[Vertical Vessel Foundation Analysis and Design Guide

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PURPOSE This practice establishes guidelines and recommended procedures for the design of vertical vessel foundations using AFES(=Automatic Foundation Engineering System). AFES can design vertical vessel foundations as either soil- or pile-supported footings. CONTENTS This practice comprises the following:

Create or Open New Project Setting Soil and Pile Parameters. Creating New Structure. Exporting Load Combination. Assign Foundation Grouping. Editing footing sizes and other parameters. Pier and Footing Reinforcement Set Pile Layout for Pile Foundations. Import Load Combination for various foundation groups. Performing Design and Analysis functions. Quantity BOM(Bill of Material) function Construction Drawing Export 3D Modeling Data (PDMS, PDS Frame Work Plus)

There is a need to gather all necessary data from responsible disciplines such as load data of machine or equipment from Mechanical group, etc. before proceeding to modeling. You can input loads directly to AFES through the “Load Case/Combination” feature or import superstructure analysis result files for foundation analysis and design.

Below figures are foundation types commonly used for vertical vessel equipment supports.
Use : OCT Block Foundation

Use : OCT Block Foundation

Use : OCT Foundation

Design data sample for equipment is shown below based from actual projects. This equipment is a vertical vessel supported by octagonal shape foundation. DESIGN DATA Equipment Design Data

Footing Sketch Sheet

This kind of calculation can be done by manual. . visual basic or in any form provided to satisfy code and standard requirements. excel.Sample spreadsheet calculation for wind and seismic load is presented below which was applied for actual project.

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or create a new project. duration of project. project rate that values the program needs to use for the specific project. The Project Number and Structure Name entered in Project Information will display as a menu header Note: General Data should be input. client data and Job data about a project. select “New/Open Project”. . Project Name. Click on the “New/Open Project” from Top toolbar menu 1. number of telephone and fax. Create or Open New Project The first step is to enter project specific items. Site Name. e-mail. This data needs to use for the specific project. The client data includes your client manager name. These items include general data. Job data includes assigned engineer. To open the existing project. A window dialogue will display as shown. General data includes project No. address.1. any more.1 Create New Project a) From “File” menu. supervisor. Client Name.

b) Select “New Project” option then click “OK” button. Or . A window dialogue will display as shown. c) Enter information then click “OK” button.

select “New/Open Project”. c) Select a project then click “OK” button. A window will display as shown.2 Open Existing Project a) From “File” menu.1. . b) Select “Open Existing Project”.

Setting of constants options include design information that AFES needs in order to design a foundation. bearing capacity of soil. capacity of pile.2. 2. a) Click “Setting of Constant” button. allowable increase of soil. safety factor. supports and anchor bolt options. .1 Set “Bearing Capacity of Soil” from the “Setting of Constant” command. In case of New project. clear cover. e) Click “Save” button. This includes a number of parameters such as design code. set all design parameters from the “Setting of Constant” form. b) Select “Bearing Capacity of Soil” tab. Setting Soil and Pile Parameters. strength reduction factors. allowable increase of pile. d) Enter “Soil Bearing Capacity (Qa)” value. c) Enter name in the “Soil Bearing Capacity Name” text box. material and unit weight.

b) Enter name in the “Pile Name” text box. d) Select “Pile Shape”. e) Enter values for “Pile dimensions” f) Enter values for “Allowable Capacities”. g) Enter values for “Elastic Modulus (Ep)” and “ Pile Area”. . h) Click “Save” button. c) Select “Pile Type”.2.2 Set “Capacity of Pile” from the “Setting of Constant” button. a) Select “Capacity of Pile” tab.

Input structure name. Creating New Structure.3. and then click on the “New” button. Every input and output data can be saved in AFES Data Base according to projects.1 Choose “Create New Structure” button. 3. “Add : New Structure Name” dialog window will appear. An engineer is able to create a file for a new project. or eliminate old and useless data for the user’s own sake. . reuse data from projects conducted previously. which provide work efficiency in control over project information.

a) Click “Load Case/Combination” button.4. d) Click “Export” button. Export Load Combination before assigning group otherwise they will be deleted. it will be available for import in this program. assign file name then click “Save” button. Exporting Load Combination. . c) Click “OK” button. This function enables us to export load combination data that was saved in text file in AFES program. 4. b) Click “Load Combination” button. e) Choose directory to save file. The Load Combination form will appear as shown.1. A warning message will appear as shown. After exporting the file.

At the end of this step. This is very important because it eliminates repetitions of commands. . The Assign Foundation Grouping command is used for assigning group for models with multi-foundations. 5. we will create the structure as shown below. Foundations with the same load combinations are recommended to join in one group.1 Click “Assign Foundation Grouping” button. The foundation modules in red box shown in above figure are normally used for vertical vessel equipment. The available foundation types are as follows. Assign Foundation Grouping.5.

c) Select “Octagonal” from the “Group type”.” option. e) Check “Block foundation”. . i) Click “Save” button. d) Select “Non Pile fdn. a) Click “New” button.5.2 Assign group for nodes 1 and 5. b) Assign name from the “Group name” text box.” g) Select “Different size (Each foundation)” h) Select nodes 1 and 5 from the “Using node list” form. f) Select “Non Pile fdn.

d) Select “Non Pile fdn. e) Select “Different size (Each foundation)” f) Select nodes 2 and 6 from the “Using node list” form.3 Assign group for nodes 2 and 6.5. c) Select “Octagonal” from the “Group type”. g) Click “Save” button. . b) Assign name from the “Group name” text box. a) Click “New” button.” option.

d) Select “Pile fdn.5 Assign group for nodes 7 and 8. c) Select “Octagonal” from the “Group type”. a) Click “New” button. h) Click “Save” button. 5. a) Click “New” button. e) Select “Pile fdn.” option. . d) Select “Block foundation”. c) Select “Octagonal” from the “Group type”.5. g) Select nodes 7 and 8 from the “Using node list” form.4 Assign group for nodes 3 and 4. f) Click “Save” button. e) Select nodes 3 and 4 from the “Using node list” form. b) Assign name from the “Group name” text box. e) Select “Different size (Each foundation)”. b) Assign name from the “Group name” text box.” option. f) Select “Different size (Each foundation)”.

The structure outcome is shown below. .

Editing footing sizes and other parameters. <Footing tab> .6. The Feature Data (Dimension) command is used to define the dimensions and other parameters necessary for the foundation and piers. a) Select “G1” from the “Group” selection in top menu. c) Choose “SUPT-01” in the “Soil Name” selection. b) Click “Feature Data/Dimension” button. 6.1 Edit footing size of group “G1”.

e) Click “Save” button. .2 Edit footing size of group “G2”. a) Select “G2” from the “Group” selection in top menu. b) Click “Feature Data/Dimension” button.<Pier tab> d) Enter values as shown in the “Feature” form for “Footing”. 6. c) Choose “SUPT-01” in the “Soil Name” selection.

<Footing tab> <Pier tab> .

d) Enter values as shown in the “Feature” form for “Footing” and “Pier”. e) Click “Save” button. a) Select “G3” from the “Group” selection in top menu. c) Choose “SUPT-02” in the “Soil Name” selection. <Footing tab> . b) Click “Feature Data/Dimension” button. 6.3 Edit footing size of group “G3”.

b) Click “Feature Data/Dimension” button. e) Click “Save” button. c) Choose “SUPT-02” in the “Soil Name” selection. . 6. a) Select “G4” from the “Group” selection in top menu.4 Edit footing size of group “G4”.<Pier tab> d) Enter values as shown in the “Feature” form for “Footing” and “Pier”.

<Footing tab> <Pier tab> .

d) Click “Save” button.c) Enter values as shown in the “Feature” form for “Footing” and “Pier”. .

Minimum Pier Reinforcement Octagons 4'. Octagons 9'. Octagons 6'.7. Set of bar array options are available in the Footing option.#4 vertical with #4 ties at 15 inches maximum. Reinforcement bar sizes depend on the design code designated in the Setting of Constant command.0": 32 .#5 vertical with #5 ties at 15 inches maximum. 7. Pier and Footing Reinforcement The Reinforcement Data command is used to assign bar sizes and spacing for piers and footings. Octagons larger than 12.0" to 12'.#4 vertical with #4 ties at 15 inches maximum.0" in diameter will have a mat of reinforcing steel at the top. Pedestals larger than 8'.10": 8 . From the main tool bar.0" to 5'.#5 vertical with #5 ties at 15 inches maximum. The requirement for additional vertical reinforcing for anchor bolt development will be checked in accordance with Company Structural Engineering Guide.10": 16 . Below are our based from our company standards.0": 24 . click the “Reinforcement data” shown in below figure.1 Block Foundation button. Reinforcement data form will appear as . The arrangement of footing bars are parallel to the X and Y axis except for Tank1 and Tank2 Ring type modules which are in radial and longitudinal directions.0" to 8'.

b) Set “Footing” reinforcement arrangement. c) Select “Save” then “Close” button. . Different forms for single and double layer arrangement are presented.a) Set Array Type Select from the array types of footing reinforcement layout.

2 Octagonal Foundation a) Set Array Type Select from the array types of footing reinforcement layout. . Different forms for single and double layer arrangement are presented.7. b) Set “Footing” reinforcement arrangement.

c) Select ‘Pier’ or footing tab. . Enter the values of footing re-bar as shown.

refer to Help documents.d) Select “Save” then “Close” button. . Fore further discussions.

. 8. Regular pile arrangements are available for circular or rectangular arrays. (Circular Array) a) Select “G3” from the “Group” selection and “3(F5)” from the “Pier” in top menu. Repeat above steps in creating new circular pile array arrangement then click “Add Draw” to include to defined pile arrangement. g) Enter “Star Angle”. Set Pile Layout for Pile Foundations. “No. The Pile Data command is used to layout and assign piles in the foundation. e) Select “PHC-12” from the “Pile Name” selection.1 Set Pile Arrangement for foundation group “G3 – F5”. in the Assign Foundation Grouping command. Define pile features first before proceeding to this function in the Setting of Constant command.8. This function is activated only when the selected type is Pile fdn. c) Select “Array Wizard” tab. (PCD)”. d) Select “Origin Point”.” and “Pile Circle Dia. f) Set “Circular” option. b) Click “Pile Data” command. i) Click “OK” button. h) Click “Regenerate” button.

(Rectangular by Coordinates) a) Select “G3 from the “Group” selection and “4(F6)” from the “Pier” in top menu. d) Select “Origin Point”.8. . c) Select “PHC-12” from the “Pile Name” selection. b) Click “Pile Data” command. e) Enter coordinate values from the corresponding text boxes as shown. c) Select “Coordinates”.2 Set Pile Arrangement for foundation group “G3-F6”. f) Click “OK” button. d) Click “Add” button 18 times to define 18 piles.

manways. The default load cases for a vertical vessel foundation that AFES generates are as follows: .Earthquake Load Operation Y Direction Vertical Loads Erection Weight: Fabricated weight of vessel. Assigned load cases can be combined with factors in accordance with a few design methods and specifications.Earthquake Load Operation X Direction . Combinations by Allowable Strength Design are normally applied with 1.Wind Load X Direction .Earthquake Load Empty X Direction . Empty Weight: Fabricated weight of vessel plus weight of internals. piping. generally taken from vessel drawing. Import Load Combination for various foundation groups. generally taken from vessel drawing. edit or delete load cases and combinations.Test Load .Earthquake Load Empty Y Direction . pier design. and piping that are actually erected with the vessel. fireproofing. Combinations referring to Ultimate Strength Design are used for footing reinforcement. These are also based from our actual projects.Erection or Empty Load . generally taken from vessel . insulation. and pile capacity check for a pile supported foundation. uplift check. Below are load cases and load combinations usually used for vertical vessel footing based from ACI code. overturning. plus internals. The purpose of the combinations is to take into account soil bearing capacity. platforms. Load cases definitions are also discussed for further information. one way shear check. sliding. Mainly applied load combinations are Allowable Strength Load Combination and Ultimate Load Combination. and taking different factors for various cases.0 factored value. add.Operating Load . The Load Case/Combination command is used to define. DESIGN LOAD CASE A vertical vessel or tower is subjected to the loading conditions mentioned under general loads.Wind Load Y Direction . and platforms.9. Operating Weight: Empty weight plus weight of operating liquid or catalyst.

Refer to Structural Company Engineering Guide: Earthquake Engineering. Thermal Loads Thrusts due to thermal expansion of piping will be included in the operating load combinations. generally taken from vessel drawing. Test Weight: Empty weight plus weight of water required for hydrostatic test. verification by the Structural group may be required. the combinations are as follows: . If the results do not compare favorably.Self Weight + Oper . It should be determined whether a hydrostatic test will actually be done in the field. Seismic Loads In earthquake zones. The above loads should be considered as dead loads when applying load factors used in ultimate strength design. Wind loads are normally calculated by the Mechanical group. Seismic loads calculated by the Mechanical group shall be independently verified as appropriate by the Structural group. Wind Loads Wind loads should be calculated in accordance with the job specifications and Company Structural Engineering Guidel: Wind Load Calculation.drawing. when deemed advisable. Consult with the Pipe Stress Engineer for any thermal loads that are to be considered. Dead load factors will be applied to the resultants of piping thermal loadings. For eg if ACI code is selected. due consideration should be given to factors which may significantly affect total wind loads such as the application of dynamic gust factors or the presence of spoilers on the vessel. will replace wind forces when greater. for seismic design considerations and procedures. When calculating or checking wind loads. the differences shall be jointly discussed and resolved. usually conforming with the UBC (Uniform Building Code). DESIGN LOAD COMBINATION The default allowable or unfactored load combinations for a vertical vessel foundation generated by AFES depend on the concrete design code selected. the mechanical results should be used for foundation design. however. Wind loads calculated by hand should be compared to the computer printout. If the two results compare favorably.Self Weight + Oper + Wind X Direction . seismic forces determined in accordance with job specifications. It is generally desirable to design for test weight since unforeseen circumstances may occur.

9Oper + 1.Self Weight + Erec + Wind Y Direction .4Empty .4Self Weight + 1.9Self Weight + 0.9 Erec + 1.0.4Self Weight + 1.1.4Erec or 1.4025 EQ Y Direction .42Wind Y Direction For eg if BS81100 code is selected.3Wind Y Direction .33Wind Y Direction .05 Erec + 1.2Wind Y Direction .1.275Wind X Direction .3Wind X Direction .2Oper + 1.1.43EQ Y Direction .05Oper + 1.43 EQ X Direction .05Oper + 1. the combinations are as follows .9Self Weight + 0.9Oper + 1.Self Weight + Erec + EQ Y Direction .9Oper + 1.33Wind X Direction .05 Erec + 1.4Self Weight + 1.0.0.9Self Weight + 0.2Self Weight + 1.05Self Weight + 1.1.1.1.05Self Weight + 1.43EQ X Direction .1.05Oper + 1..1.4Empty + 1.9 Erec + 1.Self Weight + Oper + EQ Y Direction .Self Weight + Test + 0.42Wind X Direction .9Self Weight + 0.05Self Weight + 1.1.1.05Self Weight + 1.6Self Weight + 1.Self Weight + Oper + Wind Y Direction .Self Weight + Oper + EQ X Direction .4Oper .275 Wind X Direction .05Self Weight + 1.9Oper + 1.05 Erec + 1.4025EQ X Direction .Self Weight + Erec + Wind X Direction .05 Erec + 1.6Oper .1.Self Weight + Erec or Empty .1.05Self Weight + 1.05Self Weight + 1.275 Wind Y Direction .9 Erec + 1.Self Weight + Test + 0.1.3Wind X Direction .05Self Weight + 1.9Self Weight + 0.0.4Self Weight + 1.05Self Weight + 1.2Wind X Direction .0.05Test + 0.43EQ Y Direction .275 Wind Y Direction .0.2Oper + 1.1.3 Wind Y Direction .0.1.05Test + 0.2Wind X Direction .9Self Weight + 0.2Self Weight + 1.2Wind Y Direction .0.1.4Empty + 1.05Oper + 1.4025EQ Y Direction .9Self Weight + 0.9 Erec + 1.1.9Self Weight + 0.05Self Weight + 1.Self Weight + Erec + EQ X Direction .4025 EQ X Direction .

1. A warning message will appear as shown.9Empty + 1..5Platform You can actually create new load combinations through the Load Combination button but in this example.9Self Weight + 0.0.2Self Weight + 1. we will use Import command.6Wind Y Direction .6Self Weight + 1.1.0.5Platform . b) Click “Import” button.0 EQ X Direction + 0. .6Wind X Direction .2Wind X Direction .6Self Weight + 1.1.4Test + 0.0 EQ Y Direction + 0. a) Click Load Combination button.2Self Weight + 1.9Empty + 1.1.4Test + 0. The Load Combination form will display as shown.2 Oper + 1.2Wind Y Direction . c) Access the load combination file then click “Open” button.2 Oper + 1.9Self Weight + 0.

Repeat same procedure for the other foundation groups. . e) Click “Save” button.d) Select appropriate button as explained in the warning message form.

For through discussion on setting other functions such as General. 10.4 Using “Conventional Rigid Method”. Korean. Performing Design and Analysis functions. pier. . BS 8110. The design codes of AFES support ACI318-99. a) Select “Rigid Method Foundation Design” option.10. 10. Temperature and Shrinkage/Stability. CP-65 and IS456(2000). Tank Design. 02.1 Click on the “Foundation Analysis/Design” button to be able to start analysis and design. AIJ-WSD99. stability and sectional design of components of footing. 10. you may refer to help menu.3 Click “OK” button. Strength. 10. It is assumed that all external forces are loaded at the center of the piers and the connection between the pier and the footing is considered to be rigid enough to carry those forces. AFES executes Foundation Analysis and Design according to design standards widely accepted.2 Select “Foundation Design New Version”. Detail Report Option and Contents. corbels and tie girders are properly examined.

c) Click “Report” button.b) Click “Analysis” button. .

The calculation report will display as shown below. .

anchor bolts and steel reinforcements. c) Click “OK” button. protection materials. a) From “Design” menu.11. 11.1 For Active Foundation structure. . disposal. crushed stone. formworks. grout. select “Quantity (BOM) then “Take off BOM 3D”. backfill. Quantity BOM(=Bill of Materials) function BOM functions are used for estimate of earthworks including other related items such as excavation. lean concrete. concrete. b) Set parameters from the “Afes – Bill of Material” form. Options for BOM take off for active structure and all structures in a project is supported.

a) From “Design” menu. 11.2 For All Foundation structures. select “Quantity (BOM) then “Take off BOM 3D (All Structure)”.The “Bill of Material” form will display as shown below. .

c) Click “OK” button. e) Click “OK” button. .b) Set parameters from the “Afes – Bill of Material” form. d) Check structures to include BOM Take off calculation from the form below.

.The “Bill of Material” form will display as shown below.

The drawing report consists of the Standards. The Export DXF File command is used to export the drawing files made from AFES to other programs such as AutoCAD and MicroStation. . AFES interfaces with AutoCAD and MicroStation to create a construction drawing with bar-schedule. c) Click “OK” button. You can set from this command the drawing preferences to be utilized before exporting to AutoCAD. A form will display as shown below. Layout and Drawing detail including plan and sections of foundation with reinforcement schedules.12. Construction Drawing AFES is a completely integrated software package for automatically producing drawings of reinforcing details for foundations that have been analyzed and designed using AFES. b) Set options from this form. Standard drawings are already set up for various design codes. The program will create the DWG or DXF file format and display a construction drawing through a viewer. a) Click “Export DXF File” button.

.Drawing details will display as below.

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With our design to modeling interface from AFES to Frameworks Plus. c) Check “Send Model Data to PDS” option then click “OK” button. . 13. A 3D foundation model of the objects designed by various design parts effectively communicates the geometric design data. 13. A dialogue form will display as shown. you may refer to Help PDF manuals. plant design works involve many design parts. b) Set various parameters accordingly and click “OK” button.2 Export to PDMS a) Click “Export PDMS Data” button.1 Export to PDS a) Click “Export PDS Data” button. you will experience significant productivity. For further discussions. b) Set Output unit and coordinate mapping options.13. modeling objects from each part allows other parts to assess those object on their work process helping streamlining the work process through project completion. A dialogue form will display as shown. PDS Frame Work Plus) Today. Export 3D Modeling Data (PDMS. Therefore automating the work process from design to 3D modeling forms an integral component of reducing overall project cost.

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