k΄urt΄ïmat’ arthritis /rheumatism

132

MLKèC

Symptoms Tk#úT tïkusat fever ‰S M¬T ras mïtat headache ¥Ql>l> mak΄ïläšläš nausea tQ¥_ täk΄ïmat΄ diarrhea TWkT tïwïkät vomit (noun) ¥SmlS masmäläs/ mastawäk vomit (verb) mNq_q_ mank΄ät΄k΄ät shivering q$R-T k΄urït΄ät stomach cramp

Clinic Vocabulary HKM hïkïmïna treatement ¬μ¸ takami patient ysWnT fú> yäsäwïnät fäsaš Body fluids ¥rðà maräfiya waiting room μRD kard registration card -@ Èb!à t΄ena t΄abiya health center t‰/wrÍ tära/wäräfa turn (order in which the patients see the doctor, first come first served) mRØ märfe injection, shot, syringe mD¦n!T mädhanit medicine Kn!N kïnin tablets Íš faša bandage dM däm blood sg‰ sägära stool >NT šïnt urine MRm‰ mïrmära medical examination -@ t΄ena health q$SL k΄usïl wound KTÆT kïtïbat vaccination Saying You Are Sick xä¾L Amoñal. I am not feeling well. Saying You Are Injured: XGÊN ïgren my feet or leg XËN ïjen my hand or arm ör-ኝ k΄orät΄äñ I have a cut. Or: I have cut myself. wUኝ Wägañ. Something has stabbed me/pierced me/someone has stabbed me. Asking for Help: XRÇኝ Ïrduñ. Help me. /k!M b@T WsÇኝ Hakim bet wïsäduñ. Take me to a clinic, hospital. Asking Someone Who is Sick or Injured What is Wrong: MN çNK? Mïn honk? What’s happened to you? ♂ 133

MN çN>?

Mïn honš? What’s happened to you? ♀ MNHN nW? Mïnïhïn näw? What hurts? ♂ MN>N nW? Mïnïšïn näw? What hurts? ♀

Role Play
Create a role play. In the role play someone who is injured or sick asks for help and another person talks to the victim and attempts to help him/her. First develop the dialog and ask your LCF to edit it for you. Then rehearse the role play and perform it before the class.

Dialog 1
Visiting and Expressing Good Wishes to a Sick Person The following dialog takes place between a trainee and his LCF in a hospital ward. The LCF was taken ill and hospitalized. The trainee has come to visit him. Tom: MN çNK? Mïn honk? LCF: TN> xä¾L Tïnïš amoñal. MNHN nW? Mïnïhïn näw? Tom: LCF: =Ù‰üN Č΄äguarayen. Tom: XNÁT nW xh#N XytšlH nW? Ïndet näw ahun ïyätäšaläh näw? LCF: xã XGz!xB/@R YmSgN Xytšlኝ nW Awo ïgziabher yïmäsgän ïyätäšaläñ näw. xYøH XGz!xB/@R Y¥RH Ayzoh ïgziabher yïmarïh. Tom: LCF: x»N Amen.

Practice
Match the expressions under column A with their correct responses from Colunm B. A B 1. XGz!xB/@R Y¥RH Ïgziabher yïmarïh. A. Aዎ ተሽሎኛል awo täšïloñal 2. MN çNK? Mïn honk? B. ሆዴን hoden 3. MNHN nW? Mïnïhïn näw? C. Aሜን amen D. wUኝ wägañ 4. tšl> Täšaläš?

Emotions
Vocabulary for emotion
Infinitive T²” Mazän S“ÅÉ Mänadäd SÅcƒ Mädäsät SÅ”ÑØ mädängät’ ScM†ƒ Mäsälčät Tð` Mafär SÚ’p Mä č’änäk’ Sõ^ƒ Mäfrat S“ðp Mänafäk’ Verb ›²’ azänä }“ÅÅ tänadädä }Åc} tädäsätä Å’ÑÖ dänägät’ä cK† sïlïču ›ð[ afärä }Ú’k täč’änäk’ ð^ fära “ðk nafäk’ä õ[ƒ ïfïrät ß”p č’ïnk’ õ`Hƒ fïrïhat “õqƒ nafk’ot Noun G²” hazän ”ȃ nïdet Åe dästa É”ÒÖ? dïnïgat’e Adj Azaň ›³˜ }“ÇÏ tänadaj Åe}— dästäňa É”Ñ<Ø dïnïgut’ eM‡ sïlïču ›Ã” ›ó` ayïn afar ß”kU č’ïnk’ätam ð] färi “óm nafak’i

134

Example
G²” KÖ?”’ƒ Ø\ ›ÃÅKU:: Ç©ƒ S“ÅÉ Ã¨ÇM:: dD Åe}— “ƒ:: Ñw_ ueI}~ ›ð^::

Hazän lät’enïnät t’ïru ayïdäläm. Dawit mänadäd yïwädal. ïsua dästäňa nat. Gäbre bäsïhïtätu afära.

Pratice:
Select a word from the list and complete the sentences given below. fïrïhat
õ`Hƒ,

sïlïču

eM‡

, tänadädku

}“ÅÉŸ<,

ayïn afar

›Ã” ›ó`,

dästäňa

Åe}—

Ïu<” d¾¨<

}cT˜::

jïbun sayäw
eMŸ? eKÖów˜

täsämaň. .
::

Sïlke sïlät’äfabïň
›=ƒÄÁ uSUׂ ’˜::

.

itïyopïya bämämt’ate

näň.

c¨< w²< c¯ƒ SY^ƒ ›Ã¨ÉU::

Säw bïzu säat mäsrat ayïwädïm.
H“ MÏ “ƒ::

Hana lïj

nat.

Application
A Report Interview a senior physician of your local clinic or hospital and report your findings to the class. If possible play a recording of the interview in class. Try to include more information about and from the clinic than what you are asked to do here. Be adventurous with the language. You need to first prepare the questions and get them edited. The interview should cover the following: 1. A profile of the clinic: its personnel, its major problems, its plans 2. The most prevalent diseases, symptoms 3. Medical equipment

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
xm¬êE ¶±RT yê LBS yx»¶μ ys§M ÙD yihY mn{R yxÆY ¹lö s»N t‰éC yäÆYL μRD pES ÷R ¥s!Nö

135

Unit 16
Personal Safety

Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit you will be able to: List several important threats to your safety and security in Ethiopia Utter appropriate, recognizable distress calls in order to alert people that you are in trouble Ask for help in an emergency Use the verbs of obligation Demonstrate different uses of the relative past

Dialog 1
Study the following dialog and try to find out what kind of problem Martha is expressing. ¥R¬: wYn@ wYn@ XRÇኝ XRÇኝ Martha: Wäyne! Wäyne! Ïrduñ! Ïrduñ! xSt&R MN çn> nW? Aster: Mïn honäš näw? ¥R¬: l@Æ srqኝ Martha: Leba säräk΄äñ. xSt&R ምን? Aster: Mïn? ¥R¬: ሞባይሌን ወሰደብኝ Martha: Mobayïlen wäsädäbïñ. xSt&R ምን ልርዳሽ? Aster: Mïn lïrdaš?.

136

Grammar Point
Requesting and Offering Help The imperative (command) forms of mRÄT help’, are as follows: “Help me!”

märdat [rädda], ‘to

(XÆKH ïbakïh) XRÄኝ Ïrdañ! to a ♂ ( XÆK> ïbakïš) XR©!ኝ Ïrjiñ! to a ♀ ( XÆKãT ïbakïwot) YRÇኝYïrduñ! (polite) (XÆμCh# ïbkaččïhu) XRÇኝ Ïrduñ! (plural) In the dialog above Aster says, “MN LRÄ> Mïn lïrdaš?” The various forms of the verb mRÄT märdat [rÄ rädda] as used in offering help are the following: (Note: This is a verb form called the jussive, which we will see in more detail in Unit 17.) Lïrdah? “May I help you? LRÄ> Lïrdaš? “ LRÄãT Lïrdawot? “ LRÄCh# Lïrdačïhu? “
LRÄH

to a ♂ to a ♀ politely to plural

Vocabulary
Threats to Safety l@Æ leba thief z‰ð zärafi robber xWÊ awre wild animal Wš Wïša dog JB jïb hyena XÆB ïbab snake majïrat mäči mugger yä’ïsat adäga fire accident ymk! xdU yämäkina adäga car accident yMGB mmrZ yämïgïb mämäräz food poisoning ¯RF gorf flood
¥J‰T mcE yXúT xdU

Distress Calls x#! x#! x#! x#! U!U!U!U! a distress call indicating, “I am in trouble! Help!” wYn@! wYn@! Wäyne! Wäyne! lit. “Woe, me!” Drs#Lኝ! Drs#Lኝ! Dïräsulïñ! Dïräsulïñ! lit. “Get to me!” l@Æ! l@Æ! Leba! Leba! Thief! ±l!S! ±l!S! Polis! Polis! Police! Ãz#T! Ãz#T! Yazut! Yazut! Catch him!

Practice
With a partner, use the pattern of Dialog 1 to act out different threats to safety and security. Start with one of the distress calls you have learned, state the threat to safety that is affecting you, and make sure that you receive help!

137

Cultural Note
Threats to Safety and Security in Ethiopia Please look at your x-culture manual on the security section; also get as much info as you could from the Safety and Security sessions.

Dialog 2
pEtR: wYn@ wYn@ XRÇኝ XRÇኝ

Peter: kbd: Kebede: pEtR: Peter: kbd: Kebede: pEtR: Peter: kbd: Kebede: pEtR: Peter: kbd: Kebede: pEtR: Peter: kbd: Kebede: pEtR: Peter: kbd: Kebede:

Wäyne! Wäyne! Ïrduñ! Ïrduñ!
MN çNK

Mïn honk?
Wš nksኝ

Wïša näkäsäñ.
xYøH MN LRÄH

Ayzoh! Mïn lïrdah?
XÆKH hk!M b@T Wsdኝ

Ïbakïh, hakim bet wïsädäñ.
l@§S

Lelas?
SLK dWLLኝ

Sïlk däwïlïlïñ.
l¥N

Läman?
lxè Hሼ hYl#

Lä Ato Fikre.
SLK q$_„ SNT nW

Sïlk k΄ut΄ru sïnt näw?
0911222358

0911222358
X¹! XdW§lh#

Ïšši. Ïdäwïlalähu.

Vocabulary
Verbs Related to Safety and Security Threats mSrQ mäsräk΄ [srq säräk΄ä] to steal mZrF mäzräf [zrf zäräfä] to rob mWsD mäwsäd [wsd wäsädä] to take mRÄT märdat [rÄ rädda] to help mNdF mändäf [ndf nädäfä] to bite (as in snake) mNkS mänkäs [nks näkäsä] to bite (as in a dog) mM¬T mämtat [m¬ mäta] to hit ¥U-M magat΄äm [xU-mW agat΄ämäw] to get in an accident; to encounter something unexpected mdwL mädäwäl [dwl däwälä ] to ring 138

Expressing the Problem xND/yçn sW And/ yähonä Säw/ sμ‰M Säkaram/ XBD xScgrኝ Ïbd asčägäräñ. Someone/A drunkard/crazy person is bothering me. yçn/ xND LJ And lïj/ yçn LJ sdbኝ Yähonä lïj sädäbäñ. A child insulted me. l@Æ srqኝ Leba säräk΄äñ. A thief has stolen something from me. l@Æ zrfኝ Leba zäräfäñ. A thief has robbed me (i.e. robbed my house). n-qኝ Nät’äk’äñ. He has snatched something away from me (suddenly). XÆB ndfኝ Ïbab nädäfäñ. A snake has bitten me. Wš nksኝ Wïša näkäsäñ. A dog has bitten me. yb§h#T MGB xLtS¥¥ኝም Yäbälahut mïgïb altäsmamañïm. The food I’ve eaten is making me ill. (Lit. “The food I’ve eaten hasn’t agreed with me.”) የመኪና Aደጋ Aጋጠመኝ Yämäkina adäga agat’ämäñ. I have been in a car accident.

Grammar Point
Expressions Using the Relative Past There are many useful expressions involving the past tense form of the verb, which describe an action’s relation to another (“after,” “before”, “when,” “since”) or express frequency of an action (“whenever,” “every time”). Consider the following examples:
äÆYl@N kn-qኝ b“§ é-

Mobayïlen känät΄äk΄äñ bähuala rot’ä. After he snatched Käbälähu bähuala wädä sïra ïhedalähu. After I eat, I go

my mobile, he ran.
kb§h# b“§ wd |‰ XÿÄlh#

to work. Addis Abäba bämät΄a k΄ut’ïr sinima yïgäbal. Every time he comes to Addis Ababa, he goes to the cinema. k¬mÑ wÄ!H SU xYbl#M Kätamämu wädih sïga aybälum. Since he (polite) got sick, he (polite) has not eaten meat. b!é kgÆC jMé g!z@ x§gßCM Biro kägäbačč jämïro gize alagäñäččïm. Since she entered the office, she hasn’t had time.
xÄ!S xbÆ bmÈ q$_R s!n!¥ YgÆL

Notice the following prefixes and suffixes that are used with the past tense verb form in the examples given above. Here are the meanings for some commonly used expressions of this type:
kk- b“§ k- bðT b- g!z@ b- q$_R k- wÄ!H k- jMé

käif, since, as kä- bähuala after kä- bäfit before bä- gize when bä- k΄utïr whenever, every time that kä- wädih ever since kä- jämïro since, ever since

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Even though these expressions use the past tense form of the verb, they can be used to relate past actions (“After he snatched my mobile, he ran.”) or habitual actions (After I eat, I go to work.). One of these expressions, kform:
kmÿÁ bðT šY -Èh# kmt¾a bðT

kä- bäfit, is also commonly used with the infinitive

Kämähede bäfit šay t’ät’ahu. Before I went, I drank tea. bðT g§êN T¬-ÆlC Kämätäñatwa bäfit gälawan tïtat’äbaläč. Before she sleeps, she takes a shower.

Notice that expressions of this sort that use the infinitive form, rather than the past tense, require the possessive pronoun suffix (-e, -ïh, -ïš, -u, etc.) attached to the end of the infinitive. (Lit: “Before my going, I drank tea.”) “Before her sleeping, she took a shower.”)

Practice
With a classmate, describe what you do before the following events: 1. Before I go to sleep… 2. Before I eat dinner… 3. Before I come to class… Now describe what you do after the following: 1. After I finish class… 2. After I enter my house at night… 3. After I prepare food… Finally, describe the things you do every time you go home after training.

Grammar Point
Expressing Obligation or Necessity Obligation (“have to”, “must”) can be expressed using xl allä + person marker: Mähed alläbbïñ. m¥R xlBሽ Mämar alläbbïš. m¬kM xlBH Mätakäm alläbbïh.
mÿD xlBኝ

I have to go./ I must go. You (♀) have to learn./ You (♀) must learn. You (♂) have to get medical treatment.

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Forms of xl allä + person marker Singular Present/future (“have to/ should”)
Xn@

Past (“had to/ should have”)
nbrBኝ X¾

Plural Present/future (“have to/ should”) ïñña
XÂNt

Past (“had to/ should have”)
nbrBኝ

ïne

xlBኝ xlBH xlB>

Alläbïñ Alläbïh

näbäräbïñ
nbrBH

alläbïn

näbäräbïn

xNt

Anta
xNcE

näbäräbïh
nbrB>

Anči
XRSã

Alläbïš
xlBãT xlbT

näbäräbïš Alläbïwot näbäräbïwot
nbrbT nbrBãT

ïnnantä

alläbaččïhu

Näbäräbaččïhu

ïrswo
Xs#

ïssu Xú* ïssua
XúcW

Alläbät
xlÆT

näbäräbät
nbrÆT Xns# xlÆcWM nbrÆcW

Alläbat
xlÆcW

näbäräbat
nbrÆcW

ïnnäsu

alläbaččäw

näbäräbaččäw

ïssačäw

alläbaččäw

näbäräbaččäw

Another way to express obligation or necessity makes use of the verb ¥SflG masfäläg [xSflg asfälägä], meaning literally “to cause to want or need”. This verb is derived from one you already know well, mflG mäfäläg [flg fälägä] “to want or need”. ( See grammar appendix for more information on passive verbs)
m¬kM ÃSfLg¾L ¥rF ÃSfLUC-L

Mätakäm yasfälïgäñal. I need to be examined (by a doctor). Maräf yasfälïgaččïhual. You all need rest.

Literally, these sentences are saying something to the effect of: To be examined by a doctor is necessary for me. Rest is necessary to you all. For this reason, the third person singular form (ÃSfLUL yasfälïgal) is used, along with the object pronoun inserted. When the thing that is needed is plural, the third person plural form is used: Ïnnäzih mäs’ïhafoč yasfälïguñal. I need these books. Xnz!H BR+öãC ÃSfLg#ÂL Ïnnäzih bïrč’ïk’owoč yasfälïgunal. We need these drinking glasses.
Xnz!H m{/æC ÃSfLg#¾L

Practice
1. Use the verb ¥SflG masfäläg [xSflg asfälägä] to describe some of the things you need when you go to site or village visit. 2. Use the verb ¥SflG masfäläg [xSflg asfälägä] to describe some of the things you, as a group, will need to do to prepare for your village visit. 3. Use the xl allä + person marker form to tell one of your classmates what he or she must do in order to stay safe and secure during PST. 141

Now translate the following sentences into Amharic. 1. She has to do her homework. 2. I have to write a letter to my parents. 3. I had to go on foot. Write three different things that you have to do in the next two weeks (in Amharic). 1. _______________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________

Application
1. Study the following situation, create a dialog appropriate to the situation, and perform it in the next class. Don’t forget to exchange roles. A man has been hurt and is lying on the side of a path crying ‘XRÇኝ ïrduñ!’ A woman comes along and asks him what’s wrong and offers to help. He gives her his friend’s name and telephone number and begs her to take him to the hospital. 2. Ask your host family for advice on staying safe and integrating into Ethiopian life. You might ask questions such as: • x¥R¾ lm¥R MN MN ÃSfLg¾L? Amarïña lämämar mïn mïn yasfälïgäñal? • yx!T×ùÃN ÆHL l¥wQ MN MN ¥DrG xlBኝ? YäItyop’yan bahïl lämawäk’ mïn mïn madïräg alläbïñ? • §lm¬mM Lalämätamäm (in order to not be sick) MN ¥DrG xlBኝ?mïn madräg alläbïñ? Report your host family’s answers in the next class.

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
ህክምና Eድገት Aስተዳደር ህፃናት ትምህርት ጠንቅ Aገልግሎት ጤና Aጠባበቅ ስነ ስርዓት መታመም ህይወት ስነምግባር ልማት ማህበራዊ መልካም

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Unit 17 Sentence Structure
Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit you will b able to: - sentence types in Amharic language, - tell how Amharic sentences differ from English sentences, - recognize some of the common Amharic sentence and phrase connectors, - be familiar with most common Amharic preposition, and finally - make correct sentences

Grammar: Types of sentences
The main Amharic sentence types are simple, compound and complex. (Nätäla ’ÖL dïrïb É`w ïnna ›“ dïbïlïk’ÉwMp aräftä nägäroč ›.’Ña‹). Simple Sentence / Nätäla aräftä nägäroč/ A simple sentence has a single subject and a single verb. But it can have other parts of speech. The pattern is : Subject+ Predicate + Verb Example: Ayele rot’ä
›¾K aÖ::

S+V Ayele bätam rot’ä
›¾K u×U aÖ

S + adv + V räjïmu Ayele bätam rot’ä
[ÏS< ›¾K u×U aÖ::

adj

N

adv

V

noun phrase(NP) räjïmu Ayele äwdä bettu bätam rot’ä
[ÏS< ›¾K ¨Å u?~ u×U aÖ::

NP

P.Ph

adv.

V

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Practice: I. Select words from the box and make a sentence Bäla vL bälahu uLG< ïne ’@ Example: Wändïme mïsa bäla II. III.
¨”ÉT@ Ud uL::

täňäč }—‹ särč W^‹ heda H@Ç

ïssu c< t’ät’u ÖÖ< lïjoču MЇ

astämariw ›e}T]¨< ïnate “‚ Hagäračïhu GÑ^‹G<

Make sentences in Amharic and talk about yourself, your friends, your family and your trainer. Expand the following sentences using the word "ѳ‹". ïssua gäzač

Example:
dD ѳ‹ dD________ѳ‹::

Compound sentence (dïrïb aräftä nägär É`w

›[ፍተ ’Ñ`)

A compound sentence is a combination of two simple sentences by a connector. Example mïsa bälahu Ud uLG< wuha t’ät’hu mïsa bälahu na wuha t’ät’hu
Ud uLG<“ ¨<H Ö×G<:: lïju suk’ head. MÌ c<p H@Å:: ¨<H Ö×G<

Šamma gäza hT ѳ:: lïju suk’ headäna Šamma gäza MÌ c<p H@Å“ hT ѳ:: anäbalähu ›’vKG<:: ïtäňalähu }—KG<:: anäbalähu woyim ïtäňalähu ›’vKG< ¨ÃU }—KG<:: Practice: I. Connect the following simple sentences and make a compound sentence using connectors. ( once you get the meaning of each simple sentence, you may ask your LCF for an equivalent connector to what way you think the two should be connected) 1. gälačäwun tat’äbu ÑL†¨<” Öu<:: lïbïsačäwun k’äyäru Mwd†¨<” k¾\:: 2. fitun tat’äbä ò~” Öu k’ursun bälla l`c<” uL:: 3. lïjoču yat’änallu MЇ ÁÖ“K<:: lïjoču yïč’awotalu.MЇ ÃݨK<:: 4. Sara amämat X^ ›STƒ:: hakim bet alhedäčïm HŸ=U u?ƒ ›MH@Å‹U:: 5. fätäna därsoal ð}“ Å`f›M:: atat’änam ›Ö“U::

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II.

here are some more simple sentences to be made longer compound sentences using connectors like gïn, woyïm and ïna ( meaning but, or and and respectively). Now complete these unfinished sentences with another simple sentence to make them longer and more meaningful. 1. säwuyäw mät’a gïn
c¨<¨< S× Ó”

.
::

2. ayäru yïk’zäk’ïzal gïn
›¾\ Ãk²p³M Ó”

.
::

3. lïbse k’o šïšual gïn
Mwc? qihEM Ó”

.
::

4. ïne ïmät’alähu woyïm
’@ S×KG< ¨ÃU

.
::

5. lïjïtua ananas gäzač ïna
MÏ… ›““e ѳ‹ “ ::

.

III.

Match: you sill also try connecting simple sentences in to a meaningful whole piece by doing this matching practice. 'A' 1. gïbiw yamïral gïn
Óu=¨< ÁU^M Ó”

'B' bälu
uK<

2.säwuyäw näč’ šämiz läbsual
c¨<¨< ’ß gT>´ KwdDM

t’äbab näw
Övw ’¨<

3.nägä sïbïsäba ïgäbalähu woyïm
’Ñ ewcv ÑvKG< ¨ÃU

gïn k’ošïšual
Ó” qiiDM

4. tïgïst gäbäya hedäč ïna
ƒÓeƒ ÑuÁ H@Å‹ “

ïwaňalähu
ª—KG<

5.ïmama ananas gäzu ïna
TT ›““e Ѳ< “

mango gäzač
T”ÑA ѳ‹::

A Complex Sentence (dïbïlïk’ÉwMp aräftä nägäroč

›.’Ña‹)

A Complex sentence is a sentence which is formed from a dependant clause and a simple sentence. A dependant clause is formed using a preposition and a gerundive affix. Some Amharic prepositions that help in connecting one clause to another with the intended meaning are:

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lä- K(to) , käïndäExample:
”Å

Ÿ

(from/since)
eK

(as/ as soon), sïlä-

(reason)

He came. ïssu mät’a

c< S× c< eK S×

Because he came. ïssu sïlä mät’a

Now the preposition #eK$ starts a reason intent and so requires another clause to finish it off yet with intended meaning to be put across in combination. Otherwise, While as a clause starter it needs a verb and complement to finish the clause, it doesn’t otherwise remain open and leave the sentence incomplete. Sïrayen č’äräsku
Y^” Ú[eŸ<:: ”ÅÚ[eŸ< ”ÅÚ[eŸ< S×KG<::

Sïrayen ïndä č’äräsku Y^”

Sïrayen ïndä č’äräsku ïmät’alähu Y^”

Gerundive Affix Please go back to Unit 12 and look at rules about simple gerundive stated in the grammar section of the “ The Story Telling “ unit. You will see how two consecutive actions are put in the saem sentence using the gerundive verbs. Now, when you have read the unit just referred, examine these examples: Gäbäya hedku ÑuÁ H@ÉŸ< Gäbäya heje ÑuÁ H@Î Gäbäya heje doro gäzahu ÑuÁ mïsa bäla mïsa bälto _______
Ud uL Ud uM„ Ud uM„ Y^ H@Å::

________

H@Î Êa ѳG<::

mïsa bälto sïra hedä lïju hagär gobäňä lïju hagär gobňïto

MÌ HÑ` ÑAu– MÌ HÑ` ÑAw˜„ HÑ` ÑAw˜„ }SKW::

_______ Practice:

lïju hagär gobňïto tämälïsä. MÌ

I. Complete the following Sentences
1) 2) 3)

bet ïndädäräsku sïra sïlätamämäč buna kät’ät’ahu

. . .

u?ƒ ”ÅÅ[eŸ< Y^ eKSS‹ u<“ ŸÖ×G<

:: :: ::

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4) itïyop’ïya sïlämät’an 5) sïlt’äna ïndäč’äräsïn

. .

›=ƒÄåÁ eKS×” eMÖ“ ”ÅÚ[e”

:: ::

II. Insert a right prepositional connectors to connect the two sentences.
1.

Halafiyačïn k’rrä LòÁ‹”
ðKÑ::

k[::

sïbïsäba yälänïm

ewcv ¾K”U::

2. mähed fälägä SH@É
3. 4.

fäk’ad t’äyäk’e ðnÉ

Ö¾k::

sïra agäňähum bet täkärayähu Y^ wuša näkäsat. ¨<h
’Ÿdƒ::

›Ñ–G< u?ƒ }Ÿ^¾G<:: HŸ=U u?ƒ H@Å‹:: KþK=e ›SKŸ~::

hakim bet hedäč

5. betačäw täzäräfä Practice:

u?†¨< }²[ð::

läpolis amäläkïtu

I. By using a gerundive affix change the following simple sentence to complex sentences. To do so you may have to think first to determine which action comes first sequentially and them decide which way the verb changes to form the respective gerundive affix. Look at the example first. Example: lïbïs at’äbäč täkosäč lïbïs at’ïba täkosäč
Mwe ›Öu‹:: }¢c‹::

Mwe ›Øv }¢c‹::

Of the two consecutive actions which is washing the clothes and then ironing, washing comes first and the gerundive form of the verb ‘at’äbäč’ has been taken to be ‘at’ba’. As you do this exercises, remember that the gerundive changes according to gender, i.e. he or she. With feminine it always takes the ‘-a’ ending while it takes the ‘-o’ one for mascline ( not polite form). 1. tïmïhïrt bet hedä 2. andäňa wät’ač 3. buna afälu
ƒUI`ƒ u?ƒ H@Å::

täfätänä

}ð}’::

›”Å— ¨×‹::

täšälämäč

}gKS‹

u<“ ›ðK<::

t’ät’u ÖÖ<:: lïbïs gäzač
Mwe ѳ‹ òMU ›¾G<::

4. dämoz täk’äbäläč 5. sinima bet hedku

ÅS´ }kuK‹::

c=’>T u?ƒ H@ÉŸ<::

film ayähu

II. Make 3 complex sentences using a gerundive affix based on the actions you have done last week. III. Report what your friends said on (II) using a gerundive affix and changing a pronoun.

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Amharic Sentence Types: According to their use Amharic sentences are divided in to four types. 1. hatätawi aräftä nägär ሀተታዊ
›[ፍተ ነገር

/ Declarative sentence .

A declarative sentence is a statement that can be either affirmative or negative. Example Affirmative Nägä tïmïhïrt allä
’Ñ ƒUI`ƒ ›K::

Negative Nägä tïmïhïrt yälläm
’Ñ ƒUI`ƒ ¾KU

guadäňoče mät’ïtäwal
ÕÅ™Š SØ}ªM::

guadäňoče almät’um
ÕÅ™Š ›MSÖ<U:: ›[ፍተ.’Ñ`/

2. t’yak’eawi aräftä nägär ØÁoÁ© Example mäče mät’ah SŠ yät hedäč ¾ƒ
S×I;

Interrogative Sentence

H@Å‹; ÃW^M;

ïndet yïsäral ”ȃ mïn allš
U” ›Mi;

3. tïzazawi aräftä nägär ƒ°³³©

›.’Ñ`

/ Imperative Sentence

Here, the subject is you ( i.e. second person) and it is command. See how this forms in these examples: Subject ( being addressed- 2nd person) antä ›”} anči ›”ˆ ïnantä “”} ïrswo `e− 4. aganaň aräftä nägär With the verb mäk’ämät’ ( to sit) täk’ämät’ }kSØ täk’ämäč’i }kSß täk’ämät’u }kSÖ< yïk’ämät’u ÃkSÖ< Exclamation With the verb mähed’ ( to go ) hid H>É hiji H>Í= hidu H>Æ yïhidu ÃH>Æ

›Ò“˜ ›.’Ñ` /

These sentences are used to exclaim ideas.

148

Examples: ïnde! ”È! (expressing your emotions at meeting something you didn’t expect to happen or be there that soon). Ask your LCFs to show you how to say it and how people use it in Amharic context) Mïn alš;
U” ›Mi;

What! What did you say?
ÃÑ`TM! MÌ u×U ÑAu´ ’¨<::

Yïgärmal! lïju bät’am gobäz näw abet gïbiw siyamïr ›u?ƒ

Wow. The child is smart.
Óu=¨< c=ÁU`!

What a beautiful compass.

bäïwunät alawäk’kum näbär Some Amharic Connectors: Some of the Amharic Connectors are:
Aለበለዚያ ቢሆንም ስለዚህ ምክንያቱም

u¨<’ƒ ! ›L¨pŸ<U ’u`::

Really, I didn't know.

otherwise even though so because

በመሆኑም ይሁን Eንጂ ለማንኛውም ነገር ግን

because of however anyways but

Look at the examples below and notice how they are placed and form a meaningful combination of the two parts of sentences. 1. agobär tät’äk’äm aläbäläzia yäwäba tïniň yïnädfïhal
›ÑAu` }ÖkU ›KuK²=Á ¾¨v ƒ”˜ Ã’ÉõHM::

2. Bïrtukanu albäsäläm bihonïm ïgäzawalähu
w`~"’< ›MucKU u=J”U Ñ³ªKG<::

3. fätäna aläbïň sïläzih at’änalähu
ð}“ ›Kw˜ eK²=I ›Ö“KG<::

4. mängädu asčägari näw bämähonum aräfädkuň
S”ÑÆ ›e†Ò] ’¨< uSJ’<U ›[ðÉŸ<˜

5. lämämt’at asïbe näbär yïhun ïnji altämäčäňïm
KSU׃ ›eቤ ’u` ÃG<” ”Í= ›M}S†˜U::

Practice: I. Connect the following sentences using the right connectors from the above list. T’ru wut’et amät’ahu Ø\
¨<Ö?ƒ ›S×G<

däs aläň Åe

›K˜::

149

gänfo yïwodal tolo näy „KA
’Ã

Ñ”ö èÇM

aysmamawïm ïhedalähu H@ÇKG<

›ÃeTT¨<U::

wut’et alamät’ahum Ø\

¨<Ö?ƒ ›LS×G<U

alatänahum

›LÖ“G<U::

II. Make the sentences complete. 1. Šayu sïkuar yäläwum sïläzih .
h¿ e"D` ¾K¨<U eK²=I

::

2. Addis Abeba tïlïk’ kätäma nat yïhun ïnji
›Ç=e ›uv ƒMp Ÿ}T “ƒ ÃG<” ”Í=

. ::

3. rïboňal mïkïniyatum 4. betun ïšät’äwalähu bihonïm 5. bäsäat na aläbäläziya

.

`x—M U¡”Á~U

:: :: ::

. u?~” .

gÖªKG< u=J”U

uc¯ƒ “ ›KuK²=Á

III. Now make your own sentences using connectors like the above ones. Prepositions: Here are some of them the most frequently used prepositions in Amharic bä በ kä ከ in, at from, by ( indicating adjacency- ie. with at’ägäb Aጠገብ) to, for to, towards, into as far as, upto, until like, as without wïst’ውስጥ wï č’ውጭ inside outside

lä ለ wädä ወደ ïskä Eስከ ïndä Eንደ sïlä ስለ yalä ያለ -

lay ላይ tač ታች kä…gar
ከ…ጋር/ (ጋ) bäfit በፊት

on top, beneath, with ( accompaniment) before, in front of, behind, after

about, because of, according to bähwala በሃላ

Note: The ones listed on the left mostly come before nouns and verbs while those on the right (wïst’, wï č’, lay, tač, etc) are usually placed ater nouns and verbs.

Example. tïmïhïrt bet wust’ bïzu tämariwoč allu. ƒ/u?ƒ ¨<eØ Wäfua zaf lay aräfäč. ¨÷ ³õ Là ›[ð‹:: bämäkina wädä sïra hedä. uSŸ=“ ¨Å Y^ H@Å::
w²< }T]−‹ ›K<::

150

ïsïkä Addis Ababa ïhedalähu. eŸ ›Åe ›uv H@ÇKG<:: läïhïtu mäs’ähf sät’at. KI~ SêNõ c׃ ïndä abatu manbäb yïwodal. ”Å ›v~ T”uw èÇM::

Practice: Complete the following sentences by filling the right preposition. 1. Käïhïtu ŸI~ 2. tïgïst
ƒÓeƒ

mät’a S×:: He came with his sister Hana
H“

tat’änaläč

Ö“K‹::

Tigist studies with Hana. 3. šay

sïkuar ïwodalähu e"D` ïyäbärärč hedäč

¨ÇKG<::

I like tea with sugar The bird flew up.

4. wäfua ¨÷

¾u[[‹ H@Å‹::

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Unit 18
Describing the Household
Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to: Describe parts of a house Name household items and use expressions employed to borrow things Use adjectives and prepositions to describe household items Use infinitives to express purpose The following picture shows the floor plan of Ato Mekonnen’s house. Read the description of the house and answer the questions that follow.

5 4 2

3 1

152

YH

yxè

m÷NN

b@T nW

yxè

m÷NN

b@T

xMST KFlÖC xl#T

Yïh yäAto Mekonnen bet näw. yäAto Mekonnen bet amïst kïfïloč allut. Note: (KFL kïfïl + åCoč = room +s). Xnz!HM ïnnäzihïm: 1. úlÖN salon 2. MGB b@T mïgïb bet 3. mኝ¬ b@T mäññïta bet (TLQ tïlïk΄) 4. mኝ¬ b@T mäññïta bet (TN> tïnïš) 5. m¬-b!Ã b@T mätat΄äbiya bet (bath room)

Practice
Supply English equivalents for the following words: 1. úlÖN salon 2. 3. 4.
mኝ¬ b@T TLQ TN>

mäññïta bet

tïlïk΄ tïnïš

Vocabulary
Types of Houses (yb@T ›YnèC yäbet aynätoč) yúR b@T yäsar bet (úR b@T sar bet) / ¯í b@T gojo bet thatched house öRöé b@T k΄ork΄oro bet corruguated iron roofed houses æQ fok΄ multi-storied house or (one story house) v!§ villa villa y+” b@T yäč΄ïk΄a bet mud–walled house More Parts of the House (KFlÖC kïfïloč) ma’ïd bet / w_ b@T wät΄ bet kitchen :” b@T ïk΄a bet storeroom >NT b@T šïnt bet / m¬-b!à b@T mätat΄äbiya bet toilet brNÄ bärända verandah
¥:D b@T

Adjectives used with bet sð säfi spacious -ÆB t΄äbab small k!‰Y b@T kiray bet house for rent öNí k΄onjo beautiful xÄ!S addis new xég@ aroge old zmÂêE zämänawi modern

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Practice
Fill in the following blank spaces with the appropriate adjective. 1. xÄ!S xbÆ Bz# Addis Ababa bïzu __________________ b@èC
xl#

betoč aallu.

2. b@t& xég@ nWÝ Bete aroge näw. Slz!H Sïläzih ________ b@T XfLUlh# bet ïfälïgalähu.
3. b@t& -ÆB nWÝ Bete t΄äbab näw. Slz!H Sïläzih ________ b@T XfLUlh# bet

ïfälïgallähu. 4. XÂt& Mœ Ϊnate mïsa ________ b@T WS_ Xys‰C nW bet wïst΄ (inside) ïyäsärač näw. Expressing Purpose
Mœ lmB§T wdMGB b@T XÿÄlh# lmt¾T wd mኝ¬ b@T XÿÄlh# lm¬-B wd m¬-b!à b@T

Misa lämäblat wädä mïgïb bet ïhedallähu. Lämätäñat wädä mäññïta bet ïhedallähu. XÿÄlh# Lämätatäb wädä mätat΄äbiya bet ïhedallähu.

Note: the prefix l lä indicates purpose (equivalent to “in order to”).

Practice
Now convert the words in parentheses to indicate purposes. Example: SLK (mdwL) wd wd SLK b@T XÿÄlh# sïlk (mädäwäl) wädä sïlk bet ïhedallähu. → SLK lmdwL wd SLK b@T XÿÄlh# sïlk lämädäwäl wädä sïlk bet ïhedallähu. 1. (m¥R) wd TMHRT b@T XÿÄlh# (mämar) wädä tïmïhïrt bet ïhedallähu. __________________________________________________________________
2. μ*S (mÅwT) wd S¬Ä!×M XÿÄlh# Kuas (mäč΄awät) wädä stadium ïhedallähu.

__________________________________________________________________ 3.
š¥ (mG²T) wd s#Q XÿÄlh#

šama (mägzat) wädä suuk΄ ïhedallähu. __________________________________________________________________

Grammar Point
The adjectives generally come immediately before the noun/object in the Amharic sentence. Multiple adjectives are used the same as in English. (i.e. I saw a big, fat cat.)

Practice
Translate the following into Amharic. 1. Woizero Almaz is my neighbor. 2. Woizero Almaz lives in Addis. 3. Woizero Almaz has a big, old house. 4. Woizero Almaz’s house has five rooms. 5. This is Woizero Almaz’s house.

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Practice
Label the parts of the house that are indicated by the arrows.

Vocabulary
mäskot window bR bär “door ȶà t΄ariya roof GDGÄ gïdgïda wall wlL wäläl floor Gb! gïbi compound x_R at΄ïr fence Ùé gwaro garden or compound
mS÷T

Household furniture and utensils (yb@T :”ãC yäbet ïk΄awoč) ymኝታ b@T :”ãC yämäññïta bet ïk΄awoč y¥:D b@T :”ãC yäma’ïd bet ïk΄awoč xLU alga bed mîB mäsob traditional utensil used to store y‰Sg@ ÷mÄ!ñ yärasge komädino bed ïnjära MÈD mït΄ad disc made of clay on which side cabinet’ ïnjära is baked yLBS q$Mú_N yälïbs k΄umsat΄ïn xKNÆlÖ akïnbalo cone shaped lid for the wardrobe’ T‰S tïras pillow’ mït΄ad mS¬wT mästawät mirror’ BrT MÈD birät mït΄ad metal pan/ disc xNî§ ansola sheets sØD säfed traditional large disc like utensil BRD LBS bïrd lïbs blanket woven of grass and used to winnow grain or x¯bR agobär mosquito net remove XNj‰ ïnjära from MÈD mït΄ad wNðT wänfit sieve’ ksL käsäl charcoal yúlÖN :”ãC yäsalon ïk΄awoč îÍ sofa sofa yksL ¥Nd© yäkäsäl mandäja yb# -r’@² yäbunna t΄äräp’eza coffee brazier/charcoal stove’ table s!l!NdR silindär propane tank b!Ø bife buffet yUZ MD© yägaz mïdïja gas stove’ (‘buta ywlL MNÈF yäwäläl mïnt΄af floor gas’) BrT DST bïrät dïst pot carpet tEv! TV TV yšY jb yäšay jäbäna tea kettle’ 155

muk΄äč΄a mortar’ znz zänäzäna pestle’ s!n! sini tiny coffee cup rkïT räkäbot plastic or wood shelof for storing and serving coffee items XÈN ït΄an incense yXÈN ¥=š yäït΄an mačäša stand for burning incense +LÍ č΄ïlfa ladle mKtðà mäktäfya cutting board m_bš mät΄bäša frying pan T¶ tri tray/large platter úÍ safa loarge dishpan ¹K§ DST šäkla dïst clay pot for cooking and serving tibs/shiro, etc. KÄN kïdan lid mKfÒ mäkfäča bottle/wine opener
ÑqÅ

Name as many of the objects as possible

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Words/Expressions Used to Borrow Goods What do you say in Amharic to borrow a chair from your neighbor? To borrow consumables (ie. sugar, money) use mbdR mäbädär. To borrow nonconsumable objects (ie. blanket, chair) use mWsD mäwsäd. You may say:
- XÆKH/> ብR xbDrኝ/xbD¶ኝ?

- ïbakïh/š sukwar lïbädär?
- XÆKH/> TRF XSK¶ፕቶ YñR¦L/YñRšL? - XÆKH/> wNbR xWsኝ/xW>ኝ

Please lend me money.

- ïbakïh/š tïrïf ïskripto yïnorïhal/ yïnorïšhal? Please, do you have extra pen? - ïbakïh/š wänbär awusäñ/awušiñ
- XÆKH/> TRF wNbR YñR¦L/YñRšL?

Please lend me a chair. Please, lend me a chair?

- ïbakïh/š wänbär awïšäň/awïšïň

Dialog 5
»¶ XÆK> yksL ¥Nd© xW>ኝ

Mary
¯rb@T »¶

ïbakïš yäkäsäl mandäja awïšïñ
Y,W WsJ xmsGÂlh#

Goräbet yihäw wusäj Mary
¯rb@T

amäsägïnallähu
MNM xYdL

Goräbet mïnïm aydäl Question
XÆK> ¥Sm¶Ã LêS ?

Positive Answer
X¹! WsD/Ws©! xY Xys‰h#bT nW

Negative Answer
xY Xys‰h#bT nW

Ïbakïh/š masmäriya lïwas?
XÆKH/> ¥Sm¶Ã xWsኝ/xW>ኝ

Ïši, wusäd/wusäji.
X¹! WsD/Ws©!

Ay, ïyäsärahubät näw. (‘No, I’m using it’)*
xY ylኝም

Ïbakïh/š masmäriya awusäñ/awušiñ
XÆKH/> ¥Sm¶Ã YñR¦L/YñRšL?

Ïši, wusäd/wusäji.
Xã WsD/Ws©!

Ay, yäläňim.
xY ylኝም

Ïbakïh/š masmäriya yïnorïhal/ yïnorïšhal?

Awo, wusäd/wusäji.

Ay, yäläňim.

*Refer to Unit 12 for the present continuous tense.

Practice
Ask your classmates if you can borrow the following items: pen, pencil, paper, book. Practice answering both in the positive and the negative.

Cultural Note
It is common to borrow household items from friends and neighbors. Note that it is expected to return items quickly. Saying ‘XGz@R YS_Lኝ ïgzer yïst΄ïlliň’ or ‘XmsGÂlh# amäsägïnalähu’ is polite. To show respect when taking and giving,

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take/give the item with right hand while supporting your right forearm with the left hand, or use both hands to give/receive the item.

Vocabulary
Prepositions wd wädä to k kä from x-gB at΄ägäb beside b…WS_ bä … wïs t΄ through b….§Y bä….laay over

Other Prepositions

§Y

laay on, over, above

SR/¬C

sïr/tač under, below

WS_

wust΄ in, inside

W+

wïč out, outside

Description of the Pictures Match the following descriptions with the pictures shown above. 1. μ*ú* -r’@²W §Y ÂT Kwaswa t΄äräp΄ezaw laay nat. 2. μ*ú* -r’@²W SR ÂT Kwaswa t΄äräp΄ezaw sïr nat. 3. μ*ú* ÆLÄ!W WS_ ÂT Kuasua baldiw wust΄ nat.

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Application
Write a description of your host family’s house and talk about it in class. Make use of prepositions and descriptive adjectives. Include: a. the house, the rooms b. the compound c. the furniture d. and utensils ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
x!NtRn@T y¦bš LBS öNí ÃM‰L çt&L Uz@È Ub! ©N_§ qlbT m{/@T n-§

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Unit 19
Job Specific Vocabulary
HIV/AIDS Related Terms yMKR xgLGlÖT yämïkïr agälïgïlot counseling bx@DS w§íÒcWN Ã-# bäAIDS wälajočačäwïn yat΄u AIDS orphans irx@DS KlB s΄ärä AIDS klub anti-AIDS club xND lxND mwsN aand läand mäwäsän being faithful to a partner (Lit. ‘one to one’) mmRmR mämmärmär being tested mt§lF mätälaläf being transmitted -#T ¥_ÆT t΄ut mat΄ïbat breastfeeding mNSx@ mänsï΄e cause ys@T LJ GR²T yäset lïj gïrzat female circumcision xL¥Z Æl+‰ almaz balä čïra herpes zoster lŠYrs# bÈM y¸ÃUL_ DRg!T lävayräsu bät΄am yämiyagalit΄ dïrgit high risk activity yb@T lb@T DUF yäbet läbet dïgaf home-based support HmM hïmäm illness, pain ¬¥ኝ xlmçN tammaň aalämähon infidelity XD» ¥‰z¸Ã ïdme marazämiya life prolonging’ ywND LJ GR²T yäwänd lïj gïrzat male circumcision mt§lðà mNgìC mätlaläfiya mängädoč modes of transmission kXÂT wd LJ käïnnat wädä lïj mother to child kxND b§Y yws!B Ùd¾ kaand bälay yäwäsib guadäňa multiple partner ywND BLT yäwänd bïlït penis yúMÆ MC yäsamba mïč pneumonia kŠYrs# UR y¸ñ„ sãC kävaïräsu gar yäminoru säwoč΄ PLWHA mkLkL mäkälkäl prevention xSgDì mDfR asïgädïdo mädïfär rape m¬qB mätak΄äb sexual abstinence ws!B/ws!ÆêE GNß#nT wäsib / wäsibawi gïnïňunät΄ sexual intercourse ሌ§ g#ÄT yägonïyoš gudat side effects ¥Hb‰êE DUF mahïbärawi dïgaf social support ywND BLT fú> yäwänd bïlït fäsaš sperm yxƧzR b>¬ãC yäabaläzär bäštawoč STDs MLKèC Mïlïkïtoč symptoms NQúT nïk΄ïsat tattoo m¬qB mätak’äb to abstain s@t¾ xĶnT setäña adarinät΄ transactional sex, prostitution, HKM Hïkïmïna treatment _N”q& y¯dlW t΄ïnïk΄ake yägodäläw unprotected ÷NdM m-qM kondom mät΄äk΄äm using condoms

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ys@T BLT

yäset bïlït vagina

Basic Development Related Terms lïmat development ïdïgät development, growth GBR gïbïrïna agriculture ysW ¦YL yäsäw hayïl human power b¥HbR md‰jT bämahïbär mädärajät forming associations BDR q$-Æ bïdïr ïnna k΄ut΄äba loans and savings ‰S xgZ rasagäz self-help yxμÆb! tf_é XNKBμb@ yäakababi täfät΄ro ïnk ïbïkabe environmental protection yW¦ L¥T yäwuha lïmat water development _”Q xnSt¾ x!NÇST¶ãC t΄ïk΄ak΄ïn ïnna anästäña industriwoč micro and small scale enterprises ys@èC túTæ yäsetoč täsatïfo women’s participation ¥HbrsB mahïbäräsäb community
L¥T :DgT

Common Words for Meetings SBsÆ sïbsäba meeting ySBsÆW tú¬ðãC yäsïbsäbaw täsatafiwoč meeting participants ›§¥ aalama objective, purpose ySBsÆW l!qmNbR yäsïbsäbaw lik΄ämänbär chair [/ð s΄ähafi secretary ”lg#Æx@ k΄aalä guba’e agenda ySBsÆ _¶ yäsïbsäba t΄ïri call for a meeting t=¥¶ täčämari supplement t”Wä täk΄awïmo objection Government and non Government Structures mängïst government mängïstawi governmental mNGS¬êE ÃLçn DRJT mängïstawi yalïhonä dïrïjit NGO ymNGST mS¶Ã b@T yämängïst mäsriya bet government office, institution ¥:k§êE mNGST maïkälawi mängïst central government (federal) yKLL mNGST yäkïlïl mängïst regional government KL§êE kïlïlawi regional KLL kïlïl 1, 2, 3 Regions 1, 2, 3… øN zon zone wrÄ wäräda district y¸n!St&R mS¶Ã b@T yäminister mäsriya bet ministerial office y-@ _b” ¸n!St&R yät΄ena t΄ïbäk΄a minister Ministry of Health yb§Y mS¶Ã b@T yäbälay mäsriya bet higher office QRNÅF mS¶Ã b@T k΄ïr ïnč΄af mäsriya bet branch office y yä ______ QRNÅF k΄ïrïnč΄af ______ branch (e.g. Assella branch) qY mSqL k΄äymäsk΄al Red Cross
ymNGST mNGSE

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yÑÃ ¥Hb‰T

yämuya mahïbärat professional associations

Peace Corps Role Key Phrases yäsälam guad Peace Corps b¯ f”d¾ bägofäk΄adäña volunteer s§M sälam peace wÄJnT wädajinät friendship y›lM s§M yäaläm sälam world peace ¬Äg! hgéC tadagi agäroč developing countries ÆHL bahïl culture XRĬ irdata aid ÑÃêE DUF muyawi dïgaf professional support l¥œwQ lämasawäk΄ to make someone know l¥wQ lämawäk΄ to know GB gïb goal
ys§M ÙD

HIV Phrases and knowledge terms ኤች Aይቪ ኤድስ 1. the key principles for preventing sexual transmission of HIV are:
ኤች Aይቪን ለመከላከል ዋና ዋና መንገዶች

HIVn lämäkälakäl wana wana mängädoč መታቀብ mätak’äb abstinence ታማኝ መሆን tamañ mähon being faithful ኮንዶም መጠቀም kondom mät’äk’äm condom use 2. HIV maybe transmitted through one of four bodily fluids.
ኤች Aይቪ ከAራቱ በAንዱ የሰውነት ፈሳሾች ይተላለፋል

HIV käaratu bäandu yä säwunät fäsašoč yïtälaläfal የወንድ ዘር ፍሬ yä wand zär fïre የሴት ብልት ፈሳሽ yäset bïlït fäsaš ደም däm Eና የEናት ጡት ወተት ïnna yäïnat t’ut wätät 3. HIV cannot be transmitted through casual contact.
ኤች Aይቪ በEለት ተEለት ንክኪ ለምሣሌ በመጨባበጥ Aይተላፍም

HIV bäïlät täïlät nïkiki lämïsale bämäč’babät’ ayïtälaläfïm 4. the immune system protects the body from disease.
የሰውነት የተፈጥሮ መከላከያ ሰውነትን ከበሽታ ይከላከላል

Yä säwunät yätäfät’ro mäkälakäya säwnätn käbäšïta yïkälakälal 5. HIV attacks the body’s immune system. HIV destroys the while blood cells.
ኤች Aይቪ የሰውነት የተፈጥሮ መከላከያን ያጠቃል በተለይም ነጭ የደም ሴሎችን ያጠፋል፡፡

HIV Yä säwunät yätäfät’ro mäkälakäyan yat’äk’al. bätäläyïm näč yädäm seločïn yat’fal. 6. you cannot tell whether or not someone is carrying HIV just by looking at them.
በማየት ብቻ Aንድ ሰው ኤች Aይቪ Eንዳለበት ወይም Eንደሌለበት መናገር Aይቻልም፡፡

162

Bämayät

bïča and säw HIV ïndaläbät woyïm ïndäleläbät manager ayïčalm.

7.

condoms, when used properly, are very effective at preventing HIV transmission.
በAግባቡ ከተጠቀሙት ኮንዶም የኤች Aይቪ መተላለፍን በጣም ይከላከላል፡፡ Bä agbabu kätät’äk’ämut kondom yä HIV mät älal äfn bt’am

yïkälakälal.

8.

women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS because of physical characteristics and social disadvantages.
በተፈጥሮ Aካላዊ ባህርያትና በማህበራዊ ጫና ምክንያት ሴቶች በኤች Aይቪ ኤድስ የበለጠ ይጠቃሉ፡፡ Bätäfät’ro akalawi bahrïyat ïna bämahïbärawi č’ana mïkïnïyat setoč bä HIV/AIDS

yä bälät’ä yït’k’alu. 9. the first step in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV is seeing good prenatal care.
ኤች Aይቪ ከEናት ወደልጅ Eንዳይተላፍ የመጀመሪያው Eርምጃ የቅድመ ወሊድ Eንክብካቤ ማግኘት ነው፡፡

HIV kä ïnat wädä lïj ïndaytälaläf yämäjmäriya ïrmïja yä k’ïdïmä wälid ä ïnkïbïkabe magňät näw. 10. there is no cure for HIV.
ኤች Aይቪ ህክምና የለውም፡፡

HIV hïkïmïna yäläwm. 11. ARTs help people live longer and healthier lives with HIV.
ፀረ-ኤች Aይቪ መድሃኒት መውሰድ ታማማዎችን ከቫረሱ ጋር ጤናማ ሆነው Eንዲቆዩ ይረዳቸዋል፡፡ S’ärä HIV mädïhanit mäwsäd tamamiwočïn kävayräsu gar t’enama honäw

ïndik’oyu yï rädačäwal. IGA Related terms/phrases የገቢ ማስገኛ ተግባራት yägäbi masgäňa tägbarat 12. HIV positive people are capable of supporting themselves and constributing to society.
የኤች Aይቪ ኤድስ ታማሚዎች ራሣቸውን መርዳትና ለማበረሰቡ AስተዋጽO ማድረግ ይችላሉ፡፡ yä HIV/AIDS tamamiwoč rasačäwïn märdat ïnna lämahbäräsäbu astäwas’ïo

madïräg yïčïlalu. 13. A successful business starts with a good plan
ስኬታማ ንግድ በጥሩ Eቅድ ይጀምራል sïketama nïgïd bt’ïru ïk’ïk’ïd yïjämïral.

Orphan and Vulnerable Children (OVC) በኤች Aይቪ ወላጆቻቸውን ላጡና ለAደጋ የተጋለጡ ህፃናት bä HIV/AIDS wolajočačäwun yat’u hïs’anat 14. Comprehensive care for OVCs involve food, shelter, health care, education, and psychological support.
ወላጆቻቸውን በኤች Aይቪ ኤድስ ላጡና ለAደጋ የተጋለጡ ህፃናት የሚደረግ Aጠቃላይ Eንክብካቤ ምግብን መጠለያን መሠረተ-ጤናን ትምህርትን Eና የስነ-ልቡና ድጋፍን ያካትታል፡፡

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wolajočačäwun bä HIV/AIDS lat’una ladäga yätägalät’ hïs’anat yämidäräg at’äk’alay ïnkïbïkabe mïgïbïn mät’läyan mäsärätä-t’enan tïmhïrtïn ïnna yäsïnä lïbunna dïgafn yakatïtal 15. Playing is necessary for healthy, happy children!
ጨዋታ ህፃናትን ጤናማና ደስተኛ ያደርጋል፡፡

č’äwata hïs’anatïn t’enamana dästäňa yadärgal. General Health Aጠቃላይ ጤና at’äk’alay t’ena 16. Breastfeeding is important for the good of your body.
ለልጅዎ ጤንነት የEናት ጡት ማጥባት Aስፈላጊ ነው፡፡ lälïjïwo t’enïnät yïnat t’ut mat’bat asfälagi

näw

17.

Wash your hands often to prevent the spread of disease.
የበሽታን ስርጭት ለመከላከል Eጅዎን በየጊዜው ይታጠቡ፡፡

yäbäšïtan sïrïč’t lämäkälakäl ïjïwon bäsamuna yïtat’äbu. 18. Boiling or purifying water is necessary in Ethiopia to kill dangerous germs.
በIትዮጵያ ውስጥ Aደገኛ ህዋሶችን ለመግደል ውሃን ማፍላት ወይም ማጣራት Aስፈላጊ ነው፡፡ bä etyop’ïya wïst’ adägäňa hïwasočïn lämägdäl wuhan maflat woyïm mat’arat

asïfälagi näw Environment- related vocabularies Aካባቢ akababi näk k’alatoč/harägoč akababi t’ïbäk’a k’ufaro mač’ï d mäkotkot maräm doma akafa č’ïk’a č’aka or dän čïgïň (čïgïň) maflat mat’ät’at täkïl k’ït’äl k’ït’äla- k’ït’äl k’ïrïč’af gïnd sar ïrt’ïb dïrk’oš madabäriya tïraktär
›"vu= Øun lóa TßÉ S¢ƒ¢ƒ T[U ÊT ›"ó ßn Ý" ‹Ó˜ ‹Ó˜ TÖ׃ Tፍላƒ }¡M ቅጠል ቅጠላ-ቅጠል ቅርንጫፍ ግ”ድ X` E`ጥብ É`qi TÇu]Á ƒ^¡}` ነክ ቃላቶች/ሐረጎች

environmental proted the act of diggin sickle till to weed hoe shovel mud forest/dun-jungle/ seedling grow seedlings in plenty watering plant leaf leaves branch stem grass wet dried gross fertilizer tractor

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mäwk’at mäkämär fïg afär länïfas mäst’ät (mabärayät) mïrït t’ïrat’ïre yäk’ïbat ïhïloč mïrït’ zär gorf wänz zïnab dämäna däga wäyna däga k’ola ïrt’ïbät däräk’ dïrk’ gum yämäret mänk’ät’ k’ät’ yämäret mänšäratät yäakababi bïkïlät yäwïha bïkïlät yädän č’ïfïčäfa yädän täkäla yäayär läwt’ yämäret märak’ot yämäret ït’rät yätäfät’ro adäga rähab yäguaro atklt fïrafïre yäïrša märet yäbet ïnsïsa yäkäbt mänga yäč’ïnät ïnïsïsat yädur ïnïsïsat säbl at’fi ïnïsïsat täbay mat’fiya märäs yägïbïrïna na gät’är lïmat säratäňa yä lïmat säratäňa

S¨<nƒ SŸS` õÓ ›ð` K”óe SeÖƒ Tu^¾ƒ U`ƒ Ø^Ø_ ¾pvƒ IKA‹ U`Ø ²` ÑA`õ ¨”´ ´“w ÅS“ ÅÒ ¨Ã“-ÅÒ qL `Øuƒ Å[p É`p Ñ<U ¾S_ƒ S”kØkØ ¾S_ƒ S”g^}ƒ ¾›"vu= w¡Kƒ ¾¨<H w¡Kƒ ¾Å” ßõÚó ¾Å” }ŸL ¾›¾` K¨<Ø ¾S_ƒ S^qƒ ¾S_ƒ Ø[ƒ ¾}ðØa ›ÅÒ [Gw ¾Õa ›ƒ¡Mƒ õ^õ_ ¾`h S_ƒ ¾u?ƒ ”edƒ ¾Ÿwƒ S”Ò ¾ß’ƒ ”edƒ ¾Æ` ”edƒ cwM ›Øò ›”edƒ }và TØòÁ T[e ¾Ów`““ ÑÖ` MTƒ W^}—

¾MTƒ W^}—

tresh pile compost soil winnow “ “ yield grain oil seeds select seeds flood river rain cloud high land temperate low land humidity dry draught fog earth quake land slide environmental pollution water pollution deforestation afforestation weather change land degradation depletion natural calamity famine vegetable fruits farm land domestic animals cattle pack animals wild animals pests/rodents pesticide plough an employee of ministry of agriculture and rural development development agent

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Education-related vocabularies ትምህርት-ነክ tïmïhrt-näk k’alatoč/harägoč tïk’ur-säleda näc-säleda t’ämäne mäs’haf rïsä-mämïr astämari mämïr mämïran tämari yämastämarya ïkïd yäïlät ïkïd märja-mässarya mäwdäk maläf mäkakäläňa mämarya kïfïl yämämïhïr mämïriya kïfïlä gize sïrïatä-tïmïhïrt sänäf-tämari gobäz-tämari säleda - matïfïya däbïtär rï-ïsä mämïhïr yäbet sïra yäkïfïl sïra mälmäja wut’et masfärya yäwut’et kard birro tïmïhïrt kïfïl sïbïsäba yä mämïran wuyïyït sïlït’na yä sïra lay sïlït’na ak’ïm gïnbata yä ak’ïm gïnbata sïlït’na yä mastämar lïmïmd yä mastämar lïmd
Øl` cK?Ç ’ß cK?Ç ÖS’@ SêNõ `Eሰ- SUI` ›e}T] SUI` SUI^ን }T]

ቃላቶች/ሐረጎች

¾Te}T]Á °pÉ ¾°Kƒ °pÉ S[Í SX]Á S¨<Åp TKõ S"ŸK— ¾ST]Á ¡õM ¾SUI` SU]Á ¡õK Ñ>ዜ Y`¯ƒ ƒUI`ƒ c’õ }T] ÑAu´ }T] cK?Ç TØòÁ Åw}` `°e SUI` ¾u?ƒ Y^ ¾¡õM Y^ SMSÍ ¨<Ö?ƒ Teð]Á ¾¨<Ö?ƒ "`É ቢሮ ƒUI`ƒ ¡õM ስብሰባ ¾SUI^ን ¨<ይይƒ ስMጠና ¾ስራ ላይ ስMጠና AቅU ግንባታ ¾AቅU ግንባታ ስMጠና ¾Te}T` MUUÉ ¾Te}T` MUÉ

black board white board chalk book school principal/director teacher teacher (formal) Teachers student lesson plan daily lesson plan teaching aid to fail to pass average class room teachers guide time of lesson (period) curriculum lazy student active student duster exercise book director home work class work exercise roster certificate office department meeting teachers’ discussion/meetin training on job training capacity building training for capacity building teaching practice teaching experience

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Unit 20
Guide to Ongoing Learning
Learning Objectives:
At the end of this unit you will be able to: Identify strategies for learning language after PST ends Use former PCVs’ suggestions to tailor an individual plan for learning Identify topics to target for ongoing learning Understand the language proficiency scale

Introduction
The following is a collection of techniques useful to the independent language learner. It was compiled by former PCVs and from trusted sources on language learning. Learning a language doesn’t end after PST! A language class is good for teaching you the basics of a language in a short period of time. During PST, you received a crash course in the fundamentals of one or more languages. But you will soon be at your site and on your own. Your LCF will no longer be around to help you out. Quite possibly you will be the only one at your site who is learning the new language. Now what? In theory this is the perfect environment for learning a foreign language. Once you are at your site, your survival depends on learning and using the language on a daily basis. You are forced by circumstances to learn. But this is all easier said than done. How exactly does one go about learning a language on his or her own? It helps to have a collection of techniques at your disposal.

Take Charge of Your Learning – Self-Directed Learning
The most successful language learners are the ones who take charge of their own learning. As adult language learners, we like the information that we learn to be directly applicable and useful to our lives. We like to learn things that help us accomplish our daily tasks and goals. We like to know why we are learning something and what it will do for us. If we don’t see a direct benefit, we tend to lose interest and move on to other things. The best language learning methods are self-directed approaches. You are in charge of your learning. You decide what you will learn, when you will learn it, and how to best go about learning it. By focusing on your own individual needs, this helps keep the material interesting and relevant. You can adapt these techniques for working alone, with a tutor, or casually with your friends and community.

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Set Realistic Expectations
It is natural to feel uncomfortable when learning a language. You're used to being in classes where the mode of communication -- the language of instruction -- is a given. In language learning, however, it is the mode of communication itself that is the focus of instruction. Not understanding and making mistakes -- things that are negative learning indicators in other settings -- are a very natural part of the language learning process. Accept the fact that you will not understand everything. In fact, at the very beginning, you will not understand much at all. Remember that during the initial period of adaptation your ear and your mind are adjusting to the sounds and the rhythm of the language. Though you will not understand all of what is being said, you will be amazed at your increasing ability to make sense of the language. Remember that the only way to learn the language is through practice, practice, and more practice; in the course of practicing you will make many errors … and you will learn from them.

Break Study Time into Smaller Chunks
Research shows that language students learn more effectively and retain more when they study frequently and for shorter periods of time than if they study infrequently for extended periods of time. Try to study each day, and whenever possible, several times a day. In addition, there are many otherwise mentally "idle" moments during the day when you can work in some studying. For example, you can review vocabulary while eating breakfast, recite the alphabet while showering, count your steps as you walk, name as many object as you can in the target language on your to work, take your vocabulary flash cards with you on a bus trip. There are many moments during the day when you can squeeze in a few minutes of practice time. Through the repetition of material, it will be come increasingly familiar, until it eventually becomes an automatic part of your language repertoire.

Establish Yourself as a Language Learner
With whatever strategy you decide to use for learning a language, your most important task at the beginning is to establish yourself as a language learner in your community. Your initial efforts should be to introduce yourself to everyone you meet and tell them that you are learning their language. Talk to your neighbors, local kids, shopkeepers, co-workers, and people on the street, waiters, people on the bus, in cafes, and anyone else you come across. A good first dialog is the following: Hello. My name is _____. I am from America. I want to learn ______ and become a fluent speaker. That is all I can say right now. Thank you. Good bye for now.

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This accomplishes three very important things. 1. It gives you a role in the community. Everyone will be watching and talking about you anyway. Now they know who you are and what you are doing here. You are the crazy foreigner who is trying to learn their language. 2. If gives the community a role. By introducing yourself to the community as someone who wants to learn their language, you are also asking the community to help you learn. They will want to be a part of your success. They will cheer you on and celebrate your progress. They will enjoy telling their friends and family how they helped you practice. They will also enjoy telling funny stories about you during dinner about your language learning attempts. 3. This process also a powerful way to integrate yourself into the community. It won’t take long before people are calling out your name, waving to you, and wanting to talk to you. You are no longer the strange new foreigner. Your language learning efforts help to break the ice. You are now THEIR strange new foreigner who is working hard to learn their language.

Use “The Daily Learning Cycle”
The Daily Learning Cycle is a daily strategy for learning a foreign languages originally developed by Peace Corps volunteers serving in the South Pacific. It is a flexible process that can be used anywhere regardless of whether there are any dictionaries or language textbooks available. It focuses on developing conversational fluency in small daily steps. The Daily Learning Cycle consists of five steps. 1. Choose a topic Pick something that will be immediately useful to you, such as negotiating for the best price at the market, buying a new shirt, asking for directions, or paying your electric bill. One useful technique is to brainstorm a list of 100 different topics in as short a time as possible. For this brainstorming technique to work, it is important to do it as fast as possible and to complete the full list of 100 topics. The speed forces you to stop self-editing. The quantity forces you to get creative as you quickly exhaust the easy and obvious topics. You can then use this list as a plan or inspiration for future practice sessions. 2. Develop a short dialog Using a mentor or other native speaker, develop a short 3-4 line dialog on your chosen topic. Explain to your helper that you want to learn common everyday language as it is really spoken, not formal academic language. 3. Practice with your mentor Practice the dialog over and over again with your mentor until you can deliver it like a trained stage actor. Pay careful attention to your mentor’s pronunciation and speaking rhythm. Try to duplicate him/her exactly. 4. Practice with the community

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When you are ready, the next step is to take the show on the road. Walk around your community and practice saying your dialog to as many people as possible. Try to speak with 10-20 different people. Don’t worry about making mistakes or making a fool of yourself. This is part of the process. The community will begin to expect and look forward to your regular visits as your make your practice rounds about the town. You will get a lot of practice and they will get a lot of funny stories to tell their families over dinner. The pressure of these “real life” practice sessions will really help accelerate your learning and make it stick. While you are walking around practicing, avoid the main roads as much as possible. Take the smaller, less congested paths. You’ll notice a big difference in how you are received by people. The people on the main roads are generally there to sell you something or get something from you. But the people on the side roads, in the smaller, quieter neighborhoods will not be so used to foreigners. They will be excited and charmed by your presence. They will also be much more welcoming and eager to talk to you. As always, pay attention to your safety. It is not uncommon to receive random invitations into people’s houses. Be careful about where you go and who you are seen with. If you are invited in for coffee, you might take them up on their offer, but you might consider sitting with them out in their courtyard and staying visible. 5. Evaluation Finally, at the end of your practice, evaluate how the session went. You can do this mentally or in a journal. Think about what went well and what you need more practice on. Think about who you’d like to speak with again and who you’d like to avoid. Also, think about what you wanted to be able to say but couldn’t. Use this information to plan future practice sessions.

Speak, Speak, Speak!
The Daily Learning Cycle and other language learning techniques emphasize speaking. After all, the purpose of learning a language is to communicate. The best way to learn a foreign language is to speak it. Reading and studying grammar only improves your ability to read and understand grammar. If you want to learn to speak a language, you have to practice speaking it. The ability to speak a language is an entirely separate muscle from what you use for studying and memorization. It needs to be exercised regularly along with everything else if you want to become fluent. Just as no one ever learned how to swim by reading a book, no one ever learned to speak a language without speaking it. At some point you have to jump in and start swimming in the language. Whenever possible, speak the language aloud rather than reciting it silently to yourself. Say vocabulary words out loud, read passages in the text aloud, do pronunciation activities orally and not just mentally. Write out the answers to activities rather than gliding through them in your mind. Read aloud entire sentences in an activity rather than

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just reading a fill-in response. Transferring language from your mind to your mouth is a skill that requires a great deal of practice. Even if you have learned your dialogs, memorized tons of vocabulary, and studied grammar, if you can’t pronounce it correctly nobody will be able to understand you. All you’ll get is a lot of confused looks. One method for learning correct pronunciation is called language shadowing. In the language shadowing technique, you practice repeating sentences over and over again after a native speaker. Pay attention to their pronunciation, tone, pitch, speed, and rhythm and try to duplicate it exactly.

Train Your Ears - Immerse Yourself in The Sounds of the Language
Besides speaking, it is also important to train your ears to the sounds of the language. If you are living in a small community with few English speakers, this will be easy. If you have an English-speaking roommate or lots of English speaking friends, this will take more work. Try to spend as much time during the day listening to the language around you. Immerse yourself as completely as possible in the sounds of the language. At first everything will sound unintelligible. But after a while you will begin to discern reoccurring patterns and sounds. Later, these patterns will resolve into recognizable words and phrases. Finally, you will begin to sense the meaning. Just like speaking, you have to devote regular practice to developing your abilities in this area. If you are sitting in a café or are riding on a bus, you can listen to the conversations going on around you. Focus on picking out words and phrases that you recognize. The more you do this, the more you’ll be able to recognize. Another way to develop an ear for the language is to immerse yourself in audio and video recordings of the local language. Listen to a lot of music in the local language. Watch a lot of TV. Again, don’t worry about understanding everything. Just try to listen for words and phrases that you recognize. You will get better and better over time. A fun technique is to find a copy of your favorite movie dubbed in the local language. English subtitles can be helpful but are not necessary. If you can find one of your favorite movies, then you will already know what the dialog is about. Watch the movie over and over again and try to learn the dialog. Learn to recite some of your favorite lines along with the actors. Have fun acting out and saying these lines as dramatically as possible. If you pick a movie that you enjoy, you will already have a built-in emotional connection to the movie and to the language. This will help improve your learning and retention.

Use Reading to Maximize Your Learning
Reading (along with speaking, listening, and memorizing) is the fourth major language skill that you need to develop. Many people discount the value of learning to read the language. After all, speaking the language is the priority for most volunteers. However, reading is an important and effective way of learning about a language. Just like listening practice, it is another way to immerse yourself in the language.

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Choose a popular magazine, newspaper, or sports magazine. Select an article that looks interesting. It helps if you already know something about the article’s subject. It also helps if there are pictures attached. Choose something that looks interesting. Then, with a dictionary close at hand, try to work through the first few paragraphs. Try to figure out the meaning first without looking things up. Highlight the words that seem important and that you’d like to learn. Look up the words in your dictionary, then go back and re-read the passage again. See if you can understand more of the meaning this time.

Find a Way to Remember Vocabulary
In your mind, make a crazy scene based on the sound of the word and its meaning. Try to combine multiple senses into your association. Make sure that when you think of it, you should see a picture, hear a sound, and feel a feeling. Make it crazy, ridiculous, offensive, unusual, violent, extraordinary, cartoonish, nonsensical – after all, these are the things that get remembered, are they not? Make the scene so unique that it could never happen in real life. The only rule is: if it’s boring, it’s wrong. Many volunteers create stacks of flash cards and lists of vocabulary words. This is a great idea for learning and reviewing new material. Purchase a set of 3 x 5 index cards and cut them in half (or use recycled pieces of paper cut into small cards). Write a vocabulary word on the front and its English definition on the back. As you learn more information about each word (e.g. plural forms of nouns, principle parts of verbs), you can add these to the cards. There are many ways you can use flash cards as a learning tool. When studying, organize words in meaningful groups (e.g., by part of speech, in thematic categories, regular verbs vs. irregular verbs). Shuffle the cards or groups, so that you use the stack(s) in a different order each time. Use the cards in both directions: first look at the foreign language words and try to recall the English definition. Then shuffle and look at the English definitions and attempt to remember the foreign language words

Hire a Tutor
The following are ideas from former volunteers, concerning who and how to hire a tutor, and how often to meet. “I have a two to three hour language class once a week with an older man who is a schoolteacher. Two shorter classes in a week would be better but my teacher only has Saturdays free right now. But, if you're working like you should be during the week, there isn't a lot of time for a bunch of classes. I chose my teacher because he is a teacher and works at a private school so has more of a salary and less stressful workload than the public teachers. He is the father of a good friend of mine, which allows me to communicate through my friend if it's necessary (for example changing times or canceling classes) but also the ability to have some distance. Some PCVs picked people that they work with or see every single day, which they later see as a problem. It will always be possible to ask your friends about language (without

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payment) and they will even enjoy the conversations as they can ask about English too. So personally, I think making a good friend your tutor is not a good decision.” “I spent the first three months at sight scoping out someone who I might want to employ as my tutor rather than asking around for someone who already does it. I felt like if I had someone who had never tutored before they would learn a few skills and class would be more flexible. I found a girl who had graduated in English from a local foreign language school, she is a student and could definitely use the extra money tutoring me would bring in. I asked if she was interested and then we decided when to begin and how many days per week. We settled on 3 days per week for an hour each time. I find that if we cover too much material I don't have the time or brainpower to study all of it before the next lesson.” “It doesn’t matter too much who your tutor is. Find someone you like and get along with. Even if he/she isn't the very best teacher, having a tutor means devoting time each day or week to studying Amharic. Having a responsibility to meet someone will make sure that you actually sit down and study something.” “For finding a tutor, it seems the compound that I live on is the best place to start. You are living with the group and interacting every day anyway. I tried going through my counterpart, but he knew little of the community himself. I have switched tutors as well when they don't work out (found by someone else in the office).” “After PST, many volunteers quickly recruit a professional language teacher at their site. They also start off paying that maximum allowed tuition rate, which is an hourly rate far in excess of the typical community standards. As I see it, there are several reasons why you should not do this. First, you will perpetuate the stereotype of a rich foreigner who can throw around money at a time when you want to be integrating into the community and teaching everyone that you came to transfer your skills not your money. Also most of your community will not make anywhere the Peace Corps allowed hourly rate even on a daily basis. I would suggest that you find out what the average local minimum wage is and start around there. Hire a student or perhaps a beneficiary of one of the community organizations that you work with to help you out. You can also ask your landlord or co-workers for recommendations for someone with a good reputation in the community. Starting low will let you afford more hours of assistance. You can always raise the rates later on if you are satisfied with their performance or would like to give them extra incentive to improve.” “Give some attention to who you hire and where you hold your sessions. This is especially true if you hire a tutor of the opposite sex. Intentions can be misconstrued

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which can lead to awkward situations. Also, people will talk. Even if the gossip doesn’t affect you, it may be damaging to your tutor’s standing in the community.”

Figure Out What You Need to Learn
There is a list of potential topics for language learning at the end of this Unit. Here is what former PCVs had to say about the topics they studied when they first arrived at site: “In terms of lessons, much of the beginning was reading the Amharic script and then a little writing. While learning to read, you learn more vocabulary. Practicing everyday situations, especially in the context of your town's culture was very helpful, such as bargaining. You can ask what people say for new births, weddings, and deaths as well that people will respect you for. Phrases that people in your area say a lot are very good to learn because the community will take you more serious, such as 'god willing, ' 'with truth,' etc. Conjugating verbs is also a topic that I'm working on now because I want to be able to form complex and meaningful sentences on the spot while talking to someone.” “Waiting 3 months allowed me to pick up the basics and the 'common' way of saying things and provided me with plenty of questions for my new tutor. In our lessons, I basically ask my tutor any questions I have and then we decide on a rough subject like clothing, travel, health etc. I usually learn a verb or two in the present tense and some vocab. I make flashcards after the lesson and my tutor uses these to quiz me at the beginning of the next lesson. I haven't started learning the alphabet yet, but had I started from the beginning, it would have been helpful, although it would have made my progress much slower.” “For daily practice, I listen to tapes/MP3s I got off the web from www.fsi-languagecourses.com/Amharic.aspx which includes textbooks. A copy of these is on the PCV computer (Center) in the volunteer resource center. I also got from the States an Amharic-English dictionary and a learning-Amharic book. All this took till about IST to get.” “The Wolf Leslau Amharic Textbook has been tremendously helpful for me. It's dense and grammar-intensive, but really good. There are photocopies floating around Peace Corps.”

Use Other Tips from Former Volunteers
“Practice at every opportunity. If your colleagues and friends speak good English or want to practice English with you, set aside some devoted time for practicing Amharic: ‘at tea-break, we will speak only Amharic.’ “

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“One way that my experience has been different than the other volunteers’ is that I did all the information collection for my Community Needs Assessment. My counterpart received a regional promotion just after I got to site. I think this was very good to helping me assimilate. There was no one I could count on except myself. I conducted all of my interviews, PACA tools and other meetings by myself. For that I can vouch for how important the things taught in our PST would prove to be at site.” “Don't be afraid to make a fool of yourself. People are going to laugh at you when you attempt to speak Amharic. But they're also going to appreciate your efforts.” “Keep a vocabulary notebook. Carry a small notebook with you at all times. If you hear a new word, ask for a definition, and write it down.” “Kids are great teachers: they won't pity you with simplified language--they'll just go for it. Play with your neighbors. Teach kids English and you'll learn Amharic at the same time.” “Find someone you like (a woman at the market, someone from work, or on your compound) who doesn't speak any English at all, and make an effort to befriend them. It will be awkward at first, but it pays off, both in terms of the friendship, and in terms of language learning.”

Sources
Special thanks to David Aldacushion, and Group 1 & 2 Volunteers for contributing to this section. Additional materials were adapted from ____ (10 Tips), Language Acquisition Made Easy, by E. Thomas Brewster and Elizabeth S. Brewster, The Whole World Guide to Language Learning, by Terry Marshall and the American Council on the Testing of Foreign Languages (ACTFL).

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Topics for Language Learning
The following suggested topics were taken from “Language Acquisition Made Easy”, E. Thomas Brewster and Elizabeth S. Brewster Set 1: Topics Set 2: Topics Set 4: Drawing Set 3: Topics for Exploring for the for Further on the Local Beginning Cultural Themes Exploration Knowledge Bank Learner
Finding a place to live/hotel Using public transportation. Developing a route of listeners. Greetings, Leave Taking, Appreciation Your role as a learner Personal Questions Polite Phrases Responding to a Welcome Classification; Affirmation; Denial Exploring Objects Descriptions Restaurants Shopping Arithmetic Questions about people; introductions Exploring space and time: directions Exploring space and time: transportation Exploring activities Exploring activities in space and time Exploring circumstances of activities Descriptions and Expansions Telephones Get and give instructions. Requests Comprehension Instructions Vocabulary Building Objects and Animals People Events and Activities Descriptions and Qualities Small Talk Appointments Asking/Giving Directions Personal Interchanges Your Host Country Your home Advice Sharing Interesting Experiences Telling stories about others Telling about your plans and goals Your neighborhood Talking about a picture Expressing your emotions Family Life Homes Meals Sex related roles Qualities Friends Courtship and Marriage Appearance and Dress School Health Safety Birthplace Important People Personal Possessions Machines Repair Work and Occupations Public Servants Your Trade Country-wide Transportation Variations of lifestyle Special Places Special Days Free Time Activities Sports Hobbies and Crafts Entertainment Music Art Color Perceptions Geography Natural Resources Plants Insects Animals Idioms and Figurative Language Equating People with Animals Body Parts Extremes of Common Adjectives Examples Colors Euphemisms Exclamations Words Resembling Sounds Stories Folktales The Past Key People Community Aspirations Sharing Important Experiences Reading Matter Letter Writing Categories The Physical World Disease Life Style Economics Private Property Motivation Visible Achievement Change and Progress Action! Work and Play Reasoning Patterns Decision Making Authority Social Interaction Direct vs Indirect Relationships Friendship Kinship Gift-giving Individuality vs Uniformity Competition Being Sick Crises Emotions Religion and the Supernatural God Guidance Spirits Soul Daily Life Teaching Leaders Special Days Special Places Ceremonies Sin Spiritual Need Worship Activities A Theory of Culture Completion Projection Statements: The most important thing in life is…

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The following suggested topics were taken from “The Whole World Guide to Language Learning”, Terry Marshall Language Everyday Language Categories and Cultural Nuance and Situations Structures Word Clusters Appropriateness Clarity Classification Nonverbal cues – Questions Concrete Informal Differentiation sending and Requests objects socializing Expansion receiving Orders Action words Formal Fluidity Common taboos Statements Attributes socializing (positive and Possession Pronunciation Situational Interacting with Cultural differences negative) Prepositions “family” comparison Culturally related Positive/negative Family and Working Reading humor responses kinship Interacting with Allusions Agreement Pronouns sales and Voice – Emotions and service people passive/active feeling Bathing, Polite phrases Direction and washing, toilet Time position Attending public Ownership Frequency events Description Measurement Using public Time transportation Seasons Communicating Vulgarities and with public slang officials Using public communication s Greeting and departing Dating and courting Performing Personal information Assiduously seek to interact with host country people in their language. Take positive, active steps to expand your language ability. Use a host of tools, ideas, and events to practice, practice, practice your target language.

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Language Learner’s Proficiency Scale
Developed by: American Council on the Testing of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Educational Testing Service. (ETS) Adapted from the Foreign Service Institute’s (FSI) proficiency scale

Novice – Low Able to respond to or speak a few isolated words, those borrowed from English or commonly used. Ciao. Gracias. Has identified him/herself as a language learner. □ □ □ □ □ □ I can say “hello” and “good bye”. I can count to ten. I can use courtesy words such as “thank you” and “excuse me”. I know a handful of words. I am eager to begin learning my target language. I have set some goals for my language learning.

Novice – Mid Can express very simple needs in polite language. Uses mostly memorized words and phrases. Can say short phrases if given time to think about what he/she wants to say. Speaks in a heavy accent with many errors and confuses sounds that are similar. Speech is difficult to understand even to teachers used to working with language students. □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ I can respond to simple commands such as “stand up” and “come here”. I can greet people and take my leave correctly. I can ask basic questions using who, what, when, and where. I can make simple statements and commands such as “it’s hot” and “turn on the light”. I can thank people and make simple requests. I can use at least 50 words in appropriate contexts. I can sing one verse of a folk song or popular sing-a-long tune. I can perform at least one task at the Novice-High level.

Novice – High Can ask questions and make simple statements based on memorized sentences. Understands conversation fragments and simple commands. Can deal with simple topics of daily need. Speaks mostly in short, direct sentences, but can say some longer phrases and sentences if given time to think about them first. Still makes frequent errors in pronunciation and word use. Frequently asks speakers to slow down or repeat. Communicates with coworkers but has difficulty with others. Behaves considerately in dealing with host country nationals. Understands some nonverbal cues. □ □ □ I understand and can make simple statements about family, age, address, weather, time, and daily activities. I understand some words when the context helps explain them, e.g. in a café, the marketplace. My vocabulary includes names of basic concepts; days, months, numbers 1-100, articles of clothing, body parts, family relationships.

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□ □ □

I can use at least one hundred nouns and verbs in appropriate contexts. I am beginning to know what’s expected of me in simple social situations. I can perform at least two tasks from the intermediate-low level.

Intermediate – Low Can speak on familiar topics, ask and answer simple questions, initiate and respond to simple statements, and carry on face-to-face discussions. Can pick out the main idea in a friendly informal conversation. Often speaks incorrectly but by repeating, generally can be understood by native speakers who regularly deal with foreigners. Frequently can understand native speakers if he/she repeats or speaks more slowly. □ □ □ □ □ I can initiate and close conversations appropriately. I can introduce myself or someone else. I can buy a ticket, catch a bus or train, and get off at the right place. I can respond to simple directions from customs officials, policemen, or other officials. I can discuss simple topics with friends.

Intermediate – Mid Can participate in simple conversations about some survival needs and social traditions. Can discuss topics beyond basic survival, such as personal history and leisure time activities. Beginning to use correct basic grammar constructions such as subject-verb and noun-adjective agreement. □ □ □ □ □ □ I can handle questions about my marital status, nationality, occupation, age, and place of birth. I can order a simple meal from a restaurant menu. I can ask for or tell the time, date, and day of the week. I can handle simple business at the post office, a bank, and the drugstore. I’m beginning to speak more correctly; my subjects and verbs generally agree. I can perform at least on task at the intermediate-high level.

Intermediate – High Can participate in short conversations about most survival needs, limited social conventions, and other topics. Gets the gist of conversations on familiar topics, though finds it hard to tune in on long conversations or in unfamiliar situations. Speaks mostly in short, discrete sentences, but shows occasional bursts of spontaneity. Can use most question forms, basic tenses, basic tenses, pronouns, and verb inflections, though still speaks with many errors. Can be understood by native speakers used to speaking with foreigners. By repeating things, can frequently be understood by the general public. In dealing with host country citizens, can get along in familiar survival situations and with native speakers accustomed to foreigners. □ I can buy my basic foodstuffs, rent a hotel room, and bargain when appropriate.

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□ □ □ □ □

I can talk about my favorite pastimes or sports. I can describe how to get from here to places like the post-office, a restaurant, or a local tourist attraction. I can talk about things that happened in the past or might happen in the future. I can carry on simple conversations with native speakers who are used to dealing with foreigners. I can perform at least two of the tasks at the advanced level.

Advanced Can participate in most casual and some work conversations. Can give simple directions or explanations at work. Can talk about past and future events. With a minimum of repetition and rewording, can get the gist of normal conversation by native speakers. Vocabulary is good enough to speak simply with only a few circumlocutions and can speak extemporaneously on many topics. Accent clearly that of a learner, but can generally be understood. □ □ □ □ □ □ I can describe my work in some detail and discuss with my coworkers most work-related tasks. I can talk comfortably about topics of general interest, such as the weather and current events. I can deal with and explore unexpected problems, such as losing my traveler’s checks. I can take and give messages by telephone. I can be understood by most native speakers and I can follow normal conversations involving native speakers. I can perform at least one task at the advanced plus level.

Advanced Plus Can handle most work requirements and conversations on topics of particular interest. Can express facts, give instructions, describe, report, and talk about current, past, and future activities. Often speaks fluently and easily, though occasionally pauses to think of a word. Continues to make some grammatical errors. In dealing with native speakers, understands common rules of etiquette, taboo, and sensitivities, and handles routine social situations when dealing with people accustomed to foreigners. □ □ □ □ □ □ □ I can hire an employee, discuss qualifications, duties, hours, and pay in my new language. I can instruct a coworker on how to perform a common task. I can give opinions, facts, and explain points of view. I can talk with ease about my past, my current activities, and what I hope to do in the future. I generally speak easily and fluently with only minor pauses. I can make culturally acceptable requests, accept or refuse invitations, apologize, and offer and receive gifts. I can perform at least two of the tasks at the superior level.

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Superior Can converse on most practical, social, and professional topics. Can deal with unfamiliar topics, provide explanations, resolve problems, describe in detail, offer supported opinions, and hypothesize. Beginning to talk about abstract ideas. Rarely has to grope for a word. Control of grammar is good and errors almost never bother the native speaker. Can participate appropriately in most social and work situations. Understands most nonverbal responses; beginning to understand culture-related humor. □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ I can carry out most work assignments in the target language. I can handle routine social situations with ease. I can participate effectively in most general discussions involving native speakers. I can handle normal telephone conversations. I can listen to a radio program, oral report, or speech and take accurate notes. I can deal with an unexpected problem or social blunder. I can support my opinions in a discussion or argument. I am beginning to understand jokes and word play. I seldom have to ask speakers to repeat or explain. I can speak at a normal rate of speed, without groping for words or trying to avoid complex grammatical structures.

Distinguished Can use the language fluently and accurately on all levels of professional need. Can tailor language to fit the audience; counsel, persuade, negotiate, represent a point of view, and interpret for dignitaries. Speaks with only rare pronunciation or grammar errors. Picks up most nonverbal cues; understands humor and most allusions. Behaves in a culturally appropriate manner in a range of social and professional settings. □ □ □ □ □ □ □ I can carry out any job responsibility in my second language. I can speak appropriately to a professional group, my staff, a government official, a friend, the elderly and children. I can act as an interpreter at a professional meeting or function. I rarely make pronunciation or grammar errors. I always understand native speakers, even when they are talking to each other. I can participate in joking, including puns and word play. I can read cultural gestures, body language and facial expressions accurately.

Native Competence Functions as would an educated native speaker. □ □ □ □ I am equally as fluent in my second language as in English. I have command of idioms, colloquialisms, and historical and literacy allusions. I am well-versed on the history, beliefs, customs, politics, and geography of the host country. I am completely at ease culturally in any social or professional setting.

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Proverbs and Expressions
Proverbs (Sayings) The fidel script part is left for you to do as you progress in your mastery of the script. Proverbs in phonetics their English equivalents

mayäk mamän näwseeing is believing, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. käfäräsu bäfit gariwthe cart before the horse, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Lïjïn Siwädu känä minaminulove me, love my dog, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Kämayawkut melak Yamiawkut sayt’anbetter the devil you know, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yafäsäsä wuha aytafäsimaspilt salt can't be gathered, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yäčäkoläču afissa läk’ämächhaste makes waste, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yänätolo-tolo bet gïdgïdaw sänbälet’a house built in haste has its walls made of straw ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yäjïb čïkul k’änd yïnäksala hurried hyena bites the horn, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. laläfe kïrämt bet ayïsäramlet bygones be by gone, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. gäbs lägäbs abro yinäfbirds of a feather flock together, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. gïm lägïm abräh azgïm‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ ( write in script )___________________________________________________. yämiabrä k’ärïk hulu work ayïdälämall that glitters is not gold, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. käsäw sïhtät käbïrät zïgät ayt’äfamto err is human, (write in script )___________________________________________________. Gïze wärk’ näwtime is gold, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. lïj ïnatuan mït astämaräča young teaching her mom how to go on labour for childbirth, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yämičoh wis’a aynakäsimA barking dog never bites, ( write in script )___________________________________________________.

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ayn aynun yayut jäbäna tolo ayfälamA watched pot never boils, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Käand bïrtu hulät mädhanituTwo minds are better than one, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Zär kälugam yïsïbalblood is thicker than water, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. awäk’uš nakušFamiliarity breeds contempt, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Tamo kämämak’äk’ ask’ädïmo mät’änk’äk’Prevention is better than cure, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. bïrätïn mäk’ät’k’ät’ aggïlo näwhit the iron while its hot, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yäsït’ota färäs t’ïrsu aytaymNever look a gift horse in the mouth, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. k’äs bäk’as ïnk’ulal bäïgru yïhedalan oak grow out of little acorns/ slow by slow an egg goes walk, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. bagoräsku ïjjen tänäkäskugot my hand bitten for feeding them, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Likäkïlïh ikäkïlïňscratch my back, I will scratch yours, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Läsäyt’an mïsun attïnsawgive the Devil his due, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Wubät ïndä tämälkaču näwbeauty is in the eye of the beholder, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. alläň bäsämay wätätwan yämasayI have a castle built in the air, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. k’ädmo yägäba ïngïda ïratu fïridaFirst come, first served /In early bird catch the worm, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. at’bïk’o t’äyak’i yänatun mot yïrädalcuriosity killed the rat, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. bado k’or k’oro yïčohalan empty barrel shouts the most ( write in script )___________________________________________________. lïjïyäw honä abatyäwa child is a father to the man, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. ïsat bäleläbät č'ïs aytayïmno smoke without fire, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. yäwäräwärkut ankase tämälïso bärasea curse come home to roost,

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( write in script )___________________________________________________. Säw yäzärawïn yač'dalas you sow, so shall you reap, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. amäd bä duk’et yisïk’althe pot calls kettle black, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yälämaň k’ïnïtu yïlal wät amt’ubeggars can't be choosers (lit. a picky beggar asks for milk), ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Wïha k’äs bäk’äs alätïn yïbäsalstill water runs deep, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. dïst gït’amun ayat’amwater finds its level ( lit. a pot never misses its lid), ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Sayïkäka täbokacounting ones chickens before they are hatched, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. gïze taxi aydälämtime and tide wait for no man, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. sïra kämïfäta lïjen lafatain idle brain is a workshop of a devil, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Zïmïta wärk’ näwsilence is golden, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yäč’ïk’a wïst’ ïšoha snake in the grass, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Set sibäza gomän t’änäzamany cooks spoil the broth, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. tïïbit wïdk’ätïn tikädmaläčpride goes before a fall, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. hulät wäfočïn bäand dïngayto kill two bird with a (one) stone, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. lämänor bïlaeat to live, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. gud and sämon näwwonder lasts nine days, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Kämänagärïh bäfit assïbthink before you speak, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Jïb ïndä agäru yïčohalwhen you are in Rome, do as the Romans do, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. karäju aybäjuold men are twice children, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. käayn yärak’ä ka lib yirïk’alout of sight, out of mind, ( write in script )___________________________________________________.

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EXPRESSIONS The fidel script part is left for you to do as you progress in your mastery of the script. yäayïne bïlenthe apple of my eye, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. käïj wädä afhand to mouth, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. yäaf wälämtaA slip of the tongue, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. ïj käfïnjred handed, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. bäwïdïm bägidimby book or crook, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. käbaläbet andäbätfrom the horses mouth, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. imnät yämit’alïbätthe salt of the earth, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. bäïsat mäčhawätplay with fire, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. ayïn mägïlät’ to come out of shell, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. t’ïlik’ bïye/ yäïrgo Zïnb gate crusher, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. yämäs'ïhaf k’äbänabook worm, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yäk’äbäro bahtawisly, shrewd, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. mirtun kägirdu läyseparate the wheat from the chaff, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. Yäayin fïk’ïrsight love, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. kibrïhïn t’äbïk’keep your dignity, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. irmïjahïn astäwilmind your steps, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. käbahïr yäwät’a a'assa a fish out of water, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. ïrbana bisgood-for –nothing, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. gïze yaläfäbetoutdated, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. yäsämay sïbbarihuge, ( write in script )___________________________________________________. s'ägur sïnt’äk’ahair splitting, ( write in script )___________________________________________________.

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