Airbus A320 family - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Airbus A320 family
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Airbus A321) The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The family includes the A318, A319, A320 and A321, and the ACJ business jet. Final assembly of the family in Europe takes place in Toulouse, France, and Hamburg, Germany. Since 2009, a plant in Tianjin in the People's Republic of China has also started producing aircraft for Chinese airlines. In June 2012, Airbus announced plans to begin building the 319, 320, and 321 variants in Mobile, Alabama.The aircraft family can accommodate up to 220 passengers and has a range of 3,100 to 12,000 km (1,700 to 6,500 nmi), depending on model. The first member of the A320 family—the A320—was launched in March 1984, first flew on 22 February 1987, and was first delivered in 1988. The family was soon extended to include the A321 (first delivered 1994), the A319 (1996), and the A318 (2003). The A320 family pioneered the use of digital fly-by-wire flight control systems, as well as side-stick controls, in commercial aircraft. There has been a continuous improvement process since introduction. On 1 December 2010, Airbus officially launched the new generation of the A320 family with the A320neo "New Engine Option". The new generation offers a choice of the CFM International LEAP-X or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named Sharklets by Airbus. The aircraft will deliver fuel savings of up to 15%. Virgin America will be the launch customer for the aircraft in spring of 2016. As of 31 December 2011, a total of 1,196 A320neo family aircraft have been ordered by 21 airlines making it the fastest ever selling commercial aircraft. As of August 2012, a total of 5,232 Airbus A320 family aircraft have been delivered, of which 4,858 are in service. In addition, another 3,621 airliners are on firm order. It ranked as the world's fastest-selling jet airliner family according to records from 2005 to 2007, and as the bestselling single-generation aircraft programme. The family's direct competitors are the Boeing 737, 717, 757 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80.
Role Manufacturer First flight Introduction Status
A320 family A318/A319/A320/A321
US Airways Nevada A319-132 Narrow-body jet airliner Airbus 22 February 1987 28 March 1988 with Air France In service National origin Multi-national
Prim ary users US Airways EasyJet
1 Development 1.1 Origins
China Southern Airlines China Eastern Airlines See Operators for others 1988–present 5,307 as of October 2012 A318: US$67.7 million, €58 million (2011)
Produced Num ber built U nit cost
1.2 Design effort
1.3 Production, testing and demonstration 1.4 Stretching and shrinking 1.5 Further shrinking 1.6 A320 Enhanced 2 Design
1.7 New Engine Option 2.1 Airframe 2.3 Engines
A319: US$80.7 million, €70 million (2011) A320: US$88.3 million, €79 million (2011) A321: US$103.6 million, €95 million (2011) Airbus A318
Developed into Airbus A320neo family
2.2 Flight deck and avionics 3 Operational history
3.2 Replacement airliner 4.1 Overview 4.2 A320 4.3 A321 4.4 A319 4.4.1 A319CJ
Airbus A320 family - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
4.5 A318 5 Operators
6 Orders and deliveries 7.1 A319 7.2 A320 8 Specifications 9 See also 7.3 A321
7 Accidents and incidents
12 External links
When Airbus designed the Airbus A300 during the late 1960s/early 1970s, it envisioned a broad family of airliners with which to compete against Boeing and Douglas, two established US aerospace manufacturers. From the moment of formation, Airbus had begun studies into derivatives of the Airbus A300B in support of this long term goal. Prior to the service introduction of the first Airbus airliners, engineers within Airbus had identified nine possible variations of the A300 known as A300B1 to B9. A 10th variation, conceived in 1973, later the first to be constructed, was designated the A300B10. It was a smaller aircraft which would be developed into the long-range Airbus A310. Airbus then focused its efforts on the single-aisle market, which was dominated by the Boeing 737 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9. Plans from a number of European aircraft manufacturers called for a successor to the relatively successful BAC One-Eleven, and to replace the Boeing 737–200 and DC-9. Germany’s MBB (MesserschmittBölkow-Blohm), British Aircraft Corporation, Sweden's Saab and CASA worked on the EUROPLANE, a 180to 200-seat aircraft. It was abandoned after intruding on A310 specifications. VFW-Fokker, Dornier and Hawker Siddeley worked on a number of 150-seat designs. Alongside BAe (who at the time were not part of Airbus) were MBB, Fokker-VFW and Aérospatiale. The design within the JET study that was carried forward was the JET2 (163 passengers), which then became the Airbus S.A1/2/3 series (Single Aisle), before settling on the A320 name for its launch in 1984.
The Hawker Siddeley team had previously produced a design called the HS.134 "Airbus" in 1965, an evolution of the HS.121 (formerly DH.121) Trident, which shared much of the general arrangement of the later JET3 study design. The name "Airbus" at the time referred to a BEA requirement, rather than to the later international programme.
Air Inter A320-100 in 1991, one of the few A320-100s
A new programme was initiated subsequently, called Joint European Transport (JET). This was set up in June 1977, and was based at the then British Aerospace (formerly Vickers) site in Weybridge, Surrey, UK. Although the members were all of Airbus' partners, they regarded the project as a separate collaboration from Airbus. This project was considered the forerunner of Airbus A320, encompassing the 130- to 188-seat market, powered by two CFM56s. It would have a cruise speed of Mach 0.84 (faster than Boeing 737). The programme was later transferred to Airbus, leading up to the creation of the Single-Aisle (SA) studies in 1980, led by former leader of JET programme, Derek Brown. The group looked at three different variants, covering the 125- to 180-seat market, called SA1, SA2 and SA3. Although unaware at the time, the consortium was producing the blueprints for the A319, A320 and A321, respectively. The single-aisle programme created divisions within Airbus about whether to design a shorter-range twinjet than a longer-range quadjet wanted by the West Germans, particularly Lufthansa. However, works proceeded, and the German carrier would eventually order the twinjet. In February 1981, the project was re-designated A320, with efforts focused on the former SA2. During the year, Airbus worked with Delta Air Lines on a 150-seat aircraft envisioned and required by the airline. The A320 would carry 150 passengers 1,860 nautical miles (3,440 km) using fuel from wing fuel tanks only. The Dash 200 had more fuel through the activation of centre fuel tank, increasing fuel capacity from 3,429 imperial gallons (15,590 L) to 5,154 imperial gallons (23,430 L). enabling to fly up to 2,850 nautical miles (5,280 km). The aircraft would measure 118 feet 3 inches (36.04 m) and 128 feet 9 inches (39.24 m), respectively. Airbus then had to decide on a cross-section for the A320. It considered a fuselage diameter of "the Boeing 707 and 727, or do something better". It
Japanese Aero Engines Corporation. having placed an order for 50 aircraft. These disputes were known as "work-share arguments".
The horizontal stabilizer of the A320 is produced in Spain. Pan Am also selected V2500 when it requested 16 firm orders and 34 options in January 1985. while the rest would be paid as a levy of each aircraft sold. son of the former Airbus CEO. testing and demonstration
Production of the A320 was postponed for a number of reasons. At the time unproven. France was willing to commit. a chartered Air France Airbus A320-111 (F-GFKC) crashed into trees at the end of runway at Mulhouse-Habsheim Airport. A340.. The flight marked the beginning of a flight test programme involving 1. In the end. when an announcement was made about the deal between government and manufacturer. European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) certification was received on 26 February 1988. during which the aircraft flew for 3 hours 23 minutes.200 airborne hours on 530 flights. Airbus A320s sold to Chinese airlines scheduled for delivery between 2009 en. It was the only available engine at launch until the IAE V2500. the V2500-A1.the response of the engines was normal and in compliance with certification requirement". places inputs into the flight control computer. A319 and A320. As of 2009. British workshare was increased from that of the two previous Airbuses. The press and media later questioned the fly-by-wire flight control system. the UK. It would feature side-stick control for the first time on a commercial aircraft. The agreement dictates that ₤50 million would be paid whether the A320 would fly or not.000 pounds-force (110 kN). Another A320. such as the Vought F-8 Crusader. and the upcoming A350 as well. A340. a first for commercial aircraft. The Germans requested an increased work-share of 40%.
The programme was launched the following day off the back of orders for 96 aircraft from five customers. The ensuing fire contributed to the casualty count of ninety-two. Henri Ziegler. offering better aerodynamic efficiency because of higher aspect ratio than the competition.
. for the aerospace companies from their respective governments. Nearly all assemblies are moved using Airbus' A300-600ST Beluga outsized transporters. on the other hand. He successfully convinced aviation authorities of the concept's validity. while virtually no changes took place for the other three major member-countries. such as the Airbus A330.
During the A320 development programme. was the initiator of the aircraft's revolutionary fly-by-wire flight controls with side-stick cockpit controller and full glass cockpit. A380. The A320 wing went through several stages of design. Airbus required about eight months to build an A320. crashed landed short of the airport runway in Bangalore.560. including the Prince and Princess of Wales. flown by Indian Airlines. in essence. The first Airbus A320 was rolled out on 14 February 1987 amid dry ice and laser beams as part of a spectacular unveiling ceremony.
On 26 June 1988. the free encyclopedia
eventually settled on a wider diameter. The most significant order was to come.7 metres (12 ft 2 in). offering speed of a turbofan at turboprops economics.91 metres (111 feet 3 inches). Components from various Airbus plants are transported to the final assembly plant at Hamburg Finkenwerder for the A318/A319/A321 and to Toulouse Blagnac for the A320. Subsequent investigations by commission of inquiry found "no malfunction of the aircraft or its equipment which could have contributed towards a reduction in safety or an increase in the crew's workload during the final flight phase. Airbus stuck with turbofans. With the A320.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking 3/20
An Airbus Beluga unloading A320-family aircraft parts at Finkenwerder. Although heavier. northern Germany. The first A320 delivery was to Air France on 26 March 1988. this system would provide flight envelope protection. apart from money. driven by.000 lbf (112. A number of high-profile figures were present. The first V2500 variant. Cyprus Airways became the first to place order for V2500-powered A320s in November 1984.. and the upcoming A350. a group composed of Rolls Royce. This layout was incorporated to the later A330. For the first time.wikipedia.
Production. has a thrust output of 25. or subsidies. and is marginally more efficient than the CFM56. hence the name. It is longer and thinner. Another contributing factor was launch aid. as did Inex Adria. which interprets these actions and moves the flight control surfaces. Power on the A320 would be supplied by two CFM56-5-A1s rated at 25. when Northwest Airlines placed an order for 100 A320s in October 1986. The pilot. it was essentially a fan placed outside the engine nacelle. The UK government. with specific fuel consumption at 0. backed by Lufthansa. it was postponed for three years until 1 March 1984.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . eventually.591 of the CFM56. France and West Germany wanted the responsibility of final assembly and the associated duties.Wikipedia. Airbus made a controversial decision. were unwilling to provide funding for the tooling requested by British Aerospace (BAe). digital fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system would be incorporated into a commercial airliner. between 16 A320-100s and 34 -200s. finally settling on 33. The cockpit of the A321 is
similar to that of the A318. while the British wanted the major responsibilities to be swapped around to give partners production and research and development (R&D) experience. Airbus considered propfan technology. This 'commonality' enables pilots to quickly transition between these types. From the start.5 kN). A380.45 metres (11 ft 4 in) of the Boeing aircraft. offered by International Aero Engines. Note the sidestick controller and digital flyby-wire technology. powered by CFM56. Air France was the first customer for the type. Pratt & Whitney. namely the 737 and MD-80. this specification allowed the aircraft to compete more effectively with the 737. Three out of 130 passengers were killed. with the internal width at 3. Other A320 parts are manufactured at various sites throughout Europe and the world. Estimated at ₤250 million. while the Germans were more cautious. British Caledonian was the first to place a firm order for seven back in October 1983. compared to 3. although it was previously successfully proven on military fighter aircraft. FBW also allows Airbus to make flying characteristics similar to later models. prestige. split evenly between firm and options. Fiat and MTU Aero Engines (MTU). The first flight came on 22 February. Bernard Ziegler. out of 146 on board. However. Aside from associated reduction in weight and cost. later confirmed at the 1990 Farnborough Airshow. compared to 0.
3 t (118. The A319's wingspan is longer than the aircraft's overall length. carried out in Germany (then West Germany). who signed for 6 aircraft. The second production line was located at Hamburg.800 km (3. Manitoba from Hamburg. The programme was called the AE31X.588 nautical miles (6. after Lufthansa. or the Pratt & Whitney PW6000s. €475 million to finance development costs. Airbus revealed its considerations of designing a 100-seat aircraft based on the A320. amassing 1. arguing it would be more productive for Airbus in the long run.
Main article: Airbus A318#Development The A318 was born out of mid-1990 studies between Aviation Industries of China (AVIC). The first of Lufthansa's V2500-A5-powered A321s arrived on 27 January 1994. also known as the Stretched A320. A320-500 and A325. The SA1 was shelved as the consortium concentrated on its bigger siblings. The maiden flight of the Airbus A321 came on 11 March 1993. respectively. derated to 98 kN (22. It was rolled out on 24 August. flew with IAE V2500 engines.2 m (10 ft 6 in). equipped with CFM56-5B turbofans. Lufthansa and Alitalia were the first to order the stretched Airbuses.600 kg (21. after which Airbus officially announced an aircraft of its own. €175 million was loaned from European Investment Bank and private investors. and covers the 95-seat AE316 and 115. Costing $2 billion. it has proved popular with low-cost airlines such as EasyJet.000 kg (183. The bulk-cargo door was replaced by an aft container door. respectively. This came after a dispute between the French.wikipedia.000 lb) for the AE317.73 metres (12 ft 3 in). the thrust requirement were 77. an A319 broke a record during a delivery flight by flying 3. the A319's first customer is ILFC. It would provide direct competition for the Boeing 737–300/-700.2 kN (19.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . the project en. Airbus entered the bond market.Wikipedia. aircraft production to take place in China. The length increase required the overwing exits of the A320 to be enlarged and repositioned in front of and behind the wings. as a first for any Airbus. entering service by month's end. Its launch came on 24 November 1988 after commitments for 183 aircraft from 10 customers were secured.6 kN (17. After healthy sales of the A320/A321. Power is provided by the CFM56-5A or V2500-A5. The engines would be supplied from two BMW Rolls-Royce BR715s.to 125-seat AE317. Airbus began offering the new model from 22 May 1992. otherwise the aircraft is largely unchanged. with the actual launch occurring 10 June 1993.800 nmi) and 5. the first CFM56-5B-powered aircraft was delivered on 22 March. and the Germans. registration F-WWIA. The wing would incorporate double-slotted flaps and minor trailing edge modifications.000 lbf) and 84. €135 million in unnecessary expenditure associated with the new plant.to 140-seat SA1. Alenia and Airbus on a 95.470 order compared to 932. while over at Alitalia.000 lbf) thrust. €250 million. the second prototype. Simultaneously. Range was settled at 5. On 23 March 1995. apart from a number of minor modifications to the wing.100 nmi) for the high gross weights of both variants. The shrink was achieved though the removal of four fuselage frames fore and three aft the wing.645 km) the great circle route to Winnipeg. €1. The certification programme would take 350 airborne hours involving two aircraft.0 m (101 ft 8 in) and a flight deck similar to that of the A320 family.000 lbf). took place on 25 April 1996. at 34. The former would have an overall length of 31. flew in May. with the MTOW of 53.380 sq ft). with option for 105 kN (24. The aircraft would be a minimum-changed derivative.to 125-seat aircraft project. part of the Single-Aisle studies.500 lbf). by September 1998. Delivery of the first A319. which can take in reduced height LD3-46 containers. The development cost was $275 million.000–20. the free encyclopedia
moved using Airbus' A300-600ST Beluga outsized transporters. Airbus turned its focus back to what was then known as the A320M-7. in 9 hours 5 minutes. Singapore Technologies Aerospace. the
.200 lb). giving the A321 an overall length of 6.5 m (113 ft 2 in). meaning A320 minus seven fuselage frames. to Swissair. who claimed the move would incur $150 million.330 sq ft) to 128 m2 Airbus A32X family (1.
A US Airways A319 in America West heritage livery.
Alitalia was the second to receive the stretched A321. increasing the wing area from 124 m2 (1. The fuselage was lengthened by four plugs (two ahead and two behind the wings). Sales of the A319 would overtake that of the A321.
The A319 is the next derivative of the baseline A320. In January 1997. while the AE317 is longer by 3. Both share a wingspan of 31. CFM56-9s.9–84. An additional $180 million.94 metres (22 ft 9 in) longer than the A320.
Stretching and shrinking
The first derivative of the A320 is the Airbus A321. after which qualification for the V2524-A5 started the following month. The centre fuselage and undercarriage were reinforced to accommodate the increase in maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 9. taking the MTOW to 83. through which it raised $480 million.85 billion to develop. the number of overwing exits were reduced from four to two. People's Republic of China. Final assembly for the A321 would be. when the prototype.6–91. Airbus was developing Airbus A318.000 lb).3 m (102 ft 8 in). with 20 and 40 aircraft requested. with 167 delivered. For the first time. where the A321s are assembled.200 km (2. In early 1998. certification for the CFM56-5B6/2-equipped variant was granted in April 1996.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking AE31X terminated. and the fuselage stretch itself.000 lb) for the smaller version and 58 t (130. who has orders for 172. cutting the overal length by 3. Airbus A320s sold to Chinese airlines scheduled for delivery between 2009 and 2012 are being assembled in Tianjin. The design is a "shrink" with its origins in the 130. Consequently. Minor software programming were made to accommodate the different handling characteristics. the first A319 underwent final assembly at Airbus' German plant in Hamburg.500–19. with the maiden flight the following day. which would also produce the smaller Airbus A319 and A318.
handling characteristics. These Airbus winglets. claiming that the weight of the modifications required would negate any aerodynamic benefits. The 107-seater was launched on 26 April 1999 with the options and orders count at 109 aircraft. since 1–2% is typically lost upon installation on an existing aircraft.
At the 2011 Paris Air Show. aerodynamic refinements. by September 1998.700 kilometres (3. improved ergonomics and food hygiene and recycling requirements. This means an additional range of 950 km (510 nmi). on 17 December 2008. and therefore the smallest Airbus. In January 2011 IndiGo reached a tentative agreement with Airbus to order 150 A320neo aircraft along with 30 more A320s. TransAs
en. which have been retained by Airbus for testing.Wikipedia.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . at that year's Farnborough Airshow.5% and offer increases in payload of 500 kilograms (1. Instead. or "baby". weight savings. JAA certification was obtained for the CFM56-powered variant on 23 May 2003. In 2006. Airbus tested three styles of winglet intended to counteract the wing’s induced drag and wingtip vortices more effectively than the previous wingtip fence.wikipedia. or 2 t (4.
A320 Enhanced (or A320E) is the working title for a series of improvements to the A320 family. or 5.950 kilometres (3. the actual fuel gain on an A320 installation will be slightly less. The Sharklets are to be manufactured and distributed by Korean Airlines Aerospace Div. improved cabin efficiency by a new galley concept.6 metres (5 ft 3 in) behind. Airbus' CEO said to be "comfortable" with the projections of 20% lower maintenance cost for the Pratt & Whitney's PW1000G family. The second type of winglet incorporated a more blended design and was designed by Winglet Technology LLC. revealed worse-than-expected fuel consumption. Range was 5. the Pratt & Whitney PW6000. Airbus announced it was to begin flight testing an existing blended winglet design developed by Aviation Partners as part of an A320 modernisation programme using the prototype A320. Airbus announced future additions of Sharklets to A320s commencing in 2012 with launch customer Air New Zealand. The aircraft is the smallest. the maiden flight took place at Hamburg on 15 January 2002. Airbus claims it offers better luggage storage and a quieter cabin. The cabin was fitted to more than 600 aircraft (as of March 2009) since 2007. it was developed at the same time as the largest commercial aircraft in history. LED ambience lighting is optionally available. Two aircraft were used in the flight test evaluation campaign – the prototype A320. after which Airbus officially announced an aircraft of its own. Additionally. Airbus announced firm orders from GECAS.
Virgin America Airbus A320 economy class Enhanced Cabin with light-emitting diode (LED) lighting
New Engine Option
Main article: Airbus A320neo family Airbus is working on offering a new engine for the A320 known as the new engine option (neo). saving operators US$220. The first design type to be tested was developed by Airbus and was based on work done by the AWIATOR programme. of the A320 family. After The A318 originally had three years of design.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking 5/20
. This corresponds to an annual CO2 reduction of around 700 tonnes per aircraft. The improvements include engine improvements. would reduce fuel burn by 3.210 nmi) with upcoming sharklets. Airbus announced that the new winglets will not be offered to customers. Consequently. and a new build aircraft which was fitted with both types of winglets before it was delivered to JetBlue Airways.400 lb) of extra payload. On 22 July 2003. Anytime LEDs are used for the Passenger Service Unit (PSU) and passengers can get information with touchscreen displays. Older A320 series aircraft can be updated. or range by 100 nautical miles (190 km) at the original payload. a company based in Wichita. The choice for new engines include the CFM International LEAP-X and the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G. the free encyclopedia
on the A320. The A320neo will also include some modifications to the wing.79-metre (2 ft 7 in) ahead of the wing and 1. first delivery for launch customer Frontier Airlines occurred.100 lb). which are 2.
Airbus A320 with sharklets at ILA 2012
Despite the anticipated efficiency gains and development work. Though the new engines will burn 16% less fuel. entering service before the end of the month. Airbus is targeting 2016 for the first delivery and plans to deliver 4.000 per aircraft per year. reduced weight. the A318. These cuts reduced passenger capacity from 124 on the A319 to 107 passengers in a two-class layout. The 129 order book for the A318 shrunk to 80 largely because of switches to other A320 family France A318.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) tall and weigh 200 kilograms (440 lb).000 A320neo over 15 years. the Airbus A3XX (later renamed Airbus A380). After 17 months of flight certification. members. Ironically. it was shorter by 0. such as adding large curved winglets (Sharklets). and a new cabin. mainly the installation of blended winglets called "Sharklets".100 nmi). Scandinavian Airlines System. compared with today's engines. Virgin America became the launch customer with a firm order of 30 A320neo aircraft as a part of a 60 aircraft order on 17 January 2011. packaged with a more modern look and feel. the project AE31X terminated. Tests on the lead dorsal fins to improve engine. On 15 November 2009. First called A319M5 in as early as March 1995. but it Pratt & Whitney abandoned the five-stage high pressure compressor (HPC) for the MTU-designed six-stage is not featured on this Air HPC. Kansas. during which 850 hours and 350 flights were accumulated.
the former Australian domestic airline. A320. A319. After entering the market in March 1988 with Air France and Ansett. keeping the aircraft advanced even after two decades in service. main landing gear doors.
The Airbus A320 family are narrow-body (single-aisle) aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and are powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines. With the exception of the very earliest A320s. and launching the 107-seat A318 in 1999 with first deliveries in 2003. Its design also included a full glass cockpit rather than the hybrid versions found in previous airliners.wikipedia.Wikipedia. The only analogue instruments are the RMI (backup ADI on earlier models. most can be upgraded to the latest avionics standards.
The Airbus A320 family are low-wing cantilever monoplanes with a conventional tail unit with a single vertical stabilizer and rudder. which would cause the airline to cease having an all-Boeing fleet.
The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) issued the type certificate for the A320 on 26 February 1988. compared to 148 inches (3. Its tail assembly made almost entirely of such material by CASA. The flight management computer contained six CPUs.196 firm orders for the A320neo family making it the fastest selling commercial aircraft in history. Airbus then expanded the A320 family rapidly. launching the 185-seat A321 in 1989 and first delivered it in 1994. with 2.34 m) of the Boeing 717.95 m) outside diameter. Wing swept back at 25 degrees. and rear fuselage parts.
Planform view of an Iberia A320 at takeoff
The Airbus A320 is the first narrow body airliner to use a significant amount of the structure made from composite material. In total the A320neo received a combined 667 commitments worth US$60. the free encyclopedia
CGI representation of the future Airbus A320neo
GoAir along with major orders from Indian low-cost carrier IndiGo for 150 aircraft and Malaysian low-cost carrier AirAsia for 200 A320neo. At the time of the aircraft's introduction.5 megabytes of memory.
The A320 family was developed to compete against the Boeing 737 Classics (−300/-400/-500) and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80/90
en. launching the 124-seat A319 in 1993 and delivering it in 1996. built by British Aerospace (BAe). and A321 flight decks instead of the original CRT (cathode ray tube) displays. who also builds the elevators. optimised for maximum operating Mach number 0.9 billion. running in three logical pairs. Newer Airbus feature LCD (liquid crystal display) units in the flight deck of its A318. Compared to other airliners of the same class. In addition. which was an analogue display prior to this. in 1988 Intel 80286 family CPUs. International Aero Engines. the aircraft has a cargo hold equipped with large doors to assist in expedient loading and unloading of goods. Early A320 planes used the Intel 80186 and Motorola 68010. American Airlines ordered 130 A320neo on 20 July 2011. offering the V2500 and Pratt & Whitney whose PW6000 engines are only available for the A318 variant. and larger overhead bins.5 inches (3.6 inches (3.
The Airbus A320 family was the first commercial airliner to feature a full glass cockpit and digital fly-by-wire flight control system.82. The A320 features an Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) which gives the flight crew information about all the systems of the aircraft. Airbus had received 1. the behaviour of the fly-by-wire system (equipped with full flight envelope protection) was a new experience for many pilots.8 m) of the Boeing 737 and 131.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . the A320 features a wider single-aisle cabin of 155. LCDs weigh less and produce less heat than CRT displays. the largest commercial aviation order at the time. The A320's flight deck is equipped with Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) with side-stick controllers. By the end of 2011. replaced by digital ISIS on later models) and brake pressure indicator. These include the main displays and the backup artificial horizon.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking 6/20
. Digital head-up displays are available.
Three suppliers provide turbofan engines for the A320 series: CFM International with their CFM56.
Flight deck and avionics
The A320 was the first civil airliner to include a full digital fly-by-wire flight control system.
and 717. MoscowPavlodar.wikipedia.
Airbus A320 variants Model(s) A318 A319 A320 A321
ICAO code  The baseline A320 has given rise to a family of aircraft which share a common design but with passenger  to 220. these aircraft. and has since faced challenges from the Boeing 737 Next Generation (−600/-700/-800/-900) and the Boeing 717 during its two decades in service. as well as the Boeing 737.307 A320 series aircraft since their certification/first delivery in early 1988. otherwise differences are minimal. As of 2010.150 km). and has a further 2.352 737s since late 1967. The A320-200 features wingtip fences and increased fuel capacity over the A320-100. all have the same pilot type rating. Only 21 A320-100s were ever produced.000 lbf). on the A321. were delivered only to Air Inter (later acquired by Air France) and British Airways (as a result of an order from British Caledonian Airways made prior to its acquisition by British Airways). but it is often informally used to A321 indicate any of the A318/A319/A320/A321 family. 757– capacity ranges from 100.400 to 27. The follow-on aircraft to replace the A320 was named A30X. In January 2010.846 of those deliveries since March 1988. the A320-100 and A320-200. It is powered by two CFMI CFM56-5s or IAE V2500s with thrust ratings between 113 to 120 kN (25. Today A318 all variants are available as corporate jets. US Airways is the largest airline operator of A320 family of aircraft in A319 North America with 232 as of January 2011. Indian Airlines used their first 31 A320-200s with doublebogie main landing gear for airfields with poor runway condition which a single-bogey main gear couldn't manage.
en. on the A318. Boeing has shipped 7. All variants are able to be ETOPS (Extended-range Twinengine Operational Performance Standards) certified.
The A320 series has two variants. and the CSeries being developed by Bombardier to the A318/A319.321 on firm order (as of 31 October 2012). resulting in increased range.
Airbus was studying a future replacement for the A320 series. Because the four variants share the same flight deck. tentatively dubbed NSR. Typical range with 150 passengers for the A320-200 is about 3. while on average 237 Boeing 737s were delivered.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . the name "A320" only refers to the original mid-sized aircraft. In comparison. They compete with the Boeing 737. stated that any all new single-aisle aircraft is unlikely to be constructed before 2024/2025. the A320 family faces competition from Embraer's E-195 (to the A318). 200. S7 Airlines.
British Airways Airbus A321 takes off from Manchester Airport.Wikipedia. Airbus's Chief Operating Officer Customers. the free encyclopedia
series. for "New Short-Range aircraft". Airbus delivered on average 215 A320 series aircraft per annum.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking 7/20
. with another 3.
A319 left wing during landing. Airbus has shipped 5. John Leahy. Based on figures since 1988 when they first entered direct competition. with 5.300 nautical miles (6. The lowest speed an A320 can fly is approximately 207 km/h. A320 Technically. Airbus North America President Barry Eccleston states that the earliest the aircraft could be available is 2017. the first to be manufactured.953 on firm order (as of 31 October 2012).
 The A319 has proved popular with airlines. This allows the number of emergency exits to be reduced to six. or two 29.100 km).842 US gal) tanks. Turkey. The basic A321-100 features a reduction in range compared to the A320 as extra fuel tankage was not added to the initial design to compensate for the extra weight.94 metres (22 ft 9 in) which makes the A321 the largest among the A320 Family.  Range with 8 passengers' payload and the standard four auxiliary fuel tanks is 6. minor structural strengthening.700 nmi) with the "Sharklets". or the 22.650 km (3. or 6. the former president and CEO of ILFC according to The New York Times. Brazil.
Main article: Airbus A318 The Airbus A318 is the smallest member of the Airbus A320 family. To maintain performance. It is powered by the same engine types as the A320. which had placed an order for 6 A319s by 1993. A319CJ The A319CJ is the corporate jet version of the A319. thus maximising its resale value. the Boeing 737–700-based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ). The A319's launch customer.5 kN) V2522-A5 and 24. in addition to increasing the wing area by 4 m2 (43 sq ft).752 still on orders as of 31 December 2011. the range with 124 passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 6.000 feet (12.000 lb). with 2. minimum-change version of the A320. The maiden flight of the first of two prototypes came on 11 March 1993.
The A319 is a shortened. Azerbaijan. in fact. France. an EADS company.380 sq ft). Four propulsion options available on the A319 are the 23. Malaysia.A..org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking 8/20
. Thailand.800-pound-force (110 kN) V2527M-A5 from IAE.73 metres (12 ft 3 in) shorter than the A320. Italy. The variant was launched in 1988. four frames fore of the wing and three frames aft of the wing were removed. the free encyclopedia
A total of 2. Bulgaria. The A321 entered service in 1994.000 US gal) in the rear underfloor hold. and an increased service ceiling of 41.590 nmi). Its direct competitor is the 757-200 and the 737-900/900ER. taking the MTOW to 83.27 m (14 ft 0 in). the A321's major change is the stretched fuselage.wikipedia.600 L (7.67 m (8 ft 9 in) rear plug. Other minor modifications were made to accommodate the A321's 9. Germany. Czech Republic. This is achieved by adding a front plug immediately forward of wing 4.000 m). Airbus decided to launch the programme on 10 June 1993. double-slotted flaps were included. or Airbus Corporate Jet. when the A320 began operations. The A319CJ is used by the Escadron de transport. British LCC EasyJet purchased the A319. Compared with the A320. The direct Boeing competitor is the 737-800. The A318 carries up to 132 passengers and has a maximum range of
en. It is also known as the ACJ.200 lb) increase in maximum takeoff weight. and Bombardier's Global Express. Anticipating further orders by Swissair and Alitalia.S.000-pound-force (98 kN) CFM56-5B/A and 27.600 kg (21. which is lengthened by 6. and fewer passengers. This is achieved through higher thrust engines (V2533-A5 or CFM56-5B3). was ILFC. DC Aviation and Reliance Industries are among its users. it is a part of Airbus S. and a 2. An ACJ serves as a presidential or official aircraft of Armenia. specifically low-cost carriers (LCC). The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. Producer is Airbus Executive and Private Aviation. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks which are installed in the cargo compartment.
The Airbus A321 is a stretched first derivative of the standard A320. The A321-200 first flew in December 1996. to 128 m2 (1. to partially replace and augment its Boeing 737 fleet.000 kg (183. Although identical to those of the A320.850 km (3.040-pound-force (102. Final assembly of the first A319 began on 23 March 1995. Upon resale the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks and corporate cabin outfit. it is 3.000-pound-force (120 kN) CFM56-5B7. Also known as the A320M-7 (A320 "minus seven frames"). With virtually the same fuel capacity as the A320-200.
British Airways A319
The A319 was developed at the request of Steven Udvar-Hazy.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . To overcome this Airbus launched the heavier and longer range A321-200 development in 1995 which has a full-passenger transcontinental US range. and A320.000 nautical miles (11. Ukraine and Venezuela. these engines are derated because of the A319's lower MTOW. and greater fuel capacity with the installation of one 26.684 L (7.860 of the A320 model have been delivered. d'entraînement et de calibrage which is in charge of transportation for France's officials and also by the Flugbereitschaft of the German Air Force for transportation of Germany's officials. The A319CJ competes with other corporate jets such as the Gulfstream V.Wikipedia.
Air France was the launch customer of the Airbus A320
A Royal Jordanian Airlines A321-200 landing at LHR.
Airframes will be converted by EADS EFW in Dresden. It is the largest commercial aircraft certified by the European Aviation Safety Agency for steep approach operations. allowing existing A320 family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training. an A320-111.665 3. Three passengers were killed. The aircraft was substantially damaged but all 127 On 24 September 2010 Wind Jet Flight 243. 
Accidents and incidents
For the entire A320 family there have been 59 aviation occurrences. About 20 passengers were injured. 3. Updated on 12 November 2012. the A318 has sold in only small numbers with total orders for only 80 aircraft placed at 28 February 2011. and shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320 family variants.321 5. an A320-231. The
On 26 June 1988 Air France Flight 296. landed short of the runway and broke an undercarriage when the aircraft was seriously damaged but stopped in the grass out of the runway. crashed into the tops of trees beyond the runway on a demonstration flight at Mulhouse-Habsheim Airport.
aircraft attempted landing at Palermo Airport. including 23 hull-loss accidents with a total of 789 fatalities as of April 2012. A319-132 EI-EDM. The aircraft entered service in July 2003 with Frontier Airlines. On 14 February 1990 Indian Airlines Flight 605. and Zhukovsky.520 A 320 5. A319-111 4K-AZ04. allowing flights at airports such as London City Airport. Istanbul. Germany.
See also: List of Airbus A320 operators
Orders and deliveries
See also: List of Airbus A320 orders
Orders A 318 81 3 78 2 29 269 60 360 2 47 306 66 421 2 51 297 51 401 6 88 221 87 402 13 98 209 66 386 17 105 194 51 367 8 137 164 30 339 9 142 121 17 289 10 87 101 35 233 9 72 119 33 233 85 116 35 236 89 119 49 257 112 101 28 241 88 101 33 222 53 80 35 168 47 58 22 127 18 38 16 72 34 22 56 48 16 64 Deliveries
Type Total Backlog Total 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 A 319 1.100 nmi (5. Relative to other Airbus A320 family variants. There have been 50 incidents of glass cockpit blackout.233 Total 8.348 2.
On 12 August 2010 Azerbaijan Airlines Flight 75. carrying 146 people. citing high demand for used airframes for passenger service. Preliminary reports name windshear as one possible cause for the accident. crashed on its final approach to the HAL Airport. Turkey.3.
easyJet A319 A programme to convert A320 and A321 aircraft into freighters is being set up by Airbus Freighter Conversion GmbH. Russia. however.700 km.
. Italy. Airbus announced all partners would end the passenger to freighter programme. The launch customer AerCap signed a firm contract on 16 July 2008 to convert 30 of AerCap’s passenger A320/A321s into A320/A321P2F (passenger to freighter). France.794 A 321 1.628 172 1.600 mi). suffered a collapse of the undercarriage when the aircraft passengers and crew escaped unharmed.
CFM56-5Bs engine on an
On 3 June 2011.129 481 752 3.307
Data through end of October 2012. departed the runway on landing at Atatürk International Airport.
 On 30 May 2008 TACA Flight 390. crashed into the Black Sea while attempting to conduct a go-around following its first approach to Sochi Airport. and the nose gear On 21 September 2005 JetBlue Airways Flight 292. All 143 passengers and crew on board lost their lives. an A320-211. No one was injured.
RPVB. Honduras. an A320-111. The aircraft was badly damaged and seven passengers were injured. All seven people aboard died. which disabled both engines. crashed in Margalla Hills in Islamabad. The accident was due to a the wings. plowing through homes near it. Philippines. an Airbus A321 (B-22603) on a flight from Taipei Songshan Airport.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking passengers and six crew were on board the aircraft. on the ground were killed. executed an emergency landing at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) after the nose wheels jammed in an abnormal position. an A320-231. crashed into an earth a passenger died. A fire started in the left wing area and penetrated into the passenger cabin.
US Airways Flight 1549. ditched into the Hudson River several minutes after takeoff. the helicopter crashed.  The commander. On 3 May 2006 Armavia Flight 967. an A320-212. Some people were reported to have jumped from an emergency exit when the evacuation slide failed to deploy. an A320-233. None of the passengers or crew died.
On 14 September 1993 Lufthansa Flight 2904. The weather was poor with heavy rain and strong winds. The accident was a Pilot error / Controlled flight into terrain accident. the accident was caused by pilot error (by positioning the throttle out of the "idle" position) and by bad weather. 88 passengers and four crew members were killed. North Carolina. landed at Tainan Airport and collided with a truck on the runway. has been preserved at the Carolinas Aviation Museum.
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport.
skidded off the runway on landing. overran the runway after landing at Toncontín International On 27 November 2008 XL Airways Germany A320 Flight 888T. an A320. from San Salvador. en. but many were injured and three On 23 August 2000 Gulf Air Flight 072. On 1 July 2002 America West Airlines Flight 794. causing the aircraft to crash into the sea off the southern French coast. 82 passengers). an A320-200.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family . in Bacolod. crashed into a high ridge near Mount Sainte-Odile in the Vosges mountains while on final approach to Strasbourg at the end of a scheduled flight from Lyon. The truck went on the runway without noticing the incoming plane. Brazil. en route from New York City LaGuardia Airport to Charlotte. in bad weather conditions. Pervez Iqbal Chaudry. totalling 199 people. was not able to stop while landing at Congonhas International Airport in São Paulo. It is now on display. All 150 passengers and five crew survived. The weather was poor with low visibility.
passengers and crew were uninjured but the two people in the truck were injured. The aircraft collided with terrain after the crew ignored cockpit warnings to pull-up. The entire airframe including On 29 August 2011 Gulf Air Flight GF 270. the free encyclopedia
Bangalore. an A320-214. The copilot and On 22 March 1998 Philippine Airlines Flight 137. coming from Frankfurt am Main with 70 people.Wikipedia. Airport in Tegucigalpa. Russia.
could not be regained. Syrian Air Flight RB-501. an Airbus A321 flying from Karachi to Islamabad. an A320-214. As of 2009. The aircraft was on lease by XL Airways
On 15 January 2009 US Airways Flight 1549. crashed and overran the runway of Bacolod City Domestic Airport. a check flight of an A320-232 stalled in a low speed test and control and scheduled to be returned to Air New Zealand. with only five serious injuries. All 113 passengers and crew on board lost their lives. There were at least five fatalities. The 175 and was written off. This accident resulted in the deaths of 87 of the aircraft's occupants (five crew members. ditched in the Hudson River in 2009 with all passengers surviving
helicopter. There were no survivors. There were 10 reported injuries and no fatalities. killing
On 21 March 2003 TransAsia Airways Flight 543. The A320 lost half its vertical stabilizer but landed safely. the pilot failed to maintain directional control during landing at strut collapsed. 146 Airblue's most senior pilots with more than 35 years' experience. All 187 passengers and crew died with 12 fatalities on the ground. an A320-211. The aircraft was severely damaged in the accident On 28 July 2010 Airblue Flight 202.
wall at the end of the runway at Warsaw. from Bahrain to Cochin carrying 143 people.wikipedia. causing the aircraft to veer off the side of the runway onto a dirt infield. crashed into the Persian Gulf on approach to Bahrain Airport. collided in mid-air with a military three of its occupants. Pakistan.
On 17 July 2007 TAM Airlines Flight 3054. On 20 September 2012. an A320-232. was one of
collision with a flock of Canada geese.
On 20 January 1992 Air Inter Flight 148. an A320-233.
3.78 (828 km/h/511 mph at 11.700 km.320 sq ft) 25 degrees 12.wikipedia. typical) 38 in (97 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class. maximum) 32 in (81 cm) (1-class.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family .827 cu ft) 10× LD3-46 44. maximum) 32 in (81 cm) (1-class.600 nmi (6.900 km.000 lb) 42. typical) A 320-200 A 321-200
Length Wingspan Wing area Wing sweepback Tail height Cabin width Fuselage width Fuselage height Operating empty weight Maximum zero-fuel weight (MZFW) Maximum take-off weight (MTOW) Cruising speed Maximum speed
31. The soldiers had misidentified the aircraft as belonging to the North Korean military.76 m (38 ft 7 in) 3.000 lb) 37.62 m3 (975 cu ft) 4× LD3-46 33.73 m3 (1. typical) 29 in (74 cm) & 30 in (76 cm) (1-class.000 lb) 40.000 nmi (5.000 m/36.000 lb) 62. A total of 99 rounds were discharged at the aircraft.100 mi) LR: 5.500 kg (107. typical) 185 (2-class. maximum) Seating capacity 117 (1-class.700 km.14 m (13 ft 7 in) 39. 4.000 m/36.000 lb) 73. 132 (1-class. fully
3.5 t (206. typical) 27.321 cu ft) 7× LD3-46 37.200 nmi (5.
en. South Korea was fired upon by two soldiers of the South Korean Army as it came in to land any damage.6 m2 (1.800 kg (163. typical) 220 (1-class. and were acting on orders that gave
A irbus A 320 family A 318-100 Cockpit crew A 319-100 / A 319LR / A 319CJ Two 180 (1-class.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking
.500 kg (129.000 lb) 58. following the Bombardment of Yeonpyeong in November 2010.400 mi) 3. 3.21 m3 (749 cu ft) 28 in (71 cm) & 30 in (76 cm) (1-class.
Maximum range.000 lb) 48.400 km. typical) 150 (2-class. typical) 36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class.000 ft) 3.000 lb) 68 t (150.10 m (111 ft 11 in) 122.
China and Incheon International Airport.84 m (111 ft 0 in) 34. at Incheon.95 m (13 ft 0 in) 4.57 m (123 ft 3 in) 51.600 kg (94. typical) maximum) 164 (1-class.000 lb) 78 t (170.000 lb) 75. maximum) Seat Pitch 32 in (81 cm) (1-class.100 nmi (5.000 lb) 93. which was out of range and made a safe landing without sustaining them permission to engage without reference to senior officers.600 km.82 (871 km/h/537 mph at 11.000 ft) Mach 0. typical) 36 in (91 cm) & 32 in (81 cm) (2-class.600 mi) 6.500 kg (138. maximum) 134 (1-class.000 lb) 54.44 m (103 ft 2 in)
Mach 0.41 m3 (1.Wikipedia. typical) 156 (1-class.800 kg (90. typical) 124 (2-class.70 m (12 ft 2 in) 3.500 kg (87.600 nmi (10.500 kg (120. maximum) 199 (1-class.51 m (41 ft 1 in) 11. the free encyclopedia
Airblue's most senior pilots with more than 35 years' experience.5 t (166. typical) 107 (2-class.
On 16 June 2011 Asiana Airlines Flight 324 operated by Airbus A321-200 HL7763 between Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport. typical) Cargo capacity 21.51 m (146 ft 0 in) 28 in (71 cm) & 29 in (74 cm) (1-class.
640 imp gal.000–33.Wikipedia.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family .100 ft)
2. 7. ISA )
1.500 nmi (12.030 L (6. the free encyclopedia
CJ: 6.090 m (6.980 US gal) optional 12.500 mi)
3.000 km.164 m (7.000 lbf) 98–120 kN (22. 6.400 US gal)
24. 7.400 US gal) standard 30.wikipedia.000–27.210 L (5.000–24.
Maximum fuel capacity
24. Airliners.828 m (5.050 L (5.610 imp gal.000 lbf)
IAE V2500 series 111–120 kN (25.330 imp gal.500 m (41.350 US gal) standard 30.000–27.000 lbf)
Source: Airbus.560 m (8.330 imp gal.000 lbf) 133–147 kN (30.org/wiki/Airbus_A321#Stretching_and_shrinking
.930 US gal) optional
Service ceiling Engines (×2) Thrust (×2)
Pratt & Whitney PW6000 series 96–106 kN (22.290 imp gal. 7.997 ft)
2.400 ft) 24.000 ft) CFM International CFM56-5 series
6. 6.000 m (39.500 mi)
Take off run at MTOW (sea level. Pratt & Whitney
Aer Lingus A320-200 at Belfast International Airport
en.190 L (6.000 ft) A 319 CJ: 12.net.700 mi)
3.210 L (5.
. the free encyclopedia
Aircraft Model A318-111 A318-112 A318-121 A318-122 A319-111 A319-112 A319-113 A319-114 A319-115 A319-131 A319-132 A319-133 A320-111 A320-211 A320-212 A320-214 A320-216 A320-231 A320-232 A320-233 A321-111 A321-112 A321-131 A321-211 A321-212 A321-213 A321-231 A321-232
Certification Date 23 May 2003 23 May 2003 21 December 2005 21 December 2005 10 April 1996 10 April 1996 31 May 1996 31 May 1996 30 July 1999 18 December 1996 18 December 1996 30 July 1999 26 February 1988 8 November 1988 20 November 1990 10 March 1995 14 June 2006 20 April 1989 28 September 1993 12 June 1996 27 May 1995 15 February 1995 17 December 1993 20 March 1997 31 August 2001 31 August 2001 20 March 1997 31 August 2001
Engines  CFM56-5B8/P CFM56-5B9/P PW6122A PW6124A CFM56-5B5 or 5B5/P CFM56-5B6 or 5B6/P or 5B6/2P CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F CFM56-5A5 or 5A5/F CFM56-5B7 or 5B7/P IAE Model V2522-A5 IAE Model V2524-A5 IAE Model V2527M-A5 CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F CFM56-5A3 CFM56-5B4 or 5B4/P or 5B4/2P CFM56-5B6 IAE Model V2500-A1 IAE Model V2527-A5 IAE Model V2527E-A5 CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P IAE Model V2530-A5 CFM56-5B3 or 5B3/P or 5B3/2P CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P IAE Model V2533-A5 IAE Model V2530-A5
Competition between Airbus and Boeing Aircraft of comparable role.12/7/12
Airbus A320 family .wikipedia.Wikipedia. configuration and era Boeing 737 Boeing 717
Boeing 757–200 Bombardier CSeries Embraer 195 McDonnell Douglas MD-80
en. ^ a b c Norris & Wagner 1999. 119 18.com/presscentre/corporate-information/key-documents/?
3. ^ Gunston 2009
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eID=dam_frontend_push&docID=14849) (PDF). Retrieved 7 January
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Archived (http://web. 2010.com/newsevents/news-events-single/detail/airbus-and-mobilealabama-continuing-a-successful-relationship/. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 31 October 2012.org/web/20110726144716/http://www. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999. p.airbus.htm) .airbus. p.com/en/presscentre/pressreleases/pressreleaseS_items/07_01_25_5000th_A320_EN.hellocompany.airbus. ^ a b c d e Norris & Wagner 1999.airbus. p. ^ Payne. ^ Airbus. ^ Wensveen 2007.airbus.net/Aviation%20history/coming%20of%20age/Hawker-Siddeley%20Trident.000th order mark
8. ^ Aris 2002.html. p. ^ Norris & Wagner 2001. http://www. ^ Norris & Wagner 1999. p.airbus. p. 1997.com/fileadmin/backstage/orders_deliveries_table/Airbus-_OAD_-_2012Oct. ^ Airbus A320 Family passes the 5. 45 23. 1 December 2010.htm. 38 14.flightglobal. the free encyclopedia
McDonnell Douglas MD-90 Tupolev Tu-204 Related lists List of aircraft
List of airlines
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15. Flight International.org.org/entry/airbus-steals-the-paris-air-show/. 46 25.
Century of Flight.com/newsevents/news-events-single/detail/airbusand-mobile-alabama-continuing-a-successful-relationship/) . 2004. p.airbus. ^ a b "Airbus wins 211 orders and commitments worth US$20.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a320family/) . ^ Norris & Wagner 1999. ^ "Airbus steals the Paris air show" (http://www. 2.hellocompany. 6. 23
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42.html) (in German).flightglobal. p.airbus. ^ a b c Gunston 2009. ^ Sebdon. 122
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