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At the advent of modern technology, Digital communication is one of the most secure and safe information transmission system in both at work place and at home. Pulse Amplitude Modulation is one of the simplest form of pulse modulation techniques employed in digital communication. It is extensively used in telecommunications as an intermediate stage of other techniques such as pulse code modulation which is used in Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), time division multiplexing.

The purposes of the experiment described here are as follows 1.) To implement pulse amplitude modulation & demodulation circuit practically. 2.) To observe the effects of clock frequency on demodulated wave. 3.) To observe the effect of duty cycle of clock on demodulated wave.

Circuit Description
Pulse Amplitude Modulation is a technique that describes the conversion of an analog signal to a pulse-type signal where the amplitude of pulse denote the analog information. This analog information is represented by sine wave in the experiment which is also called modulating signal. The PAM waveform is generated by applying a modulating signal as well as a clock (sampling) signal to analog switch simultaneously as shown in figure-1,

Figure 1 Pulse amplitude Modulation circuit The reconstruction of PAM waveform is relatively easy as only 2nd order low pass Butterworth filter is required. The circuit involves the demodulation process is given below. Figure 2: PAM Demodulation circuit Figure 2: Pulse amplitude demodulation circuit .

Figure 3: Message signal The clock signal used as well as associated PAM waveform are shown below CH1: Clock Signal 1.4Vpp. 4. Figure 4: Clock signal and PAM waveform .8 KHz. 1. CH2: PAM Modulated Signal with Message 200Hz (1. Ch1: Message Signal 200Hz.Observations The message signal is kept unchanged all through the experiment and shown below.04Vpp).72Vpp Duty cycle 30%.

CH1: Signal.8 KHz. having higher cut-off frequency 1 KHz. we see that sampling with double frequency gives two samples per cycle and input continuous message signal is determined by its samples at the output of Low pass Butterworth filter. Acceptable fc value = 1. So. Therefore we need to compromise and choose a moderate clock frequency. Clock 1.Effect of Frequency of Clock Signal Here. Clock frequency [or Sampling frequency] = fc Message signal frequency = fm  When fc = 2fm.8 KHz (for 900Hz message signal) Clock frequency higher than 1. DT=30%. . The reconstructed signal is noisy but still truly similar to input signal.04Vpp Figure 5: PAM waveform and its demodulation signal 900Hz. From figure 5. Demodulated CH2: PAM Signal With Message 1.8 KHz is desirable but too much higher value will definitely increases the bandwidth required. the value of clock frequency is acceptable.

Figure 6:PAM waveform and its demodulation From figure 6. So the value of clock frequency is unacceptable.8 KHz (for 1.e. we observe that reconstructed signal is strongly distorted. 1.3 KHz message signal) Finally. Unacceptable value of fc = 1. The consequences are described below. When fc < 2fm. CH1: Signal.8 KHz. The narrower pulses are fruitful for Time Division Multiplexing and thus lower duty-cycle is beneficial in this respect. One demerit of narrower pulse is it contains less power as the power content of a pulse depends on its amplitude and width. we can conclude that for acceptable PAM signal transmission Nyquist sampling rate [i.04Vpp Clock 1. Effect of Duty Cycle of Clock Signal on Information Recovery The duty cycle of clock pulses plays a vital role in PAM modulation system. DT=30%. fc > = 2fm] must be maintained. As .3 KHz. Demodulated CH2: PAM Signal With Message signal 1.

Demodulated CH2: PAM Modulated Signal with clock 1. Figure 7 So that larger duty cycle is desirous for this sake. CH1: Demodulated Signal. Message signal 200Hz. Figure 8 . CH2: PAM Modulated Signal with clock 1.969KHz (DT=83%). Message signal 200Hz.a result noise severely affects the message signal during transmission and demodulation.866 KHz (DT=30%). CH1: Signal.

Websites 1) www. of ne555 IC. Magnitude of message signal needs to be kept lower than clock signal and hence the sampling IC 4066. Unless cut-off pam signal will appear in the output. References LEON W. COACH II. The PAM modulation and demodulation with 2nd order Butter worth low pass filter has been implemented. With this configuration. 7. Discussion PAM modulation natural sampling is relatively easy circuit to implement but it took 4 weeks for me to complete. frequency still varied but deviation was small.Effect of Amplitude of Clock Signal Amplitude of Clock signal does not affect the pam modulated . INC. frequency of clock signal also changes simultaneously. Therefore a 50KΩ variable resistor is added among the pins 6.circuitlab. Conclusion Finally. A lot of difficulties came such as    selection of switch for sampling [transistor switching didn’t give satisfactory results] finding the appropriate value of capacitor at the input of analog switch generation of constant frequency with variable duty cycle clock signal Though the Astable configuration of ne555 IC provides clock signal with variable duty cycle. which is used for switching. Prentice-Hall 2) www. 8. fifth edition. The consequences of duty cycle as well as frequency variation have also been observed.scientech. Digital and Analog Communication Systems. produces good pam signal.

01.APPARTUS LIST: NO. 50kohms variable. 05. 10k. 02. 10nf. 27k. CD-4066 UA741 NE555 1k. COMPONENTS NAME Power Supply DC 5V IC IC IC Resistors Capacitors MODEL NO.7nf Quantity 2 pcs 1 pc 2 pcs 1 pc 10 pcs 6 pcs .100nf. 33k.4. 06. 03. 04.