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. 222

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. . . . . . . ..... . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

222

. . ....... . . . . . . .

..

222

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . .. ..

223

. ... . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . ....... ... . .. . ... . . .... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...... . . . ....... . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

.;

. . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . .......

......

. ........ . . .

. .. . . . . . .

..... . .

..

. ....... . . ... . . . . . . . .. . .

. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . ..

. . . . . . . . .. . . .

. . . . . . . . ... . . ...

........ . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

..

223

..... . . . .

223

. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . ..... . . . ..

. . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ..... . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .

224

. . . . . . . . . . .. .

made by Absens

. . . ....... . . . . .. . . .

....... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .

..... . . . . . . . .. . . .

... .... . .

. . . . . . . . . ......

. . . .. . . . . . . ..... . . . .

. .
. .

225

. ....

226

. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .

226

. . . . . . . . . ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ . . .. . . .. . . . . ....... . . . . . . . .

9
...

...

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

.......

. .. . . .. . .

.... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .

..........

. . .. . . ....

. . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .

. .

......

..

. ...
.

. . . . . . .. . . . . . .

.......................

230

. . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .. .

..

...
.

. . . . . .. . . ..

232

.. . . . . . . . . . . .

232

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .

232

. .. .. . . ... . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . ......... . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . .................. . .. . . .. ......... . . . . . . ........ . . . . .

.. . .. . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . ..

........ . .

..

..... . . ..

. . . . . . . . .. . . . .

233

........ . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . .

1
.


Ericaceae:
Fagaceae:

. . . ... . . . .

. .
. .

. . . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . .. . .... . . . . . . .

..

.. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .

Hippocastanaceae: .
.

Labiateae:

. ... . . .. . . . . . . . .

Legouminosae:
Liliaceae:

......

: .

... . . ..

....

. ..

......

....

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .

: .

..........

... ..
.

Papaillonaceae:

.....

238
238

.... . . . . .

. . . . ...... . .

..
.

. . ..

. . . . . ...

.. . . . .

239

. . . . .... . . ... . . .

. . . ..

.....

.. . . . . .. . . . . . . .

...
.

. . ...... ....

.... ..

...

....

...

. ...

239

. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

....

.. .

239

. .... . . . . .

..... ..

. ..

..

. .. . . . . .

. . .. . . .

. .. .239
.

..
.

...

239

. . ..

.....

. . ...

..

240

.240
240

. . . . .

................................................................240
.. . . . . . . . .

. . . .. . .. .....

... .

. . ...... . .

. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .

........

.... . . .

. . .. . . . . .. . ..... . . . . . . . .

. .. . . .. ..... . . . ........

. . . . . . .

..... . . . . .

........

. . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . .. . . . . .

.. .

. .. .

237

..... . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. .......

.... . .. . .

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .

..........

.. .

...... . . . ..

Scrophulariaceae:

. ...
..

..

...... .

. . . .. . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

241

. ...... ...

. .... .. .. ..241

. .......... . . . . . . .. . . . . ............

... . . . ........ . . . . . . ...... . . . . .

. . . . . .... . . . . . . .. . . . . .

..

. .........

. . . .. ...... . . .. . . . ..

......

......

241

.. . .

242

......... . . . . .

Taxaceae:

.. . . ......... ....... . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .

Tiliaceae:

2.

. . . . . .... . .. . . . . .. . . . . .

RanuncouIaceae: ...

....

..

.... . . . . .. . . . . .... . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .

......

Solanaceae:

... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .

. ... . . .

. ....... . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . .. ........ . . . . . . . . .....

.. . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .

.........

. . .. . . .

.. . . . .

. ..

. . .. . ...

..

...

. . 242
.

..

243

. . . . . .... . .. . .. . .

. .
..

. 243

. . . .. . . ... .. .. . . . ..

. .. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .. . ... . .

.. ..
.

. . . . . . .. . . . . .

...

... 243
. .

..... . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 244
.

. 245
.

. .

. . .. . . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .

... . . . . . . .

..

....

. . . ...

.... . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . ..

. . . . ..

. . . .. . . . . . . .....

... . . . . . .. . . . . . .

...... . . . .. . .. . . . .

. .. . . . .... . .

. . . . .. . . . . . . .

.. . .. . . .. . .

. . . .. . . .

.... . . .

..

. . . . . .. . . .

made by Absens

. . . .. .

..

.. . . .

....245

.. ..
.

. . .

. . .

...

.246

. . .

250
252

. . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

252
253

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

254

. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

255

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

256

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

259

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

263

10
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

271
273
273

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

275
276

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

276

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

277

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

made by Absens

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

281
283
284
284
285
286
286
293
311

11

,

, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
, ,


,
. ,
,
,
,
. ,
,
.
.

, .
:
, , .
,
.
.

,
,
.
.

,
, ,
, .

made by Absens

made by Absens

13

made by Absens

,
.
,
,
. '

,
.
, .
,
.
, ,
.
'

'
,
, , , . .
, ,
. ,
, .
.
, , .,
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
.
,

.

. -

14

made by Absens

,
.

.
,
,
.
"
, ,

, ,
.

, ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
,
,
.
Q ,
,
.

made by Absens

made by Absens

17


Apis

. , ,
, : 1)

(). 2)

. 3)
(Wilson,
1976). .
,
,

.
.

made by Absens

, ,
. 100.000
15 . '
Apoidea 9 . '
Apidae Apis. Apis
7 . 4
Apis me//ifica, . f/orea, . dorsata cerana
, 1980 , 3 . andreniformis,
. /aboriosa . koschevnikovi (Dietz, 1992).
.
Apis mellifica . mellifera:
.
,

18

made by Absens

.
, .

,
.
,
.

. '
:
Apis mellifica mellifica .
, .
Apis mellifica ligustica .
. '
.
Apis mellifica carnica . ,
.

.
Apis mellifica caucasica .
.
.
,
,
. , '
,

. Apis mellifica cecropia
, . mellifica macedonica
, . mellifica adami . mellifica cypriaca
. . mellifica
carnica (Ruttner, 1988),
.
Apis florea: Apis.
, ,
. ,
, 60-800/0


Apis dorsata: , ,

19
. '
.
80.000 .
,

.
Apis cerana: Apis mellifica
.
. ,
5-8 .
.
Apis andreniformis: .
A.florea.
Apis laborosa: ' .
. dorsata, .
, 1300-4100
,
1 -5C.
Apis koschevnikovi:
, . cerana
.
.

Apis mellifica.

made by Absens

. 1 . Apis , Apis me/lifera


cerana, . dorsata, . florea (. In stitute Fr Bienenkun de, Oberusel)

20

__

__

. 2.

made by Absens

. 3.
(. . Winston 1 987)

. 3 .

21


-



, .
,
, .

made by Absens


.

, (. 2).
: , .
,
, ,
.
, 12 .
,
.
,
(. 3). ,
,
. ,
,
.

22
: , ,

made by Absens

,
.
, ,
, .
.
, u'K
, ,
.

. ,
, -
:
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
, , ,
.
, .
, .
, ,
.
, ,
. "
", .
,
" ".
. ,
,
,
" ".
.
" ".

, " ".
,
,
, (. 4).

23
: 7 ,

. ()
().
,
, .

.
.
, .
,
, .
4 ,
,
.
500 , Nassanov.
,
, .

, .

made by Absens

. 4 . ,

24

made by Absens

(. 5) ,
, ,
.
4,7 cm , 3,9 3,5
.
, ,
, . ,
.
,
, , .
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
40 ,
.
.
,
. ,
, (. 6).

.

,
,
. ,
,

.
, , ,
6-12 mm 2,3 mm.

25
7 ,
21 (. 5).
.
, , ,
,
.
, , , "
, ,
, ( . 7).

, .
,
, .

------.

lilr-

'------- . .

---"i=----;--->"-f';-;'tl1-


----w-----'

made by Absens

. 5. , .
( . . Sn odgrass 1 956)

26

. 6. (. . Crane 1 990)

made by Absens

. 7. . .
(R . E . Sn odgrass 1 956)

27
l
, ,
. '
'
. ,
.
.
.

.
, ,
. ,
,
,
.

. 8 . . a.
. .

made by Absens

.
, ,
.
,
. , ,
, . -

28

. 6 ,

.
,
, . ,

(. 8).

made by Absens

,
, . ,
' .
.
l : ,
, .
.
,
. 6-14
, .
, .
,
,
, .

, .
, , ,
.
l :
,
.
. ,
10-- . l,J ,
2- .
, .
,
.
: ,
.

29
, .
.
. .
.

made by Absens


, .
(. 9),
,

. " " (. 63)
, " "
.
. ,
.
.
.
, '', .
,
. .
,
, .





Malpighi.

,

,

,



.
. 9 .

30
, .
.
, ''
.

Malpighi
(. 4). ,
. ,

. .
, ''
''
. ''
'', .
48-95 % ,
. Malpighi ,
. ,
, ,
,
.

made by Absens


. ,
. ,

, .
.
(. 1 )
. ,
.
, .
,
.

. 1
, '

31
. ,
,
' .

. 1 0. ,
. ( R . E . Sn odgrass 1 956)

,
, .
, ' ,

.
,
.
,
. ,
,
.

made by Absens

, ,
.
, -

32
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
.

,
. 85 /
. , , ,
, , ,
, , .
(. 11) ,
.
20914 , '
30 11174 3286 - r
(Kosteski 1964).

.,
,
, .
Van Steenkeste ( 1988)
,
, , ,
.
,

.
, . 1 1
.

,
'
. ,
.
,
.

made by Absens

33


(. 12),
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
, .
,
.

. 12. . (R.E. Snodgrass 1956).

made by Absens

,
, ,
, , -

34
.
.
, '
, .
, ',
.
' ,
, .
,
, ',
.
,
.
, . '
, ,
,
.

made by Absens

, ,
,
(. 13).
,
,
,

,
. ,
,
.

, ,
, .
,
.
,
.

35

. 13 . . (R ..

Snodgrass 1956).

,
.
. .
, . ,
q ,
,
. . .
,
.
. .
.
,

.
.

made by Absens

,
,
' .
corpora allata, corpora cardiaca -

36
. ,
,
.
,
.


: .

. 4-5
, .
,
,
". '
,
.
, , ,
, ,
, .

,
300 650 nm.
, ,
. , ,
.
, , ,
" .

.
, ,
, .
.

.

.

made by Absens

:
. '

37
, .
, ,
, .
.
.
'
.
:
, ,
. ,
, .
' . 31
9 .
. 9
,
' . , ,

. '
. ,
.
:
. ,
.
: ,

, ,
.
.

14.

made by Absens

:

.
J
-

38
(. ) .
.
,
.

(. 14).
I


,
.
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
(. 15), .
, , .
,
, .
,
Dufour.
,

made by Absens

. 15. . . .
. . ( R . E . Sn odgrass 1 956)

39
.
.

. ,
,
.
,
, _ [
.

.
,
.
.
.
, ,
,
.
:

0,7-1,6 %

0,2- 1,0

0, 1-0,7
12

3
. . .
700/0 "


.

0.5 % .
.

1 %

4-8

made by Absens

. -

40

.

.
, ,
.
,
.




. 40.000
' .
,
.
Rbsch ( 1930)
.

:
) .
) :
- : , , .
- .
- , .
- .
- .
- , .
- .

, .
.
, .

made by Absens

41
,
, , '
.

made by Absens

,
,
,
. ,
,

.
:
(), 5-13 .
,

1000 .
, .
Lindauer ( 1953) ,
143 ,
400 ' , 2
.
1
2800 .
,
.

.
:
, ,
,
.
:
- , ,
,
.
- ( ) ,
.

42

made by Absens

-
, .
-
.
, .
-

.
:
12-18 , ' ,
.
, ,
, .
, .
,
.
'
. ,
,
, .
:
,

.
, ,
,
. ,
.
,
.
,

.
,
" (. 16).
,
Nassanov
. ' ,

. -

43

. 1 6. .
.
.

made by Absens

44
.
: ,
(. 16). '
, , ,
.
' .
:
,
, .
,
,
, .
,
,
(. 16).
, , ,
.

.
, ,
.
:
,
, , ,

. .
,
3-5 , ,
.

. ,
.
,
.
, 6-13 .

.

made by Absens

:
. , ,

45

made by Absens

.
.
.
,
. ,

, .
, .
,

,
.
,
.
,
,
, .
.
200-500
1100. ,
3000 .
, ,
.
,
, '
.
1,6 mg 500 m, 2,20 mg 1000 m 4,13 mg
1500 m.
,
,
.

. ,
,
, , . ,
.
.

, , .
, .

46

,
,
.

(.58).

. 1 7 . , , ,
.

made by Absens

, ,

. .
9 , ,
.
(. 17).
, 6000-7000
.
, ,
. ,

47
,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, (.
18). .
,
. 250-300 ,
' .

, .
.
.
, ,
.
, . ,
.

. .

made by Absens

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. 22. ,
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86

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Varroa ja cobsoni (u d e m a n 1 904) ,
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Apis me//ifica, .
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. 28. Varroa ja cobsoni, . , .

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made by Absens

. 29.

89

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made by Absens

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96
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made by Absens

97
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Apistan :
Apitol :

Fol bex VA :
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(. 1 1 2) .

made by Absens

Apistan (Zoecon ) : (PVC) 25 3 cm ,


F l u valinat e .
8 g 800 mg .
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3-4 7-8.
4-8 , .
Apitol (C I BA-G E I G Y ) : 2 1 0
g . 1 75 m g
Cymiajol Hydroch l oride. .
2 g Apitol 1 00 m l
30 g .
50- 1 00 m l , .
2 g Apitol 500 m l 1 /1 . ,
, 250 - 1 000 m l .
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(BAY E R ) : 3 , 2 C u m afS "
96,8 . ,
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500 ml ,
30-50 ml .
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Fol bex (C I BA-G E I GY ) :
1 2 c m . 370 mg
bromopropylate. 4 ,
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made by Absens

Varroa underwoodi
(Delfinado-Baker and Aggarwal 1 987)
V. underwoodi, Varroinae -

1 00
Apis cerana,
. . V. Jacobsoni
. 0,76 mm 1 , 1 6
m m .
.

Eu arroa sinhai (Delfinado and Baker 1 974)


Eu varroa sinhai ( . 32)
. f/orea. , l ,
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V. jacobsoni, 1 ,04 m m 1 mm .
.
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(Akratan akul a n d Bu rgett , 1 976) .

. 32. Euvarroa sinhai, (. . K o en iger)

made by Absens

Apis dorsa ta,

101
Apis me//ifica, ,
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: Tropila elaps c/area e (Delfi n a d o a n d
Baker 1 96 1 ) , . dorsata .
. . clareae
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.
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. 33 . Tropilaelaps c/areae (. . Koeniger) .

made by Absens

2-3 (Woyke , 1 984b ) .


25
(W oyke 1 985a) .

1 02

made by Absens

. c/area e ' V.
ja cobsoni. ,

(Kitprasert , 1 984) .
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( R itter a n d
Sch n eider-R itter 1 988) ,
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30 0/0 (Woyke, 1 985b) .
. me//ifica . W oyke ( 1 984b) 90 0/0
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V. jacobsoni . clareae, 46%
,
50/0 ,
(Woyke, 1 987) .
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(R itter and Sch n eider - R itter 1 988) .
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made by Absens


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: A carapis woodi (A 1 92 1 )
Tarso menidae .
: (. 34 ) 1 23- 1 80
m 76- 1 00 m .
, .

1 04
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1 1 1 1 1 '
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(. 34 ) 96- 1 02 m .
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. 34. Acarapis woodi ,


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made by Absens

: . woodi
Apis me//ifica, Apis cerana.
,
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(Sch n ei d e r , 1 960) .
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3-4 ,
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made by Absens

75 m 3-4 .
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6-7 ,
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(Giordan i , 1 963) .
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( Pettis , 1 989)
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1 06


(Sach s , 1 952) .
.
, ,
.


.


(. 35) .
,

(Giordan i , 1 963) . ,
1 00
/
90
80
70
60
50
4 0
30
20
1 0

made by Absens

. 35.
.

1 07

made by Absens


,
. ,
,
.
, , ,

.
,
.
. ' ,

.
,
, ,

.
, .
,
.
,
, .

, .
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
: ,
. woodi .
, B a i l ey ( 1 985 , 1 99 1 ) G a ry Page
( 1 989) , .
,
.
, .

(M orison , 1 928)
(Ko meili and Am brose , 1 99 1 ) . , .
. -

1 08

made by Absens

( S c h n e i
der , 1 960 ) .
,
,
(Fecl , 1 956 : Bailey, 1 963 , 1 99 1 ) .

, ,
(K i l l i k , 1 923).
,
( M orgenth aler, 1 944) .
(SKrobal , 1 965) .
(Liu ,
1 989b) ,
. woodi .
,
. ,
3 4
. . woodi
.

.
, 1 00 ,

. Gary Page ( 1 989)
,
.
,
20 40% ( B ai l ey a n d L e e , 1 959 :
Giordan i , 1 965: Maki , 1 986) .
,
, .
, Bail ey ( 1 958 , 1 985)
,
, .
,
,
.
. Bro .
Ada m as ( 1 968, 1 987)
' , -

1 09

made by Absens

. .
,
.
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, ,

( Bailey, 1 985) . ,
,
.
300;0,
50 0/0 , 61 1 00% 700/0 .

,
. , . . .
, (Gruska a n d
Peer : 1 986. F u rg a l a , 1 989: K o m ei l i a n d A m brose , 1 990 :
Scott-D u pre a n d Ottis 1 990) .
,
(Eishen , 1 987 :
Eishen 1 989 : , 1 989) .

.
,

( W i l s o n , 1 990 ) ,
(Eishcen , 1 987 : , 1 988 , 1 989) .
.
:
, ,
,
.

(. 36) .
. Giordani ( 1 963)
, . BQrch ert
( 1 970) ,

1 1

. 36.
Acarapis woodi.

made by Absens

.
,

(Ko m ei l i a n d A m brose, 1 99 1 ) .
,
.
. ,
,
(Liu
, 1 989a : C o meili a n d A m brose , 1 99 1 ) .

.
, .

, (Liu
1 989b ) . ,
,
' .

111

made by Absens

:
. ,
,
.
, .
.
, .
, ,
.
, , (
) .
,
,
.
. woodi ,
Fyg ( 1 963) ,
.
:
, ,
.
, ,
,
' .

. ,
, .
: .

, ,
.
. ( 50 . 280).
: .
,
.


. woodi. '
.
. -

1 12

.

made by Absens

F row. ,
.
, (Bailey an d
Carlisl e , 1 956. Svoboda, 1 960) ( Breth eri k , 1 98 1 ) .
,
G u z m a n - N ovoa Zozaya - R u bio ( 1 984) .
Mito 2. 98 0/0 2%.
1 00 ml 1 5 m m .
,
.
5 m m .
.
, 8 .
. 1 00 m l ,
,
, 4
8 .
.
l . ,
3020, 1 5 cm 22 9 65%
, ,
24 . 7 .
9 1 0;0
( Bracey an d Ficher, 1 989 : H oppe , 1 989) .
.
.
(Vecchi a n d Jordan i , 1 968 : H erbert
, 1 988, Cox , 1 989 : Wilson , 1 988,
1 990) . ,
.
,
.
,
,
.
2 1 C , -

1 13
. 2 1 -27C ,

(COX , 1 989) . 28C
,

.
,
. ,
1 9C 27C ,
, ,
27 33C , .
.
: 50 g ,

50 . 45
.
.
, , .

.
Fol bex VA : 370 mg bro m o
propyl ate . 7 .
30 .
.
TOKTIC : 1 2 , 5 m g m tra .
(
, 1 988) . Fol bex.

.
ApitoI : .

made by Absens

.

. Apis
m ellifica ma cedonica (, 1 987) .
,
,
. . . .
, .

1 14


A carapis, . woodi
. ) . externus

, ) . dorsa/is
) . vagans
.
,
.

made by Absens

,
.
,
.
.
Tyrog/yphus farinae, G/ysiphagus
domesticus Carpog/yphus s.p.p . .

115

2.

:
1 ) Sporozoa , Nosema apis
Gregarinia . 2) Sarcodin a
Ma/pighamoeba me/lifica e 3) M astig oph ora
Leptomonas apis, Crithidia me/lificae
.
,
Nosema apis Ma/pigha moeba mel/ificae,
' .
,
,
,
.
' ,
.
,
.
, .

,
.

made by Absens


.

.
: .
: Nosema apis (Zander 1 902)
,
. -

1 16
,
.
,
(. 37) . 4 ,6-6,4X2 ,S-3 m .
,
1 00-400 m ,
, ,
(. 38) .
.

..-..i_
iiio
...:..-.
..-;
..;.

. 37 . Nosema apis

. 3 8 .
Nosema apis.
.
. .

made by Absens


.
' .

.

, '
.
,


() . ' -

117

made by Absens

,

. ,

.
. 30C 5 (Stech e, 1 976) .
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
. , ,
.

,
75- 1 20
. 2-4 .
1 5-32 ,
4 0/0 1 1 0- 1 5
% .
:
,
.
" ,
.
,
, .
,
.
,
, .
,
,
, .

.
.
, .

118

1 00
/
90
80
70
60
50
4
30
20
1 0

. 39. ,
Nosema apis

made by Absens

' ,
( . 39) . ,

.
. ,
, .
.
,
.

.
.
,
. Bailey ( 1 976)

1 19

made by Absens


,
.
'
.
: ,
,
, W h ite ( 1 9 1 9) Bailey
( 1 963 ) ,
. ,
.
.
Nozema apis
. ,

, R N A (H artwig an d
Przelecka, 1 97 1 ) . ,

. ,

. , '
,
, ,
.
, ,
' .
6 mg 1 4-23 mg
( L ot m a r , 1 939). '
,
,
.

. Nosema apis
,
, .
.
1 5%
, '
1 % (H assanein , 1 95 1 ) .
-

1 20
.
(Va n g a n d M oe l l er , 1 970) .
,
400/0 50%,
(Bail ey , 1 958 : Furgala a n d Boch , 1 970) .
. apis ,
, .
.
.
,
, ,
. '
,
, .
: ,
.
,
( . 40) . H erti n g
( 1 923) ,
.
,
'
.
, ,
.

made by Absens

. 40. Nosema apis.


(, , w . Stech e, 1 976)

1 21
, '
, ,

.
,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
.

.
,
,
.
.
,

. ,
, .

M a l p i g h i .
.
, 4 1 %
(Wan g and M oel l er, 1 969 , 1 97 1 ) .

made by Absens


. apis .
'
, ,
.
, ,
,
.
, ,
.


. Bailey ( 1 976)
,

1 22

made by Absens

,
.
,

. :
1 . .
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
, .

, .
2 . . ,
, .

, .
3 . .
,
.
4 . .
,
.
5 . .
,
, .
6.

.


:
)
.
,
(Stech e , 1 976) .


.

1 23

made by Absens

) .
,
,

,
.
)
.
,
, .

.
,
.
: ,
.
.
.
, ,

. ,
,

. ,
,
.
'
,
.
,
, .
.
.
, .
,
' .
,
.
. '
, , -

1 24
.

.
,
.
, ,
.
, 0
.
,
,
" .
.
" .

.
"" .

.
:
. .

made by Absens

. 4 1 .

1 25

,
.

. ,
, ,
(. 4 1 ) .
.

.

.
: .


,
. ,
.

made by Absens

) .

, , .
,
.
) .

. apis
. :
. ,

500 ml 80%.
,
. 8
48 .
Oi . .

, , '
( . 233 ) .
. -

1 26
,
49C 24 . ,
.
,

.
.
.
,
fu magillin
. ,
0 , 5-3 mg / 1 00 ml . fu m agil l in
,
.
, ' .
, ,
.
, ,
4C (Furgala and Goch nauer, 1 969) 30
' 30C (Fu rgal a and Su gden , 1 985) .
.
)
, , 6
, 1 50 mg fu magil l in .
,
,
.
,
,
. F u rgala
Gochnauer ( 1 969) F u m agillin
,
. ,
( S z a bo a n d H eikel ,
1 987) , ( W y b r o m a n d
M cCutch on , 1 987) (Moeller, 1 978) .

made by Absens

. , fu midil
fu magillin , 25 9 500 mg .

1 27
Fu magillin , ,
. 20-25 m g Fu m a g i l l i n
500 m l , .
)
. ,
500 m g fu magilin , 1 0
20-40 , .
50 ml ,
. 4-8 7
,
. ,
.
,
.
50- 1 00 ml
.
,
. ' ,
,
.

l6

made by Absens

.
. ' , '
.
l :
M aassen 1 9 1 6.
, . . . , , .
.
: Ma/pigha m oeba
me//ificae, Malpighi .
,
. Sh u l z Lan g n er ( 1 962) ,
.
1 5 .

.
Malpi g h i . -

1 28
,
(. 42) . ' ,
,
. ,

. 1 8-28 ,
,
7-8 m .
,
.
Malpigh i ,
.
: 0-

. 4 2 . . Malpigha m oeba m ellifica e. .


Nosema apis . melifica e. .
. mellificae

made by Absens

' .
, .
,
.
, ,
.

. ,
,
, .
,
, .

1 29
: . mellificae
,


(Stein h a u s , 1 963) .
.
,
.
. mellificae
.
. ,
.
. apis ( B a i l ey ,
1 968) , Sch u l z-Langner ( 1 957)
. mellificae .
: Malpighi
( . 43) ,
. '
.
: .

.43. , . , Ma/pigha
moeba me//ificae, . ( V . Schutz)

made by Absens

,
,
.
, .

, .
,

1 30
.
: .
M aIpighi
. ,
'
, .
:
.
. me//ificae. BaiIey ( 1 963)
,
,
q.

made by Absens

.

.
:
, , , . . . ,
, . .
:
, ,
Leydian a , Mon oica , Apigregari n a Acuta.

35 1 50 m .
.
,
. '
,
( . 44) .
:
.
, ,
.
'
.
(StejkaI , 1 965, 1 967) .
:

131

. 44 .

,
,
S ,
G
(. . Stejscal ,
1 967)

8 ,
. '
,
.

,
.

,
. Stejkal ( 1 965)
1 000 3000 ,
, '
.
: Stejkal ( 1 967)
.
.
.
, ,
.
,
' .
: .
: Fu m idil 0 ,040/0 .

made by Absens

1 32

made by Absens

.
, ,
.
.
.

.

.
.
,

.
: .

1 33

3. I

, ,
,
, .

. 1 9 1 3 W h ite
.
1 960,
L. Bailey.
1 6 .
. ,
' , ,
.
.

.

.
,
.

,
,
.

made by Absens

,
(Bailey
1 963) . ,
,
, , ,
, ' , -

1 34

made by Absens

(Vecchi et Zam bon el l i , 1 96 1 : Vag o ,


1 964 , 1 966 : Bailey, 1 965 : Giauffret , 1 966 : K a m bou rov et
Kan chev 1 970) .

.
:
, . , ,
, . . . , ,
.
:
20 70 n m . .
.
: ) :
.
K u l i n cevic R oth enbu h l er ( 1 975)
. ) :
Nosema apis
. ) :
.
,
.
:
, . "
, ,
.
, ,
, .
. ,
,
(Bailey and Bal l , 1 99 1 ) .
:
, ,
' .
,
,
. '

, ,
(Bailey 1 983a) .
, '

1 35

made by Absens

(Rin derer an d R oth enbu h l er, 1 975) .



, ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
, "" ' .
,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
,
,
,
, , ,

(Bailey and Bal l , 1 99 1 ) .
: .
,
.
, .
,
.
.
.
, '
. .

, .

.
,
, ( .45) . '
.
,

1 36
,
, .

. ,
.
, .

.45. . , .
, .
.

made by Absens


. ,
.

.
, ,

. , ,
.
.

.
l :
,
Mal pi g h i ,
. .
'

1 37
.
, ,
(Vecchi et
Za m bo n el l i , 1 96 1 : Giauffret , 1 967) .
: ,
.
,
, .

.
E . L . I . S .A . .
,
,
.
: .

,
.
500 mg ,
. ,
200 mg 50 mg ,
"
. ,
,
.
,
.

made by Absens

,
.
:
28 n m ' .
.
,
( B a i l e y ,
1 963) . ,
3-4 .

1 38
1 .
.
,
, . ,
. '

, ,
,
.
:
. l
, .

.
.
.
.
,
.
: '
,
.
. .
: , .

.

made by Absens



.
,
' ,
Streptococus p/uton,
. , ' ,

. ,
,
.
,
, (8all a n d Allen , 1 988) .

1 39

made by Absens


,
.
: .
:
. 1 875 Lan gstroth
, 1 906
, 1 9 1 3 W h ite
.
:
28 n m .

.
, , 1 60C .
, .
: ,
. ""

.
, ,
(Prepu pa) .
:
, ,
.
, ,
.
, ' .
Bailey Fern an do ( 1 972)

.
.
,

.
.
,
.
. Bailey ( 1 963) -

1 40
, ,
,
,
.
,
.

, .

.
, ,
( , 1 984) .
: .
, .
", .
,
.
.
.
.
.

. , -

. 46 . , . , .

made by Absens

. .

1 41

( . 46) .
.
,
.
, .

(. 46) .
: ,
.
,
.
.
:
.
,
,
.
- : .
, ,
.
.

.
,
.

made by Absens

cerana
1 976
Apis cerana .
Thai sacbrood virus (T S B V ) ,
,
Apis mellifica (Bailey , 1 982) T S B V
. m e//ifica,
. cerana. 95 0/0
l , ' , ,
( R an a
, 1 986) .
'
, .

1 42

.
.
. '
, (Verma
, 1 990) .

made by Absens

.
Filamentus virus FV
Filamentus viru s 450 1 50 nm
.
3000 n m , 45 n m
.
, .
(Wi l l e , 1 964) ,
.
1 977 C l ark
( . 47) .
,
Nosema apis.
Cl ark ( 1 977a)
. ,
,
.
. ,
, .
,

,
.
: .

.
,
, .

1 43

,

.

Nosema
apis .
: ,
,

.
. 47 . . .
:


.
. .

. (. .
G i e m s a )
. ,
, .
.
. .
.
. , . '
(
1 987) .

made by Absens


Black Queen Cell Virus BQCV
BQCV , 30 nm
. ,
.
, .
, '
, .

, " "
.
(Bail ey
and Ball , 1 99 1 ) .
,
Nosema apis
(Bailey and Ball , 1 99 1 ) .

1 44

.
V
V Bee Virus
35 n m .
, (
"" ) , ' .

Nosema apis.
Bai I ey ( 1 98 1 ) F V , BQCV
, " "
, . Apis.

. . apis,
,
.

Bee Virus
.

. ,
Nosema apis.
.
,
Ma/pigha moeba me//ifica e,
. '
N.apis. ""
.
. me//ificae,
,
(BaiIey 1 983b . )

made by Absens


CIoudi Wing Virus CWV
CWV 1 7 n m .
,
. .
. -

1 45
.

Deformed Wing Vius DWV
,
, Varroa
ja cobsoni. ,
.
. ,
,
.


. (K ash mir Bee Virus) :
Apis cerana l
Apis m e l l ifica .
. (Apis Irididescent Virus) :
. "
" , Apis cerana
l .

made by Absens

. ( S l ow Paralysis Virus) :
1 2
.
. (Arkan sas Bee Virus) :
. . .
.
. (Egypt Bee Virus) :
.
. (Chronic Bee paralysis Virus Associate).

1 46

4.


. ,
' ' .

. , ,
.
,
.

, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.

1 . .

made by Absens

,
.
.
,
.
: ,
,
. 1 907
W h ite , Ba ci//us
/arvae ' .
: . Larva e Gram+ ,
2-5 , 7 -0,8 m .
.

1 47

1 , 1 - 1 ,9,6-0 ,7 m ,
(. 48) .
.

.
35
. '
, '
,
. , ,
1 4 ' 30 ' .
) Javel
3 0 ' . ) 20% 3 0 ' .

1 5-24 2 4 '
.

. 48. Baci//us /arvae. . , .


.

made by Absens

. ,
.
,
(L1 0yd , 1 986) brain h ard
bru ccela agar ( 1 989) .
, 24 48.
34-370C .
: ,
, r
. ,
, -

1 48

made by Absens

, 1 0-
( Bl u m , 1 959) .
24 , 1
, ,
.
.
,
.
. ,
,
, (
) . .
,
,
.
, (Bamrik, 1 964) .

.
,
.
, ,
, .
2500 ,
.
, .
larva e ( H o l st ,
1 945) .
,
,
.

,
. ,

.
,
,

.
.

1 49

made by Absens


Ga//eria me//one//a.
,
,
, .
,
, .
.
,
.
,

( Bailey, 1 963) .

. .

,
,
. ,
.
, ,
, .
:
: .
,
.
, ,
, .
,
( . 49) .
, ,
. ,
' .
,
. .
, ,
, .
,
,
. -

1 50

. 49. .

made by Absens

,
.
:
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
,
.
.

.
, 2-3
.
,
( . 50) .
, ,
" ". -

1 51

. 50. . .
. ,

made by Absens

.
. .




.

1 52
,

, . '
,
.
, ,
(. 50)
.
:
, .


.
:
, ,
.

o o .

made by Absens

1 . .
, ,
.
, ,
,

.
,
.
2. .
' ,

2-3
2-3
,
,

.
, .
,
,
.

1 53
3. .

made by Absens

,
( Oxytetra cycl i n h ydroch l o r i d e ) ( S o d i u m
su lfath iazo l ) . ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
. u
,
.
,
.
,
"
" ,
.
.
,
,
, .
,
. ,


.

, .
1 . . 1 00 9
5 , 5 9 oxytetracyclin h ydroch l oride,
660 9 . 2530 9 1 3 9 .
.
,
.
2 . .
1 00 9 1 () 1 /1 (

1 54

made by Absens

) . 1 /2 ,
1 0 50 ml
. oxytetracyclin ,
'
,
.
,
.
,
( )
, .
3. .
300 g , 1 50 g ( ) 1 2 ,5 g
.
, 4-6 .
,
(Wilson
, 1 970, 1 973a ) .
.
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
' ,

, .
,
.
.
,
.

. /arvae ,
.

1 55


,
.
4. .

,
. . . , .
,
.
.
. ' :

. .
,
.
.

made by Absens

, ,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
: Sh i rach 1 77 1 ,

. 1 949 Alexandrova
Ba ci//us p/uton. 1 956 Bail ey .
p/uton Streptococcus p/uton, 1 982
C o l i n s
streptocoCCUS.
, Me/issocOCCUS,
' Me/issocOCCUS
p/uton (White) .

1 56
: ,
. Bail ey
( 1 963) S. pluton
,

.
Ba cillus alvei, StreptococCUS apis A chromoba cter euridica e (.
51 ) .

. 5 1 . ' . a . Me/issocOCCUS
p/uton, b . Me/issocOCCUS p/uton Ba cterium euridice ( ) , c .
Me/issocOCCCUS p/uton ( ), d . StreptocoCCUS fa eca/is (
), e f Bacterium euridice ( ), g .
Ba cillus a/vei, h . Bacillus /arva e ( ) ( . L .
Bailey, a n d Bal l , . 1 99 1 ) .

made by Absens

'
.
Shi m a n u ki ( 1 990) ,
" .
Borch ert ( 1 970)
.
) " S. pluton.
)

1 57

made by Absens

Ba ci//us a/vei, Ba ci//us /a terosporus, Ba ci//us grasi/esporus,


Ba ci//us apidarium.
) Streptococcus apis, ( S. faeca/is) .

, " ,
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Strepto
cocccus p/uton Baci//us p/uton. ,
, 1 m 0 , 5
m . G r a m + ,
. ,

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0,50;0 1 -2%.
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(Tarr, 1 938) .
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1 58

made by Absens

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Bail ey ( 1 957 , 1 963) ,
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(Sh i m a n u ki , 1 990) . ,
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1 59

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made by Absens

1 61

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made by Absens


,
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1 62

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made by Absens


.
B u rnside 1 928 . . ..
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, (Burnside, 1 928:
Buch ner, 1 967) .
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1 63
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. apiseptica
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(. 285).
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300 mg 500 ml .
.

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made by Absens

: 1 9 1 7
Bahr .
Tou m a n of 1 936 1 937 .
,
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paratyphi a/vei,
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1 64

. Ha fnia
a/vei, Strick M adel ( 1 988)
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made by Absens

: H . n .A . (Clark,
1 987b) ,
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Spirop/asma apis ( M ou ches 1 983) .
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1 65

made by Absens


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1 66

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made by Absens


. .
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: Priess 1 9 1 1 .
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1 9 1 6 ,
Pericystis apis. 1 955 Olivie Spiltoire
Ascosph aeraca e , A s cospha era
apis (Maazen ex Clauzen ) ,

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, 200 ,
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1 67

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. 54. Ascosphaera apis


1
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made by Absens

1 68

made by Absens

, ,
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54) . ,
1 5 .

20%.
.
, . apis varieta apis . apis
varieta major. ,
, 66
m .
30C . . apis varieta major
1 28 m .
.
, 20C ,
(Ch ristensen and G i l l i a m , 1 983) .
Skou ( 1 972)
. apis . major
' .
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Ascosph aeracae .
.
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2 . - .
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1 69

made by Absens

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4. .
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( Gil l ia m , 1 986) .

(De j o n g a n d M orse 1 976) .

1 70
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1 980) .
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made by Absens

(Goch n au er and M argetts , 1 979) .


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1 72

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1 73

made by Absens

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(Giauffret e t Tal iercio , 1 967 : Gli nski a n d R zedzi cki , 1 980: Hartwin g , 1 983) .
N ystat i n 2 000 000 U . I . . A m p h o
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made by Absens

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1 75

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(Taber , 1 975 : M en apace and H a l e , 1 98 1 ) .

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g , ' 2 g , 2 9 2 9
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made by Absens

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,

(. 57) .
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1 76

. 57 . Aspergi//us f/a vus.


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made by Absens

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1 77

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. 58 .

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made by Absens

(. Borch ert 1 970)

1 79

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made by Absens

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1 80

made by Absens

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1 81
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1 82
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1 83

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made by Absens

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made by Absens

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1 87

made by Absens

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1 93
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L asioseius murica tus
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Galleria melonella A chroia grisella ,
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made by Absens

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67 . . Galleria me//one//a.
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1 200 .
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made by Absens

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209
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made by Absens

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212
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Ba cillus thurigensis
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made by Absens

6 : ,
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213
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made by Absens

ouv9riKec:; eKTpoq>ric:; KOl nopayovTec:; nou enT)peaouv TT)V ovonopoywYri KOl


nAT)6uOllloKri TOU oVanTUT) . bolOTPll3ri YlO uq>T)yeoio. 0eooaAoviKT) .
Yq>ovTi5T)C:;, M. 1983: MeAloooKOllio: EmOTtiIlT) KOl Eq>OPlloYri . 0eooaAoviKT) .

311

, 239

, 240

,240

,38

, 232

, 38

,40

,23,59,60

, 142

, 38

, 146- 155

,38,60

,283, 284,
285

, 47

, 72,74,75, 76,77

, 28,59,74

, 127, 144, 278

, 35

, 260

, 23,55, 57

,186

, 28

,259-263

, 28,53

,242

,28,74,77,92,108,119
, 42

, 271

,32

,49

,30,31,32

,47

,33

,37

, 33

,37

, 238

,37

,240

,37

,240

,37

,225

,36

, 123, 153, 161, 163, 165,


169, 225

,36
,37

,85-114

made by Absens

, 114

, 37
, 46
, 36

,97,102,112

, 31

, 39

,114

, 27, 185,186,188,190

,103-113, 280

, 260

312

, 53


, 262

, 125,141, 232

, 232
, 233
, 273
, 77

" , 120
" , 219
" , 111

, 59

, 205

, 199

, 205

, 203

, 224

, 59, 69

, 76

, 203

,166, 286

, 222

, 175,286

, 175

, 241

,239

, 201

,72,74,75,77

, 52, 179

,31

, 51

, 22

, 61, 62
, 213

. .,34
,78

,239

, 146-165
, 77

,209
,72,73

,262

, 25
,24
, 86-90
, 281

, 99
, 103, 138,
140, 145"

,51
, 51
, 51
,51-54
, 54,288
, 75
,93 1,02, 140,.149, 159,
171,177,179,287,288


, 59,69

,53, 54

,76

, 41

,59,69
,67
,28, 59

made by Absens

,48-51

,287, 288
, 54,288
, 160

. ',' ':
,199-2q4.

,130

, 76

,182

, 69

, 188

, 50, 62, 67 !J, .

:, 45

,130

313

, 71
, 78

, 27
, 24

, 22

, 17

, 237,239,240,241,242

, 244,245, 252,253, 254


, 244, 248

,242

, 244, 247

, 244, 247

,274

,244, 248

, 274

, 264

,274

,227

, 274

, 230, 273

,275
,273
,240
,240

, 230
, 230
, 230
, 58, 196

, 73,186

, 273

,78

, 276-286

, 56

, 281

, 38

,283

(), 237-255

l, 286

, 71-79

, 286

, 79

,277

, 77

, 284

,79

, 285

, 75
,64
,212

,284
, 21-46
,42

, 213

, 45

, 74

,41

, 161

, 41

r:J ,185-19,1
, 196
,185
, 122

, 44
, ,
,67
, 63
,63
,183

, 260

,189-238

, 243

, 222

, 47

' ,155

, 27, 28, 74

,161

,27

made by Absens

,24

,175
, 154

314

, 186

,212
, 206-213

, 72
, 77
, 223
,77

, 206
, 208
, 46-48
,51

, 27

,48

, 22

, 55

,39

, 22

,74

, 31

,72,77

, 27

, 271

, 49
, 133-145

, 77

,53
, 55

, 39

, 232

, 77

,56

,53
, 22

,76
, 89,107, 117, 148, 158,170

,22

,206

41

, 27

, 22

,71, 74,76, 78

,161

, 29, 64

, 260

,57
, 57

, 78

, 30

, 74, 76

,239

, 78

203

, 131

, 40

, 66

,226

, 133

,233

, 200

, 74, 78

, 55

, 73, 74, 76

, 55

,73

, 55

, 238

, 21

,39

, 38

,39

, 18

, 57

, 18

, 55

,18

, 42

made by Absens

, 30, 127

, 113

, 18

315

, 18
,18
, 18

, 72
, 238, 239, 242, 243
, 75

, 182

, 233

, 182

, 34

, 182
. 183

, 34
, 35
, 35

, 259

, 242

, 62

115

, 64
, 59, 184
, 66

, 277
, 128, 134,
142, 143, 144

,66

,39

,13

,242

, 226

133
, 188

, 230, 272

, 241

- , 229

, 39

, 65

, 53

, 73, 186

, 30

, 221
, 112

, 86

, 116

, 78

, 24
, 181
, 53

, 225
, 225
, 226
,229
, 22
, 58
, 241
, 52
, 115
, 73
, 166
, 170, 177, 178
, 217

made by Absens

, 107

, 49
,
, 29
, 24
, 260
137
,234

, 74
9--, 59, 60
, 75
, 125, 234
-10--2-, 75
, 98, 112
, 153, 161

, 21
, 36

316

, 37

, 78

, 30

PoVKoo,241

, 36

,73, 78

, 21

, 142

, 29

, 238

, 30

, 36
, 36

, 38
,139
, 33
,72, 74

, 263

,112

, 78

, 261
, 212
,44

, 127,153

, 62

, 66

, 182

, 242

,45

, 242

, 41

, 175

, 27

, 78

, 56

, 78

, 22

, 239

, 116

, 47

, 47

, 223

, 47

,21

, 49

, 24

, 116, 147

,24

, 239

, 225

, 179

,52

, 33

,175

, 24

,58

, 44

,22

, 44

, 53

, 28

, 71, 74, 76, 77

, 49

, 241

, 47

,115
, 115-132

, 33
, 33

, 222

, 38

, 30

, 44
, 44
, 175

made by Absens

, 162, 281
, 21

, 24
, 34
, 164

317

, 214

Frow, 112

, 153
, 260
, 242

, 77

, 267

, 69

, 24

, 44

, 58

, 22

, 59

, 17

, 59

, 153, 161

, 60

, 235-256

, 243

, 237

, 233

,243

, 233

, 244

, 78

, 255

,72, 73, 76, 78

, 91, 108, 129, 170

,44

, 103

, 44

, 33

, 22

, 33

, 18

, 33

, 238

, 74, 76, 78

, 243

, 21, 135

,39

, 100

, 36

, 44
, 71

,163

,131

, 60

, 22

, 61
, 133

, 73, 76, 78
, 214

,51
, 22

, 242
, 242

, 193

,192
, 192
, 262

, 49

, 201

, 49

, 285

made by Absens

, 49

318

Abies alba 243

Ascocidin, 174

Acarapis

Ascosphera apis, 166

dorsalis, 114'

Ascosphaera majior, 168

externus. 114

Ascosphera minor, 168

Vagans, 114

Aspergillus flavus, 175

Acarapis woodi, 103-113,280

Aspergillus fumigatus, 173

Acherontia atropos, 213

Astragalus lendiginosus, 241

Achroia grisella, 208

Asrtragalus miser, 241

Aconitum Iycoctonum, 240

Azalea, 238

napellus, 240
ranunculifolium, 240

Bacillus alvei, 156

Acut bee paralysis virus, 137

Bacillus apidarium,157

Aesculus californica, 200

Bacillus grasilesporus, 157

hippocastanum, 239

Bacillus larvae,146

Allium cepa, 240

Bacillus laterosporus, 157

Amphoterocin B, 174

Bacillus paratyphi alvei,163

Anemone coronaria, 240


memorosa, 240

Bacillus pluton,15
Baccilus thurigensis, 212

Apidae,17

Bacterium eurydice, 156

Apis, 17

Black queen cell virus, 143

Apis adreniformis, 19

Braula coeca, 219

Apis cerana, 19
and

Thai S.B.V., 141

Camponotus spp, 217

Varroa jacobsoni, 85

Castanea castanea, 239

Varroa underwoodi, 85
Apis dorsata, 18
and Varroa jacobsoni, 85
Trpilaelaps clareae, 102
Apis florea, 18

Castanea sativa, 239


Castanea vesca, 239
Castanea vulgaris, 239
Chronic paralysis virus associate, 145
Cloudy wing virus, 144
Corpora allata, 35

and Euvarroa sinhai, 100

Corpora cardiaca, 35

Apis koschevnikovi ,18


Apis laboriosa, 18
Apis mellifica (mellifera), 17
Apis mellifica adami (creta),18
carnica, 18
ligustica, 18
macedonica, 18
Apistan,98
Apitol, 98
Apodemus silvaticus, 223
Apodemus f/avicolis, 223
Apoidea,17
Arcansas bee virus, 145

made by Absens

Arrhenosphaera cranei, 168

Datura stramonium, 242


Deformed Wing Bee Virus,145
Delfinium staphisagria, 241
Dermestes frichii, 220
Dermestes lardarius, 220
Dermestes vulpinus, 220
Digitalis purpurea, 241
Eau de javel, 233
Egypt Bee Virus, 145
Euvarroa sinchai, 100
Eurododendron, 238
Ericacae, 238

Erica arborea, 238

Pseudomanas apiseptica, 162


Perizin, 98

Fagacae, 239
Filamentus Virus, 142
Filanthus trianqulum, 216-

Ranunculaceae, 240
. Ranunculus acris, -240

Formica fusca, 217

Ranunculus auricomus, 240

Formica rufa, 217

Ranunculus repens, 240

Formica sanguinea, 217

Ranunculus sceleratus, 240

Fumagillin, 126

Rododendrum ponticum, 239

Fumidil B, 126
Folbex VA, 98, 113

Sarcodina, 115
Scrofulariaceae, 241

Gal/eria mel/onel/a, 206

Serratia marcescens, 163

Gregarima, 115, 130

Senotaenia tricuspis, 218

Hafnia alvei, 164

Solanaceae, 242

Sophora japonicum, 239


Hyppocastanaceae, 239

Solanum nigrum, 242

Hyoscyamus niger, 242

Sporozoa,115

Iridiscend Virus, 145


Kasmir Bee Virus, 145

Spiroplasma apis, 164


Spiroplasma melliferum, 164
Stachys arvensis, 239
Stachys officinalis, 239

Labiatae, 239

Stachys germanika, 239

Langstroth, 56

Streptococcus apis, 156, 157

Lasius niger, 217

Streptococcus pluton, 156

Leguminosae, 239
Liliaceae, 239

Taxus bacata, 242


Terramycin, 153, 161

Malpighamoeba mel/ificae, 127,278

Tilia platyphyl/a,243

Mantis spp, 222

Tilia tomentosa, 243

Mastigophora, 132

Trichodes apiarium, 222

Melissococcus pluton, 155

Triungulins, 221

Meloe cavensis, 221

Tropi/aelaps clareae, 100

Meloe proscarabeus, 221


Meloe variegatus, 221

Varroa jacobsoni, 86

Mus musculus, 223

Varroa anderwoodi, 99
Veratrum album, 239

Nasanov,23, 59, 60

Veratrum niger, 239

Nicotiana tabacum, 242

Vespa crabro, 215

Nosema apis, 115, 277

Vespa orientalis, 215

Nystatin, 174

Vespula germanica, 215


Vespula vulgaris, 215

Papillionaceae, 241
Pericistis apis, 166

X Bee Virus, 144

Polyster calicus, 214


Ptinus fur, 221

made by Absens

Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 162

Y Bee Virus, 144

made by Absens