CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION:
Wireless communications is one of the most active areas of technology development of our time. This development is being driven primarily by the transformation of what has been largely a medium for supporting voice telephony into a medium for supporting other services, such as the transmission of video, images, text, and data. Thus, similar to the developments in wireline capacity in the 1990s, the demand for new wireless capacity is growing at a very rapid pace. Although there are, of course, still a great many technical problems to be solved in wireline communications, demands for additional wireline capacity can be fulfilled largely with the addition of new private infrastructure, such as additional optical fiber, routers, switches, and so on. On the other hand, the traditional resources that have been used to add capacity to wireless systems are radio bandwidth and transmitter power. Unfortunately, these two resources are among the most severely limited in the deployment of modern wireless networks: radio bandwidth because of the very tight situation with regard to useful radio spectrum, and transmitter power because mobile and other portable services require the use of battery power, which is limited. These two resources are simply not growing or improving at rates that can support anticipated demands for wireless capacity. On the other hand, one resource that is growing at a very rapid rate is that of processing power. Moore's Law, which asserts a doubling of processor capabilities every 18 months, has been quite accurate over the past 20 years, and its accuracy promises to continue for years to come. Given these circumstances, there has been considerable research effort in recent years aimed at developing new wireless capacity through the deployment of greater intelligence in wireless networks. A key aspect of this movement has been the development of novel signal transmission techniques and advanced receiver signal processing methods that allow for significant increases in wireless capacity without attendant increases in bandwidth or power requirements. The purpose of this book is to present some of the most recent of these receiver signal processing methods in a single place and in a unified framework.
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Convenience. Access your network resources from any location within your wireless network's coverage area or from any WiFi hotspot.
Mobility. You're no longer tied to your desk, as you were with a wired connection. You and your employees can go online in conference room meetings, for example.
Productivity. Wireless access to the Internet and to your company's key applications and resources helps your staff get the job done and encourages collaboration.
Easy setup. You don't have to string cables, so installation can be quick and costeffective.
Expandable. You can easily expand wireless networks with existing equipment, while a wired network might require additional wiring.
Security. Advances in wireless networks provide robust security protections. Cost. Because wireless networks eliminate or reduce wiring costs, they can cost less to operate than wired networks.
1.3 TYPES OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
1.3.1 CELLULAR NETWORK
A cellular radio network is a radio network made up of a number of radio cells (or just cells) each served by a fixed transmitter, normally known as a base station. These cells are used to cover different areas in order to provide radio coverage over a wider area than the area of one cell. Cellular networks are inherently asymmetric with a set of fixed main transceivers each serving a cell and a set of distributed (generally, but not always, mobile) transceivers which provide services to the network's users. Cellular networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions: • increased capacity • reduced power usage • better coverage A good (and simple) example of a cellular system is an old taxi driver's radio system where a city will have several transmitters based around a city. We'll use that as an example and assume that each transmitter is handled separately by a different operator.
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1.3.2 WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK
This article is about the wireless transmission method. The notebook is connected to the wireless access point using a PC card wireless card. A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation, and the increasing popularity of laptop computers. Public businesses such as coffee shops and malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers; often for free. Large wireless network projects are being put up in many major cities: New York City, for instance, has begun a pilot program to provide city workers in all five boroughs of the city with wireless Internet access.
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.2 MBPS.CHAPTER 2 HISTORY
2. the new Wireless CDMA technology.5G. 1G (Time Division Multiple Access and Frequency Division Multiple Access) was the initial wireless telecom network system. the lesser-known 2. 3G and 4G technologies? 0G. its not as popular as GSM yet. It's out-dated now. Following 2. 3G & 4G ("G" stands for "Generation") are the generations of wireless telecom connectivity. What are 0G. It is the first wireless telecom technology that provides broadband-speed internet connection on mobile phones. the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. 2G and 2. This has meant streaming video
DEPTT. Fortunately. 2G. Further development led to the creation of 3. up to the speed of 7. 2G has taken its place of 1G. Then 3G came. GPRS. 2G. but with no internet. since they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls. A smart phone can be connected to a PC to share its internet connection and 3G and 3.5G were versions of the GSM and CDMA connections. as this WCDMA technology is not available in all regions. Cell phones era began with 1G. were not officially categorized as mobile phones. GPRS has been developed and thus. And GSM is still the most popular technology. Cell phones received their first major upgrade when they went from 1G to 2G. Before making the major leap from 2G to 3G wireless networks. Mobile Telephone Service. The analog ―brick phones‖ and ―bag phones‖ are under 1G technology.5G was an interim standard that bridged the gap.5G. 3G ushered in faster data-transmission speeds so you could use your cell phone in more data-demanding ways. EGPRS was created. This leap effectively took cell phones from analog to digital. 1G. In 1945. 1G.1 EVOLUTION FROM 0G-5G NETWORKS
Cell phones are used millions and billions of users worldwide.5G are ideal for this. It's more secure and faster than GPRS. How many of us know the technology behind cell phones that is used for our communication? I have also intrigued about the type of technology used in my phone. is provided over GSM for the purpose of internet access. It has been specially made for the demand of internet on smart phones. The next era. which provides blazing fast internet connection on phones. But. an additional service.
5G are the best.(i. data and high-quality multimedia in real-time form all the time and anywhere. AMTS (Advanced Mobile Telephone System). Cell phone companies today are spending a lot of money to brand to you the importance of their 3G network. realtors. 3G and 3. since they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency during calls. such as Mobile Telephone Service. Developers are now going for 4G (OFDMA). 4G will open new doors of revolutionary internet technologies. The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio transmission technology. which allows the user to move from one cell (the base station coverage area) to another cell. construction foremen. which is also known as ―beyond 3G‖ or ―fourth-generation‖ cell phone technology. MTS (Mobile Telephone System).
DEPTT. These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks. No doubt. 0G mobile telephones. a feature called "handover". OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni. IMTS (Improved Mobile Telephone Service). movie trailers and television). and celebrities. though briefcase models were also made. and two-way radio dealers. Public Land Mobile Telephony) and MTD (Swedish abbreviation for Mobile Telephony system D). audio and much more. and handset) mounted near the driver seat. They used them for basic voice communication. the transceiver (transmitter receiver) was mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial. Technologies used in 0G systems included PTT (Push to Talk). 4G promises voice. The primary users were loggers. OF CSE 5
2. They were sold through WCCs (Wireline Common Carriers).9G"). these are typically not branded 3G. 4G will allow for speeds of up to 100Mbps. display. DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU. which will provide internet up to the speed of 1 GBPS! It is said to be able to overcome the problems of weak network strength and should provide a much wider network. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2. refers to the entirely new evolution. but for now. and are based on completely different technologies.2 0G WIRELESS SYSTEM
In 1945. making sure that the users get high-speed connectivity anytime anywhere. 4G. Typically. RCCs (Radio Common Carriers). were not officially categorized as mobile phones.e. the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced.
1 . If a 2G handset made a
DEPTT. which featured mobile radio telephones and such technologies as Mobile Telephone System (MTS). 1G technology replaced 0G technology. A set of wireless standards developed in the 1980's.Fig 2. Through 1G. unreliable handoff. It has low capacity." refers to the first generation of wireless telecommunication technology. 1G compares unfavorably to its successors. a voice call gets modulated to a higher frequency of about 150MHz and up as it is transmitted between radio towers. which made use of digital signals. making these calls susceptible to unwanted eavesdropping by third parties. and Push to Talk (PTT).0G MOBILE PHONE
2. 1G wireless networks used analog radio signals. However. more popularly known as cell phones. Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS). 2G. Unlike its successor. In comparison to 1G's analog signals. which stands for "first generation. 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. This is done using a technique called Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA). and no security at all since voice calls were played back in radio towers. In terms of overall connection quality.3 1G WIRELESS SYSTEM
1G. poor voice links. 1G did maintain a few advantages over 2G. Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS). OF CSE 6
the digital signal may not be strong enough to reach it.4kbps Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile system Allows users to make voice calls in 1 country
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. While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poorer quality than that of a 2G handset. it survived longer distances.1G MOBILE PHONE
DEPTT. but a call made from a 2G handset would fail completely. angular curve.call far away from a cell tower. Keys: Developed in 1980s and completed in early 1990’s 1G was old analog system and supported the 1st generation of analog cell phones speed up to 2. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve compared to the digital signal. which had a jagged.2 . As conditions worsen. the quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen.
2. IS-136. but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels. 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and proximity. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. If a 2G handset made a call far away from a cell tower. This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at the same time. TDMA allows for the division of signal into time slots. and 2G introduced data
DEPTT. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted. picture messages and MMS (multimedia messages). Different TDMA technologies are GSM. 2G technology is more efficient. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. In comparison to 1G's analog signals. Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. CDMA technology is IS-95. While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poor quality than that of a 2G handset. All text messages are digitally encrypted.unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. As conditions worsen. GSM has its origin from the Group Special Mobile. Although this technology originates from the Europe. in Europe. but a call made from a 2G handset would fail completely. This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countries of the world’s is based on digital signals . CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages. OF CSE 8
. other than the voice call or conference.4 2G WIRELESS SYSTEM
2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. the digital signal may not be enough to reach it. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. the quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen. it survived longer distances.
Advantages • • • • The lower power emissions helped address health concerns. 2. With analog systems it was possible to have two or more "cloned" handsets that had the same phone number. allowing more calls to be packed into the same amount of radio bandwidth. 3G. ADVANTAGES. so more cells could be placed in the same amount of space.5G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog. and 4G. A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that digital cellular calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners.75G. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services. This meant that cells could be smaller. • The digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets. Enhanced privacy. such as SMS and email. Greatly reduced fraud. OF CSE 9
. CAPACITIES. AND DISADVANTAGES: Capacity Using digital signals between the handsets and the towers increases system capacity in two key ways: • Digital voice data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings through the use of various codecs.services for mobile. 2G TECHNOLOGIES 2G technologies can be divided into TDMA-based and CDMA-based standards depending on the type of multiplexing used. starting with SMS text messages. This was also made possible by cell towers and related equipment getting less expensive. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system. 2G networks are still used in many parts of the world. 2G has been superseded by newer technologies such as 2. radio signals on 2G networks are digital. however. While the
• While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise. Under good conditions. You'll hear less of the tonality of someone's voice talking on a digital cell phone. 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phone. generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through. are defined as "3G" services (because they are defined in IMT-2000 specification documents). Planned for voice transmission with digital signal and the speeds up to 64kbps 3. Disadvantages • In less populous areas. analog will experience static. Fielded in the late 1980s and finished in the late 1990s 2. OF CSE 10
. Some protocols. digital will sound better. the range of sound that they convey is reduced. by dropping calls or being unintelligible. but you will hear it more clearly. while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen. though. National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed. the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. • Analog has a smooth decay curve.
Keys: 1. such as EDGE for GSM and 1x-RTT for CDMA2000. but are considered by the general public to be 2.5G services (or 2. digital a jagged steppy one. 2G was the digital handsets that we are used today
DEPTT. Under slightly worse conditions. digital will start to completely fail. EVOLUTION 2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission. the lossy compression used by the codecs takes a toll. while analog slowly gets worse. but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage.security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies.75G which sounds even more sophisticated) because they are several times slower than present-day 3G services.
5G is a stepping stone between 2G and 3G cellular wireless technologies.3 . The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2.2G MOBILE PHONE
2. The term "second and a half generation" is used to describe 2G-systems. OF CSE 11
. and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. while data communication via traditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred. independent of whether the user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state.Fig 2.5G. GPRS could provide data rates from 56 Kbit/s up to 115 Kbit/s. It does not necessarily provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit switched data services (HSCSD) as well. CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved through the introduction of 1xRTT. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).5G (GPRS) 2. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access.
It can also be used for WAP. The specification achieves higher data-rates (up to 236.75G (EDGE)
GPRS networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks.4 . within existing GSM timeslots. SMS & MMS services.
Fig 2. Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS). OF CSE 12
.5G 2. or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates. Keys: 1. delivering an average user data throughput of 80-100 Kbit/s in commercial networks. 2. In between 2G and 3G there is another generation called 2. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).8 Kbit /s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK).5G represents handsets with data capabilities over GPRS
DEPTT.6 Kbit/s. as well as Internet access.5G MOBILE PHONE
2.1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States. as an extension on top of standard GSM.2.
Multi-Gaming etc are also available with 3G phones
ISSUES ON 3G WIRELESS SYSTEMS High input fees for the 3G service licenses Great differences in the licensing terms Current high debt of many telecommunication companies. The use of 3G technology is also able to transmit packet switch data efficiently at better and increased bandwidth. 3G is ready to live up to its performance in computer networking (WCDMA. 3G mobile technologies proffers more advanced services to mobile users. Mobile T. OF CSE
. is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. Multi Media Messaging Service (MMS). better known as 3G or 3rd Generation.2.6 3G WIRELESS SYSTEM
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000). Video Calls.V. Spectral efficiency is the measurement of rate of information transfer over any communication system.
Transmission speeds from 125kbps to 2Mbps In 2005. making it more of a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G Health aspects of the effects of electromagnetic waves Expense and bulk of 3G phones Lack of 2G mobile user buy-in for 3G wireless service Lack of coverage because it is still new service High prices of 3G mobile services in some countries
DEPTT. Internet. 3D gaming. Video Conferencing. WLAN and Bluetooth) and mobile devices area (cell phone and GPS) Data are sent through technology called packet switching Voice calls are interpreted using circuit switching Access to Global Roaming Clarity in voice calls Fast Communication. The spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G technologies. 3G is also known as IMT-2000.
5 .5G-an "in between" service that serves as a stepping stone to 3G.7 4G WIRELESS SYSTEM
Definition Fourth generation wireless system is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput. which made their appearance in the late 1980s. first generation (1G) systems were marked by analog frequency modulation and used primarily for voice communications. Introduced in the early 1980s. Frequency band is 2-8 GHz. It is designed to be cost effective and to provide high spectral efficiency. The high performance is achieved by the use of long term channel prediction.Fig 2.3G MOBILE PHONE
2.5G is usually identified as being "fueled" by General
DEPTT. scheduling among users and smart antennas combined with adaptive modulation and power control. and Millimeter wireless. Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB).
Wireless mobile communications systems are uniquely identified by generation designations. in both time and frequency. Mobile speed will be up to 200 km/hr. Data rate of 20mbps is employed. were also used mainly for voice transmission and reception The wireless system in widespread use today goes by the name of 2. it gives the ability for worldwide roaming to access cell anywhere. OF CSE 14
. 2. Whereby 2G communications is generally associated with Global System for Mobile (GSM) service. The 4g wireless uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Second generation (2G) wireless communications systems.
and low cost per bit Global access. Bluetooth. Data rate of 20mbps is employed. Segue to 4G. Internet access. making their appearance in late 2002 and in 2003. An infrastructure to handle pre existing 3G systems along with other wireless technologies. and scalable mobile services Better scheduling and call admission control techniques Better spectral efficiency IP look for 4G systems to be compatible with all common network technologies. high capacity. the "next dimension" of wireless communication. 2. 4. The 4g wireless uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). In 3G systems. Video conferencing – subscribers can see as well as talk to each other. it gives the ability for worldwide roaming to access cell anywhere. Mobile speed will be up to 200km/hr. Some of the applications are: 1. voice. are designed for voice and paging services. WCDMA. The problem with 3G wireless systems is bandwidth-these systems provide only WAN coverage ranging from 144 kbps to 2 Mbps. Tele-medicine – a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. 3. and LAN. The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. and other broadband services IP based mobile system High speed. and Millimeter wireless and smart antenna. 5. Frequency band is 28 GHz. Mobile WiMAX(Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
DEPTT. Location-based services – a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone. Video on demand – a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone. Mobile TV – a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched. and other services. Internet. Features: Support for interactive multimedia. as well as interactive media use such as teleconferencing.Packet Radio Services (GPRS) along with GSM. OF CSE
. some of which are currently under development. service portability. or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends 6. Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB). streaming video.
WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP. but not
New 3GPP standard releases beyond 4G and LTE Advanced are in progress. 4G should be able to provided very smooth global roaming ubiquitously with lower cost
Fig 2. Expected to emerged around 2010 – 2015 4. It offer both cellular and broadband multimedia services everywhere 3. 4G is a conceptual framework and a discussion point to address future needs of a high speed wireless network 2.8 5G WIRELESS SYSTEM
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a name used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards (expected to be finalized between approximately 2011 and 2013). OF CSE
.Keys: 1. Currently.4G MOBILE PHONE
Additional features such as Multi-Media Newspapers.7 . also to watch T. Wearable devices with AI capabilities. OF CSE
.considered as new mobile generations. We can send Data much faster than that of the previous generations. 7. where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and connected network. 6.V. 4. Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues. The implementation of standards under a 5G umbrella would likely be around the year of 2020. Keys: 1.
Fig 2. somehow people called it REAL wireless world 2. 3. Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6). 8.5G MOBILE PHONE
DEPTT. 5G is a completed wireless communication with almost no limitation. 5G will bring almost perfect real world wireless or called ―WWWW: World Wide Wireless Web 5. One unified global standard.V programs with the clarity as to that of an HD T.
or routing of specific wavelengths in networks. OF CSE
. WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing allows many independent signals to be transmitted simultaneously on one fiber with each signal located at a different wavelength.2.1 Comparison of 1G-5G Technology
WWWW: A World Wide Wireless Web is capable of supporting a comprehensive wirelessbased Web application that includes full graphics and multimedia capability at beyond 4G speeds. recovery.9 COMPARISON OF 1G-5G TECHNOLOGY
Table 2. allowing for the transmission. Routing and detection of these signals require devices that are wavelength selective.
Spread Spectrum: It is a form of wireless communication in which the frequency of the transmitted signal is deliberately varied over a wide range. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access is a technology for sharing a medium by several users by dividing into different time slots transmitting at the same frequency. It is adopted by ITU under the name IMT-2000 direct spread. the data stream to be transmitted is divided into small pieces. Then the data signal is combined with a higher data rate bit sequence known as ―chipping code‖ that divides the data according to a spreading ratio. a broad slice of bandwidth spectrum is divided into many possible broadcast frequencies to be used by the transmitted signal. FHSS: In Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. This results in a higher bandwidth of the signal than the one without varied frequency. 1X refers to the use of 1. UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is the third generation mobile telephone standard in Europe that was proposed by ETSI. each of which is allocated a frequency channel. OF CSE
.WCDMA: Wideband CDMA is a technology for wideband digital radio communications of multimedia and other capacity demanding applications. thus allowing a resistance from interference during transmission
DEPTT. DAWN: Advanced technologies including smart antenna and flexible modulation are keys to optimize this wireless version of reconfigurable ad hoc networks. PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network is a regular voice telephone network. CDMA-2000: Sometimes also known as IS-136 and IMT-CDMA multicarrier (1X/3X) is an evolution of narrowband radio transmission technology known as CDMA-ONE (also called CDMA or IS-95) to third generation. DSSS: In Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum.25 MHz channel while 3X refers to 5 MHz channel. WAP: Wireless Application Protocol defines the use of TCP/IP and Web browsing for mobile systems.
User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. large phone memory. 5G technologies which are on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. video player.
3. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. The current trend of 5G technology has a glowing future. Through 5G technology now you can use worldwide cellular phones and this technology also strike the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections.
DEPTT. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Pico nets has become in market. MP3 recording. 5G technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer priceless handset to their customers. OF CSE
. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. dialing speed. 5G technology including camera.CHAPTER 3 THE 5G TECHNOLOGY
5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future. 5G technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth.1 WHAT 5G TECHNOLOGY OFFERS?
5G technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market. May be in coming days 5G technology takes over the world market. The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. audio player and much more you never imagine. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and Consultancy.
3. OF CSE
.1 Functional Architecture for 5G Networks
DEPTT.2 5G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE
In order to preserve the proper layout of the packets and to reduce or prevent packets losses. and it is based on today’s Internet communication. the local IP address and destination IP address should be fixed and unchanged. which is all-IP based model for wireless and mobile networks interoperability. there should be different radio interface for each Radio Access Technology (RAT) in the mobile terminal. For an example. vertical handover) would mean changing the local IP address. Each socket of the web is a unified and unique combination of local IP address and appropriate local transport communications port. routing to the target destination and vice versa should be uniquely and using the same path. and type of transport protocol. Then.flexible. In order to solve this deficiency we propose a new level that will take care of the abstraction levels of network access technologies to higher layers of the
DEPTT. This means. The system consists of a user terminal (which has a crucial role in the new architecture) and a number of independent. if we want to have access to four different RATs. when there is a mobile user at least on one end of such connection. This approach is not. Each radio access technology that is available to the user in achieving connectivity with the relevant radio access is presented with appropriate IP interface. and to have all of them active at the same time.e. closing the socket and opening a new one. target IP address and target appropriate communication port. Application connections are realized between clients and servers in the Internet via sockets. with aim to have this architecture to be functional. Within each of the terminals. ending the connection and starting e new one. However. the establishment of communication from end to end between the client and server using the Internet protocol is necessary to raise the appropriate Internet socket uniquely determined by the application of the client and the server. Considering that. each of the radio access technologies is seen as the IP link to the outside Internet world. that is. change of any of the parameters of the socket means and change of the socket. This means that in case of interoperability between heterogeneous networks and for the vertical handover between the respective radio technologies. autonomous radio access technologies. we need to have four different accesses . Internet sockets are endpoints for data communication flows. OF CSE 22
. Fixing of these two parameters should ensure handover transparency to the Internet connection end-to-end.Figure shows the system model that proposes design of network architecture for 5G mobile systems. Routing of packets should be carried out in accordance with established policies of the user. Each IP interface in the terminal is characterized by its IP address and net mask and parameters associated with the routing of IP packets across the network. In regular intersystem handover the change of access technology (i.specific interfaces in the mobile terminal.
which form the proposed architecture. In this way the client side will create an appropriate number of tunnels connected to the number of radio access technologies. and as such represents an ideal system to test the qualitative characteristics of the access technologies. is presented in Figure (Protocol Layout for the Elements of the Proposed Architecture). The process of establishing a tunnel to the Policy Router. To enable the functions of the applied transparency and control or direct routing of packets through the most appropriate radio access technology. mobile user). Establishing tunnel connections as well as maintaining them represents basic functionality of the virtual network level (or network level of abstraction). or choosing the right tunnel. which performs routing based on given policies. This layer is crucial in the new architecture. in the proposed architecture we introduce a control system in the functional architecture of the networks. OF CSE
. In fact.protocol stack. the tunnels would be established between the user terminal and control system named here as Policy Router. This way we achieve the required abstraction of the network to the client applications at the mobile terminal. At the same time this control system is an essential element through which it can determine the quality of service for each transmission technology. Protocol setup of the new levels within the existing protocol stack.. which works in complete coordination with the user terminal and provides a network abstraction functions and routing of packets based on defined policies.e. and it is initiated from the mobile terminal Virtual Network-level Protocol. for routing based on the policies. as well as to obtain a realistic picture regarding the quality that can be expected from applications of the user towards a given server in Internet (or peer). He is on the Internet side of the proposed architecture. would be served by policies whose rules will be exchanged via the virtual network layer protocol.
DEPTT. are carried out immediately after the establishment of IP connectivity across the radio access technology. The network abstraction level would be provided by creating IP tunnels over IP interfaces obtained by connection to the terminal via the access technologies available to the terminal (i. The way IP packets are routed through tunnels. and the client will only set a local IP address which will be formed with sockets Internet communication of client applications with Internet servers.
5G will be single unified standard of wireless networks. Packet Layer. unified IP and seamless combination of broadband. OF CSE
DEPTT. Implementation of Packets. Flexibility and AntiVirus. which is 400 times faster than today’s wireless networks. which is used to provide bandwidth of 4000 megabits per second.3. Software Defined Radio.3 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR 5G
5G technology uses UWB Networks with higher bandwidths at lower energy levels. It uses smart antennas either Switched Beam Antennas or Adaptive Array Antennas. including wireless technologies LAN/WAN and wwww. 5G uses CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) multiplexing. Encryption.
Such choice will be based on open intelligent middleware in the mobile phone. The terminals will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time and the terminal should be able to combine different flows from different technologies. The development is seen towards the user terminals as a focus of the 5G mobile networks. OF CSE 25
FIG.4. while the terminal will make the final choice among different wireless/mobile access network providers for a given service. because they are not feasible in a case when there are many technologies and many operators and service providers.CHAPTER 4 CONCEPTS FOR 5G MOBILE NETWORKS
The 5G terminals will have software defined radios and modulation schemes as well as new error-control schemes that can be downloaded from the Internet. The vertical handovers should be avoided. In 5G.1. each network will be responsible for handling usermobility. 5G Mobile Phone Concept
.1 OSI Layers in the 5G Mobile Terminal Design
Application ( Services ) Presentation Layer
Open Transport Protocol Transport Layer
Upper network layer
Lower network Layer
Data link Layer
Open Wireless Architecture Physical Layer
and each mobile terminal will be FA (Foreign Agent). 3) shall maintain address translation from Upper network address (IPv6) to different Lower network IP addresses (IPv4 or IPv6).g. The fixed IPv6 will be implemented in the mobile phone by 5G phone manufactures. This is due to the initial design of the Internet.1. OF CSE 27
. For this purpose there should be separation of network layer into two sub-layers in 5G mobiles. OPEN TRANSPORT PROTOCOL (OTA) LAYER
The mobile and wireless networks differ from wired networks regarding the transport layer. These issues are solved in IPv6.. while in wireless networks losses may occur due to higher bit error ratio in the radio interface. define the wireless technology. In such case.
4. Then. PHYSICAL LAYER
Physical and Medium Access Control layers i. Cellular IP.e.3. The middleware between the Upper and Lower network layers (Fig.2. OSI layer 1 and OSI layer 2. it will maintain different IP addresses for each of the radio interfaces. because there is no competition today on this level. There is Mobile IP standard on one side as well as many micro-mobility solutions (e. Lower network layer (for each interface) and Upper network layer (for the mobile terminal). All mobile networks will use Mobile IP in 5G. Therefore. TCP modifications and adaptation are proposed for the mobile and
DEPTT. In all TCP versions the assumption is that lost segments are due to network congestion. where all the routing is based on IP addresses which should be different in each IP network world wide.
The 5G mobile phone shall maintain virtual multi-wireless network environment. and vice versa.). The IPv4 (version 4) is worldwide spread and it has several problems such as limited address space and has no real possibility for QoS support per flow. HUWAII etc.
4. but traded with significantly bigger packet header. However. keeping the CoA (Care of Address) mapping between its fixed IPv6 address and CoA address for the current wireless network. For these two layers the 5G mobile networks is likely to be based on Open Wireless Architecture. mobility still remains a problem. while each of these IP addresses will be CoA address for the FA placed in the mobile Phone.4. NETWORK LAYER
The network layer will be IP (Internet Protocol). a mobile can be attached to several mobile or wireless networks at the same time.
OTP. Today. jitter. which at the end shall provide the best wireless connection upon required QoS and personal cost constraints. RTP etc.wireless networks. or new transport protocol) version which is targeted to a specific wireless technology installed at the base stations. which retransmit the lost or damaged TCP segments over the wireless link only. reliability. Such mobiles shall have the possibility to download (e.g. in mobile phones the users manually select the wireless interface for particular Internet service without having the possibility to use QoS history to select the best wireless connection for a given service.
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. TCP. APPLICATION LAYER
Regarding the applications. such as delay. The 5G phone shall provide possibility for service quality testing and storage of measurement information in information databases in the mobile terminal. bandwidth. The QoS parameters. will be stored in a database in the 5G mobile phone with aim to be used by intelligent algorithms running in the mobile terminal as system processes. For 5G mobile terminals will be suitable to have transport layer that is possible to be downloaded and installed.4.
4. losses. the ultimate request from the 5G mobile terminal is to provide intelligent QoS management over variety of networks. This is called here Open Transport Protocol ..
large memory. The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. 2. it also offers bi-directional huge bandwidth. speed dial.CHAPTER 5 FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES OF 5G TECHNOLOGY
5G is the newest and latest technology that will be the successor to 4G cellular technology. 5G technology will definitely dominate the entire market. It offers huge quantity of broadcasting data. A user of mobile phone can easily hook their 5G technology gadget with laptops or tablets to acquire broadband internet connectivity. The future of 5G technology seems brighter than other because it contains all the new and advanced technologies and offers the customers affordable mobile phones. Amazing isn’t it such a huge collection of technology being integrated into a small device. Cell phones with this technology include audio recording. OF CSE 29
1.High resolution is offered by 5G for extreme mobile users. 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action. This high value and more enhanced technology contains every kind of advanced technology and features that makes it the most dominating and most demand technology in the coming future. which is in Giga Bytes.000 connections.000 connections. In the near future. 4. 5. Also it supports the private virtual networks. 3. The capabilities of 5G technology are really out of this world. etc. Up till now following features of the 5G technology have come to surface. audio and video players.
5. The 5G technology provides the mobile phone users more features and efficiency. This technology also provides remote diagnostic feature provides up to 25 megabytes per second connectivity. it uses switch and routers to provide the people high and fast connectivity. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65. 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping. also it has the power to connect together open call volumes and unlimited data transfer. With 5G the user will be enabled to use international mobile phones too. This technology contains data capabilities. The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error. sustaining more than 60.
DEPTT. This technology will bring a major change in the mobile phone market.
The 5G technology also support virtual private network. 7. 5G provides data bandwidth 1 gbps or higher. 2. The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology. 9. 10.6. OF CSE
. The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. The 5G technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world. 5G is available at low cost.
5. Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution. 3. 4. The 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. 5G provides dynamic information access beneficial to domestic user. 11.2 ADVANTAGES
1. The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect 12. The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak.
DEPTT. 5G is globally accessible. 8.
The new coming 5G technology is available in the market in affordable rates.
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. internet services. 2. 5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user. high peak future and much reliability than its preceding technologies 3. We can watch TV channels at HD clarity in our mobile phones without any interruption.2 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
5G network technology will open a new era in mobile communication technology. Many mobile embedded technologies will evolve. This technology helps to promotes stronger links between people working in different fields creating future concepts of mobile communication. The 5G mobile phones will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time and the terminal should be able to combine different flows from different technologies. The 5G mobile phones will be a tablet PC. A new revolution of 5G technology is going to give tough completion to normal computer and laptops whose marketplace value will be effected.
DEPTT.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
2. 32. 2009 6th IEEE. http://en. 2011 3. Aleksandar Tudzarov and Toni Janevski Functional Architecture for 5g Mobile Network International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. Toni Janevski.org/wiki/5g
DEPTT.wikipedia. Consumer Communications and Networking Conference. 5G Mobile Phone Concept.REFERENCES
1. July. OF CSE