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GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Definitions. (a) Guided Missile. A guided missile is a space-traversing, unmanned vehicle, which carries within itself the means for controlling its flight path. (b) Guided Missile System. A guided missile system is a combination of guided missile and its ancillary launching, external guidance, test, and handling equipments, which together accomplish a mission, say, the destruction of a target. (c) Missile Guidance System. A missile guidance system is defined as a group of components, which, in effect, measures the position of the guided missile with respect to its target, and causes changes in the missile flight path as required. (d) Guided Missile Systems Engineering. Guided missile systems engineering is that branch of engineering concerned with the task of coordinating the engineering and design of all of the subsystems, which, when combined, form a guided missile system.
2. Uses of Guided Systems. The primary use of guided missile systems is generally military. Military missiles may be offensive or defensive, and are employed for training purposes. Missiles are further classified into four types: (a) Surface-to-surface. SSMs are those, which are launched from a point on the earth’s surface, and directed to another point on the earth’s surface. Missile range is an important factor, as it has much to do with the size, cost, and accuracy requirements. They may be of cruising or ballistic-trajectory type. (b) Surface-to-Air. The primary purpose of a SAM is the destruction of aerial targets (missiles or aircraft). Its objective may be the protection of a ground installation or of a city. They require a higher degree of aiming mobility because of the target characteristics. (c) Air-to-Air. AAMs are launched from aircraft to do combat with enemy airplanes and missiles. They provide the launching aircraft with a relatively long-range fighting arm of considerably better accuracy and effectiveness than is afforded by either guns or rockets. (d) Air-to-Surface. ASMs may be viewed as long-range aerial bombs, possessing inherently high accuracy. They may be powered all the way to impact with the target, or may glide part of the way. Guided missiles are not necessarily required to make direct hits. When provided with a warhead of specified lethal radius, they can destroy the target at various miss distances. Associated with each miss distance is a kill probability, which depends upon the physical characteristics of the target, altitude, relative attitude of missile with respect to the target (aspect), and the degree of damage, which must be inflicted upon the target in order to constitute a “kill”. For non hit destruction, the missile is usually provided with suitable detonation circuitry, or fuzing, so that it has the ability to explode the warhead at the most appropriate instant during passage by the target. 3. Comparison between Offensive and Defensive Missiles. Defensive Up to a point, the greater the range, the smaller the number of missiles required to defend a given target since if the range decreases, the number of launching sites must increase so that there are no “holes” in the defense.
Characteristic Offensive Range Required to operate at greater ranges since it must go into enemy territory to accomplish its mission.
2 Pre-launch Information Design and employment depends upon: exact position, size, physical nature of target, weather conditions and the strategic importance. Design and employment depends upon: Early warning system, a tracking system that can establish the target objectives and provide sufficiently accurate data on position, speed, and direction of the raid as a function of time and how many and what type of vehicle is pressing the attack.
Components of GW System. The various components of a GW system are: (a) Guided Weapon (Missile) (b) Launching Equipment (c) External Guidance System (i) Target Acquisition and Tracking System (ii) Missile Tracking System (iii) Missile Guidance System (d) Test and Handling Equipment (e) Operating and Servicing Personnel. Classifications of Missiles. Missiles are classified based on the following: (a) Role (i) Strategic (aa) Offensive (bb) Defensive (ii) Tactical (b) Propulsion System used (i) Boost-coast (ii) Boost-sustained (c) Propellant used (i) Solid (ii) Liquid (iii) Hybrid (d) Range (i) Short Range (<100 km) (ii) Medium Range (<500 km) (iii) Medium Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) (<1500 km) (iv) Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (<5000 km) (v) Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (5000 km<R<12000 km (e) Trajectory (i) Ballistic (ii) Cruise (iii) Short Range (aa) Line-of-Sight (bb) Lead (cc) Constant Bearing (dd) Proportional Navigation (f) Flight Profile (g) Speed (i) Supersonic (ii) Sonic (iii) Subsonic
3 (h) Method of Guidance (i) Long Range (aa) Inertial Navigation System (bb) TERCON (cc) Celestial Navigation (dd) Radio Navigation (ii) Short Range (aa) Homing -Active -Semi-Active -Passive (bb) Command Guidance (cc) Beam Rider Type of Warhead (i) Conventional (aa) Blast (bb) Fragmentation (ii) Nuclear (iii) Biological (iv) Chemical Control System (i) Canard (ii) Tail (iii) Wing (iv) Thrust Vector Location of Launch Platform (i) Mobile (ii) Shoulder fired (iii) Aircraft,helicopter,ship,submarine launched (iv) SILOs Type of Target (i) Antiradiation (ii) Anti Aircraft (iii) Antiship (iv) Antitank (v) Antisatellite (vi) Antimissile Location of launcher and location of Target (i) Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) (ii) Surface-to-Surface (iii) Air-to-Air (iv) Air-to-Surface
6. Components of a Missile. A typical Guided Weapon consists of the following components: (a) Warhead and Fuse (b) Propulsion System (c) Guidance and Control System (d) Aerodynamic Structure or Airframe.
4 7. Basic Military Characteristics of Guided Missile Systems. The basic military characteristics of a particular guided missile system are stipulated by the contracting service, and vary somewhat, depending upon the task assigned. The following general elements are usually included: (a) Effectiveness as a weapon (usually kill probability). (i) Starting with the missile itself, the effectiveness is largely a function of size and destructive power of the warhead. The latter depends upon the distance from the warhead to target at the instant of warhead detonation, the attitude of the warhead relative to the target, the missile- and target- velocity vectors, structural, geometrical and physical characteristics of the target, atmosphere density and configuration of the warhead itself. (ii) The single-shot kill probability is one way of saying that a given single missile and its warhead, when fired against a single target of a specified type at a specified altitude, will destroy the target with a certain probability. SSKP reflects the missile reliability, random missile-target situation, warheadfuzing-accuracy probability distribution, miss-distance probability distribution and target vulnerability. (b) Range. In some instances the operating range of a guided missile is determined solely by the geographical location of potential enemy targets and friendly missile launching sites. In others range may depend on many factors. For example, the AAM system range depends on the early warning radar range, the tracking system range, time required to alert, ready and take-off the launching aircraft, range and speed characteristics of the launching aircraft etc. Air-to-air missile range is important because it provides the launching missiles with more time to perform its functions and renders the latter less vulnerable to enemy action. (c) Operational altitude and maneuverability (d) Interference with other weapon systems (e) Vulnerability. The following are the system characteristics that can be vulnerable to countermeasures: (i) Enemy jamming of tracking radars (ii) Use of “windows” or “chaff” (iii) Employment of decoys (iv) “Spoofing”, or feinting techniques (v) Optimal spacing of multiple targets to confuse homing radars (vi) Enemy employment of reception to locate and “knock-off” such radars (vii) Jamming of communications (viii) Low-altitude attacks below the warning- and tracking-radar horizons (ix) Saturation of the missile system by dint of large raids or use of decoys. (f) Mobility (g) Traffic capacity. Traffic capacity of a guided missile system is its ability to guide more than one missile simultaneously to a target. (h) Firing rate (i) Dependence upon weather and visibility (j) Versatility (k) Physical Characteristics such as (i) Missile size, weight and complexity (ii) Numbers, size, weight and complexity of ancillary equipment (iii) Maintenance characteristics (iv) Shipping and storage characteristics (l) Production characteristics (m) Personnel requirements
5 (n) (o) (p) (q) Reliability Environmental conditions Cost Safety.
INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIOUS COMPONENTS 8. Airframe, Guidance System and Propulsion System.These three components are mutually interdependent and no one of these components can actually be designed satisfactorily without a great deal of consideration for the other two as shown below: (a) Size. Size of the guidance equipment affects the size of the airframe. Increased airframe size results in greater weight and drag and requires higher thrust. Thus weight and size of propulsion system is increased. This results in increase in gross weight. Increased gross weight demands larger aerodynamic forces, so that the required maneuverability may be maintained. This requires increase in size of wings, thus further increasing gross weight. Thus propulsion unit needs to be larger. This expanding process continues until a happy compromise is achieved. (b) Type of Power Plant. The type of power plant may decide the choice of the method of control. If a solid-propellant rocket of a specified design is chosen, the center-of-gravity and airframe-stability considerations place the missile wings in a position overlapping the outer surface of the power plant. Thus there will be no space for a wing-actuator mechanism and the wings must be rigidly attached. Missile maneuverability must then be obtained by pitching and yawing the missile relative to its flight path. (c) Center-of-gravity Travel. The c.g. travel due to propellant consumption and location may cause the airframe stability characteristics to vary widely between the launching and weight-empty conditions. Such variations influence the design requirements of both the guidance system and the airframe. (d) Airframe Altitude and Speed Characteristics.Since the power plant supplies the power to attain the speed and airframe characteristics, the propulsion unit is directly related to these airframe characteristics. Since missile speed may be high enough to cause radome heating, this affects the guidance system. The choice of radome material to compromise this, may affect geometric shape thereby affecting missile drag and hence the airframe and power plant. (e) unit. Range. The range of the guidance system affects both the airframe and the propulsion
(f) The guidance-(homing-) system navigation ratio is closely connected with missile maneuverability requirements, directly affecting the airframe and indirectly affecting the power plant. 9. Airframe, Guidance System and Armament. Lethality of the warhead determines the maximum allowable miss distance, which is a function of the guidance system and of airframe performance characteristics.
Guidance System and Airframe. (a) (b) Range of the guidance system determines to a considerable degree the airframe design. Maneuverability required to intercept the target satisfactorily is a function of many factors like speed and maneuverability of the target, speed of the missile, and guidance system characteristics. Size of the resolution angle which helps guidance system to discriminate between two targets depends upon the size of the receiving antenna. The greater the size of antenna, smaller the resolution angle and the greater the missile to target distance at which the targets are resolved. This distance and the missile-target closing rate determine the maneuverability required of the airframe to intercept. Weight and size of the guidance equipment have a strong bearing on airframe design. Increased missile size can lead to greater radar-range capabilities. Aeroelastic deformations of the airframe enter directly into the design of the guidance system. The magnitude of airframe control-surface hinge moments, their possible non linearity, and their variation with regard to altitude and speed may seriously affect the autopilot design portion of the guidance system. Missile aerodynamic noise can affect a guidance system by induced microphonics.
Guidance and Propulsion Systems. (a) Flame attenuation. Properties of the exhaust gases emanating from the power plant may have a deleterious effect upon the strength of the command signals received by the guidance system which is referred to as flame attenuation. When a rocket power plant is ignited, it may produce shocks or sudden impact which when superimposed upon the basic acceleration may cause guidance-system components to malfunction either momentarily or permanently. High frequency force fluctuations resulting from unstable burning may induce excessive vibration of guidance components causing either their destruction or a deterioration of performance which is known as microphonics. Misalignment of power plant thrust may seriously affect design of guidance system because of resulting flight path dispersions. Range of the guidance system is inherently related to the propulsion unit. Where the guidance system exercises control over the thrust output of the propulsion system, the power plant dynamic characteristics may greatly increase the overall dynamic stability of the complete missile-guidance loop.
(d) (e) (f)
7 12. Guidance and Armament Systems. Lethality of the armament directly determines the maximum allowable distance that the missile may miss the target. Miss distance is related to guidance-system characteristics. Warhead arming and fuzing of the warhead,i.e., the act of detonating it at the optimum moment may be related to the guidance system. 13. Guidance and Launching Systems. Launching accelerations, shock and vibration affect the guidance system as also the effects of thrust misalignment and of flame attenuation. The initiation of launch may be done from the guidance system at times at radar lock-on. 14. Similarly the airframe and the launching system are inter-related, for example, in airlaunched systems. The airframe and propulsion systems are interrelated by space, weight, center of gravity, altitude, range and control considerations. Weight and balance as well as acceleration characteristics of the airframe are related to proper design of safety and arming mechanism of the armament.
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