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Systems Challenges Hypersonic Vehicles
by James L. Hunt NASA Langley Research Hampton, Virginia and Gerard Laruelle and
Alain Wagner Aerospatiale Espace & Defense
FutureAerospaceTechnology in the Service of the Alliance
April 14-16, 1997 ECOLEPOLYTECHNIQUE PALAISEAUnear PARIS, FRANCE
1.) Concept 5.1.1 4.1.10 Propulsion Thermal Management Fuel Supply over/under turboram/ram-scram Pressurization and Purge Vehicle Management/Avionics Airframe Structure/TPS/Leading Leading Edge Systems Power Generation Actuation Challenges Edge 184.108.40.206 Hydrogen 3.1.5 Challenges Rocket-Powered SSTO Vehicles 4. Advanced.1. Availability.2. 2.1.1./sec.1. Navigation and Control 6.6 3. 6.1 Airbreathing SSTO Vehicles 220.127.116.11 Architecture 4.2 Challenges Vehicles With Rocket Powered Boosters/Rocket Powered Orbiters High Staging Speed Concepts (beyond Staging Speed Near 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124. 4.1.1 Fueled Baseline 126.96.36.199.3 3.2.1 Baseline Staging Trade Powered Boosters/Rocket Powered Orbiters 188.8.131.52 Example 4.1.2.000 ft.1. 8.2 Trajectory/Engine Modes Thermal Management Subsystems 184.108.40.206 LOX/LHC Challenges Systems Concepts (GN&C) and Safety Siamese Pop-Down 10.2.1.1.2 4.4 Operations Concluding Remarks References Maintainability 220.127.116.11.2 4.2.4 18.104.22.168.2.1 Example 4.3 Baseline Architecture Reference Challenges Systems/Technologies 4.1.3 4.1 3.000 ft.1.1.1 Hydrocarbon 3. 3.1.1 Guidance.2.2 3.4 Challenges Fueled Airplanes (M > 8) Baseline (2 ducts) -.1 Airplanes (M < 8) Espace & Defense Propulsion Systems/Integration Thermal Management/Power Structures/Materials/Tank Generation Systems 3.1. Enhancing Common Systems Challenges 22.214.171.124 3.2 TSTO 4.1 3.7 126.96.36.199 3.2.1 Example Baseline 4. Hunt Vehicles James NASA Langley Research Center Gerard Laruelle and Alain Wagner Aerospatiale 1.1. 3.4 3.2. Access 4.2 Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) Vehicles 188.8.131.52.3 4.2.1 TSTO Vehicles With Airbreathing 184.108.40.206.2.3 Reliability.2.2.1.Systems Challenges for Hypersonic by L.2 Telecommunications 6.3 220.127.116.11 3.1.2.Underslung. Abstract Introduction Cruise Airplanes 18.104.22.168.9 3.2.5 ducts) Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Vehicles 4.1.1 4. C37-1 . 22.214.171.124 to Space Ejector Ramjet/Ram-Scramjet (1 duct) LACE Ejector Ramjet/Ram-Scramjet (126.96.36.199.2 4.1.3 4.1./sec.
On the other hand. C37-2 potential for hypersonic airplanes (fixed Figure payload. two or more. horizontal For hypersonic staged/air-dropped or vertical. 1. e) reusability. or In and g) __ng. There are also commonality such as fast response earities of the control systems and cross-couplings are the norm. one versus acceleration. 1). The as indicated range of hydrogen fueled vehicles maximizes at about Mach 10. beyond the cooling limits of the hydrocarbons. 2. are described. vertical landing. Reference enhancing nologies 2. liquid hydrogen ing capacity and provides considerably hydrocarbons for the same Mach has much more coolmore range than in figure 1. launch assist. ABSTRACT This paper examines reusable hypersonic cles. assist. i I I J I I L I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 S 10 number 15 0 $ Illch number 10 15 / tlh rmmber Figure payload. Important take-off launch (launch. Airbreathing and rocket powered.8 _laKI Petfnan_: Fuel_l Ra. for extremely requirements in which nonlin- access to space matrix is examined. Hunt Research Center and Alain Wagner Espace & Defense 1. vehicle systems architectures challenges concepts are presented.c) / ''" Httrol _ _J ] L J I I i . cruise CRUISE Mach AIRPLANES airplanes. and thermal protection with the very high thermal speeds tained hypersonic flight and the requirement low dry weight. single. and architecfrom a categories are: or a) for access Vehicles space access 3.0 ). potential for hypersonic airplanes (fixed . differentiations INTRODUCTION for sustained vehicles hypersonic and missiles. cryogenic and/or noncryogenic. 1). (TPS) of sus- i. system techtems/subsystems Herein. hydrogen airMach number and for the same Caleulit_cl Per_mne: mk._ (. solid or liquid. rocket or combination. Range ref. expendable combination. TOOW 1.e. f) _. of hydrocarbon vs. How is airplanes is a good figure impacted tural categories impose major differentiation systems/subsystems perspective. structures. b) _. air-dropped. ratio and dynamic order to constrain the scope of this paper.. at a given 1). as well as common Major sysAdvanced. solid propellants systems and expendables including missiles will be omitted. for sustained hypersonic systems constraints flight. this figure of merit for hydrocarbon-fueled c) propulsion: alrbreathing. cruise.and two-stage vehicles are considered. compatible to the vehicles materials. d) fuel (propellant). and liquid hydrogen-fueled airplanes? Calculations indicate that Mach 8 is approximately the cruise speed limit to which a dual-mode fuels (depends ramjet/scramjet on contraction can be cooled with endothermic pressure. Weight ref. flight encompass Functional airplanes. The takeoff gross weight planes (TOGW) of the hydrocarbon-fueled Mach airnumber than is much greater for the same cruise There are also commonalities in the system challenges across the hypersonic vehicle matrix. vertical. ref. horizontal. These commonalities exist primarily within the framework of features/disciplines that that for hydrogen-fueled Although the dry weight planes for the same cruise airplanes as shown in figure 2.Systems Challenges for Hypersonic by Vehicles James NASA Langley Gerard Laruelle Aerospafiale L. elf_ h_ _mhi_s Range Assumptions: • Constantpayload • -70% fuel fraction for hydrocarbon • ~50%fuel fraction for hydrogen 1. number range for a given payload of merit (ref. are discussed. system challenges for hypersonic vehicles addressed in terms of endoaWnospheric operations mospheric breathing delivery/return and rocket with major systems such as hydrocarbon and hydrogen propulsion fuel for airplanes to space will be and exoatand airvehicles. or reusable. respectively. 1 ). Hydrocarbon ered with cruise are unique the system challenges posed by fully cruise airplanes and access to space vehiand hydrogen fueled airplanes are considThe of Mach 5 and 10.
. The outboard strakes axe extended forward to control side spillage. -Chlm¢_l // /. airframefor of of Single duct. Aircraft three-view (ref 2). 5 study in reference the fuel density differences to accom- will be broken along these lines with the assumption that the speed break point is Mach 8 even though hydrogen-fuel systems could be designed for lower cruise Mach numbers. tectures will come from engine airplanes that the forebody serves duct airframe-integrated are engine-airframe as an extemal precompression Mach 5 waverider configuration is presented in figure 4. The ramjet engine is to be started at a low supersonic Mach number and operated in parallel with the turafter which the ramjet acceleration would operate and cruise. engines is the high-Mach bojet through transition. underslung. fueled by 3....1.. systems... chemical the fuel is transformed in which the origi- aircraft (figure 2). for the purpose of discussion continuity..1.. baseline)... 3. 2).. . Since the shape of the vehicle and the systems that constitute it will be considerably than for hydrogen planform and resultant different because of for hydrocarbon-fueled modate loading. The catalyst can be applied inside being applied the cooling panels of the engine for direct cooling or a secondary fluid can be to below Mach 8 and airplanes with cruise speed above Mach 8 will require hydrogen.. fueled.. systems over/under. Performance estimates (ref. as a subset of hydrogen-fueled influence integration.1 Example Baseline The Mach 5 waverider airplane (ref.. For cruise Mach numbers between 5 and 8. face for the engine inlet and the aftbody as a high expansion ratio nozzle. Thus. design was supplied by Pratt & Whitney using endothermic operate from take-off to turbojet/ramjet transition (approximately Mach 2-3). dual-fuel. A 3-view representing hypersonic turbojet/ramjet. . systems are required. .1 Hydrocarbon Fueled Airplanes (4 < M < 8) The engine integration architecture for hydrocarbon-fueled hypersonic airplanes depends on the design cruise speed of the vehicle. For hypersonic be selected (LOX) density used for an oxi- The over/under integration of the turbojet/ramjet shown in the propulsion system schematic of figure 5.. reaction Thus. this class of fuels is endothermic. and a vehicle System/Integration waverider are in whether the engine integration or a two-duct approach. two-duct. As designed (ref. integrated turboramjet/rarnjet-scramjet.r _ 1500 Heat sink . 2) was selected erence vehicle planes. the baseline airplane...1 Propulsion lbs.) TOrsi / / 10oo /// / / .o ¸ Figure 3. it still tends to break favorably for the the fuel in the presence through an endothermic of a catalyst.1. endothermic nal fuel molecules decompose into combustible chemical constituents with the absorption of substantial amounts of heat (figure 3). will be considered Other The hybrid approach. machines the discussion used with the catalyst to one side of a heat exchanger which is outside of the engine for indirect cooling. rent technology endothermic would be powered by four The STRLI011 powerplant system and is based on curThe turbojet would fuel.... 5OO i IOO0 t... alone to complete airframe-integrated do not appear favorable hydrocarbon-fueled airplanes because of the low efficiency the propulsion system and the large planform loading incurred by the airplane due to the high propellant hydrocarbon fuel plus liquid oxygen dizer in the ejector rocket motors. Inlet strakes (figure 4) are incorporated to isolate each inlet in case of an unstart or engine-out condition in one module. when heat is added to 2OOO P_ o. design (example for hydrocarbon design. the biggest considered herein on the system archiAll hypersonic integrated surin It is an underslung. Heat sink of methylcyclohexane (approximate). ejector-ramjet. single-duct... • . An effective transition from a conical flowfield to a 2-D variable geometry inlet is provided. the highest energy per pound of cooling capacity are required.payload is much hydrogen-fueled closer... airframe-integrated systems can be used. the airbreathing lower surface propulsion of the vehicle flowpath is considered on the (underslung).000 nm tankerto-tanker take-off range with a refueled gross weight (TOGW) gross weight of 550K was 400K lbs. C37-3 Figure 4. The most likely solution would be to use a combination of direct and indirect waverider airplane cooling design systems as was used for the Mach 2. liquid hydrocarbon on cooling (LHC) fuels must Fuels with primarily characteristics.. lbs. over/under. with an empty length of 135 ft. or something embodies a single duct in between.. the fuel break appears to be about Mach fueled/hydrocarbon vehicles are limited 8. 2) indicated a 6. Also. -_ • _. for airplanes that is. The cowl is fixed so flow con- speeds.s. drawing tem architectures as a refsysairtwoof the than the fuel. an advanced paraffin turboramjet engines.f (a'ru_. The differences weight (EW) of t41K 3.. turboramjet.. For ruise Mach numbers between 4 and 5.
nozzle the bleed.. bleed is a challenge system presented Given the sensitivity inlet sysof inlet bleed on range.. a catalyst reaction used to protect 3. the turunobstructed only modest ringframes As seen in figure 5. Thermal Management/Power at Mach a large. and a cat- alytic heat exchanger reactor (CHER) is employed to transfer heat from the low-viscosity.. greater Mach The power Engine power generated needed by the fuel turbine to drive the fuel pump power is much during is obtained than the power 5 cruise. In either chemical case.6 d--_ _-i :----'_ .. The fuel tank design uses flexible fuel cells within the integral tank.. 2). and nozzle impact on the tanker-to- from an auxiliary 3..... _.1. inlet functionality. leaving surface. :... the turbojet A splitter vane that controls and ramjet bodyside Power ments for the fuel pump and other aircraft are derived from the turbine systems requireis the flow between shaft while the turbojet is located behind the inlet throat... Certain systems that are common to several classes of hypersonic aircraft such as avionics and actuation will be deferred to example baselines to come later herein (sections 3. _" .. challenges for the thermal management deceleracould be One of the biggest system is cooling of the aircraft during high-speed _/Honeycomb Turbo_t _otrm I_v -T:6242 -llTLI Cl'lgt l:l!llllll rlrl!ll II I]lill L]l]lllklll[lllt! Itlr II#o. a door opens to allow the turbojet major frame and bulkheads... _?Y.. As conceived.... but it does minimize the volume required.4 Other the fuel cells from the hot airframe. the ramjet nozat approximately 2.. C37-4 Figure 7.. .1. bay..1. (figure 5) with its internal flow diverter (splitter) to control engine flows is very long. the inlet/diffuser is a close second.. This may not preclude the need for bleed internal to the inlet.2.... system..1.. external ramburner. whether or not the performance is the question. operation just operating and from a fuel expansion turbine (figure 6) when the ramjet is operating....600 turbojet Inlet bleed has a substantial with an 8% inlet bleed. Structural/tank wall concept (ref...1.. avionics.... and turbojet is installed cooling on the is of the superalloy Indirect engine load is highest...--. Both sources are available during transition. Systems the endothermic management system is shown in figure 6. assuming nm without nozzle. tanker range the range was 7. Wing and tail leading edges are more severely heated (1.. ramjet nozzle....._ Pick fiber InlullUon/ icing _lcel! I _ Lacing Vlton/Florel around Figure 6. flow to exit to the external nozzle just above zle.5 Developing carbon-fueled Challenges a turboramjet hypersonic and ramjet powerplant for a hydroairplane is the first challenge.......1....2 Both direct ence design promote thermal cooling inside Generation were used in the referis needed of the fuel. the ramjet will be started Mach bojet 2.... structure with integral tanks lined with insulation ing flexible fuel cells..5. Llyers ot _--x'__ gli.1.. The engine nacelle could be shortened by using a split two-inlet maintained Figure 5.1.500_F)... Thermal management system (ref... 2). Honeycomb monolithic titanium alloy (Ti6242) skins because they provide (figure 7) requiring sandwich panels of a were selected for airframe structural between structural solution the tempera- The turbojet. Direct fuel is used in the ramburner and nozzle where the heat For these areas. 3.. range performance.. The inlet has integral titanium alloy and a cobalt L-605 heat shield. .. and thus. to The and indirect fuel cooling (ref..5" MD-12 I r C°nl_i llili C°°int Cg IAir c°°linli i ..3 The Mach Structural/Material/Tank 5 cruise aircraft was designed System (ref. simplifies the bleed system. the catalyst cooling panels.... A boundary-layer forward energy diverter of the first external boundary-layer inlet ramp to remove turbojet flow during start and engine-out unit (APU).--.300-1. secondary fluid to the fuel. When nozzle the turbojet shuts down exit doors seal shut.. 2)..r _. designing high performance worth undertaking. This allows the airframe to be completely assembled before installing the fuel cells... duct (figure 5) was integrated the low only. a lightweight Maximum expansion are aligned in a 2-D arrangement.000 nm.... cooling panels with insulation Integrating in a viable arrangement that will accommodate an efficient inlet system and allow a smooth transition from the turbojet to the ramjet tems with minimum Also. 2).1 and 4. Propulsion system schematic (ref... Rigid insulation (figure 7) was expansion 3.1... so a metal matrix material is used which has silicon carbide fibers in a titanium-aluminide alloy matrix (TMC)....1 ).baggedlniulllll°n__'t'l'-'. tures approach 900_'F.trol inthe inlet istobeaccomplished by the variable ramp system.. used for the inlet. 2) as a hot and contain- was 6. _i"_ .
000 nm.4. descent).000 ft 3 payload bay. in a 2. in a 200 ft. a single duct. Remove the LACE system and add a turboramjet and the two duct system emerges since the turboramjet requires both an inlet and an exhaust nozzle. M = 4 to 4.8/30K 10 to approximately is shutdown/closed-off.000 RAM E in three speed regimes and high speed.2. namely NASA's Dual-Fuel Aitbreathing Hypersonic Vehicle Study (ref. approach results system. Propulsion landing). The airbreathing 10. M = 4.1.1 Example Baseline A design data base exists for an underslung turborsmjet/dual mode scramjet over/under integrated Mach 10 cruise vehicle (figure 8). long vehicle with a TOGW less than 500. cruise. 3.000 lbs. operation (high speed accel- Figure 8. 5. system operation (low speed cruise and . and 7) operates M = 0 to 4. 6. 3 and 4). This all hydrogen version was selected as the reference with respect to system architectures for hydrogen-fueled cruise airplane designs providing continuity with the two-duct hydrocarbon-fueled example.2 Hydrogen Fueled Airplanes (M • 8) offer more options in engine turboramjet and the ramjet]scramjet systems are functioning provide uninterrupted maximum thrust during the transition from turbojet to ramjet]scramjet operation.2. the turboramjets are shutdown/closed-off and the ramjet]scramjet At the completion ered from Mach is used to accelerate to and cruise at Mach 10. the scramjet unpowfeet altiand Hydrogen-fueled airplane designs integration architecture than their hydrocarbon fueled counterparts.Thrust must ed for combustion. system (ref.5 both the to while the heat loads remain of air could act as fdrn cooling near the wall while combustion is restricted to the center core of the ramjet combustor. in which an all-hydrogen-fueled design option was examined. [Mo = 4.5 to 10) with a distinct engine and/or engine combination for each as depicted in figure 9.0 to 4. for which the and the duct and one-half an auxiliary are airstarted.o. Remove the LOX tank and add a Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE) ejector operates on LAIR/LH2.tion. remains shut-down/closed-off is achieved rotation of the inlet and nozzle cowl flaps until each flap contacts its respective Figure 9b.0 I _:_ /J Figure 9a. The turboramjets for the remainder of the mission then operate including cruise and landing. lbs. 3.5. C37-5 Figure 9c. During high speed operation. The ramjet]scramjet in the low-speed by upward engine regime. Mach 10 aircraft (ref 3). mid.1 Propulsion propulsion (low. Accommodating a payload of 10. which again centers on whether the engine integration embodies approach. From Mach 4. the turboramjets were sized such that no external burning was required to augment thrust production at transonic Engine close-off speeds. IMo = 0. be reduced which results in less fuel needhigh.01 since the LACE system requires inlet. the range of the Mach l0 reference ah-plane ia approximately 10. a duct and one-half or a two-duct The single duct would be an ejector ramjet] scramoperate on liquid oxy- of the Match 10 cruise segment The vehicle then descends Mach 0. tude. where the low-speed the turboramjets at partial power subsonic inlet and nozzle are reopened jet in which the ejector rocket motors gen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) or gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GOX/GH2) propellant. Propulsion system operation (initial acceleration). A layer upper bodyside surfaces. Propulsion system eration. During low and mid-speed Turboramjet the turboramjets (Air Core Enhanced (AceTR) for this study) operate at full power to provide acceleration thrust.53.
main fuel pump and auxiliary tems are cooled by the fuel via col@late flow back from the for operating boost unit. the hydrogen the design was simpler for both flight system and ground port compared to a slush hydrogen-fuel hydrogen would allow the fuel system lower tank pressure as illustrated refinement. 6). hydrogen fuel . The feedlines are composite construction with stainless steel bellows and titanium _ H2 Boil-off Figure 12. The forward and aft tankage were interconnected among themselves to form functionally elevations individual tanks. 10 cruise vehicle thermal management Figure system C37-6 13. _ ' Saturation P_ure _ Loa_cl Wrlh NBP 13-12 ow _o_.. The propulsion system is cooled by the fuel via non-integral the structure system layout on the internal is shown in Figure heat exchangers 11 including mounted to the heated surfaces of the engines..1.. Mach (ref....... The system includes all composite valves. 6) was designed for horizontal takeoff and aircraft-type operability.._ I Propulsion I_ l Heat _P' Load __lP... all electric valves/actuators zero-push boost pumps....... a trade study was conducted fuel system.Burner Ground _ Pres.. Cow1 In'. slush to operate at a much 13..cufe. to the actively- cooled fuselage leading edge.. hydrogen-fueled 10. k_l Fuel TWtk J /l....7psi " / / s.2.... 6) for is shown in figure restraints designed bonded to the composite lines to provide flexibility is An overview of the thermal management (foam insulation is used on all feedlines).... During to evaluate The boil-off design the advanof two liquid in figure tage of a slush hydrogen flow network for providing hot hydrogen combustor heat exchanger to the turbines pumps.. system when filling and allow free venting and are during flight or ground maneuver operations.... The tank bodies and actuator housings continu- made of graphite composite.3 Fuel Supply System _*"_" _'_'. The subsysthe is Glycol/Water heat heat exchangers...... Mach concept. .. and f'marly out into the combustor..--:r :'s J Body -d-g-*_ _.. system which consists ground disposal and filled to satisfy center-ofFigure design Each tank has a self-contained chill of spray bars in which hydrogen is cirThe tanks vent to a ...3.... --_ _ .2. Each "-_.I --A_osphoric Pressure _Satu_P_um When Loaded I 14. Io Dropping t_euure Tank Allowable_ Pmss_e D_I Heat Load Nose .. 6). The hydrogen fuel system for the Mach 10 cruise vehicle (ref... design concept of dual-fuel i - _0wable Tatlk Pressure _nt_g Must Not I ..... 1 p_a /_can_ Cru_ Figure approach IO. 3.. The boost pump will allow ous tank drainage.1. Fuel is routed heat exchangers cruise vehicle with fail safe redundancy.. However.... _ _--_: / .2 Thermal Management System approach (ref.. Difference thermodynamics. forward and aft tank has separate fill loops to allow for tankage to be at different gravity requirements.u....ldlllry power layout is shown in figure 12 where Ethylene used in the second coolant loop between the hydrogen exchangers off the main tank and the subsystems._ Steady State B_f But AlsoAccept Flashotf ! Heat Load Subsystem P_ro (p_al _ _ . Mach 10 cruise vehicle (simplified version thermal management system system in ref 6). The hydrogen boil-off handles most of the aftframe aerodynamic heat loads. vehicle in the Mach 10 from the aircraft's with a secondary main fuel tank through The initial fuel system for the hydrogen global reach airplane design study was liquid hydrogen because sup- cooling loop.. system. I _ _ _ Vel_ng Begins I Due to S_wessino Lk:[u_d Sa_r_on Due --. ___ . .._ . in liquid and slush (ref. .. 10 cruise vehicle propulsion cooling culated to keep the tank near equilibrium.o_lng _i- "_"_ 11. and then to the propulsion active cooling system including the internal propulsion flowpath and the initial part of the external nozzle. '. The fuel system the Mach 10.emaJ C.
mu_ Ge=ur. The purge. crew threat with situation awareness (engine status.. The major functions of the avionics are: (1) store mission information. used since the maximum pressure differential hydrogen remainder The pressurization system (helium) provides tank is only 5 psi.. Trimetric (ref 7). The storage. Strncture/TPS System tank (figure 16). The mission critical portions of the avionics gle channel. 3. 6). C37-7 construction . A fill return system was added to recirculate fill slush and densify propellant. Graphite composite constitutes the of the fuselage struclawe._ ac _ Flight [ lhr@ Mach I _-_ Total LH2 BoiI-Cfff 8. valves and feed lines. and (3) provide communication warnings. slush return mani- GPS.. _'°"°" _<_/_ .ru_ c_ p. for cold Figure 14. Quadruplex FBL architecture is the design approach. Fuselage vehicle TPS insulation requirements (ref.2. slush hydrogen shown in figure However._. TMC).1.-. A (Gr/Ep) tank design is for the slush fold and lines must be added to melt slush in the tank to pre- vent clogging in inlet lines during flight. . etc. the remainder is sinAll buses are fiber-optic. 30 r _.GSE (1.1.. The schematic of the slush hydrogen herein is presented fuel system in figure 15. _ C_!twr_ We_b m Bu_Y_i _ ..000Ib) Disconnect _" / / / _[_---_ 30p_d 5 / /' / 5 or 20 psid . aircraft subsystem status and maintenance information. fuel system requires initial pressurization APU (auxiliary nose area for ballast and the all-moveable ture (titanium liquid oxygen unit) supply tank requires continuous pressurization. integral conformal slush hydrogen graphite-epoxy Pressurization hydrogen/slush and Purge supercrifical power Systems active control of The slush only. of liquid and slush hydrogen with typical dimensions L_ _ Pu_e In_ Fmlium Atb_'me _. = um Oulet _n .. 6). The Vehicle Management based on the Versatile Flight Control System fly-by-light (FBL) configuration.2.4% _'_'_0 / psid Tank lation is bonded to the outside of the tank using a chemical bond between the polyimide and graphite epoxy.2. Mach 10 cruise vehicle slush hydrogen fuel system Figure 16b. the as a fuel also provides during both outbound and the return flight. 7) is a cold structure with an integral cold. The purge and pressurizasimilar to the hydrogen-fuel syswith fail safe redundancy.A -60 -30 0 30 60 Mission 90 Time (rain) 120 150 180 210 _..1.4 cryogenic hydrogen Airframe The airframe for the Mach 10 cruise airplane (ref. The slush hydrogen tank exterior and vehicle cavity need to be continuously purged for safety during ascent and descent hydrogen vent also requires tion system uses technology tem._.). 7)..78 Descent 4 Boil-Off 15 .6 are dual redundant.. design selected as a baseline 3.hydrogen fuel tanks at 20or30psid ment disconnect. The liquid hydrogen boiloff is small during ground hold after the ground support equipit accumulates much more rapidly As a result. (2) provide capability.000 feet altitude. and two slush hydrogen 3.Ground =l= I M h I _.¢ mttme sluJmFII Ralum _ i_ Figure I5. A 50% slush hydrogen 15% density increase compared to normal boiling point liquid hydrogen and an added heat sink capacity of 110 Ben/lb. and all-electric +/_. For a slush hydrogen fuel system design. There is tungsten in the wings are hot strucCryogenic foam insumatrix composites. with all composite valve actuation./¸ _'_ _ It was designed 28-20 LH2 r _o _o. _ %. terrain and star maps.5 Vehicle Management System System (VMS) design concept (VFCS) is and is a tanks at 5 or 20 psid were analyzed. fuel system has much lower total boil-off 14. which penetrate to the GR/EP below 100.. High temperature insulation with a heat shield is then attached the foam and are secured to stand-off posts tank. Figure structure 16a. air data and radar information. Boil-off comparison fuel system (ref... of cold skin with integral fuel tank schematic (ref.
and nose gear steerdriven motor A typical with electrically Me Control surfaces. ing have hydraulic landing gear extension actuators H=rRew _TR Ht Row Raml'llcmm pumps. The engine cowl leading edge is a particularly difficult cooling problem because it would be exposed to severe heating if the bow shock impinges on the cowl-lip. The challenge conductivity adequately is to use materials cooled to survive with a combination capability this heating of high _ Motor/Pumpwtth Reeervo_r E_romec_n_d Pctuator Hydraulic _r_ VlJv* and high temperature which can be A design requirement.9 Figure 17.1. Actuation block diagram (generic). TABI consists of woven fiber mat with triangular alumina foam prisms encased inside (ref. power source and hydrogen flow rate flowpath configuration systems and a viable mechanical that allow variable actuation/seal surface) TPS assembly external (ref. crew station. actuator block diagram is presented in figure 19. The addition of purge resulted in a weight (TABI) savings for the TPS while providing Advanced Blanket many operational Insulation on advantages. A Tailorable (TPS) and the thermal management (TMS) design must be analyzed as an integrated system and optimized interactively. which in turn spins the associated starter/generator. Electrical of use.. hydrocarbon-fueled example baseline.il===.11_ _l_ _-_li_ _ _ High temperature the generator is operating. 6) is shown carbon/siliconDue to the relatively protection system long cruises at high speed geometry Figure design with opera- as a function tions over a broad Mach range with engine mode transition. the airframe leading edges._ . platelet architecture was selected using a copper alloy material. for the baseline Figure C37-8 19. X --_ \ _ _--_irgohmTmeem:sPerature CiviC.2" radius. integrated purge channel and APF insulation.2.10 Challenge for developing the hydrogen-fueled The challenges "rl_i m over/under type of hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system are similar to that for the lower speed.erpa_eal r_ _ [I _ [_ pes. Power requirements dictate that the major portion Max TlUO_. cle and wing leading edges have a 0. 3. High temperature ceramic composite leading edges are currently being tested by the Air Force under the HyTech Program and results should be available in 1997 (ref. The thermal management system must provide adequate cooling for the dual-mode combined engine structure/subsystems. the actively-cooled the engine axe specified R _teel R M=in [ R I_IT 2 IR R_d04_ 1 Aero-Space leading Plane used on the vehi- edges to be 0.c .1. staggered Internal Multiscreen Insulation (IMI). 8). CMC/metailic (ceramic matrix composites) standoff attachment post. above Mach 4 the cooling loads generate enough gas to spin the accessory power turbine. 3.2. 3.High Temperature Multi Piece C/SiC High Panel Fastener _ -I--_.tandoff met_dt the APU (figure When 11) is used to power the generator with one exception. 4).1" radius (ref. 3.1. Figure 18 shows which power source is driving . The wing leading edges are made of ceramic matrix composites such as zirconium diboride or coated carbon/carbon. 6).7 Leading Edge Systems Based on work done for the National (NASP) program. A reasonably turboramjet high performance. Advanced TPS (ref.2.. and the electrical power. avionics. These two engine tems must be integrated together in both a viable vehicle 18. Actuation Actuator sizes and types were selected to meet the mission dynamics and static loads requirements. The engine cowl. (lower It consists of a 60-mil the thermal system carbide (C/SiC) panel and frame. as a function of mission. the vehicle When neither is operating engine T. high systhrust-to-weight is required along with a _1 _ree APU _ A_TR 1 A_*_' J AeeTR ramjet/scramjet or dual-mode ramjet. The flowpath in figure 17. radar. . A challenge in developing the thermal management system is type TPS was found to be better for tank locations the top of the vehicle. hydraulics. All other actuators are electromechanical. _toM45 M_ _ _¢4S m MlO of the actuator be hydraulic. sidewall and vehicle leading edges are actively cooled.8 Power Generation Temper=ure The power generation concept has two sources of power to drive one generator. 6).2.1..
2. In the context of intemational competition. Dimpled foil heat exchanger technology for hyperFigure 21. The challenge is to design a more efficient ejector ramjet without significant engine weight increases. order of magnitude in weight over that of the conapproach for the same heat to the use of ventional tube-bank-manifold transfer capacity. Although the future prospects of expendables remain high in of the is to design/develop reliability meet the specific 3. Perhaps the biggest challenge overcome negative paradigms with respect slush hydrogen. graphite-epoxy. the simultaneous approach would provide added choking The low specific provide more performance risk. Configuration C37-9 matrix for SSTO and TSTO vehicles. integral..1 Airbreathing SSTO will be segmented on the propuland rocket powered systems.1 Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Vehicles community: only a rather unattractive from a range vs. the challenge is to develop conformal. 4. (1. launchers their potential appears limited below that of reusable Reusability seems (ref. This hinges. Vehicles offer mission flexibility in terms launch offset and cross range vehicles will I_lmthllly Airbreathing of favorable Hut SSTO vehicles launch window..the direct cooling non-integral heat exchanger they must be reliable tures without and allow surface oxidation system presents for the engine. slush-hydrogen tankage.. of SSTO airbreathing Cool air for APU _AIf m i:_z x _ i_l X _ out lupply concentrate on horizontal takeoff/landing systems since this is where most of the emphasis has been placed in recent studies .3 Liquid single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles are included in order to contain the discussion. 9). fuselage-structure TMC wings the challenge mission and IMI TPS system some development.the chamber system. in terms of cost-per-pound-to-orbit. depends on the development of necessary technologies for required dry mass fraction with built in margins systems with favorable cycle life. T [ _m_.2. 4. the ejector Advantages • • • Light Small Low w_ght volume prelmure The SSTO systems discussion sion systems. Its propulsion system consists that operates of a LOX/GH2 ejector ramjet system from takeoff to Mach 2.1. in scalability to fit the payload/ orbital-destination market and in multiplicity of launch options. however. This is a single propulsion duct machine and therefore offers the least engine/airframe integration challenges. the concept to with intefor purge. . sonic vehicles (ref. but could provide pave the way to a dramatic cost in access to space and in so doing. Discussion Fuel out Fuel-side passages H2 IN:.- Or_e Imad Otmn I_ Figure 20. high fuel injection temperaweight.5 ducts) The Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE) system with its auxiliary inlet in the over position and the ram-scramjet in the under requires position is a duct and one-half duct.. manufacture. The feasibility.2 Ejector requirements. i • Management \ Fuel flow flow Air _! Air-side Fuel passages m [ J . that will provide to reliable no exhaust stagnation liquid air (LAIR) via plumbing.e. impulse potential airplane of the LOX/GH2 ejector potential. 1). Also. the LACE is supplied This system Applications • • drop * High themml _ efficiency COSt • CIItllly_¢ Exchanger Reac_nl Heat one vehicle to develop. feedlines slush return manifold. on whether or not mixing and diffusion can be allowed to occur simultaneously. A coarse vehicle to Space is presented in figure 21. create a new Will they generate new financial and operational Will they require to analyze new infrastructures? these issues System are mandatory and focus on the related technology matrix for Access weight (high density) of the LOX may development programs. LOX Exchanger capabilities. at a reasonable considerable challenge is to develop efficient. ACCESS TO SPACE In structures/tankage. specific impulse potential over that The the LOX/GH2 ejector ramjet. i. 3. graphitecomposite grated the rotating In avionics. cost reductions are and will be mandatory to create new business..1_ Tol_otaelal$le Oom_Plcau AT_ r--_ . this does not mean that concern for cost will be disregarded.0 ducts) terms of cost reduction as reflected in simplification Ramjet/Ram-Scramjet vehicles and their operations.. development and is to offers a much improved of its lower derivative.=:>7_ : \ === -- =Z: = _> I fI " Exchangers Ple_ronlcs Themml Cryogenic Heat . system or one in which foil design reduction the leaks could be manin figure 20 offers an The dimple shown The fuel supply challenges including all composite valves. However. airbreathing 4. Only ramjet and the added and loiter perspective. TOGW SSTO is the aspiration of the astronautics Air Cycle Engine Ejector Ramjet Ram- Scram jet (1. to some degree.5 or 3 where the ejector with reliable systems that provide substantial cycle-life to be the only way to achieve dramatic cost reductions Will reusable reduction business? approaches? studies launch vehicles system is shut down and full ramjet mode takes over..[mt _oThliJU_ Ste [tm_Cas A_ F_4... and operate. light weight heat exchangers for use in LACE architectures and to manufacture a reliable leak-proof aged. the wing box and airframe require interface Access to Space is and will remain a strategic issue for leading nations.
Silicon and 14. Modes to Mach 25 and the engine mode (TABI) over Rohacell The airbreathing SSTO reference vehicle (figure 22) was designed to carry 25.(ref.1. It had a 15% weight growth margin..nem_ flocNt (F-RSl _from --]m t.1. Most of the (ref.. and trailing edge body flaps... carbide/ liqI-stiffened. The cooling Actively cooled leading edges (fuselage spatula-shaped region and engine cowl).000 lb.1. was established architecture for by the Langley in 1993. carboncarbon (C/C) leading and trailing edges 22) provides a reference representing system airbreathing SSTO vehicles. and an ascent delta velocity margin of 1%. C37-10 Figure 23.1 • was 200 ft.l_of/Ihrough Irlmeonlc •omdomtJon LOX Augmenl_l Low TranldUon to Sc¢llmjet I Exlemal ScmmJet • 1(s"s) _ Rocket / Systm_ 25. A definitive design breathing propelled mentation in NASA's study was performed on an SSTO airorbital vehicle with rocket propulsion augAccess to Space study activities This design (ref. /:Z: o o Mach Figure 22. after takeoff.6 ° inclinaspace station for delivery tion. The takeoff sion was 917. multilobe tank. aerospike rocket engine at the trailing edge.3 Thermal concept Management of the airbreathing engine for this refer- Linear modular.. 13 (figure A credible design an optimum. 10.1. gross weight sized for the closed was 239. non-integral panels in engine. etc. the dry weight lbs. (ref. Takeoff and transonic ascension are accomplished with the low-speed system and external rocket system performing simultaneously. two engine systems with 117K lbs. • Underslung.000 the length 4. Architecture in figure 22 consists spatula-shaped foreof: forebody profile. Scramjet main engine cutoff (MECO) is at Mach 24. . 11 and 12) and it provides continuity with air- vehicle escape mid section with two "shuttle-like" from the vehicle topside doors that swing to the pay- planes. twin vertical tails with rudders. of thrust each at takeoff. 15). 51..) at lift off and thus would not be categorized as a classic SSTO.. Baseline vehicle airframe structure/tank/thermal protection systems (TPS).1. 1. Option HI Team). of thrust each at takeoff. 13) for the SSTO vehicle airbreathing propelled ascent is along a high dynamic pressure isobar (2150 psf). uid oxygen (LOX) tanks Gr/Ep shell structure fore and aft of integral Titanium Matrix Composites (TMC). but by no means beta 21s titanium all moving horizontal controls and twin verticals/rudder with Carbon/Silicon Carbide (C/SiC) TPS over portions exceeding 1. one nose gear(two wheels). a 5-minute launch window. systems • • • surface and two engine with 130K lbs.. 15). of Departure from the isobar above Mach 15 signals the onset of through the scram jet and the activation the external rocket system as indicated in figure 23. payload 51. Also. of payload in a 15' x 15' x 30' rectangular payload bay to an orbit of 220 nm.. Representative ascent trajectory (ref... and changes experienced terize this aerospace including indicators in this acceleration process also characplane. Reference airbreathing SSTO vehicle (ref..1. Slush hydrogen (LOX) propellant fuel (SH2) and Liquid (about a 50/50 Oxygen oxidizer split by weight). The rocket is switched off at Mach 2.960°R.1..1. 13). (Gr/Ep) integral. orbit Altitude 0 ooon) 100 . A representative ascent trajectory is presented in figure 23 for propulsion mode events. It will be assumed extends beyond tion of the trajectory abort during and shortly that the airbreathing porMach 8 and thus requires A crew station adjacent to the payload load bay.1. payload bay located in the A 15' x 15' x 30' rectangular 300 F. bay with access/ and conduit Two 6-wheel main landing gears. Even though the external rocket system has essentially engine.1. vides 83% of the total ascent energy. (SH2) tank (A1/Li) non-integral.. 2-D airbreathing engine nacelle for which the vehicle forebody serves as a precompression the aftbody as a high expansion ratio nozzle.5.. the same thrust at takeprooff as the airbreathing the airbreathing flowpath The baseline design (ref.. it was developed Research 4. there are compelling reasons for horizontal takeoff/landing airbreathing systems such as gradual step and check engine startup and shutdown. actively cooled... 15). Transition to the scramjet mode begins at Mach 6 with the full scram jet mode in operation LOX augmentation by Mach 7. then dock with a hypothetical Trajectory/Engine corridor The airbreathing of the payload (ref.000 mislbs...6 ° declination 2OO / 220 nm. 13) as shown A wedge-shaped body planform.1.2 Advanced Blanket on leeward surface. etc.000 lbs. lifting-body configuration with all moving horizontal tails. 4.1 Center's Example Systems Baseline Analysis Office Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (FRCI-12) over Rohacell insulation on windward surface and Tailorable insulation 4. conformal Graphite/epoxy slush hydrogen Aluminum/Lithium a scramjet since rocket-initiation/pull-up at Mach 8 or below (ramjet operations) would probably require dropping takeoff gears (trolley.
17) is shown in figure 24.000 psia hydraulic system is also required. The RCS is a previously-developed rocket assembly. The EPG&C cell assemblies. The oxidizer system the ullage is kept at the same tempera- (AV) of 1100 ft. The cooling panel network was designed to deliver hot hydrogen to the injectors. a 50 x 100 nm orbit. thereby making the APU power requirements virtually "free" during ascent. The VPP&D ization.2.000°R. reduce Optimization of the reference at La_RC. (2) environmental control and life support system (ECLSS).1. engine systems. concerns with cumulative Example launch vehicle is made in referpayload. only horizontal ered to contain the scope. It is driven by a dual mode.1. and hydraulic fluids. and (10) avionics. ture as the fuel. to be ameThey use power primarily APU's is prothe Baseline SSTO launch vehicle was Manned Vehicle The vehicle rocket-powered.2 The vehicle Architecture and 2 crew to an ers dump heat directly into a hydrogen fuel system that provides for the gasification of LH2 and LOX for use in the RCS. architecbusses which ture using ADA software The majority and dual-fiber for autonomous other. It is pumped to 5. but are also used for avionics. the cooling panels. consists management 4. Hydraulic fluid cooling heat exchang- designed (ref. are addressed technology duty.1.1 A reusable. minuscule and shown advancements. own turbomachinery. The design employs directional vehicle. The individual subsystems are (ref.500 psi and 60°R before circulating through pump. and the actively-cooled within the same fluid network. Cryogenic nonintegral. and provides an operation working environment for the crew.1. dry weight and cost is in progress Rocket-Powered of the enhanced SSTO Vehicles load due to on-board rocket-powered SSTO's (launch assist is not being landing is being considsystem design to is provided on the external nozzle. Active cooling engine non-integral heat exchangers that allow fuel injection temperatures of 2. (5) auxiliary system (3) electrical (6) reaction power generaand actuasystem (EPG&C). 17 and 18) as apart of the Advanced Launch System (AMLS) study in NASA Langley's Analysis design Branch and is an appropriate reference mission for the AMLS reference single-stage vehicle. Slush hydrogen is stored in the tank at 20 psig and 25°R.5 The system Challenges challenges extend from the actively-cooled aircowl leading edges to the linear aerospike frame and engine power unit (APU). of a number of 40 kW 270 VDC fuel technoloThe case for the SSTO rocket ence 16 in which mass fraction. as is a health monitoring/management for the entire vehicle. The ECLSS uses standard cryogenic hydrogen control devices. The liftoff thrust-to-weight C37-11 rocket system and is composed of both high and low pressure turbopumps.1. payload international space station (51. control. a fail-safe is being used.000 psia. where the beat loads am greatest. tlon and conversion tion.4 Subsystems of the subsystems are highly integrated with each is based on a proven to provide quad-redundant optics control. 4. On board velocity are contained in integral. It also instruprovides cooling for the vehicle mentation. An airlock located The crew cabin is located on top of the aft of the crew cabin provides bay and to the space provides LOX to the engine and extemal access to the cross-wise canister payload station through a hatch on top. (7) fuel system. The active cooling Because panels will deliver hot hydrogen to the engine. fuel is hydrogen the main scramjet engine./sec. design (ref. hydrogen and oxygen and provide electrical for on-orbit aero-surfaces vide the hydraulic power for the actuators gear. (8) oxidizer system. then through a turbine network to drive the 15 condiback into the cooling again. These pumps are used only to supply LOX to (T/W) of the SSTO is 1.ence SSTO is a cold structure (ref. long and located between an aft liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and a forward liquid oxygen (IX)X) tank.6 °. 220 nm).1. and sensitivity liorated 4. The AVTCS hot hydrogen will be required to handle both cryogenic and for mode transition. The fuel cells come from existing gy developed for the Space Shuttle program. separate spray and mixing systems in the tanks are required to continually circulate the hydrogen so that it does not stratify. LOX as the oxidizer (LH2 must be vertical takeoff machines considered). Also. gas generator expander cycle turbine using hot gas temperature differential which is required to prevent overheating of the material.000 lb. The hydraulic system operates utilizes a conventional hydraulic fluid system that at 8.2. and the landing that control The APU system derived from an existing Space Shuttle system. control rocket engine at the airframe Wailing edge.22 (ref. 17). margin. reusable cryogenic propellants would provide an incremental following launch insertion into wing tip t-ms for slush condition.1. The pay- load bay is 15 ft. modified for low weight/volume. and out into the to provide helium for tank pressurand pneuthe hydro- vehicle cavity purge and repressurization. Some of the most critical items that are essentially the same as for the Mach 10 cruise baseline example mechanisms are: the graphite/epoxy the ramjet/scramjet integral fuel engine with (SH2) tank and TPS system. was sub-cooled to a fuel in the tanks and 30 ft. in diameter The fuel system is a cryogenic fluid delivery system that supplies LH2 from the vehicle's tanks to the engine turbopumps and actively-cooled Because the hydrogen panels using a series of boost pumps. is required Helium the external rocket system has its the coolant. An 8. The heat exchangers were sized at Mach matic actuation.1.2 Because propellant as fuel). (RCS). The normal-boiling-point LH2 and LOX propellants tanks. the airframe inlet ramp. 15) with mostly actively-cooled heat exchangers. (4) hydraulic 4. (9) vehicle pressurization. gen fuel tank. purge and drain system (VPP&D).1. is delivery and return of a 20. control system fuel is used as the coolant.1. . system. is stored at 25°R within combustor. 15): (1) active vehicle thermal control system (AVTCS). 4. and the external rocket system. The avionics is intended tions.
The SSME-derivative engine differs from the current SSME in a number of ways (ref.2. They allow the proration of the ascent energy (delta and orbiter).2 Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) Vehicles 171. The major materials I and structural technologies assumed for 150 _Dry the AMLS SSTO vehicle (ref. Cumulative STS (ref. fairings. 18).IOC = 2008-2010 Crew = 2 for 5 days P/l_bay= 15 x30 fl P/L wgt = 20 klb to space station 4.000 lbs.1. Cumulative vehicle effect of enhancing (ref. 400300- The vehicle 2. 17). three: the composite.1. they are less sensitive to dry weight growth. nose region. Dry We_lgbht . nose cap _ _. interlank. 17). and aft skirt _ leading edges _ among the stages (booster TSTO systems lead to the development.320.32 MIb advances over those assumed as shown figure 27. and valves.. 100 I and aft skirt which all act as 5O carrier panels for a ceramic blanket TPS on most windward and leeward surfaces and for an advanced carbon-carbon (ACC) TPS on the vehicle All aerodynamic control nose and leading surfaces edges (ref.1. technology requirements are reduced relative to SSTO vehicles. velocity) Also. 250_ effect of technology evolution from integrated health monitoring. 17)._. The SSTO vehicle employs graphite composite intertank. actuators include and a two- 0 STS technology Advanced subsystems Advanced TPS AI-Li tanks Composite structures (reference SSV) Figure 26. 17). duct hot gas manifold. 4. More advanced would enable the design of an SSTO vehicle that is less sensitive to changes in engine performance parameters. Reference SSTO vehicle materials (ref. Figure 24.3 Reference Systems/Technologies The reference AMLS SSTO has seven SSME-derivative engines that are gimballed for vehicle control during ascent and abort (ref._h. However. manufacture. technologies on rocket-powered . Electromechanical Other improvements a Block II controller. The cumulative effect advancements Crew cabin of employing a number of moderate technology in figin over STS technologies technology SSTO could enhance (ref. rocket-powered SSTO configuration For TSTO vehicles. 18). ACC Graphite composite wings..1. are of an ACC hot structure 0 Reference SSV Gr/Ep LH tan:_ Slush H_ TBP O_ Duel-fuel engine lightwei_lht propulsion design... The thrust structure also utilizes A1-Li 2095 and graphite composite elements (ref.. lbs. closed-cell foam insulation.8 ft =.2. (figure 24). AFRSI) L ACC control surfaces 800700LH 2 600500- Figure 25. 17 and 18). The integral hydrogen and oxygen tanks are constructed of A1-Li 2095 and utilize external. and the gross weight is 200100- 4. the booster and the orbiter). they require only current or near-term technologies. . 17).4 Challenges The challenge is the maturation design of a viable. and decrease the vehicle affordable the operational of technologies to enable the of SSTO rocket powered complexity vehicle and empty weight technologies (ref.000 dry weight is 230. the performance characteristics of one of these engines are summarized in Table 1. C37-12 Figure 2 7.. and operation of the two vehicles (in fact. high-pressure turbopumps are used with hydrostatic are used for gimbals beatings. Additional for the reference Dry wgt = 230 klb Gross wgt = 2. These technology advancements could be traded for increased vehicle design margins and reduced sensitivities.__/_-_-_-_\ J Since the design of access to space vehicles major extent by propulsion systems is influenced integra- to a and propulsion AI/Li tanks with internal ring frames end external cryo insulation Bonded blanket TPS_ (TABI. 17) are summarized 25. Reference (ref. Extended-life. 18). fairings in figure wings. 17) is shown the design ure 26.
11"---1 . graphite comstructure.6 °.000 lbs. the TSTO according ing boosters to propulsion and rocket tion is given in figure vehicles will be categorized TSTO classificafor alrbreathThe airto ramjet The remainas they operations.tionarchitectures.000 weight would 4.000 lbs. to 250. tion powered orbiters and rocket powered orbiters.000 ibs. -.3. of payload in a 15' x 15' x 30' bay to a space system at 51.]252. and 450. the booster could be designed with near-term technology. I iSme_+ReeimOe:.2. as well as 8. from 800.000 1bs. and the combined dry decrease from 300. |.000 lbs. Above Mach 6. The advantage is more versatile basing with airplane like operations.2. airbreathing landing boosters have the potential to return to viable staging Mach numbers.meOm_" Rm/eNmrm.000 lbs. Boosters that stage above Mach 6 would require more advanced technology because of the need for a scramjet and more sophisticated/thicker TPS. systems. J -----l------O---Booster Booster + Orbiter Orbiter + Gross Dry Wt. 4. C37-13 (airbreather/rocket vehicle characteristics I I I I I t i i i I I I I I 4 5 6 Staging 7 Mach 8 9 Number 10 11 Figure 30._ 221 ft.1..2.000 lbs. take-off/landing It stages at Mach of LH2 (to M=5).1 Rocket TSTO Vehicles With Airbreathing Powered Orbiters centers propulsion mainly systems. respectively.2. TSTO vehicle classification. Both utilize cold integral stage at Mach 6 or below. adhesively-bonded TPS.m_R_mO_w" I I I @l_aoJtMtt 12 ealtmm) eeom _/ttm_ @10 . as well as combina- systems. With their ability to cruise. launch offset capability For launch and nearthat term technology requirements.1. Challenges booster (for Mach 5 staging) requires The TSTO reference 51ft. a systems. Boosters / a combined take-off gross weight (TOGW) of 800. breathing boosters are further divided with respect (M< 6) and scramjet (M>6) der of the discussion constitute the greatest and cost perspective.1.1.000 psi hydraulic 4. to 600. The focus is on a horizontal take-off and landing (HTOL) launch vehicle. 1000 zeft. t _ .Wt. systems The booster is a lifting-body with a shape very similar to the reference airbreathing SSTO of section 4. on the boosters 5. The TOGW/DW of the booster and orbiter is 352. Moving from a Mach 5 to a Mach 10 staging system.tin Mate ieeo_ (mlClOlZ_ :_ _tll=_ i L booster air-breathing propulsion system would require a ram/scramjet engine.1. the I _eittl_wm Bmtlm I t So. Mach number effect on gross weight .4) and ramjets LH2 fueled. to delivhas on top of a two-duct. the reference Designed 2STO is rocket powered challenge--from er 25. and dry weight (DW) of 300..O 800 0 B00_0r/Orblter C0mb|naU0n 600 2011.1 Staging sites. 85ft. + : - I o 0 @ 0 e- 400 m 200 0 Orbiter Figure 29.k Roe_O_e.1 Example Baseline The reference vehicle is from NASA's (ref.000 lbs." Figure 28. The configuration system with a piggy-back airbreathing propulsion jet engines over/under orbiter booster Access to Space Study 28 which has categories is a horizontal (figure 29). Both have a spatular airframe leading-edge control and rotating wings which also serve as horizontal graphite-epoxy posite primary surfaces. and passive. i_.1. total system gross weight declines (figure 30. Staging (ref 20). 20) because of a more optimal split of the energy content in each stage. The booster fueled turbofan The orbiter station system is a combination (to M=2. sslo_ cryogenic tanks (LH2 vs SH2).1.000 ibs. powered A coarse boosters 4. even at the higher As the staging Mach number is increased. ref.1./52. 220rim orbit.000 lbs. 13).2 the combined gross weight would decrease lbs. TSTO (ref 13).
and (4) assess the interest of using LOX/LHC 4.000 ft.1. 1600 ft. the designers would have the following option: reduce the AV of the reusable first stage and increase the AV of the expendable upper stage. hut the benefits of staging are clearly reduced. Transatlantic"). the first stage being targeted to become an SSTO vehicle. ref. with staging speed nearing 3. the recovery of the booster is a major bility has serious limitations./sec. high speed staging downselected another Taranis (ref. as defined 18. would have to perform a once-around flight to land at its launch site. they retain a gross-weight / dry even at reduced Despite its operational drawbacks with respect to SSTO concepts (three vehicles to operate versus only one). The first stage. The low velocity the operations "transatlantic" in terms of perfor- TSTO rocket systems technology readiness. (3) assess the Siamese configuration.1 High Staging Speed Concepts (beyond 10. For these high staging speeds. Powered Boosters/ and a Reaction Speed Nearing 3. safety. this TSTO configuration offers many advantages mance and technological feasibility. Should this SSTO vehicle appear out of reach during its development. figure 32. winged. rather than LOX/LH2.000 would be required with Rocket ft. Therefore allows a glide back trajectory issue increases with staging speed.2.2 Rocket (for control) TSTO pressure for staging was desirable. weight advantage over SSTO rocket systems technology levels (figure 31. 24). However. an approach (ref. LACE ejector ramjet could provide for staging at higher from a ram to scramjet is required.000 ft. even for high lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) booster Vehicle gross lift-off weight configurations.2. Control System for the booster. development of a turbojet/ramjet airbreathing airplane propulsion of section tem much like the Mach except the booster duct and one-half. so high staging speed concepts will be considered first. L/D exceed Aerospatiale concept. would require the devel- opment of an expander cycle LOX/LH2 rocket engine systems. margins Figure 31.2. 5 Waverider most of the high staging is fueled by LH2 rather than LHC. issue since their "fly-back" The criticalness capaof the recovery of the first stage after the staging maneuver to the launch site. Staging within the atmosphere could be quite a challenge itself. vertical take-off.. or perhaps land at the Antipodes. For TSTO rocket systems. a modified version with an extend- ed range booster (re-boost of the main engines or cruise with turbojets) will be studied. For example. 24. 22 and 23) is to develop a semi-reusable TSTO. a relatively even distribution of the ascent energy is achieved between the two stages. the booster (first stage) is staged and glides back to the launch site runway. horizontal landing parsys- tem. sys3. Since SSTO vehicles are seldom pure single-stage (for many missions. a an inter(M The speed TSTO launchers.2 Staging This configuration allel-bum.) appear greatly simplified with respect to the TSTO (Taranis configuration. Factors influencing rocket vehicle sizing (ref./s is envisioned (ref. Taranis concept (ref 24). ref. The orbiter. in the booster 5 for the booster recently to achieve to acquire a AV reduction of about would require that the hypersonic a viable landing site. 18).. This extended range version would allow a landing on territories belonging to the launching nation. reliability Increasing payload.000 fL/sec./sec. 23) as a two-stage.) which allow a rather easy flight hack of the booster The main thrust of the work was: to its launch base. go into orbit. If a pull-up to low dynamic then both a tail rocket system (RCS) 4. also dubbed "the because it raises the question of the indepenlanding since the booster dence of access to space activities Advancing technology --1_ Design for performance --_ _-.2. Aerospatiale's launch system analyses have been focused on low staging speed concepts (less than 6000 ft. especially > 7) where transition structure/material ing SSTO--cold composite primary Mach numbers challenges are very similar to the air-breathintegral graphite-epoxy tanks and graphite structure--as in reference is the hydraulic system.2. (1) study TSTO esting trade./sec.1 Having eliminated (downselected) strips are located outside of the launching country. unable to Figure C37-14 32. 21). This system is an unbalanced configuration with respect to ascent energy having a quite "easy-todesign" first stage and a very ambitious second stage. 23) because the downrange booster is very high (once around) and the AV reduction potential is very low./sec. When the launch system reaches a speed of about 3.These high staging speed concepts Aerospatiale were downselected required by by the (ref. they need an intelligent upper stage to send their pay- loads into higher energy orbits). Also. either from a cost or tech- nology perspective. 4.Design for operations. . (2) assess the PopDown concept. Vehicles Powered Orbiters are considered primarily because of Also. since Taranis exhibits some major advantages such as use of near-term generator technologies and use of engines derived for the gas cycle of Ariane 5.
after the downselection of the "Once Around" and "Antipodal" systems. . this Siamese TSTO somewhat characteristic of SSTO vehicles in that there is 146 ft "i only one configuration 4. Near-term-technology mission). of abort) 5.2. mass fraction allowed mainly reduction in propulsion requirements. ref. system first and structure out the subsonic and transonic region. Thus.ow: _Body flaps The challenges of the rocket similar to the SSTO systems However. stage which it has to susAMLS (spaceengines are many advanced may have significant of current for hypersonic (ref.Jettisonable Tunnel & fairing-_ / " /-. The numerous provide SSTO many vehicle: configurations interim options (1) expendable by this launch As air-breathing ogy maturation there lifting-body engine weight increased with design/technolin prior programs. losses.2. 25).. 1).cle which allows recovery of both stages at the launch site.3 Challenges to develop.1 interim system._. 40K payload. options to pave the way to was studied an High Fineness Ratio Wing Body: Concept a Inward Turning Inlet (Funnel) Configuration: Inverted Llft_ Such a concept as part of the Advanced Manned Launch activities (figure 33.2. l ) that will present system challenges. (2) reusable may be an advantage to a high-f'meness stage with LOX/hydrocarbon propellants with or without LH2 crossfeeding to the second stage (ref.___r___ LH2_ the velocity of engines. ment.15-ft x 30-It . since the TSTO flight This at the trajec- tory is no longer The first staging Figure C37-15 34.. craw module-_. especially tain.2.__payload bay i ' i _ _. analyses of such a Pop-Down launcher have site recovery problem ascent of a payload mass loss.. Above the transonic region the vehicle may be more optimum in a conventional engine underslung attitude and thus require rolling 180 ° . drag reduction. Extended/advanced configuration matrix (ref. The lifting body served as a reference may be better if it was designed upside down--inverted lifting-body--as shown in figure 34 (ref. 21). Mach 3 staging the air-breathing is extremely designs. it became apparent that to switch configurations ratio wing-body from a 34) (figure on the way to an affordable rtrst stage. There which • Vertical takeoff • LO2/LH2. and operate. Pop-Down reference LOX/LHC The Pol _. problems: aerodynamin case staging (especially pose specific the stages. TSTO systems ic interactions between powered TSTO vehicles are very but generally less severe. The booster flies along a strictly vertical path so that it always remains above the launch site. SSTO and TSTO enrich- • Unmanned glideback booster. procedure expense solves the downrange fully optimized. two-stage ref. controls and launch In enhancing configuration LAIR collection/oxygen assist. the AV reduction due to the booster (especially in case of crossfeeding) allows a vehicle design with lower technology systems level requirements. SSME-derivative • Parallel burn with crossfeed • External payload canister Figure station • 33.j_ LO 2 tank shown that the propellant close to one another. low speed propulsion. !)own procedure (ref. appears to be one of the most promising a really affordable launch at NASA Langley Systems (AMLS) appropriate 4. . manufacture. This approach. propulsion system). 1). ENHANCING systems benefits SYSTEMS concepts CONCEPTS interest vehicles ADVANCED. both stages This has led for further study: is mass and are powered a Siamese concept the same propellant by the same number of engines. mechanical an SSTO" because and thermal load requirements and thus less drag. Highfineness ratio configurations would have lower drag per unit volume and thus require less engine size. acceleration to minimize needed the same number Aerospatiale both stages to select contain masses of both stages since the orbiter were very needs a high Moreover. the that important. . Advanced concepts are currently under study for configuration..21) and provides vehicle Siamese for this class. and (3) reusable ftrst stage with an increased staging speed (the first stage flies back to the launch site using an airbreathing where engine weight can be traded for wing weight. Nevertheless. In this arrangement much more favorable lower angle-of-attack the profde of the vehicle would be a lift at a throughof the mass fracairfoil and provide much greater The design effort has to focus on the second appears to be "almost tion. and crossfeeding. 25) is a method of launching TSTO v.2.
(2) they may have very short response times. propellant sloshing... more efficient expansion through the radial nozzle than does its two-dimensional or conical counterparts. like H_o or neural networks. make an atmospheric skip and hit the bull's eye.. In the controls area. 31) appear to offer a significant advancement controls and the coupling Automation strating ic waverider LoFLYTE For takeoff to accelerate TM for both the airframe and engines between the two. the ejector ramjet requires a large of oxidizer which may mean that.). design" in potentially higher net thrust and specific etc. Figure (ref. a using this system must also extract air and/or oxygen The system ramjet which extracts is called air. windows. The PDE has the potential 6. 29). Most of these challenges (efficient identified However. but must be lightweight.The ultimate of propulsion hypersonic air-breathing configuration in terms flowpath for a point design is the inward turning (ref. These are herein and addressed in other AGARD papers. range. more impalpable means can contribute.. explicit and adaptive GN&C will ease the hypersonic vehicles design and operation. 1). resulting impulse. neural networks from air are cur- / / (ref. flexible structures. condensa liquid air cycle computations. (3) vehicles' propulsion systems and airframes have to be intricately integrated. 30) as well as other condensing systems such as air collection and enrichment quently separated system (ACES) where liquid oxygen for later use. . volumetric such as "on-design/off- COMMON All the hypersonic heretofore pose formi- dable system problems: (1) vehicles are high speed and long efficiency. 32) is being examined for rail launch .. efficient compression to the inlet throat for less wetted area with an accompanying. the guidance algorithms. to be practical. and (5) vehicles must accommodate a wide flight envelope. nomena. Fuel Tank: / . from the atmosphere. C37-16 35. (4) vehicles' major characteristics have considerable uncertainties since the realm of hypersonics remains widely unexplored. The PDE consists The oxidizer or gaseous vided by an inlet (airbreather) from a tank (rocket). Takeoff LOX frac- assist is more beneficial tions in which a higher been burned 6. As these phenomena become better understood. the offers more air capture and more in NASA's Advanced Space Transportation to vehicles percentage Program. 1). missile whose target would be out of range may re-optimize trajectory. As might amount vehicle be expected. flight systems must be designed engines (PDE). waves propulsion. Accurate is currently at subsonic (figure in the process speeds 35).). (magnetic field used of demonfor the rudder control of a hypersonin their Microcomputer . etc. (reL 27) in which to the is largephechemiOf course there are concerns inlet spillage. / force analogous Many other methods for extracting rently being studied (ref. LACE has been studied for many years (ref. LoFLYTE Subsonic Neural Net Demonstrator ref. allows on-board. is subseI out and stored The original ACES used an approach was accelerated through produced centrifugal where the distillation column process application to a rotating disk which to an increase oxygen in gravity. 26) as shown in figure 34. es it. (2) vehicles are subjected to severe environment. 28). lightweight structures. time trajectory allows the ramjet to operate from takeoff to ramjet takeover speed (M = 3). of cylinders mixture which are repeatedly and detonated.1 Guidance. The ejector ramjet Hypersonic guidance need high performance Explicit guidance For instance. Ideally. and thus a single duct engine that operates over a broad Mach number range is possible (ref. in real time. and uses it in an ejector engine (LACE). to accommodate which them. are potentially promising for low speed (M = 0 to 5) propulsion for very high specific (ref. that have higher of propellant inlet configuration would have funnel inlet configuration had not the assist delta velocity SYSTEM vehicles CHALLENGES described been provided. / / / Parachute/FTS _ Corporation network configuration a neural flight test vehicle assist. Navigation and Control (GN&C) GN&C is considered an enabling technology for hypersonic vehicles and/or because military beyond vehicles the aforementioned and/or subjected problems: (1) phethey have to be autonomous for they are long range vehicles to the blackout and it may be possible to have a single converted from a low speed airbreather rocket series bustible for boost to orbit. impulse. Adaptive control allows accounting for vehicle uncertainties and control real time and to adapt. and they are sensitivity intensive.. and (3) they have to use sophisticated behind sensors (high speed Air Data Systems. will be resolved with tangible means The technology a nonequilibrium vehicle to reduce ly unexplored. system which can be to an efficient pulse of a cylinder or filled with a comcan be air proretrieved oxygen nomena. Using more recent control methods. explicit/adaptive realits in a lifting re-entry seekers high temperature vehicles and control. Pulse detonation use detonation propagating through a premixed fuel-air mixture to produce large chamber pressures and thereby thrust. drag and heat transfer of hydrocarbon fuel through generation although test results point to these favorable Steam reforming and magnetogasdynamic of electri- cal power through deceleration of inlet flows is also profiled in reference 27. Mag Lifter technology vehicle. cal regeneration area of magnetogasdynamics cold plasma is created ahead/adjacent shock strength.
the reliance (4) avoid hyperon hydraulic sysgolic propellant. integral For the hydrogentank appears mic-hydrocarbon fueled systems tank structure the speed advantage of most hypersonic vehicles. < 8). emphasis was focused on sin- cles in terms of what is required instance. forming thermal titanium Developing an efficient management the powerplants (turboramjets or LACE and perejector-ramjets and dual-mode ramjets/scramjets) this translates to the loss of one vehicle 100 flights. This feasibility technologies gins that will provide technologies to ensure operation feasibildepends on the development of necessary dry mass fraction systems with built-in marreliable with favorable cycle cycle life is a must in reducing operations consist of expensive vehicles. tions longer mization Operations reduce costs The vehicle This is no longer be designed perspective. opment (2) the radio commtmication of a network of ground flight. propulsion tems. Among the ideas to increase and fault tolerant architec- vehicle operability are: (1) to some extent use aircraft lessons learned. therefore Proper and health would amount and what it will cost. blackout stations phenomena. For the emphasis is on cold. hydrogen on reducing operational engines and pumps). integral graphite/epoxy structure with graphite composite interfaces and external insulation/TPS is the architecture of choice. .999. These technologies Advanced are being pursued Space Technology in the U. For the airbreather. propulsion and propulsion integration along with thermal management are still the biggest challenges. 13). satellites. Some of these technologies such as cryogenic. A low availability could negate (crew survivability airframe propulsion integration as well as are the main issues. are common to airbreathers as well. Availability. design and operation methodology (e. should the maintenance 1% of the vehicle missions vehicles. Responsiveness is a major operational issue. TSTO sysaerodynamic interactions. The air- breathing vehicles. cross- for operations among others.S. etc. For access to space vehicles. airbreathing and rocket propelled systems with horizontal takeoff for airbreathers and vertical takeoff for rockets. which may cause air ionization tems. from just a performance/weight-mini- (no "standing to increase provides army") to responsiveness. For example. mission and staging.. The airbreathfor long cycle Also hypersonic vehicles pose specific problems of safety. For major malfunction at hypersonic speed crew rescue is a challenge. (3) use robust. both from the range safety viewpoint and from the crew safety viewpoint. this is essentially the same as with cruise required) vehicles access systems for staging except for the additional boosters. is only 0. fuels/propellants. tem challenges were identified. communication blackout phenomena sheath which surrounds the vehicle. and (5) reduce During its hypersonic heat loads the vehicle is subjected (plasma). autonomous tures are to be favored. cold. For SSTO vehicles. For the endother(Mach viable.2 Telecommunications Telecommunications with hypersonic vehicles pose specific problems: (1) antennas are to be protected against high heat loads. integral graphite/epoxy tanks and graphite composite interfaces. being lifting configurations. life. X-33. For cost per mission represent cost over 100 (2%. concurrently. than SSTO vehicles. overcome negative slush hydrogen. landing. every launcher whose reliability For hypersonic airplanes. the main challenges are to mature the enabling ity. (2) develop and use an inflight health monitoring system.. (2) select a proper antenna location. 9) to minimize the life cycle costs and to maximize responsiveness.and two-stage. maintained before ejection cabin has to be ejected.). of a hypersonic vehicle. For rocket powered one of the biggest paradigms challenges may be to with respect to the use of Reusable vehicles must be designed for operations and maintenance (ref.4 Operations Either vehicle integrity must be seats can be used or the crew which could have a positive effect cost (lower frequency of changing structures. The enhancement of systems/subsysof their tems reliability in conjunction with an extension systems. fastresponse.3 Reliability. emphasis was focused on Mach 5 and 10 cruise with hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuel. integral tankage.g. Present-day tasks to prepare and operate vehicles Vehicles and operacan no for required affordable. and staging. Maintainability is one of the key issues for hypersonic vehi- fueled systems (Mach > 8). Technology maturation and demonstrators are mandatory to reduce the maintenance uncertainties. are designed for normal loads and thus are conducive to abort situations. System/subsys- 6. two gle. Maintainability and Safety The vehicle's reliability by itself is often not sufficient to justify the development consider a reusable Statistically. more robustC37-17 Even though less demanding tems pose specific problems: feeding. to high The radio and (3) the long range of hypersonic flight may dictate and/or the devel- ness to the system. rocket integra(if life tion for orbital ing propulsion in SSTO vehicles in the TSTO have the potential and pullup cost. fault-tolerant software and avionics. especially for military vehicles. X-34 and Program (ASTP) programs. use electromechanical 7. aircraft like) monitoring systems are also mandatory. This is why reliability enhancement for reusable launch vehicles is so important and why built-in abort strategies have to be included to increase the probability of recovshould ering the vehicle and its payload be greater than 0.6. Screening categories were takeoff. must be automated and streamlined designed have to be designed operational cost. 6. CONCLUDING actuators where possible. is caused by the plasma Possible solutions to this REMARKS architecture for fully reusable hypersonsys- phenomena are: (1) use frequencies higher than the plasma cut-off frequency.99. the total maintenance to the cost of one vehicle etc). ref. hot. respectively. Systems/subsystems ic airplanes and space access vehicles were examined. and (3) use other communication means (laser.
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