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Criminology, 1995, pp. 171-190.
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Model, Criminal Justice Review, . 8, . 52-57, 1983.
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1995, . 3.
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Lupollo Family, Ianni, F E. Ruess-Ianni (.). The Crime Society: Organized Crime
and Corruption in America, : Times-Mirror, 1976, . i-xvii 239-254.
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. 69-82.
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International Perspectives on Organized Crime, J. R. Buckwalter (.), : Office of
International Criminal Justice, 1990, . 75-82.
15

26



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, . . . Block. Space, Time, and Organized Crime, :


Transaction Publishers, 1994, . 10-11 15-16.
17

Cressey , , ,
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, , Richard Scott
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19

Lyman Potter, 48.

20

H. Abadinsky. Organized Crime, : Thomson, 2003, . 18.

29

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.21

2.
1970, Dwight Smith The Mafia
Mystique (1974) ,
, . 22
- Cressey, Smith
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.

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Smith,

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23

32

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E. Reuss-Ianni
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.26
, Ianni
, Ianni
Cressey.
, Ianni
1970. Daniel
Bell
,27 o Ianni
( )
.
20
1920,
1920 1930. ,

.
J. L. Albini J. Bajon. Witches, Mafia, Mental Illiness and Social Reality: A Study in
the Power on Mythical Belief International Journal of Criminology and Penology, . 6,
1978, . 277-78.
24

, 1970, - `
, -

.
25

26

Ianni Ruess-Ianni, 1976, . xvi.

27

D. Bell. The End of Ideology, : Free Press, 1964.

33

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Ianni 1972 Lupollo,
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. 28 Ianni,
,

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, (,
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Ianni .
.
Gary Potter,

.30 -

.


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28

Abadinsky, . 47.

,
Ianni
:
, ,
, .
29

30

G. Potter. Criminal Organizations: Vice, Racketeering, and Politics in an American City,


: Waveland, 1994, . 1-3.

34


. ,
- ,

` . , Ianni

.

4.
Cressey
, Smith, Ianni Albini

.

1970 ,
P. Reuter. 1983, Reuter
. 31

, . Reuter -
,
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. Reuter,
( ) . ,

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, , Reuter, ,
, ,
.
P. Reuter. Disorganized Crime: The Economics of the Visible Hand, , .:
MIT Press, 1983.
31

35

5.


.32 Mcillwain,
,
,
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, . 33 Mcillwain
,
.

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1950

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Stanley Wasserman Katherine Faust. Social Network Analysis: Methods and
Applications, : Cambridge University Press, 1994, . 12-20.
, ,
.
32

Jeffrey S. Mcillwain. Organized Crime: A Social Network Approach, Crime, Law and
Social Change, 1999, . 32, . 301-323.
33

36

, , . , Mcillwain,
1964
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1950,
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, Cloward Ohlin ()
orbin (differential opportunity
theory). 36 , ,

34

Ibid., . 18.

The Conflict Values in Delinquency Areas, American Sociological Review, 1951, . 16,
. 653-61.
35

R. A. Cloward L. E. Ohlin. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent


Gangs, : Free Press, 1960.
36

37

.
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.37 ` , Cloward Ohlin

`
. 38 , `
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Alan Block orbin, Cloward
Ohlin ,
1990,
- Charles Tilly
39
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Block
. ` , , ,
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Cloward Ohlin
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) ,
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37

R. K. Merton
, . , . 13. (,

(, .) .)
38

39

The Vende, , .: Harvard University Press, 1964.

, . T. Parsons. The Social System, : Free Press, 1951,


J. Habermas. The Legitimation Crisis, : Beacon Press, 1973, N. Luhmann. The
Differentiation of Society, : Columbia University Press, 1982.
40

38

, .41
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.42
O Block
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, .
41

East Side West Side: Organizing Crime in New York City, 1930-1950,
: Transaction Publ., 1994, . 10.
42

43

Ibid., . 58.

39

. ,
(.,
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. Block (.,
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Potter Block
Smith Arlacchi, . ` ,

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1980
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. . . 19-20.

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, Keynes (animal spirit)
. 46
Arlacchi Smith
,
( ) . 47

(. )
7. `

45

M. McIntosh. The Organization of Crime, : MacMillan, 1975.

V. Ruggiero. The Camorra: Clean Capital and Organized Crime, Pearce, F M.


Woodiwiss (.). Global Crime Connections, : University of Toronto Press, 1993,
. 141-61.
46

, Smith
Adam Smith, o Arlacchi ` Ricardo,
.
47

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1941, o Lindesmith
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, William
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48

Ruggiero, . 157.

, Paris-Steffens
,
. R. Paris-Steffens. . The Role of the United Nations in
Combating Organized Crime, International Perspectives on Organized Crime, J. R.
Buckwalter (.), : Office of International Criminal Justice, 1990, . 13-17.
49

43

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1995, . 48 (2), . 472-83.

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Capital Crimes (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1999) .
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, . 40, 1971, . 643-52.
60

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US Department of State. The Caribbean, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law
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internet).
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State Power and the Regulation of Illicit Activity in Global Finance, he Illicit Global
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Littlefield Publishers, 1999, . 53-90.
65

61

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University Press, 1988.
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.

.
1 2 .

. Kerry, 1988 1994

Citibank 80 .
.
1997
. 69

69

. J. Kerry. The New War. : Simon and Schuster, 1997, . 100-161.

63


.
, 1980 40
.
. 1995, 6 ,
,
. 1995,
.70
, R. Friman P. Andreas
: ,
-
, . ,
, .
, , ,
. -

/ .
-
.
, .
, ,
1980,

..71
,
, , ,
. 72

70

Ibid. . 73.

H. Richard Friman Peter Andreas. Introduction: International Relations and the Illicit
Global Economy, The Illicit Global Economy and State Power, P. Friman P.
Andreas (.), : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1999, . 10.
71

: , , , ,
, , .
: , , ,
.
72

64

Friman Andreas
() , , ,
() .


. Friman Andreas

:
( ). , .

sine qua non .
, , , , ,
, ,
, .
, ,
:
.
.

,73 G. R. Blakey
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations ( RICO,
)

, ,
.74
M. Woodiwiss Blakey,


, ()
: ,

73

President`s Commission on Organized Crime. The Impact: Organized


Crime Today, 1986.
74

65

, ,
, , .. 75
Shelley ()

,
,
. 76

, ,
` .
, ,
/ .
,
.
( , ),
-, .
,
,
.
, ( ) ,
`
. ,



.

Crime`s Global Reach, Global Crime Connections, F. Pearce . Woodiwiss


(.), : University of Toronto Press, 1993, . 27.
75

L. Shelley. The Threat to World Order, Organized Crime, D. Bender B. Leone


(.), : Greenhaven Press, 1999, . 173-180.
76

66

7

(mezzogiorno) .


,
. ,
,
-
. 1860,
.

. ,
,
20%.


.
,
( ).

. ,
.
, .

capo di famiglia.
. ,
.
, omert,
-77, , vendetta,

.
P. Robb,
, Camorra
`Ndragheta.78 , ,

,
.
(. )

77

78

Midnight on Sicily, : Faber and Faber, 1996, . 36-37.

67

,
: ,
,, , , 1860,
( )
.
.


. ,

.
,
`
. gabelotti

. , gabelotti
, .
gabelotti (. gabelotto),
,
. gabelotti
,
. ,
. , gabelotti ,
,
.
, .
, `
, , ,
. 1866,
, , , .
. 79 ,
gabelotti
- .
gabelotti .
. ,

.
.
: .
gabelotto
,
.
20 , ,
: `
-
. - ,

,
. .

(braccianti) ,

. :
, , : , 2007, . 108.
79

68

.
,
, -
. , gabelotti
(campieri)
cosca ( gabelotti ,
).
L. Barzini
. ,
, -
. O Barzini

: , ,
, , ,
,
.
. 80
,
.
; , :
;
,
,
.
,
. Anton Blok
Cressey Smith
/
.81 Blok ,
80

L. Barzini. The Italians, : Bantam, 1972, . 253.

Blok,
,
,
.
. (ibid., . 9)
(., )
.
. ,

. , , ,
,
-,
. ( ,
, ,
(.,
) (, , )

.)
Anton Blok Alan Block

.

, , .
81

69

, ,
, . ,

,
. ` ,



.82
,

Blok. ,
Blok . ,
Finley, Smith Duggan
.83
`
(
) (

). :
.
:
.
,
.
1950 1960
,
.
19 1860
- ,
. , ,
` ,
,
` , (
)
.
,
.
,
. Finley, Smith Duggan

.84 ` , ,
, .
,
-
. Alan Block. Space, Time and Organized Crime, : Transaction
Publishers, 1994, . 40.
82

A. Blok. The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860-1960: A Study of Violent Entrepreneurs,


New York: Harper and Row, 1974, . 1.
83

Finley, M. I., D. M. Smith, C. Duggan. A History of Sicily, New York: Viking, 1987.

84

. . 183-84.

70

,
.

1920 . ,
1925,
. 1924,
,
Cesare Mori . Mori
, , .85 , ,
,
. 1928, .

.
: .

.
,
(
, .)
, 2
.86 , .
1943,

.
, .

. ,
.
. 87 ,
. , 1928
,
1943-44
, `
, Cosa Nostra
: ,
, ,
, , ,
. 88
,
.

, Mori
, .
85

L. Orlando. Fighting the Mafia and Renewing Sicilian Culture, : Encounter


Books, 2001, . 2-3.
86

Robb (. 47), ,
,
.
87

. Thomas Veblen.
: , : , 1982.
88

71

.
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
.
. , 1967,
114 , (
). , 1987, 452
( 338 ).
: ,

, . 89 ,
,
.

. ,
,
.
, ,
, ` ,
. , ,
1990 130 140 , 1997 10.
1980,
.
,

.
1990,
. `
. ,
: ,
,
.
. H. Hess
, 1970,
,
.90
, A. Jamieson
, , .

. ,

.91

Robb, . 22. . D. Della Porta A. Vannucci. Corrupt Exchanges: Actors,


Resources, and Mechanisms of Political Corruption, New York: de Gruyter, 1999, . 81.
89

90

H. Hess. Mafia and Mafioso: The Structure of Power, : March Publ., 1973.

A. Jamieson. The Antimafia: Italy`s Fight Against Organized Crime, : St.


Martin`s Publ., 2000.
91

72


,
.
(. Camorra)
Camorra
, ,
. ,
. ,
Camorra 18 (
), -
. Camorra ()
kamora .
, .
, ,
. , Camorra
. ,
. `
19 , Camorra
, 1860,
.
1860 19 , Camorra
. ,
Camorra , . ,

.
Ianni 20 , Camorra
.92
.
Camorra ,

. ,

. , Camorra
,
.
.
,
, .
Camorra,

. , Camorra
,
.
1990, Camorra
.
Nuova Camorra Organizzata (NCO)
Camorra. ` ` , ,
, ,

F. A. J. Ianni. A Family Business: Kinship and Social Control in Organized Crime,


: Sussell Sage, 1972, . 141.
92

73

( ). I. Sales NCO
Camorra Massa ( ):
,
.93 ,
. , NCO
, -
. , Ruggiero
, NCO
: NCO
.
,
.
` Nuova Famiglia (NF),
.
, NF
, ,
, . ,
NF
. , NF
,
. Ruggiero (. 153), NF
,
, . , NF
.
. 94
, NF
.
(. H `Ndrangheta)
`Ndrangheta
, .95 `
. andrine `ndrina cosca
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, . -
,
. , . Hobsbawm, `Ndrangheta
,
. 96

93

Ruggiero, 1993, . 152.

Abadinsky, . 162. , .
11 ` .
94

, `Ndrangheta () .
.
.
95

74

, `Ndrangheta 85 160 andrine


( ), 5 6 . andrine
200 , ,
, ,
. `Ndrangheta
.
andrine, ,
.
`Ndrangheta ,
(omert). `Ndrangheta
. ,

, , ,

. `Ndrangheta ,
andrine
.
andrina ( `ndrina) .
.
`Ndrangheta
,
.
`Ndrangheta
, .
1980, `Ndrangheta ,
Camorra,
.
,

.97

. L. Paoli `Ndrangheta. L. Paoli.


An Underestimated Criminal Phenomenon: The Calabrian `Ndrangheta, European Journal
of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, . 2(3), 1994, . 212-38.
96

97

. Paoli . 236-37.

75

8

M. Woodiwiss,
1920

. , ,
. 98
,
,
. . ,

1920.
.
, Browning Gerassi The
American Way of Crime .
, ,
,
. , - 1920
250 , . 99
, .
, (
, , )
17 .

. ,
.
,
. ,

.
, ,
. 100
1690, ,

. ,
.
,
,
() . , ,

98

Capone to Kefauver: Organized Crime in America, History Today, . 37, . 8-15.

F. Browning, F. Gerassi, J. The American Way of Crime, : Putnam and


Sons, 1980.
99

100

Ibid, . 54.

76


.
,
, , , .

,
. , ,
,
.
,
. .
,
.
`
.
Captain Kidd, Barholomew Roberts, Edward Thach
( Blackbeard) 30 ,
1720. .
, ,
, , . `
East India Company
. ` ,

. , ,
. ,

.

. ,
,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
.
, 1766

.

1780. ,
, Sam Purdy
, 30 , 1780 1810. Purdy
-.
.

madams
Purdy . ,
, Purdy
.101

,
18 ,
Purdy 20
. , Purdy
101

77


. , Mary Thomson
200 400 , 15
1830 gentleman 350 .102 madam Thompson
:
,
.

()
.
, ,
Purdy Thomson
130 140 . 1917,

.
19 ,
, , ,
, , .
Woodiwiss, Capone Luciano
. ,
,
. , ,
-, , , , , ,
, . 19
, ,
(-, robber barons), Vanderbildt, o Rockefeller, o Astor, o Carnegie, o
Sage .
,
,
Capone,
. 1920
,
. ,
.
, Cornelius Vanderbilt

, , . ,

.

. ,
, ,
, .
. ,
Vanderbilt .

John Rockefeller .
stock
21 .
, 21 . 500 1.500
200 400
19 .
102

78


20
. ( )
,
.
,
19 , 20

.
,
.
,
, Abadinsky,
(upperworld and
underworld). `
19 - ,
. ,
.

, ,
.
. ,
, ,
: ,
, .
1820,
.
.
,
,
, ,

.
, , . ,
,
. Reedy,
() .
. 103
:
,
.
, .
1820 1845 250.000
. 1845 ,
1,5 . 1,5

. ,
, 1850
.
,
. ,

103

G. E. Reedy. From the Ward to the White House: The Irish in American Politics, New
York: Scribners` Press, 1991, . 21.

79

, ,
,
.
,

,
, (
) . ,


: ,
.
, (saloon)
.
. , , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
. 104
, ,
`
. `
,
.
,
. `
,
.

.
, .
, ,
,
.
,
,
, .

(
).
,
, , , ,
, .
`
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.

104

L. Engleman, Abadinsky, . 59.

80

Merton, , ()
,
,
. `
.
,
.105
,
. ,
, , ,
, , . . ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
.
, ,
, . ,
,
, . ,

. 106
,
, ,
.
(Tammany Hall)
. 1789
,

.
,
.
, 1870, ,
.
,
(- , .).

1932
.
1830,
,
. ,
,
, 1840,

, . (1860-1865),
,
, .
105

106

R. K. Merton. On Theoretical Sociology, New York: Free Press, 1967, . 128.

L. D. Erie. Rainbow`s End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics,
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988, . 1.

81


Pendergast . ,
.
,
` 1930.
.

,
. (
,
),

. ,
,
.
Merton,
- . 107
, ,
, .

.
. ,
. ,
, , ,
(, , ,
), (, ,
, ). , (, ,
) .
`
,
, . ,
.
.
,

.
,
, Abadinsky

:
,

.108
19
. ,
,
. ,
.
, ,
, .
107

Merton, . 132 135.

108

. 63-4.

82

,

. 109
(nativism),
,
.
, .

, , ,
1920 18

(Volstead Act).

. 110 , , ,
. ,
,
.
, 1929

. 21 ,
1933.

.
.
,

20 . 111 ,
.

. ` ,

. ,

.

10.000

.
`
.
,
, . . . ,
,
,
, .
109


18 . 1820-50
.
19 ,
- 1880-1990
.
110

111

A. Block W. J. Chambliss. Organized Crime, New York: Elsevier, 1981, . 50-9.

83


. ,
, , ,
, .

. ,
,
. ,
/ ,
.
,
1930-40
Arnold Rothstein 1900 1920. ,

. ,

. Rothstein

.

.
, .
, , Rothstein
, ,
. ,
1910
. Rothstein
. ,
1950.


.
( )
100 1870, 1870 5,3
. ,
. , 80% 25%
. 500
. 20
, Black Hand
Five Points ,
, . Black Hand
, , ,
Five Points . Five
Points, Torrio Capone
.
1920,
,
,
.

( ) . ,

84

,
.

,
, .
(Castellamarese)
( 1920
1930)
. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 112 1930
,
, , , , , ,
, . , J. Davis,
( 2%
), ,
, ( ).113
(
)

.
Browning Gerassi (1980), `

.
Reuter
: ,
, ,
114
, Reuter 1970
,
.

,
. , , RICO,
- . ,
,
: 20
1 . , 1960
100 . ,
, ,
.
, Reuter
, . 1970,
.
, ,

( )

112

An Introduction to Organized Crime in the United States, Federal Bureau of Investigation,


Organized Crime/Drug Branch, Criminal Investigative Division, 1993.
J. Davis. Rackets and Shakedowns: The Gambino Family, Organized Crime, .
Contemporary Issues Companion, D. L. Bender B. Leone (.), San Diego: Greenhaven
Press, 1999, . 33-49.
113

114

P. Reuter. The Decline of the American Mafia, Public Interest, . 121, 1995, . 89-99.

85

() . ,
,
1980.
, , ,
,
.
` , - ,

Ianni 1974.115 , -
.

.
1880
, . 1930

- , ,
. ,

. M
.
1970 1980 .
, .

, ,
. -
. ,
, , ,

, .
,
,
.
, -
,
. Lucas
. , Gang
Disciples 6.000 ,
. Ianni, ,
, .116

1980 .
2
- (
) .
Hells Angels , , Outlaws, Pagans, Bandidos .,

115

F. A. J. Ianni. Black Mafia: Ethnic Succession in Organized Crime, New York: Simon &
Schuster, 1974.
116

Ibid., . 158-9.

86

.
, , 4.000 ,
.
, , LSD, PSP ,
` .

87

9

21 ,
1960, , 1950.
/
, /
.
(, , , ) :
, .
,
. , Anton Blok,


.117
, Claire Sterling
:
. 118 ,

21 .
Friman Andreas
:
(20) ,
.
,
- . ,
.
,
-
- .

.119

, . ,
` ,

.
.
, ,

nton Blok. The Mafia of a Sicilian Village, 1860-1960: A Study of Violent Peasant
Entrepreneurs, New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1974, . 12.
117

118

C. Sterling. Thieves World, the Threat of the New Global Network of Organized Crime,
New York: Simon Schuster, 1994.
119

. ., . 4.

88

,
, .
, ,


.

.
,
,
,
- .
,
-- , ,

,
, .
1990, J. Sutton :


.
,
,
, , ,

. 120 ,
.
, , ,
,
, . ,

.

. ` , , , ` ,
.121

.
.
,
.
, ( ),
,


.
,

J. R. Sutton, , International Perspectives on Organized Crime, J. R.


Buckwalter (.), : Office of International Criminal Justice, 1990, . ix-xi.
120

. R. Godson W. Olson. International Organized Crime, Society, Jan-Feb. 1995, .


18-29.
121

89



. ,
,
,
.
.
, ,
. F. Williams
,
.122 ,
,

. ,

,
. , ,

. Williams,
. , `
,
.
,

.
Williams ,
, .
(franchise alliance), : , ,

. ,
(compensatory alliance)

, .
(specialization alliance)

.
.
, /
.
(countertrade alliances)
. , (supplier alliances)
.
, Simon Hagan
1980, 1990
.123 John Kerry,
, ,
-

F. Williams. Transnational Organized Crime, Criminal Organizations, 1995, . 9 (3), .


1-8.
122

D. R. Simon F. E. Hagan. White-Collar Deviance, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999, .


126-27.
123

90


.124
, , , ,
(
)
. Kerry pax mafiosa,
OE
,
. Kerry
,

. , -
, Cressey,
. , Kerry

:

. , ,
, .

, , .
, , :

Organizatsiya,
.
-,
.

() .
, . ,
- .
`
` ,
` ` `
.
, Lyman Potter,
. ,
,
. ,

.
.
20 (
) :
-
`
`
, , , () `
.
,
. ,
.

124

Ibid., . 126.

91

,
.

,
, .125
, Shelley
,
, , .
,
. , ,
,

. Shelley Lyman Potter
-
. , ` ,

. ` , :
,

.
(their flipside), ,
, , .126
Shelley
.
, . .
,
.
, o
(
).
, `
.
, / .
, .
, .
, .
, .
, .
:
, ,
.
, ,
.
, Shelley
, Cressey, Smith,
Ianni .
, , .

125

Lyman Potter, . 304.

L. Shelley. Transnational Organized Crime: The New Authoritarianism, The Illicit


Global Economy and State Power, . 26 33.
126

92

.
,
.
Shelley, 1990

.
. ,
. , `
(. 12).
, .

. ,
, 2%
1995. ,
.
,
.
,
. ,


.
.
, , , ,
. ,
,
4 10%

. ,
1996 .
, .
, Cali
Medellin. Cali
- ,
. ,
Medellin Carlos Lehder-Rivas Movimento
Latino Nacional ( )
( ) .
, 1997-2000 Ernesto Samper,

.
, -
.
1995 Kobe ,
: , ,
.
.
, Medellin, Pablo Escobar,
, . ,
Roberto Suarez ,
, .
,
Shelley ,
,
.

93

, Shelley ,
,
, . ,

. ,
,
Y E:

. ,
, ,
. ` ,
.127 ,
, , ,
.

Global Issues, ,
2001, . 6 (2), ( ).
127

94

10
, ,
(. )

, ,
.
, . 17 ()
Chin
17 1911. , ,
,
.
, , .
.
,
.

. ,
.

,
. () 14K Sun Yee
On United Bamboo .

.
, 100
, ,
(smuggling),
.
.,
. ,
,
,
. , ,
. ,

.
,
, : `
` `
`

95

,
.128
,
Chin
. ` ,
.
, ,

,

.129
. ,

.130 ,
,

,
. Chin

.
, , ,
.,
. ,
, ,
. 131

(. )
,
.
17
. -,
,
,
, .
//,
.
, ()
. , ,
.
.
, ,

128

Lyman Potter, . 321.

. Chin. Chineze Triad Societies, Tongs, Organized Crime and Street Gangs in Asia and
the United States, Ann Arbor: UMI, . 129.
129

130

Ibid., . 350.

. Kelly, K. Chin J. Fagan. Chineze Organized Crime in New York City, Crime,
Law, and Social Change, . 19, 1993, . 245-269.
131

96

. ,
. ,
.
. ,
-.

. ,

.
,

.
2.500 , 80 110
.
,
. ,
.
(
) . , , ,
, (
) .
. , ,
: / , ,
. ,
.
. ,
.
,
. ,
Mitsubishi
Motors. , ,
. Kaplan (1998),
. ,
. `

( ) .
1990,
, ,
,
. ,
Whymant,
. 132
(. )
20

, 20
( ).

R. Whymant. Crime Bosses Killed in Funeral Attack, London Times, 20


2001 ( Internet).
132

97

.

` ,
, , `
( )`

` .
1970,
,

. , ,
.
,
, .
80%
(Medellin) (Cali) .
, , .
,
. ,
, , ,
, , 25 (
1990). ,
, , . ,
.

.

` ,
` , ,

`
. 133 ,
, .
.


.
.

1980. 1993, .
.

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,

-
.
1980
C. Florez B. Boyce. Colombian Organized Crime, Police Studies, . 13 (2), 1990, .
81-88.
133

98


,
. ` 2,5 .
.
.

. ` ,

, .
, ,

. ,
1990 ` ,
.
,

.
.
,
. , ,
. 1990,
,
.
,

,
. , ,
, .

( ) .
1990, 5 . ,
1 . ( 1/5 ).
,
. , ,
,
( ) , , ,
Cayman, .
,
,
,
.

99

11

1991

, ` .
, , ,
. ` ,
.

.

.
.
, ,
, , , , ,
, , , , . .
, Mafiya Organizatsiya.
, 1991 ,
.
1970
. ,

,
.


.134 Handelman


. 135
.
.

,
,
. ,
,

2000 . `
,

U. Schmid. Russia and the Plague of Organized Crime, Swiss Review of World Affairs,
1993, . 6-8 ( Internet).
134

135

. ., . 106.

100

,

,
. . ` ,
Handelman,
. 136
1990,
174

2 3 .
, : ,
, - - .
.
, .
.

. ,

. :
,
,
.
.
:
. .
,
( , , , ).

(vori v zakone),
20
. vori

. , vori. `
,
, ,
.
.
,
, . ,
,
. ,
. , ,
, , ,
,
, , , , , ,
, .
, . .
Volobuev,

136

, .

101

.137
1993, , ,

, , ,
.
.
. .

.138
, 150
40.000
. 80%
, 20 30% .
50% ,

30%.139
. ,

` -137

. ,
. ,
100
.140
,
.

,
. 1990, `
1 . ,
.
, .
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.

.

. Volobuev. Combating Organized Crime in the USSR: Problems and Perspectives,


International Perspectives on Organized Crime, J. R. Buckwalter (.), Chicago: Office of
International Criminal Justice, 1990, . 75-82.
137

B. Duffy, J. Trimble Y. Shchekochikhin. The Wise Guys of Russia, US News and


World Report, 1994, . 37.
138

139

Ibid.

140

B. Frankel. Radical Islam, West face off again in NYC, USA Today, . 9 (2).

102



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P. Williams. Two Views of the Russian Mafia, Organized Crime, D. L. Bender .


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141

142

. .

L. I. Shelley. Transnational Organized Crime: The New Authoritarianism, The Illicit


Global Economy and State Power, H. R. Freeman P. Andreas (.), New York:
Rowman & Littlefield, 1999, . 25-52.
143

. Luttwak. Russian Gangsters Benefit Russias Economy, The Illicit Global Economy
and State Power, H. R. Freeman P. Andreas (.), New York: Rowman & Littlefield,
1999, . 137.
144

Luttwak
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McMillan Education, 1978(1987), . ix-x.)

(

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A. Cornelius . . Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1995).147

.
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(Economic analysis and organized crime, Task Force Report: Organized Crime, The
President`s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 1967),
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147

108

. , , Ph. Williams
(Transnational criminal organizations: Strategic alliances, The Washington Quarterly, 18(1),
. 57-72) ,
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. 148 G. Fiorentini S. Peltzman (The Economics
of Organized Crime, G. Fiorentini S. Peltzman (.), Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1995, . 1-30)
.

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Harvard University Press, 1993)

(., ).
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.
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(. H. R. Friman. Just passing through: Transit states and the dynamics of
illicit transshipment, Transnational Organized Crime, . 1(1), 1995, . 65-83). ,

(. L. I. Shelley,
Transnational organized crime: An imminent threat to the nation state?, Journal of
International Affairs, . 48(2), . 472-73.149
` ,
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and Credit International (BCCI)
( `
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1990, . . .
, : , 2001.
149

111

.
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. ,

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Andreas (.), . 53-90),

.151 ,

. , J. Clapp (The illicit trade in
hazardous wastes and CFCs: International responses to enviromental bads, Friman
Andreas, . 91-124),


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152

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153

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154

. ., . 155.

116

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, .155
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. 156


.



.
, , ,
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(
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Albanese, J. What Lockheed and La Cosa Nostra Have in Common The Effect of
Ideology on Criminal Justice Policy, Crime and Delinquency, . 28, . 211-32.
155

. A. Szasz. Corporations, Organized Crime, and the Disposal of Hazardous Wast: An


Examination of the Maing of a Criminogenic Regulatory Structure, Organized Crime,
. N. Passas, Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1995, . 399-428.
156

117


, ,
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1980,
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. 157
,
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. 158
1960
65 500 .
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.


1959 (
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. ,
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,
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. R. Lewis. Serious Business: The Global Heroin Economy, Big Deal: The
Politics of the Illicit Drug Business, . A. Henman, R. Lewis T. Malyon, London:
Pluto Press, 1985 . 1-12.
157

O Kwitney


. J. Kwitney. Crimes of Patriots,
New York: Touchstone, 1988, . 47.
158

118

. ,

(1)
, (2)
, (3)
. ,

.159
,
. J. Kennedy ( ) R. Nixon (
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State Organized Crime 1986


.
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161

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119

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Pax Americana . ,

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162

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1980. 1990
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163

120

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165

C. Clerkley. The Mask of Insanity, Saint Luis: Mosby Publications, 1976.

R. D. Hare. A Research, Scale for the Assessment of Psychopathy in Criminal


Populations, Personality and Individual Differences, . 1, . 111-19.
166


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122

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18 : ,
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The Theory of Communicative Action, Boston: Beacon Press, 1981, . 1.
168

Anomie, Anomia, and Social interaction, Anomie and Deviant Behavior, . . Clinard
(.), New York: Free Press, . 213-42.
169

, , free
. ,
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170

123

Taylor, Walton Young



,
.171

.


,
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, Merton, R. Cloward L. Ohlin
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` . 172
, :
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, .

Taylor, I, P. Walton, J. Young. The New Criminology, New York: Harper and Row,
1973, . 97-8.
171

Cloward, R. A. L. E. Ohlin. Delinquency and Opportunity, New York: Free Press,


1970, . 107.
172

124

,

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of Chicago Press, 1972. ( 1942.)
173

174

R. L. Warren. The Community in America, New York: Rand McNally, 1973.

125

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G. W. Potter P. Jenkins. The City and the Syndicate: Organizing Crime in


Philadelphia, Lexington: Ginn Press, 1985.


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