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The following are the qualities that a leader must possess to be an effective one: 1. Integrity – being honest, law-abiding and trustworthy. Adherence to both a code of personal ethics and code of professional ethics. 2. Courage – taking some risks. To be able to speak w/ the colleagues about some problems observed 3. Attitude - a good attitude goes long way in making a good leader. 4. Initiative – good ideas are not enough. To be a leader, you must act on those good ideas. 5. Energy - leadership are hard but satisfying endeavors effort. It is also important that the energy be used wisely. 6. Optimism – it is important not to let discouragement keep you and yourcoworkers from seeking ways to resolve the problems. 7. Perseverance - Effective leaders do not give up easily. Instead, they persist, continuing their efforts when others are tempted to stop trying. This persistence often pays off. 8. Balance - In the effort to become the best nurses they can be, people may forget that other aspects of life are equally important. Balance between work and play is needed. 9. Ability to handle stress - Coping with stress in as positive and healthy a manner as possible helps to conserve energy and can be a model for others. 10. Self-awareness - People who do not understand themselves are limited in their ability to understand the motivations of others. They are far more likely to fool themselves than are self-aware people. 11. Able to set priorities – Whether planning care for a group of clients or setting the strategic plan or an organization, priorities continually shift and demand attention. As a leader you will need to remember the three “E’s” of prioritization: evaluate, eliminate, and estimate. Continually evaluate what you need to do, eliminate tasks that someone else can do, and estimate how long your top priorities will take you to complete. 12. Critical thinker - Critical thinking is the careful, deliberate use of reasoned analysis to reach a decision about what to believe or what to do 13. Problem solver - Client problems, paperwork problems, staff problems: these and others occur frequently and need to be solved. The effective leader helps people to identify problems and to work through the problemsolving process to find a reasonable solution. 14. Respectful to an individual - Although people have much in common, each individual has different wants and needs and has had different life experiences. The effective leader recognizes these differences in people and helps them find the rewards in their work that mean the most to them. 15. Skillful communicator – able to listen to others, encourages exchange of information, and provides feedbacks. Qualities of an Effective Manager The effective nurse manager possesses combination of qualities. None of these alone is enough; it is the combination that prepares an individual for the complex task of managing a unit or team of health-care providers. 1. Good Leadership - All of the people skills of the leader are essential to the effective manager.They are skills needed to function as a manager. 2. Clinical expertise- It is very difficult to help others develop their skills and evaluate how well they have done so without possessing clinical expertise oneself. It is probably not necessary (or even possible) to know everything all other professionals on the team know, but it is important to be able to assess the effectiveness of their work in terms of patient outcomes. 3. Great Communicator - Effective communication is one of the most important tools for a leader or manager. Information should be conveyed in a clear manner. Staff should be informed of expectations and upcoming
as well as your subordinates.Being organised. 10. Promote Staff Empowerment . ‘Leaders are born. intelligence.4. 13.Admittedly. You have to keep yourself going — and motivate those who work with you. Priorities can change quickly in a healthcare setting as patients develop problems. your staff.Man Theory According to this point of view. and receive positive feedback.The nurse manager must be able to adjust staffing or care decisions in response to changing needs while also being decisive when necessary. lead with confidence and stand by his or her convictions. Emotionally attuned to the difficulties of patients and family members on the floors you supervise. goals etc. great leaders are simply born with the necessary internal characteristics such as charisma. Mediator . between a worker and a client. and be able to see situations from their point of view. in terms of projects. 9. just as conversely teams as a whole become more confident with a strong leader. Delegation – Part of being a good manager is learning to trust your team enough to delegate work to them. especially when called on to negotiate conflict with nurses or other staffers. and social skills that make them natural-born leaders.Be able to see the nurses who work for you as whole people. changes (not reprimanded after they've unknowingly done it wrong). Self-motivation . 8. Self-motivation. and increase job satisfaction and opportunities for advancement. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. Leadership Theories Trait Theory It assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Empathy . 7. not made. and works with them to ensure excellence. Great. Without organisationmanager will be unable to plan effectively. Your superiors. is also important to nurses. as well as knowing when and what to delegate. . and others are not.The effective nurse manager is involved with the nursing staff on all levels. 12. be listened to. is important for any manager. Available and accessible to staff . Confidence – Managers are decision-makers. Effective decision-maker. 11. Any team would find difficulty working with a manager who seems unpredictable and unsure of himself. or between a superior and a worker. one of the most frequent complaints from nurses is that their managers only talk to them when they are in trouble. is a vital personal characteristic for a manager.. need to know that you can be counted on. Organisation . a good manager needs to be able to act as a mediator between workers.The nursing staff expects the manager to make intelligent decisions when conflicts and problems arise.An effective manager can’t motivate others if he or she can’t self-motivate. with lives and concerns outside of work. you should be dependable and reliable. 5. execute goals or measure you success/failure. Flexible . 14. and take charge of what’s next for you. Reliable – As a person. the ability to get yourself going. whenever possible. welcomes their input.Often. Nurse managers should be able to set the example and build relationships of respect. Others in the organization should be able to rely on you. Acknowledging and incorporating staff suggestions. 15. be given timely and accurate information and updates. but the nursing staff needs to know that the manager is available when needed. This means a manager needs to be able to make decisions with confidence. confidence. 6. meetings and other managerial responsibilities are important. Respect–Be respectful of your workers if you are to have respect as a manager in return. which means some people are natural leaders. create autonomy.
no leadership style is best in all situations. This increases the follower's sense of security and control and hence is appropriate to the situation. showing concern for their welfare and creating a friendly working environment. Charismatic Theory Charismatic Leader gathers followers through dint of personality and charm. Success depends upon a number of variables. The term "Great Man" was used because. This approach is best when the task is complex. It suggests that leadership cannot be developed. leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality. Supportive leadership Considering the needs of the follower. According to this theory. Directive leadership Telling followers what needs to be done and giving appropriate guidance along the way. They inspires others by obtaining emotional commitment from followers and by arousing strong feelings of loyalty and enthusiasm.Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born. This may be used when the task is unstructured and complex and the follower is inexperienced. This approach is best when the work is stressful. rather than any form of external power or authority. The leader shows faith in the capabilities of the follower to succeed. boring or hazardous. both in work and in self-improvement (and often together). in a situation where the . For example. Path Goal Theory Leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy and rewarding followers for completing their tasks 4 Leadership Styles: 1. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic. This includes giving them schedules of specific work to be done at specific times. Contingency Theories Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. High standards are demonstrated and expected. This includes increasing the follower's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. This approach is best when the followers are expert and their advice is both needed and they expect to be able to give it. Directive leadership Participative leadership Consulting with followers and taking their ideas into account when making decisions and taking particular actions. 2. mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. 3. Situational Theories Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. including the leadership style. not made. 4. Achievement-oriented leadership Setting challenging goals. qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation. at the time. Rewards may also be increased as needed and role ambiguity decreased (by telling them what they should be doing). especially in terms of military leadership. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.
These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. An autocratic style works when there is no need for input on the decision. he used a stop watch to determine which method was the most efficient. The decision is made without any form of consultation. however. and where there is no requirement for a central coordination. the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. Participative/ Interactional Theories Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. he found that this caused the most level of discontent. an authoritarian style might be most appropriate.leader is the most knowledgeable and experienced member of a group. Management Theories Also known as transactional theories. and hence allowing people to make their own decisions. These studies were known as “Time and Motion Studies. In participative theories. Rooted in behaviorism. It can be problematic when there are a wide range of opinions and there is no clear way of reaching an equitable final decision. In Lewin's experiments. When he was working as an apprentice at the Midvale steel company. although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group. the leader involves the people in the decision-making. To increase efficiency. Lewin’s Leadership styles Autocratic In the autocratic style. for example in sharing resources across a range of different people and groups.” . organization and group performance. Democratic decision-making is usually appreciated by the people. and where the motivation of people to carry out subsequent actions would not be affected whether they were or were not involved in the decision-making. the leader takes decisions without consulting with others. when they fail. According to this theory. Laissez-Faire The laissez-faire style is to minimize the leader's involvement in decision-making. especially if they have been used to autocratic decisions with which they disagreed. Taylor tried to figure out the “one best way” to perform a particular task. Behavioral Theories Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made. Learn more about theories of transactional leadership. where the decision would not change as a result of input. this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. not born. although they may still be responsible for the outcome. people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. Consider it the flipside of the Great Man theories. they are rewarded. These theories base leadership on a system of rewards and punishments. In other instances where group members are skilled experts. he noticed that most workers did not work as hard as they could. focus on the role of supervision. when employees are successful. Managerial theories are often used in business. Scientific Management Theory Frederick Winslow Taylor—(1856-1915) was the father of Scientific Management. Democratic In the democratic style. a democratic style would be more effective. To do so. they are reprimanded or punished. Laissez-faire works best when people are capable and motivated in making their own decisions.
He. Unity of direction – the entire organisation should be aligned and be moving towards a common goal. Bureaucratic Theory Max Weber a German sociologist propounded the theory called principle of bureaucracy – a theory related to authority structure and relations in the 19th century and concerned with describing the ideal structure of an organization. . 8. bureaucracy is the formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Remuneration – payment is an important motivator. both in terms of skill and methods. Esprit de corps – management should foster harmony. 13. He had been managing director of a large French mining company. He first broke management down into five distinct elements: forecasting and planning – looking into the future and drawing up action plans organising – building up the material and human structure of the undertaking commanding – maintaining activity amount personnel coordinating – unifying and harmonising activity and effort controlling – ensuring that things conform to rules and instructions 14 Principles of Management 1. 9. 3. 14. cohesion and morale among the organisation’s staff. Authority – the right to give orders and the power to require obedience. Subordination of individual interests – individual needs and interests should be subordinate to the needs of the organisation. he developed a general theory of business administration. 12. Management and workers should be interdependent so that they cooperate Administrative Management Theory Henri Fayol (1841–1925) is often described as the ‘father’ of modern management. 5. 2. Employees should be selected and trained according to scientific methods. Equity – employees must be treated equally and fairly. 4. explained the basic principles of bureaucracy. Employees must obey. 7. Employers should also train employees in order to improve their performance. but should be fair and reward well-directed effort.Taylor’s scientific management was based on four main ideas: 1. Discipline – a successful organisation requires the shared effort of all staff. Line of authority – a hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. 6. but this is two-sided – they will only comply if management play their part by providing good leadership. Drawing on his experience of what worked well in an organisation. Initiative – encouraging staff to show initiative is a source of strength in an organisation. detailed rules and impersonal relations. 3. Jobs should be designed according to scientific rules rather than rule-of-thumb methods. and was concerned with efficiency at an organisational level rather than at the level of the task. 10. hierarchy. classify. Order – an organisation’s requirements must be balanced against its resources. The principles of scientific management should be explained to workers. Unit of command – employees should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command. 11. He suggested an ideal model for management as bureaucratic approach. and tabulate data in order to determine the “one best way” of performing a task or series of tasks. Division of work – specialisation encourages continuous improvement. Employers should gather. 4. 2. Centralisation – an element of centralisation must always be present and is part of the ‘natural order’ in an organisation. According to him. He gave emphasis on division of labor. in the book the theory of social and economic organizations. Stability of tenure of personnel –employees need a period of stability in a job to perform at their best.
6) Career orientation: . during 1924-1932.e. 4) Formal rules and regulations: . Theory Z Type of Organization Long-term employment Consentual. Theory X manager tends to blame others for everything. They work for a fixed salaries and pursue their career within the organization. 5) Impersonality: .” McGregor’s Theory X and Y By Douglas McGregor. in which change of any kind increases productivity. Nepotism and favoritism are not preferred.Principles of bureaucratic theory 1) Job specialization: . Theory Z William Ouchi. Thus. participative decision-making Individual responsibility Slow evaluation and promotion 1. a management researcher developed this new theory of management in the 1980s Theory Z is a business management theory that integrates Japanese and American business practices. avoiding involvement with personalities and preferences of employees. education or formal examination.Jobs are divided into simple. There will be open communication.All organizational members are to be selected on the basis of technical qualifications and competence demonstrated by training. Life long employment and adequate protection of individuals against arbitrary dismissal is guaranteed. and. rules of law lead to impersonality in interpersonal relations. Here managers are professional officials rather than owners units they manage. 2. This belief makes managers to micromanage their employees. productivity rose. lesser hierarchy and collaborative decision making in such an environment. This type of thinking builds positive work environment. routine and fixed category based on competence and functional specialization.Career building opportunity is offered highly. 2) Authority hierarchy: . Hawthorne Study Study of worker efficiency at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Co. 4. has been known as the “Hawthorne Effect. and that they always are on the lookout to escape work. managers must depend heavily upon formal organizational rules and regulations. accept responsibility. 3. whereas the American emphasis is on individual responsibility. .Officers are organized in a n hierarchy in which higher officer controls lower position holders i. Researchers found that regardless of whether the light levels were raised or lowered. and results in mistrust and restrictive supervision. Worker’s productivity was measured at various levels of light illumination. The Japanese business emphasis is on collective decision making. superior controls subordinates and their performance of subordinates and lower staff could be controlled. Theory Y type of manager believes that every employee is self-motivated and can be trusted.Rules and controls are applied uniformly. Theory X states that a manager sees his employees as fundamentally lazy. And that they can think for themselves. 3) Formal selection: . This theory refers to the perception of manager has of his employees. given right environment they can perform well. The researchers concluded that productivity rose because workers worked harder when they received attention.To ensure uniformity and to regulate actions of employees. This phenomenon.
and controls its behavior in this respect. including family Relationship Theories Also known as transformational theories. Safety/Security – home in a safe neighborhood. energizes. formalized measures 6. such as food. a feeling of confidence. 2 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1. or initiates employee behavior. retirement plan and health or medical insurance 3. subordinates. water. achievement. This approach provides a description and analysis of how behavior is energized. Maslow concluded that human behavior is not controlled only by internal or external factors but both and that some factors have precedence over others. Process theories CONTENT THEORIES Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow is considered the father of humanistic psychology. while internal esteem involves the need for self-respect. sustained. informal control with explicit. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Clayton Alderfer introduced an alternative needs hierarchy that relates to three identified categories of needs. Growth – refers to an individual’s intrinsic need to be creative. 1.need for air. Moderately specialized career path 7. recognition and appreciation. 5. . 2. and working conditions. job security. and to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral standards. Content theories – (needs theories) explain the specific factors that motivate people. at least to and acceptable state. fringe benefits. co-workers. including personal development with opportunities for personal growth. Relatedness – refers to the need for developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships such as relations with family. 2. focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. before they can be motivated to achieve higher levels in the hierarchy. These leaders are focused on the performance of group members. Difference between Maslow and Alderfer . Self-actualization – the desire to become more of what we are. supervisors. directed. and to make useful and productive contributions. Content theories help managers understand what arouses. Process theories – (cognitive theories) focus on the cognitive processes underlying and individual’s level of motivation. existence. Motivation Theories Motivation is a psychological feature that makes a living being strive towards achieving a goal. Existence – refers to and individual’s concern with basic material and physiological existence requirements. Holistic concern. *Individuals must satisfy their lower level needs. and stopped. and other significant groups. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Love and Belonging – desire to be loved. water and food 2. Only one in ten individuals becomes fully self-actualized. The content approach focuses on the assumption that individuals are motivated by the desire to satisfy their needs.5. Self-esteem – external esteem is satisfied by achieving the respect of others. Implicit. and autonomy. social and professional status. but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. 3. 1. Physiological . pay. to belong and to be approved by others 4. friends. relatedness and growth.
In the workplace. The most important aspect of the ERG theory is the frustration-regression principle. This opposes the popular belief that money alone is the primary motivation for people to work. promotions. such as salary. They place high value on discipline. Inputs – those things a person contributes to an exchange. the order of needs can be different for different people. It states that the content of a person’s job is the primary source of motivation. therefore. 2. Theory Formula: M=V x I x E He introduced three variables :Expectancy (E) : Expectation leads to desired Performance Instrumentality. PROCESS THEORIES Expectancy Theory By Victor Vroom. prefer to work on task that are moderately difficult. They have zero-sum goals where for one to win. 2. Although the ERG theory retains the concept need of hierarchy. advancement. fringe benefits. Other factors such as levels of challenge. 3. People who are motivated by power prefer to work in positions of power (military. salary increase). Hygiene factors such as pay. an employee’s inputs would be experience. job security. Stacy Adams. and prefer work where success is based on effort (and notf actor of luck). someone else has to lose. recognition. working conditions. and job-policies will only reduce dissatisfaction. ERG theory accounts for differences in need preferences between cultures. a person may “regress” to a lower level need (or vice versa) to achieve satisfaction.1. Herzber’s Two-Factor Theory Developed by Frederick Herzberg. and that they would like to get feedback on their work. This is based on the assumption that people choose a specific behavior based on their expectation of the intended result. efforts. bonuses. police and heads of departments) and they intrinsically want to influence. recognition. 2 MAJOR COMPONENTS IN EQUITY THEORY 1. (I) : Performance leads to favorable Outcome (rewards such as promotion. McClelland’s Need Theory By David McClellan. also known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory. and by themselves do not motivate people. it does not require a strict ordering as compared to Maslows. work. People who are motivated by affiliation prefer to work with people in power and love to establish relationship with them. goals and sources of motivation Equity Theory By J. proposed that people are motivated by achievements. Outcomes – things that result from exchange.States that a person evaluates his/her outcomes and inputs by comparing them with those of others. The frustrationregression principle explains that when a barrier prevents an individual from obtaining a higher level need. based on their needs. and Valence (V) : This is the importance one places on rewards. teach and encourage people. education. . etc. skills and abilities. be part of such elite group where their work is accepted and respected. affiliation and power. People who are motivated by achievements prefer to master a job or situation. ERG theory does not require an individual to satisfy a lower level need for a higher level need to become the driver of the person’s behavior. autonomy and opportunity for creativity are termed as motivational factors that make people want to work.
Setting specific goals (e. I want to earn a lot of money). Quit.F. 2. Goal Setting Theory Edwin Locke which proposed that motivation and performance will be high if individuals are set specific goals which are challenging. This removal may weaken an employee’s future behavior. they will react in one of four ways: 1. 4. which. First. if the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards an employee receives for higher performance are perceived as equitable. Reinforcement theory suggests that an employee’s behavior will be repeated if it is associated with negative consequences. a certificate of accomplishment. and where feedback is given on performance. The goals that are hard to achieve are linearly and positively connected to performance. 3. Satisfaction-Performance Theory Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler (1968) extended the Expectancy Theory and incorporated the Equity Theory into a model to reflect the relationship of an employee’s performance to job satisfaction. Reinforcement Theory B. Skinner’s research found that an individual’s behavior could be directed through the use of reinforcement. Skinner experimented with the theories of operant conditioning. 3. both undesirable. or a month’s use of the parking space directly outside the hospital’s main entrance. Job satisfaction is related to both absenteeism and turnover. Negative reinforcement – when an unpleasant effect is eliminated or avoided. Desirable outcomes can be simple and symbolic. Second. Reinforcement is a behavioristic approach. 4 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT 1. Positive reinforcement – when a desirable outcome is associated with a behavior. the more a person will work to reach it. encourages repeated positive behavior. but accepted. These rewards can be intrinsic (sense of accomplishment) or extrinsic (promotion or bonus). The two most important findings of this theory are: 1. 2. if an individual is attracted by the value of reward and he or she perceives that a higher degree of effort on his or her part will lead to those rewards and the employee has the necessary abilities and accurate role perceptions. The Satisfaction-Performance Model tells us two things. which argues that reinforcement conditions behavior. Changing their work inputs to better match the rewards they are receiving. Change their own perception of the situation. Attribution Theory . then higher performance will result. A negative consequence is an undesirable response to an employee’s behavior in the attempt to stop the behavior from being repeated. 2. Turnover and Absenteeism have a direct influence on an entity’s effectiveness. When individuals believe that they have been treated unfailry in comparison with their coworkers. 4. Punishment – can come in two forms: negative consequences and positive consequences. then satisfaction will result – satisfaction being the difference between perceived equity and actual rewards.g. The harder the goal. Porter and Lawler stated that job satisfaction is generated when an employee receives rewards for his or her performance. The amount of reward an employee receives may be unrelated to how well he or she has performed. The researchers believe that performance leads to satisfaction rather than satisfaction to improved performance.g. Ask for a raise or take legal action. like positive reinforcement. such as words of praise.Equity theory looks at an individual’s perceived fairness of an employment situation and finds that perceived inequalities can lead to changes in behavior. Extinction – defined as the removal of an established reinforcement that was previously used to reinforce an employee’s behavior. I want to earn a million before I am 30) generates higher levels of performance than setting general goals (e.
The servant leader deviates from the traditional leadership style of dominating subordinates and telling them what to do. including the degree of competition in the industry and the possibility of takeover by more profit-oriented management. In his view.org/disciplines/leadership/leadership. 1974. the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person.Heider (1958) was the first to propose a psychological theory of attribution. healing. and inspire the subordinates to follow. Attribution theory is concerned with how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavior. Solutions to the principal-agent problem the way in which agents can be encouraged to act in the interest of principals is by the introduction of incentives to align the goals of the two. The principal-agent problem arises within the firm when ownership and control are separated and the self-interest of managers may lead them to act other than in the interest of the shareholders. . persuasion. Weiner. because if they perform badly enough they will lose their jobs. Just how much latitude they have to pursue their own goals at the expense of profits depends on many things. 2) external attribution. Such inspiration leads to collective efforts. the problem cannot be completely solved.. stewardship. The problem is to design monitoring or incentive systems that will make managers act in the best interest of the shareholders. character or personality. Ten characteristics of servant leader are listening. This can be done either by ensuring that managers buy (or are perhaps given) some shares or by giving them share options which will create wealth for the managers when the value of the firms' shares rises above some value. The servant leadership acts proactively to set the way. They cannot ignore profits. A person seeking to understand why another person did something may attribute one or more causes to that behavior. the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in. Hired managers (like hired gardeners) will generally wish to pursue their own goals. >The first way to align the interests of shareholders and managers is to ensure that managers themselves have an interest in the value of the shares.htm LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT THEORIES APPLICABLEINNURING PRACTICE Servant Leadership Theory The leader takes care of the needs of his followers first before they take care of their own. http://changingminds. unless there is costly monitoring of agents' behaviour. Jones et al. however. empathy. Principal Agent Theory This is the problem of designing mechanisms that will induce agents to act in their principals' interests.g. the results of which turn out to be more than the sum of individual efforts. According to Heider a person can make two attributions 1) internal attribution. trying to understand other people’s behavior by piecing together information until they arrived at a reasonable explanation or cause. Heider discussed what he called “naïve” or “commonsense” psychology. awareness. In general. The leader feels that they need to serve their followers rather than force upon them what they want. and rather empowers subordinates and inspires them to perform. conceptualization. Instead of acting like a king to their subordinates. people were like amateur scientists. 1972. such as attitude. leaders act as servants. and building community. Attribution theory assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do. commitment to the growth of others. 1986) developed a theoretical framework that has become a major research paradigm of social psychology. foresight. but Weiner and colleagues (e.
INTERNALIZED MORAL PERSPECTIVE Self-regulatory process using internal moral standards to guide behavior 3. Understand their purpose 2. Those who succeed in increasing profits in their divisions thus will get on well. Authentic leaders have insight.>A second way to give managers a shared interest in profit is by tying some part of their remuneration directly to the firm's profits. . 2.SELF-AWARENESS Reflecting on one’s core values.This could be an annual bonus that is linked to the previous year's profit of the company as a whole. Human represents the capability of individual Social represents what the group can accomplish together Authentic Leadership Theory Focuses on whether leadership is genuine and on the formation of authentic relationships between the leader and followers that are characterized by trust and integrity Five characteristics of Authentic Leaders 1. and those who fail to do so may be let go. >A third way of achieving the same goal is to make promotion subject to the profits of the company as a whole or to the section in which the person is employed. They don’t ask others to do what they are unwilling to do themselves. Strong values 3. Authentic leaders exert influence. they need more. There is a focus on participation. cohesion. but that usually has exclusive reference to the future. Five characteristics “the five marks of authentic leadership”: 1. and consensus building. Act from the heart (mission) FOUR COMPONENTS: 1. It’s no coincidence that influence and influenza (the flu) come from the same root word. Real leaders are contagious. Authentic leaders demonstrate initiative. Individuals are mentored. motives Being aware of and trusting your own feelings 2. There is a team orientation.BALANCED PROCESSING Ability to analyze informational objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision 4. They go first. While leaders must have vision. RELATIONAL TRANSPARENCY Being open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others. identity. Instead. Trusting relationships 4. Sometimes we refer to this as vision. There is a commitment. Self-discipline 5. they lead by example 3. They don’t sit on the sidelines. emotions. They need wisdom and discernment. Consideration is given to morale. Human and Social Theory Individuals are involved in the work. or it could be some explicit share of the profit of the part of the company in which that manager works.
They posses a positive attitude. Implementing them is a managerial undertaking. Leaders must be deliberate and intentional if they are to be successful. this is the foundation of authentic leadership. Quantom Leadership Theory According to Dr. Integrity—or the lack thereof—ultimately determines the quality of a person’s impact. 5. >It simply means advocating a better idea to your colleagues or boss. 7. leaders make a difference. The measure of leadership cannot be found in the leader. 6. 4. The world is changed because of their leadership. as was Mao Zedong and Josef Stalin.the willingness to risk group rejection in the pursuit of a better way of doing things. They are able to create real and lasting change. 2. 10. influence. Change is their way of life. Thought-Leadership Theory >Thought leadership is based on youthful rebelliousness . >It recognizes the complexity and multidimensionality of the conditions can result in major divergence in direction. and impact. >leadership is about the initiation of new directions. as systems and changes are non-linear. They believe in themselves. Leader vs Manager Leader Emphasize the future Emphasize setting direction for “what will be?” Give vision and inspiration Lead people Emphasize hierarchy. They build relationships with quality people. In a sense. quantum leadership helps nurses make better decisions.4. Unless something has shifted. Not every leader is benevolent. They are optimists. This makes it next to impossible to predict what will happen.Authentic leaders exercise integrity. They are only entertainers. diffused authority Manager Focus on the present Deal with “what is” Execute control Manage things/ resources Emphasize hierarchy. Hence. Authentic leaders have impact. There is a big difference. >It demonstrates what needs to be done. They love and respect the people they lead. initiative. Yet their lives were not integrated with the highest values. . COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP/MANAGEMENT 1. they aren’t leaders. 9. The training helps the nurses weigh the pros and cons of different plans and interventions of care. Adolf Hitler was a leader. >Thought leadership is radically different from traditional top-down leadership. These five qualities can guide us as we grow in our ability to lead. They build the people they lead. such as when is the most appropriate time to call in a physician. leaving others to follow without helping them get there. it is found in the impact the leader has on his or her followers. They had insight. 3. This leadership theory places an emphasis on self-direction rather than on being given direction by others. They do not take issues personally. >Leaders therefore need to have creativity and flexibility. At the end of the day. 8. They appreciate who they are. thought leadership is not a learned skill. It has nothing to do with position or managing people. Tom Porter-O'Grady. chain of command . 5. >It is the basis of innovative change and is egalitarian because it can shift rapidly from one person to another. >They need to create connective relationships with people within the system that nurture and support all involved. They plan ahead.
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