You are on page 1of 96

BASIC DESIGN OF CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER

8 FEBRUARY 2012

Pichai Chaibamrung
Asset Optimization Engineer

Reliability Maintenance Asset Optimization Section Energy Division Thai Kraft Paper Industry Co.,Ltd.

Biography
Name :Pichai Chaibamrung Education 2009-2011, Ms.c, Thai-German Graduate School of Engineering 2002-2006, B.E, Kasetsart Univesity

Work Experience Jul 11- present : Asset Optimization Engineer, TKIC May 11- Jun 11 : Sr. Mechanical Design Engineer, Poyry Energy Sep 06-May 09 : Engineer, Energy Department, TKIC Email: ty_giuly@hotmail.com, pichacha@scg.co.th

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

Content
1. Introduction to CFB 2. Hydrodynamic of CFB 3. Combustion in CFB 4. Heat Transfer in CFB 5. Basic design of CFB 6. Cyclone Separator

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

Objective
To understand the typical arrangement in CFB To understand the basic hydrodynamic of CFB To understand the basic combustion in CFB To understand the basic heat transfer in CFB To understand basic design of CFB To understand theory of cyclone separator

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1. Introduction to CFB
1.1 Development of CFB 1.2 Typical equipment of CFB 1.3 Advantage of CFB

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.1 Development of CFB


1921, Fritz Winkler, Germany, Coal Gasification 1938, Waren Lewis and Edwin Gilliland, USA, Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Fast Fluidized Bed 1960, Douglas Elliott, England, Coal Combustion, BFB 1960s, Ahlstrom Group, Finland, First commercial CFB boiler, 15 MWth, Peat

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler


CFB Loop - Furnace or Riser - Gas Solid Separation (Cyclone) - Solid Recycle System (Loop Seal) Convective or Back-Pass - Superheater - Reheater - Economizer - Air Heater

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler


Air System - Primary air fan (PA. Fan) - Secondary air fan (SA. Fan) - Loop seal air fan or Blower

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler


Flue Gas Stream - Induced draft fan (ID. Fan)

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler


Solid Stream - Fuel Bunker - Bed Bunker - Sorbent Bunker - Bottom ash Bunker - Fly ash Bunker
Feed

Drain

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.2 Typical Arrangement of CFB Boiler


Water- Steam Circuit - Economizer - Steam drum - Evaporator - Superheater

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.3 Advantage of CFB Boiler


Fuel Flexibility

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.3 Advantage of CFB Boiler


High Combustion Efficiency - Good solid mixing - Low unburned loss by cyclone, fly ash recirculation - Long combustion zone In situ sulfur removal Low nitrogen oxide emission

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.3 Advantage of CFB Boiler


In Situ Sulfur Removal

Calcination

Sulfation

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

1.3 Advantage of CFB Boiler


Low Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2. Hydrodynamic in CFB
2.1 Regimes of Fluidization 2.2 Fast Fluidized Bed 2.3 Hydrodynamic Regimes in CFB 2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Fluidization is defined as the operation through which fine solid are transformed into a fluid like state through contact with a gas or liquid.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Particle Classification

Distribution Foster 100% 75% 50% 25% 100% <600 <250 <180 <130

Size (micron) HGB <1000 <550 <450 <250 >100 PB#15 <1680 <1190 <840 <590 >420

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Particle Classification

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Comparison of Principal Gas-Solid Contacting Processes

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Packed Bed The pressure drop per unit height of a packed beds of a uniformly size particles is correlated as (Ergun,1952)

Where U is gas flow rate per unit cross section of the bed called Superficial Gas Velocity

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Bubbling Fluidization Beds Minimum fluidization velocity is velocity where the fluid drag is equal to a particles weight less its buoyancy.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Bubbling Fluidization Beds For B and D particle, the bubble is started when superficial gas is higher than minimum fluidization velocity But for group A particle the bubble is started when superficial velocity is higher than minimum bubbling velocity

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Turbulent Beds when the superficial is continually increased through a bubbling fluidization bed, the bed start expanding, then the new regime called turbulent bed is started.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Terminal Velocity

Terminal velocity is the particle velocity when the forces acting on particle is equilibrium

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.1 Regimes of Fluidization


Freeboard and Furnace Height - considered for design heating-surface area - considered for design furnace height - to minimize unburned carbon in bubbling bed the freeboard heights should be exceed or closed to the transport disengaging heights

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.2 Fast Fluidization


Definition

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.2 Fast Fluidization


Characteristics of Fast Beds - non-uniform suspension of slender particle agglomerates or clusters moving up and down in a dilute - excellent mixing are major characteristic - low feed rate, particles are uniformly dispersed in gas stream - high feed rate, particles enter the wake of the other, fluid drag on the leading particle decrease, fall under the gravity until it drops on to trailing particle

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.3 Hydrodynamic regimes in a CFB


Cyclone Separator : Swirl Flow Back Pass: Pneumatic Transport

Furnace Upper SA: Fast Fluidized Bed Lower Furnace below SA: Turbulent or bubbling fluidized bed

Return leg and lift leg : Pack bed and Bubbling Bed

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Axial Voidage Profile
Secondary air is fed

Bed Density Profile of 135 MWe CFB Boiler (Zhang et al., 2005)

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Velocity Profile in Fast Fluidized Bed

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Velocity Profile in Fast Fluidized Bed

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Particle Distribution Profile in Fast Fluidized Bed

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Particle Distribution Profile in Fast Fluidized Bed

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Particle Distribution Profile in Fast Fluidized Bed
Effect of SA injection on particle distribution by M.Koksal and F.Hamdullahpur (2004). The experimental CFB is pilot scale CFB. There are three orientations of SA injection; radial, tangential, and mixed

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Particle Distribution Profile in Fast Fluidized Bed
Increasing SA to 40% does not significant on suspension density above SA injection point but the low zone is denser than low SA ratio Increasing solid circulation rate effect to both lower and upper zone of SA injection point which both zone is denser than low solid circulation rate

No SA, the suspension density is proportional l to solid circulation rate

With SA 20% of PA, the solid particle is hold up when compare to no SA

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Effects of Circulation Rate on Voidage Profile

higher solid recirculation rate

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Effects of Circulation Rate on Voidage Profile

Pressure drop across the L-valve is proportional to solid recirculation rate

higher solid recirculation rate

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Effect of Particle Size on Suspension Density Profile - Fine particle - - > higher suspension density - Higher suspension density - - > higher heat transfer - Higher suspension density - - > lower bed temperature

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Effect of Bed Inventory on Suspension Density Profile

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Core-Annulus Model - the furnace may be spilt into two zones : core and annulus Core - Velocity is above superficial velocity - Solid move upward Annulus - Velocity is low to negative - Solids move downward

core

annulus

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Core-Annulus Model

core

annulus

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

2.4 Hydrodynamic Structure of Fast Beds


Core Annulus Model - the up-and-down movement solids in the core and annulus sets up an internal circulation - the uniform bed temperature is a direct result of internal circulation

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3. Combustion in CFB
3.1 Stage of Combustion 3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency 3.3 Combustion in CFB 3.4 Biomass Combustion

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.1 Stage of Combustion


A particle of solid fuel injected into an FB undergoes the following sequence of events: - Heating and drying - Devolatilization and volatile combustion - Swelling and primary fragmentation (for some types of coal) - Combustion of char with secondary fragmentation and attrition

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.1 Stages of Combustion


Heating and Drying - Combustible materials constitutes around 0.5-5.0% by weight of total solids in combustor - Rate of heating 100 C/sec 1000 C/sec - Heat transfer to a fuel particle (Halder 1989)

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.1 Stages of Combustion


Devolatilization and volatile combustion - first steady release 500-600 C - second release 800-1000C - slowest species is CO (Keairns et al., 1984) - 3 mm coal take 14 sec to devolatilze at 850 C (Basu and Fraser, 1991)

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.1 Stages of Combustion


Char Combustion 2 step of char combustion 1. transportation of oxygen to carbon surface 2. Reaction of carbon with oxygen on the carbon surface 3 regimes of char combustion - Regime I: mass transfer is higher than kinetic rate - Regime II: mass transfer is comparable to kinetic rate - Regime III: mass transfer is very slow compared to kinetic rate

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.1 Stage of Combustion


Communition Phenomena During Combustion
Attrition, Fine particles from coarse particles through mechanical contract like abrasion with other particles

Volatile release in non-porous particle cause the high internal pressure result in break a coal particle into fragmentation

Volatile release cause the particle swell

Char burn under regime I which is mass transfer is higher than kinetic trasfer. The sudden collapse or other type of second fragmentation call percolative fragmentation occurs

Char burn under regime I, II, the pores increases in size weak bridge connection of carbon until it cant withstand the hydrodynamic force. It will fragment again call secondary fragmentation By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency


Fuel Characteristics the lower ratio of FC/VM result in higher combustion efficiency (Makansi, 1990), (Yoshioka and Ikeda,1990), (Oka, 2004) but the improper mixing could result in lower combustion efficiency due to prompting escape of volatile gas from furnace.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency


Operating condition (Bed Temperature) - higher combustion temperature --- > high combustion efficiency

Limit of Bed temp -Sulfur capture -Bed melting -Water tube failure

High combustion temperature result in high oxidation reaction, then burn out time decrease. So the combustion efficiency increase.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency


Fuel Characteristic (Particle size)

-The effect of this particle size is not clear -Fine particle, low burn out time but the probability to be dispersed from cyclone the high -Coarse size, need long time to burn out. -Both increases and decreases are possible when particle size decrease

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency


Operating condition (superficial velocity) - high fluidizing velocity decrease combustion efficiency because Increasing probability of small char particle be elutriated from circulation loop

- low fluidizing velocity cause defluidization, hot spot and sintering

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency


Operating condition (excess air) - combustion efficiency improve which excess air < 20% Combustion loss decrease significantly when excess air < 20%.

Excess air >20% less significant improve combustion efficiency.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.2 Factor Affecting Combustion Efficiency


Operating Condition The highest loss of combustion result from elutriation of char particle from circulation loop. Especially, low reactive coal size smaller than 1 mm it can not achieve complete combustion efficiency with out fly ash recirculation system. However, the significant efficiency improve is in range 0.0-2.0 fly ash recirculation ratio.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.3 Combustion in CFB Boiler


Lower Zone Properties - This zone is fluidized by primary air constituting about 40-80% of total air. - This zone receives fresh coal from coal feeder and unburned coal from cyclone though return valve - Oxygen deficient zone, lined with refractory to protect corrosion - Denser than upper zone

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.3 Combustion in CFB Boiler


Upper Zone Properties - Secondary is added at interface between lower and upper zone - Oxygen-rich zone - Most of char combustion occurs - Char particle could make many trips around the furnace before they are finally entrained out through the top of furnace

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.3 Combustion in CFB Boiler


Cyclone Zone Properties - Normally, the combustion is small when compare to in furnace - Some boiler may experience the strong combustion in this zone which can be observe by rising temperature in the cyclone exit and loop seal

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.4 Biomass Combustion


Fuel Characteristics - high volatile content (60-80%) - high alkali content sintering, slagging, and fouling - high chlorine content corrosion

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.4 Biomass Combustion


Agglomeration SiO2 melts at 1450 C Eutectic Mixture melts at 874 C

Sintering tendency of fuel is indicated by the following (Hulkkonen et al., 2003)

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.4 Biomass Combustion


Options for Avoiding the Agglomeration Problem - Use of additives - china clay, dolomite, kaolin soil - Preprocessing of fuels - water leaching - Use of alternative bed materials - dolomite, magnesite, and alumina - Reduction in bed temperature

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.4 Biomass Combustion


Agglomeration

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.4 Biomass Combustion


Fouling - is sticky deposition of ash due to evaporation of alkali salt - result in low heat transfer to tube

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

PB#11 : Fouling Problem (7 Aug 2010)


1.Front water wall upper opening inlet - Overlay tube (26Tubes) - Replace refractory

August 2010
4. Screen tube & SH#3
- Slag

2.Right water wall - Change new tubes (4 Tubes)


May 2010 Aug 2010

3.Front water wall - Add refractory 2 m. (Height) above kick-out

5.Roof water wall -Change new tubes (4 Tubes) - Overlay tube - More erosion rate 1.5 mm/2.5 months

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

PB11 Fouling

May2010 6 months

Aug2010 2 months

Oct2010 2 months

Severe problem in Superheat tube fouling Waste reject fuel (Hi Chloride content) Only PB11 has this problems this problems also found on PB15 (SD for Cleaning every 3 months)
By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.4 Biomass Combustion


Corrosion Potential in Biomass Firing - hot corrosion - chlorine reacts with alkali metal from low temperature melting alkali chlorides - reduce heat transfer and causing high temperature corrosion

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

Foster Wheeler experience

Wood/Forest Residual

Straw,Rice husk

Waste Reject

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

3.5 Performance Modeling


Performance of Combustion - Unburned carbon loss - Distribution and mixing of volatiles, char and oxygen along the height and cross section of furnace - Flue gas composition at the exit of the cyclone separator (NOx,SOx) - Heat release and absoption pattern in the furnace - Solid waste generation

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4. Heat Transfer in CFB


4.1 Gas to Particle Heat Transfer 4.2 Heat Transfer in CFB

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Mechanism of Heat Transfer
In a CFB boiler, fine solid particles agglomerate and form clusters or stand in a continuum of generally up-flowing gas containing sparsely dispersed solids. The continuum is called the dispersed phase, while the agglomerates are called the cluster phase. The heat transfer to furnace wall occurs through conduction from particle clusters, convection from dispersed phase, and radiation from both phase.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Effect of Suspension Density and particle size

Heat transfer coefficient is proportional to the square root of suspension density

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Effect of Fluidization Velocity

No effect from fluidization velocity when leave the suspension density constant

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Effect of Fluidization Velocity

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Effect of Fluidization Velocity

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Effect of Vertical Length of Heat Transfer Surface

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Effect of Bed Temperature

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Heat Flux on 300 MW CFB Boiler (Z. Man, et. al)

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Heat transfer to the walls of commercial-size

Low suspension density low heat transfer to the wall.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

4.1 Heat Transfer in CFB Boiler


Circumferential Distribution of Heat Transfer Coefficient

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

5 Design of CFB Boiler


5.1 Design and Required Data 5.2 Combustion Calculation 5.3 Heat and Mass Balance 5.4 Furnace Design 5.5 Heat Absorption

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

5.1 Design and Required Data


The design and required data normally will be specify by owner or client. The basic design data and required data are; Design Data : - Fuel ultimate analysis - Weather condition - Feed water quality - Feed water properties Required Data : - Main steam properties - Flue gas emission

- Flue gas temperature - Boiler efficiency

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

5.2 Combustion Calculation


Base on the design and required data the following data can be calculated in this stage : - Fuel flow rate - Combustion air flow rate - Fan capacity - Fuel and ash handling capacity - Sorbent flow rate

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

5.3 Heat and Mass Balance


Heat input

Heat Balance

Main steam Heat output Radiation

Feed water Blow down

Flue gas

Moisture in fuel and sorbent Fuel and sorbent

Unburned in fly ash

Combustion air

Unburned in bottom ash

Moisture in combustion air

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

5.3 Heat and Mass Balance


Mass input

Mass Balance
Mass output

Make up bed material

Solid Flue in gas Solid Flue gas

Fuel and sorbent

Moisture in fuel and sorbent Fuel and sorbent Make up bed material bottom ash bottom ash
By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

fly ash

fly ash

5.4 Furnace Design


1. 2. 3. The furnace design include: Furnace cross section Furnace height Furnace opening 1. Furnace cross section Criteria - moisture in fuel - ash in fuel - fluidization velocity - SA penetration - maintain fluidization in lower zone at part load

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

5.4 Furnace Design


2. Furnace height Criteria - Heating surface - Residual time for sulfur capture 3. Furnace opening Criteria - Fuel feed ports - Sorbent feed ports - Bed drain ports - Furnace exit section

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

6. Cyclone Separator
6.1 Theory 6.2 Critical size of particle

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

6.1 Theory
The centrifugal force on the particle entering the cyclone is

The drag force on the particle can be written as

Under steady state drag force = centrifugal force

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

6.1 Theory

Vr can be considered as index of cyclone efficiency, from above equation the cyclone efficiency will increase for : - Higher entry velocity - Large size of solid - Higher density of particle - Small radius of cyclone - Higher value of viscosity of gas

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

6.2 Critical size of particle


The particle with a diameter larger than theoretical cut-size of cyclone will be collected or trapped by cyclone while the small size will be entrained or leave a cyclone

Actual operation, the cut-off size diameter will be defined as d50 that mean 50% of the particle which have a diameter more than d50 will be collected or captured.

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

6.2 Critical size of particle

Effective number

Ideal and operation efficiency

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

References
Prabir Basu , Combustion and gasification in fluidized bed, 2006 Fluidized bed combustion, Simeon N. Oka, 2004 Nan Zh., et al, 3D CFD simulation of hydrodynamics of a 150 MWe circulating fluidized bed boiler, Chemical Engineering Journal, 162, 2010, 821-828 Zhang M., et al, Heat Flux profile of the furnace wall of 300 MWe CFB Boiler, powder technology, 203, 2010, 548-554 Foster Wheeler, TKIC refresh training, 2008 M. Koksal and F. Humdullahper , Gas Mixing in circulating fluidized beds with secondary air injection, Chemical engineering research and design, 82 (8A), 2004, 979-992

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

By Chakraphong Phurngyai :: Engineer, TKIC