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North South University

Effect of Industrialization
Course: BIO 103, Spring 2013, Section 3

Prepared By
Md Abdulla Al Mamun Fahim Mahidur Rahman Khan Md Nurul Azim Rifat Tahsin Shahab Uddin ID: 102 0366 030 ID: 102 0625 030 ID: 101 0847 030 ID: 101 0692 030

Prepared for
Dr. S.M. Mostafa Kamal Khan Department of Biology and Microbiology North South University

Date of Submission: 20th August, 2013

Table of Contents

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Topic Introduction Description 2.1 Impact on Air 2.2 Impact on Water 2.3 Impact on Soil Pollution 2.4 Green House Effect 2.5 Increase Disease 2.6 Effect on Flora and Fauna 2.7 Impact on Ecosystem 2.8 Extinction

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3 3 5 5 7 7 8 8 8

Conclusion

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Introduction
Industrialization
The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services. Individual manual labor is often replaced by mechanized mass production and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines. Characteristics of industrialization include the use of technological innovation to solve problems as opposed to superstition or dependency upon conditions outside human control such as the weather, as well as more efficient division of labor and economic growth. In brief, Industrialization refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals and the provision of services.

History
Historically, the industrialization process involves the expansion of the secondary sector in an economy originally dominated by primary-sector activities. The first transformation to an industrial economy from an agricultural one, known as the Industrial Revolution, took place from the mid-18th to early 19th century The "Second Industrial Revolution" labels the later changes that came about in the mid-19th century after the refinement of the steam engine, the invention of the internal combustion engine, the harnessing of electricity and the construction of canals, railways and electric-power lines. The invention of the assembly line gave this phase a boost.

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Description Advantages
The main advantages of industrialization are1. The biggest advantage of industrialization is that it eases the daily responsibilities and tasks of people by placing most of the bulk of tasks on technology and other resources. 2. Industrialization also opens the door to lots of employment opportunities which, in turn, also open the door to establishing businesses to satisfy the needs of those employed by the industry. 3. With the help of machines we can produce large quantities of goods in short span of time. In some urgent cases such as epidemics we need to produce more medicines in short span of time so by machines this could be possible. 4. Even the farmers get advantages due to industrialization as only due to setting up of industries can they sell their produce at greater prices.

Disadvantages
Industrialization causes lots of harm to environmental factors or elements. The negative impact if industrialization on some environmental elements are described below-

Impact on Air
The main negative impact of industrialization is on the quality of air. Industrial revolution and the increased uses of technological instruments in out day to day life is contaminating the air surrounding us. Machines and instruments that we use daily in houses, industries, roads or for other purposes are emitting lot of toxic gases that are mixing up with the clean air. This is hampering the cycle of the gaseous elements in the air. Industrial and manufacturing activities emit lots of smoke and fumes. Waste incinerators, manufacturing industries and
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power plants emit high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air. This happens almost everywhere that people live. Petroleum refineries also release lots of hydrocarbons into the air. Fumes from car exhaust contain dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates. On their own, they cause great harm to air and to people who breathe them.

Impact on Water Pollution


Impact on Surface Water: Industrialization has led to the most important cause of water pollution. Industrial activities create many toxic materials which mix with water in many ways; most of them are toxic. Sewage, industrial waste, fertilizer, and agricultural run-off contain organic and inorganic materials that when discharged into waters, increase the growth of algae, which causes the depletion of oxygen. The low oxygen levels are not able to support most indigenous organisms in the area and therefore upset the natural ecological balance in rivers and lakes. Impact on Ground Water: Heavy water consumption for industrial purposes may even lead to a depletion of the ground water in the area. This will cause crisis for pure water and hamper the production of agricultural products.

Figure 1: Schematic outline of water contamination

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Figure 2: Schematic out line of ground water contamination

Impact on Soil Pollution


Soil pollution is a result of many activities and experiments done by mankind through industrialization which end up contaminating the soil. Industrial wastes such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the most common causes of soil pollution. Oil and fuel dumping into soil is also contaminating the soil. These chemical materials reduce the water absorption capacity of the soil. This causes the stacking of water on the soil for a long time. All toxic material in the soil reduces the capacity of bacteria to break down the chemical waste. Soil pollutants would bring in alteration in the soil structure, which would lead to death of many essential organisms in it. This would also affect the larger predators and compel them to move to other places, once they lose their food supply.

Green House Effect


Industrialization is the cause of global warming. Most of the industrial activities produce lots of toxic and natural gases that cause the imbalance in the cycle. Almost all of the industrial
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activities emit a lot of carbon dioxide (CO2) and Chloro Fluro Carbon gas. All industrial activities around the world increase the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. This increase amount of Carbondioxide creates a layer in the ozone layer and trapped the heat came with the sun light. The trapped heat increases the atmospheric temperature. This is a gradual warming of the earth temperature due to industrialization. This global warming is referred as the Green House Effect. This effect leads to melting of polar areas and rising of sea levels. This is because of the energy sources we are using.

Figure 3: Schematic outline of global warming (Green House Effect)

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Increase Diseases
There is a general consensus that industrial production and especially technological production causes a number of respiratory and cardiac diseases ranging from occupational lung diseases, to asthma, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, heart rhythm problems to eye irritation. Air pollution from industrial production can lead to a range of respiratory and other diseases among the general population living within the range of deposition of effluent from such enterprises. The costs of the burden of illness would include lost years of life and income, health care costs, and quality of life related costs. Beyond the toll on human health, there will also be corresponding impacts on domestic animals and food production.

Impact on Flora (plant) and Fauna (Animal)


Deforestation or destruction of habitat Expanding population, industrialization and need of land for development of expanding cities, conversion of land to agriculture, urban sprawl, infrastructure development, etc. has led man to cut down forests recklessly. Not only are the forests home to a large number of animals, trees are also an important component of the water cycle. These also affect eh life of living animals. Sometimes they lead to physical disorder of the living species. Beside this, the affect can be more severe in fauna that lead to extinction of species.

Ecosystem Disruption
Industrialization is a major contributor of pollution. According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, industrialization contributes approximately 6.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere annually, as of 2011. Many animals such as aquatic life cannot withstand this amount of pollution, and are increasingly dying. Plants are a major

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source of food for animals, and they too are affected by increased atmospheric and water pollution. When plant life is threatened, animals struggle to acquire food for their own survival. Industrialization have has a great impact on elements of biological environment. By altering these elements, it has hampered the whole ecosystem.

Extinction
According to the U.S. Geological Survey, two-thirds of polar bears will disappear by 2050. But polar bears are not the only animal species threatened with extinction; others include elephants, aquatic life and even tigers. The extinction of animals can be attributed to an increase in deforestation to make way for large-scale industrial farming and human settlement. It can also be attributed to receding ice caps in the case of polar bears as a result of increasing global warming, expedited by industrialization.

Remedies
1. Try using "green" cleaning products. 2. Agricultural waste (manure) is utilized as fertilizer 3. Use environmental friendly equipment 4. Use fuel efficient and hybrid engines 5. Recycling of products 6. Tree plantation 7. Industrial waste treatment plant

Conclusion
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It is common knowledge that increased industrial activity worldwide requires the use of natural resources which are depleting day-by-day. It is also true that the need for resource conservation, efficient use of resources and environment friendly corporate policies and behavior has now been recognized worldwide. The ultimate objective of industrialization is to achieve a better quality of life for everyone. A degraded environment means a direct threat to the quality of life and therefore poses a challenge to industrialization. Industrialization has to be there but not at the cost of the environment or for that matter our existence.

References
Industrialization(17th August, 2013).Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Industrialisation Ronald F. Negative environmental impact of industrialization and the way forward. PPT: the university of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

Harle H. (2011) What are the advantages of industry, Retrieved from: http://wiki.answers.com/ Q/What _the_ advantages_of_industrialization

Jhon C, Carl A. Industrialization and Effects . Retrieved from http://www.notes.com/homework-help/what-advantages-industrialization

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