You are on page 1of 20


Fibre manufacturing process:

Today over 70 to 75% of polyester is produced by CP( continuous polymerisation) process using PTA(purified Terephthalic Acid) and !"# The old process is called $atch process using % T( %imethy Terephthalate) and !"( ono !thylene "lycol)# Catalysts li&e 5b'(' (A)T* ()+ T,*(-*%!) are used to start and control the reaction# Ti(. (Titanium di o/ide) is added to ma&e the polyester fibre 0 filament dull# 1pin finishes are added at melt spinning and dra2 machine to provide static protection and have cohesion and certain frictional properties to enable fibre get processed through te/tile spinning machinery 2ithout any problem# PTA 2hich is a 2hite po2der is fed by a scre2 conveyor into hot !" to dissolve it# Then catalysts and Ti( . are added# After that !sterification ta&es place at high temperature# Then monomer is formed # Polymerisation is carried out at high temperature (.30 to '00 degree centigrade) and in almost total vacuum# onomer gets polymerised into the final product4 P!T (Poly ethylene Terephthalate)# This is in the form of thic& viscous li5uid# This li5uid is them pumped to melt spinning machines# These machines may be single sided or double sided and can have '6078067 spinning positions# At each position 4 the polymer is pumped by a metering pump92hich discharges an accurate 5uantity of polymer per revolution ( to control the denier of the fibre) through a pac& 2hich has sand or stainless steel particles as filter media and a spinnerette 2hich could be circular or rectangular and 2ill have a specific number of holes depending on the technology used and the final denier being produced# Polymer comes out of each hole of the spinnerette and is

instantly solidified by the flo2 of cool dry air# This process is called 5uenching# The filaments from each spinnerette are collected together to form a small ribbon4 passed over a 2heel 2hich rotates in a bath of spin finish: and this ribbon is then mi/ed 2ith ribbon coming from other spinning positions4 this combined ribbon is a to2 and is coiled in cans# The material is called undra2n T(; and has no te/tile properties# At the ne/t machine ( the dra2 machine)4 undra2n to2s from severl cans are collected in the form of a sheet and passed through a trough of hot 2ater to raise the temperature of polymer to 70 degrees C 2hich is the glass transition temperature of this polymer so that the polymer can be dra2n# *n the ne/t t2o <ones4 the polymer is dra2n appro/imately 7 times and the actual dra2 or the pull ta&es place either in a steam chamber or in a hot 2ater trough# After the dra2ing is complete4 each filament has the re5uired denier4 and has all its sub microscopic chains aligned parallel to the fibre a/is4 thereby improving the crystallinity of the fibre structure and imparting certain strength# )e/t step is to set the strength by annealing the filaments by passing them under tension on several steam heated cylinders at temperatures =80 to ..0 degrees C# Also the filaments may be shrun& on the first <one of annealer by over feeding and imparting higher strength by stretching .% or so on the final <one of the annealer# )e/t the fibre is 5uenched in a hot 2ater bath4 then passed through a steam chest to again heat up the to2 to =00 degree C so that the crimping process 2hich ta&es place in the stuffer bo/ proceeds smoothly and the crimps have a good stability# Te/tile spin finish is applied either before crimping by &iss roll techni5ue or after crimping by a ban& of hollo2 cone sprays mounted on both sides of the to2# The ne/t step is to set the crimps and dry the to2 fully 2hich is carried out by laying the to2

on a lattice 2hich passes through a hot air chamber at 85degree C or so#

The t2o is guided to a cutter and the cut fibres are baled for despatch# The cutter is a reel having slots at intervals e5ual to the cut length desired '. or '8 or 77 or 5=mm# !ach slot has a sharp stainless steel or tungsten carbide blade placed in it# The to2 is 2ound on a cutter reel4 at one side of the reel is a presser 2heel 2hich presses the to2 on to the blades and the to2 is cut# The cut fibre falls do2n by gravity and is usually partially opened by several air >ets and finally the fibre is baled# 1ome4 balers have a pre2eighting arrangement 2hich enables the baler to produce all bales of a pre determined 2eight# The bale is transported to a 2are house 2here it is ?matured? for a minimum of 80=0 days before it is permitted to be despatched to the spinning mill#

%!)*!,: @sually the actual denier is a little on the finer side i#e for =#. %4 it 2ill be =#=6 and for =#7 4 it could be =#'5# The tolerance normally is A9 0#05 and C#B% of denier should be 7 to 5%# %enier specifies the fineness of fibre and in a 2ay controls the spinning limit# Theory tells us that in order to form yarn on ring spinning (and also in air >et) there must be minimum of 60 to 6. ifbres in the yarn cross section# Therefor the safe upper spinning limit 2ith different denier is
DENIER 1.0 1.2 1.4 COUNT(Ne) 90 80 62

2.0 3.0

40 32

The limit is for '8 mm fibre# The limit rises for a longer fibres# ;hen spinning on open end system4 the minimum no of fibres in the yarn cross section is ==0# 1o all the fibre producers recommend finer denier fibres for (! spining # Cere the safe upper spinning limit is

DENIER 1.0 1.2 1.4 2.0 3.0

COUNT(Ne) 50 40 30 24 16

Co2ever in actual practice 4 '0s is an upper limit 2ith (! A)% =#. %enier is being used4 in @1A and other countries4 even for =0s count in (!# %eniers finer than =#0 are called micro9denier and commercially the finest polyester stple fibre that can be 2or&ed in a mill is 0#7 %# C@T D!)"TC: Cut lengths available are '.4 '84 774 5= and 67mm for cotton type spinning and a blend of 764 88 and =0. mm 9 average cut length of 88m for 2orsted spinning# The most common cut length is '8 mm# Eor blending 2ith other manmade fibres4 spinners preferred 5=mm to get higher productivity4 because T# # 2ill be as lo2 as .#7 to .#8 as against '#7 to '#5 for '8mm fibre# *f the fibre legnth is more4 the nepping tendency is also more 4 so a crompromise cutlength is 77

mm# ;ith this cut length the T# # 2ill be around .#3 to '#0 and yarns 2ith '5 to 70% lo2er imprfections can be achieved compared a to similar yarn 2ith 5= mm fibre# *n the future spinners 2ill standardise for '8 mm fibre 2hen the ringspinning speed reaches .5000 rpm for synthetic yarns# Eor (! spinning 4 '. mm fibre is preferred as it enables smaller dia rotor(of '8mm) to be used 2hich can be run at 80000 to =00000 rpm# Air >et system uses '8 mm fibre#

TENSILE PROPERTIES: Polyester fibres are available in

7 tenacity levels#

Do2 pill fibres9 usuall in .#0 0 '#0 % for suiting enduse 2ith tenacities of '#0 to '#5 gpd(grams per denier)# These fibres are generally used on 2orsted system and =#7% for &nitting edium Tenacity 9 7#8 to 5#0 gpd Cigh tenacity 6#0 to 6#7 gpd range and 1uper high tenacity 7#0 gpd and above

$oth medium and high tenacity fibres are used for apparel enduse# Currently most fibre producers offer only high tenacity fibres# 1pinners prefer them since their use enables ring frames to run at high speeds4 but then the dyeablity of these fibres is .0 to .5% poorer4 also have lo2er yield on 2et processing4 have tendency to form pills and generally give harsher feel# The super high tenacity fibres are used essentially for spinning =00% polyester se2ing threads and other industrial yarns# The higher tenacities are obtained by using higher dra2 ratios and higher annealer temperatures upto ..5 to .'0 degree C and a slight additional pull of .% or so at the last <one in annealing#

!longation is inversely proportional to tenacity e#g TENACITY LO !ILL $EDIU$ %IG% SU!ER %IG% 3.0 " 3.5 4.8 " 5.0 6.0 " 6.4 &.0 '()* ELONGATION AT T10 BREAK VALUES 45 " 55# 25 " 30# 16 " 20# 12 " 14# 1.0 " 1.5 3.5 " 4.0 5.2 " 5.5 6.0 '()*

All the above values of single fibre# Testing polyester fiber on 1telometer F 'mm guage is not recommended# The T=0 or tenacity F =0% elongation is important in blend spinning and is directly related to blend yarn strength# ;hile spinning =00% polyester yarns it has no significance# Tenacity at brea& is the deciding factor#

CRI P PROPERTIES: Crimps are introduced to give

cohesion to the fibre assembly and apart from crimps0cm# Crimp stability is more important criterion and this value should be above 80% to provide trouble free 2or&ing# A simple chec& of crimp stability is crimps0inch in finisher dra2ing sliver# This value should be around =0 to ==4 if lo2er4 the fibre 2ill give high fly leading to lappings and higher brea&s at 2inding# 1pin finish also gives cohesion4 but cohesion due to crimp is far superior to the one obtained by finish# To give a concrete e/ample4 one fibre producer 2as having a serious problem of fly 2ith mill dyed trilobal fibre# Trilobal fibre is difficult to crimp as such4 so it 2as 2ith great difficulty that the plant could put in crimps per inch of =0 to ==# %yeing at ='0 degrees C in CTCP dying machine reduced the cpi to 6 to 8# ills oversprayed upto 0#8% did not help# Card loading too&

place yet fly 2as uncontrolled4 ultimately the fibre producer added a steam chest to ta&e the t2o temperature to =00degrees plus before crimping and then could put in normal cpcm and good crimp stability# Then the dyed fibre ran 2ell 2ith normal 0#=5 to 0#=8 % added spin finish#

SPIN FINIS!: 1everal types of spin finishes are available#

There are only fe2 spin finish manufacturers 9 Ta&emoto4 atsumoto4 Gao from Hapan4 Cen&el4 1chill I1cheilacher4 Jimmer I 1ch2ar< and Coechst from "ermany and "eorge A#"oulston from @1A# *t is only by a mill trial that the effectiveness of a spin finish can be established# A spin finish is supposed to give high fibre to fibre friction of 0#7 to 0#754 so as to control fibre movement particularly at selvedges 4 lo2 fibre9metal friction of 0#. to 0#=5 to enable lo2er tensions in ring spinning and provide ade5uate static protection at 2hatever speed the te/tile machine are running and provide enough cohesion to control fly and lapping tendencies and lubrication to enable smoother drafting# 1pin finish as used normally consists of . components 9 one that gives lubrication 0 cohesion and other that gives static protection# !ach of these components have upto =8 different components to give desired properties plus anti fungus4 antibacterial anti foaming and stabilisers# ost fibre producers offer . levels of spin finishes# Do2er level finish for cotton blends and =00% polyester processing and the higher level finish for viscose blend# The reason being that viscose has a tendecy to rob polyester of its finish# Co2ever in most of the mills even lo2er spin finish 2or&s better for lo2 production levels and if the production level is high4 high level spin finish is re5uired if it is mi/ed 2ith viscose#

Eor (! spinning 2here rotor speeds are around 55000 to 60000 rpm standard spin finish is o&4 but if a mill has ne2 (! spinning machines having rotors running F80000 rpm4 then a totally different spin finish 2hich has a significantly lo2er fibre 9 fibre and fibre 9 metal friction gave very good results# The need to clean rotors 2as e/tended from 8 hours to .7 hours and brea&s dropped to =0'rd# *n conclusion it must be stated that though the amount of spin finish on the fibre is only in the range 0#=05 to 0#=604 it decides the fate of the fibre as the runnability of the fibre is controlled by spin finish4 so it is the most important component of the fibre# !ffectiveness of spin finish is not easy to measure in a fibre plant# %upont uses an instrument to measure static behaviour and measures Dog , 2hich gives a good idea of static cover# Also4 there is s Hapanese instrument Conest 1taticmeter4 2here a bundle of 2ell conditioned fibre is rotated at high speed in a static field of =0000 volts# The instrument measures the charge pic&ed up by the fibre sample4 2hen the charge reaches its ma/imum value4 same is recorded and machine s2itched off# Then the time re5uired for the charge to lea& to half of its ma/imum value is noted# *n general 2ith this instrument 4 for fibre to 2or& 2ell4 ma/imum charge should be around .000 volts and half life decay time less than 70 sec# *f the ma/imum charge of 5000 and half life decay time of ' min is used 4 it 2ould be difficult to card the fibre 4 especially on a high production card#

"RY !EAT S!RIN#A$E: )ormally measured at =80

degree C for '0 min# Balues range from 5 to 8 %# ;ith %C1 around 5%4 finished fabric realisation 2ill be around 37% of grey fabric fed and 2ith %C1 around 8% this value goes do2n to 35%# Therefore it ma&es commercial sense to hold %C1 around 5%#

L an% B co&our: D colour for most fibres record values

bet2een 88 to 3.# ?b? colour is a measure of yello2ness0blueness# b colour for semidull fibre fluctuates bet2een = to .#8 2ith different fibre producers# Do2er the value4 less is the chemicals degradation of the polymer# (ptically brightened fibres give b colour values around ' to '#5# This 2ith =80 ppm of optical brightner#

"YE TA#E 'P: !ach fibre producer has limits of =00 A9 ' to
=00A98# !ven 2ith =00A9' dye limits strea&s do occur in &nitted fabrics# The only remedy is to blend bales from different days in a despatch and insist on spinning mills ta&ing bales from more than one truc& load#

F'SE" FIBRES: The right 2ay to measure is to card =0 &gs

of fibre# Collect all the flat strips(35% of fused fibres get collected in flat strips)# 1pread it out on a dar& plush4 pic& up fused and undra2n fibres and 2eigh them# The upper acceptable limit is '0mgm 0=0&gs# The ideal limit should be around =5mgm0=0&gs# %@pont calls fused0undra2n fibres as %%% or %eep %yeing %efect#

L'STRE: Polyester fibres are available in

bright : 0#05 to 0#=0 % Ti(. 1emil dull : 0#. to 0#' % Ti(. dull : 0#5 % Ti(. e/tra dull : 0#7% Ti(. and in optically brightened 2ith normally =80 ppm of ($4 ($ is available in reddish 4 greenish and bluish shades# 1emi dull is the most popular lustre follo2ed by ($ (=00 % in @1A) and bright# PC+1*CAD A)% CC! *CAD P,(P!,T*!1 (E P(D+!1T!, E*$,!:

1. %!)*!,: 0#5 9 =5

2. T!)AC*T+ : dry '#5 9 7#0 : 2et '#5 9 7#0 4. % (*1T@,! ,!"A*): 0#7 6. C,* P1 P!, *)CC: =. 9=7

3. %!D()"AT*() at brea& : dry =5 9 75 : 2et =5 75 5. 1C,*)GA"! *) $(*D*)" ;AT!,: 0 9 ' &. %%,+ C!AT 1C,*)GA"!: 5 9 8 (at =80 C for .0 min) 8. 1P!C*E* ",AB*T+: =#'6 9 =#7= 9. % !DA1T*C ,!C(B!,+K F.% L38 : F5% L 65 10. "DA11 T,A)1*T*() T! P: 80 degree C 11. 1oftening temp : .'0 9 .70 degree C 12.

elting point : .60 9 .70 degree C 13. !ffect of 1unlight : turns yello24 retains 70 9 80 % tenacity at long e/posure 14. ,!1*1TA)C! T( ;!ATC!,*)": good 15. ,(T ,!1*1T!)C!: high =6#ADGAD* ,!1*1T!)C!: damaged by C() al&ali 1&. AC*% ,!1*1T!)C!: e/cellent 18. (,"A)*C CC! *CAD ,!1*1T!)C!: good

P,($D! 1 ;C*CC (CC@, %@,*)" P(D+!1T!, 1TAPD! E*$,!:

A)@EACT@,! (E

The manufacture of polyester fibre consists of 7 stps:

Polymerisation:@sing PTA0% T and !" on either batch or continuous polymerisation (cpM 9 forming final polymer elt spinning :Cere molten polymer is forced thorough spinnerette holes to form undra2n filaments4 to 2hich spin finish is applied and coiled in can %ra2ings: in 2hich several million undra2n filaments are dra2n or pulled appro/imately 7 times in . steps4 annealed4 5uenched4 crimped and crimp set and final te/tile spin finish applied and

Cutting: in 2hich the dra2n crimped to2 is cut to a desired '.0'807705= mm length and then baled to be transported to a blend spinning mill#


properties of Polymer: The polymer formed is tested mainly for intrinsic viscosity (i#v)4 %!" content4 % oligeomers and D and b colours# *ntrinsic viscosity is an indirect measure of degree of polymerisation and this value is around 0#6' for polymer meant for apparel fibres# %!" or %i !thylene "lycol gets formed during polymerisation and varies from =#. to =#8%# (ligomers are polymers of lo2er molecular 2eight and vary in 5uantity from =#. to =#8 %# D and b are measures of colour# D colour signifies 2hiteness as a value of =00 for D is a perfect value# ost fibres have D colour values around 88 to 3.# b colour denotes yello2ness0blueness of polymer# the positive sign for b colour indicates yello2ness 2hilst negative sign sho2s blueness4 only polymer 2hich contain optical brightener has b of ' 9 '#5 2hilst all semil dull polymers sho2 b values of =#0 to .#7# Cigher values indicate more yello2ness4 2hich indirectly sho2s chemical degradation of the polymer# Running a CP * &o+er , -ig-er t-roug-put: !very CP is designed for a certain throughput per day# Di&e say =80 tons0day or .70 tons0day# 1ometimes due to commercial constraints li&e high buildup of fibre stoc&s etc# 4 the CP may have to be operated at lo2er capacityies# *n that case the polymer that is produced has a higher ?b? colour and a lo2er %!" content# Cigher ?b? colour of say =#5 against normal value of =#0 2ill sho2 fibre to be yello2ish and has a little more chemical degradationK 2hich gives higher fluorescence under @B light# ost spinning mills

have a practice of chec&ing every cone 2ound under @B lamp to find out 2hether there has been any mi/up# Co2ever if a mill is consistently receiving fibre 2ith a ?b?colour of say =#0 and then if one despatch comes of ?b?colour of say =#5 then in 2inding4 ring bobbins of both ?b? colours 2ill be received4 and 2hen cones are 2ound and chec&ed under @B lamp4 then higher ?b? colour material 2ill give higher fluorescence compared to that of lo2er ?b? colour materials4 and 2ill cause rings under @B lamp# Eortunately a minor difference in ?b? colour of 0#7 to 0#5 does not give variation in dyeability# ;hat can spinning mills do to overcome this problem: (ne 2ay is to use a @ster "lo2 meter 2hich measures the reflectance of fibre samples under @B light# ;e understand that these values lie bet2een 80 and =.0 for samples from different bales# so then divide bales 2ith reflectance values of say 80 to 30 4 another 3= to =004 third =0= to ==0 and fourth === to =.0# Then 2hile issuing bales to blo2 room4 issue first group say 80 to 30 then issue the en/t group and so on# $ales from different groups should not be mi/ed# 1econd is to use bales from each truc& separately# Third is to mi/ up bales from 705 truc&s to do a blending Changes in %!": The amount of %!" in fibre is directly proportional to dye pic& up or dye ability of the fibre# Cigher the %!"4 higher is the dye ability4 so much so that some filament producers add %!"4 but then higher %!" 2ill lo2er tensile properties# 1o this practice is not follo2ed for fibre4 2here tensile properties are critical# 1o if the CP is run at lo2er throughout4 %!" drops do2n4 so the dyeablity of the fibre goes do2n# 1ince fibre production group is &een on maintaining merge4 they resort to lo2ering of annealer temperatures to maintain dye ability but in the

process tensile properties suffer4 and mills 2ill notice thread strength falling by 597% if annealer temperature is lo2ered from say .=0 degree C to =80 %egree C# *f fibre production group does not do this4 then they 2ill produce fibre 2ith a different merge 9 2hich normally accumulates in the 2arehouse and so is not appreciated by both mar&eting and top management#

Also 2hen CP is run at higher than rated4 then higher temperatures have to be used to compensate lo2er residence time4 here ?b? colour actually improves *t must be emphasi<ed that the ?b?colour changes occur not only due to higher 0 lo2er thorugh put but there are several other factors such as air lea&ags in valves 0 polymer lines4 failure of pumps to remove product from one reaction vessel to another etc#

There is yet one more problem in CP# *t is a sudden increase in oligomer content# ;hen the amount of oligomers increase4 it manifests itself in e/cessive 2hite po2der formation on rings and ring rail# (ligomers cause problems in spinning of dyed fibres# The surface oligomer content almost doubles on dying dar& and e/tra dar& shades# The only 2ay to control oligomers is to use D!( *) (, in = 9 =#5 gms0litre in reduction clearing bath# All oligomers 2ill go into suspension in reduction clearing li5uor and get removed 2hen the li5uor is drained# Cigher annealer temperature also cause higher surface oligomers



Control of C#B% of %enier: A good international value of C#B#% of denier is 7 to 5# Co2ever some fibre manufacturers get value as high as =0 to =.# %enier is controlled by having uniform flo2 of polymer through each spinnerette hole# Co2ever if a hole is dirty or has polymer stic&ing to it4 its effective diameter is reducedK and the filament that comes out becomes finer# *E the spinneretters have been used for more than say 6 to 7 years 4 then some of the holes 2ould be 2orn out more than others and filament emerging out 2ould be coarser Currently sophisticated instruments are available to chec& the cleanliness and actual hole diametrs of each and every hole automatically4 but fe2 producers have them# Eused Eibres: These are caused mainly at melt spinning either due to brea&s of individual filaments or brea&ages of all the filaments(ribbon brea&) and polymer and bloc& temperatures are too high# Tying of bro&en position in the running thread line should be as near to the bro&en position as possible4 failure to do this 2ill result in trailing end leading to fused fibres# (ther reasons could be impurities4 cho&ing of polymer filters and non9uniform 5uenching or cooling of filaments# The only 2ay to control is to ensure that brea&s at melt spinning are held at the minimum#


%ra2 line is the place 2here the fibre is born# All its ma>or properties denier4 tenacity 4 elongation at brea& 4 crimp properties4 spin finish4 shrin&age and dye ability are all imparted here# Eor obtaining e/cellent runnability of the fibre in a blend spinning mill4 the t2o most important properties are 9 spin finish and crimp#

1pin finish: Einish is applied to the undra2n to2 at melt spinning stage essentially to provide cohesion and static protection# (n the dra2 line4 a ma>or portion of this finish is 2ashed a2ay4 and a te/tile spin finish is put on the to2 by either &iss roll or a spray station# This te/tile finish consists of t2o components4 one that gives cohesion and lubrication and the other confers static protection4 usually these . components are used in 700'0 ratio# These spin finishes are comple/ and each may contain some =8 chemicals to not only control inter fibre friction ( should be high at 0#'5 to 0#70)4 fibre metal friction (should be lo2 at 0#=590#.0)4 anti bacterial components4 anti foaming compund etc# Einish is made in hot demineralise 2ater and is sprayed on to to2 after the crimper by a series of spray no<<les mounted on both sides of the to2# The finish is pumped to the spray unit by a motor driven metering pump4 2hich is lin&ed to the dra2 machine such that 2hen the machine stops4 the pump motor stops# The percentage of finish on the fibre is based on spin finish manufacturers recommendations and fine tuned by tech service# (nce set4 the finish and its percentages are normally not changed# The percentage spin finish is decided by the end use of the fibre# ills blending polyester 2ith viscose need higher amount of spin finish and also mills running their e5uipment at high speeds# 60 to 65% of problems faced in mills are due to uneven % of spin finish on the fibre# *E a fibre producer desires to put say 0#=.0% spin finish on fibre4 then ideally the %finish should be maintained F 0#=.0 A9 0#005 i#e from 0#==5 to 0#=.5 onlyK then the fibre 2ill run smoothly# *f the finish is on the lo2er side4 card 2eb 2ill sho2 high static4 2eb 2ill lap around doffing rolls4 sliver 2ill not pass smoothly through coiler tube 9 causing coiler cho&ing# 1liver could be bul&y and 2ill cause high fly generation during drafting# (n the other hand if spin finish is on the higher side4 fibres 2ill become stic&y and lap around the top rollers4 slivers 2ill become very compact and

could cause undrafted# Thus it is e/tremely important to hold finish level absolutely constant# The reasons for non uniformity is concentration of spin finish variesK sprayer holes are cho&ed K the to2 path has altered and so the spray does not reach it# )ormally fibre producers chec& spin finish% on the fibre 5uite fre5uently9 even then in actual practice considerable variations occur# Crimp: *t is the most important to spin finish for smooth running of fibre# There are ' aspects of crimp#

no of crimps per inch or per cm 9 usually =. 9 =7 crimps per inch crimp stability 9 be 80% plus and crimp ta&e up 9 be .7% on to2

crimps per inch can be measured by &eeping a fibre in rela/ed state ne/t to a foot ruler and counting the no of crimps or arcs# Crimp stability refers to % retention of crimps after sub>ecting fibre to oscillating straightening and rela/ing# ;e can get an indication on ho2 good crimp stability is in a spinning mill by measuring crimps per inch in fibre from finisher dra2ing sliver# The crimps per inch of dra2ing sliver should be atleast =0 to ==4 if belo2 this4 then the crimps stability is poor 4 so to compensate may be a cohesive compound li&e )opcostatt.=5= P or Deomin CC be used in the overspary# Eibres li&e trilobal and super h igh tenacity fibres are difficult to crimp# Trilobal because of its shape and super high tenacity due to very high annealer temperature (..0 degree C) used 2hich ma&es the fibre difficult to bend# Also fibre dyeing particularly dar& and e/tra dar& shades reduces crimps per inch from =7 to =0 9 == and in trilobal4 as it is crimps per inch in fibre is == to =.4 after dyeing it goes further do2n to 8 to 3# *n dyed trilobal fibre4 crimps per inch in fibre at finisher dra2ing

may be around 6 to 7 so necessitating using almost 50% of cohesive compound in the overspray# Crimp ta&e up is % difference bet2een rela/ed length and straightened length of fibre in fibre stage# )ormally this difference is around =8 to .0%# *f the difference is much smaller4 then it means the crimps are shallo2 and 2ould have lo2er cohesion# After the to2 is crimped 4 the crimps are set by passing to2 through a hot air chamber# *f crimp per inch is lo24 then that could be due to lo2er stuffer bo/ pressure4 but if crimp stability and0or crimp ta&e up is lo24 it means the steam supply to crimper steam bo/ is lo2# @ndra2n fibre: As the dra2 line4 =#6 to '#0 million filaments are dra2n or pulled4 if a filament had a brea& at spinning and this is fed as a trailing end to the dra2ing4 then that end cannot be dra2n fully4 and causes plasticises and fused fibres# @ndra2n fibres are generated if the dra2 point is not uniform i#e not in a straight line# Plasticised fibre: ;hen dra2line is running and if some filaments brea&s then these bro&en filaments 2rap themselves around a rotating cylinder4 since most of these cylinders are steam heated4 the 2rapped portion solidifes# The operator then cuts out the solid sheet and thro2s it a2ay as 2aste but then usually pic&s up the plastic end and uses it to thread the material and so a small piece of plastic material goes into the cutter and falls into the baler# Tenacity 0 %ye ability: $oth these properties are controlled by acutal dra2 ratio and annealer temperature# %ra2 ratio does not change in running4 but annealer temperature can fall due to problem of condensate 2ater removal# ost dra2lines have temperature indicators 9 but then some buttons have to be pressed to see the

temperatures so if the annealer temperature falls4 tenaciy 2ill fall and dye ability 2ill increase 2hich could lead to a change in merge# P,($D! 1 EAC!% *) C@TT*)" 0 $AD*)": )ail Cead 0 Tip Eusion: *n the cutting process4 a highly tensioned to2 is first laid over sharp blades and the pressed do2n by a Pressure ,oll4 resulting in filaments being cut# Co2ever if some blades become blunt4 then the pressing of to2 on to those blades creates high temperature and so tips of neighbouring fibres stic& to each other and so separating this cluster becomes impossible# *f it is not getting removed in Dic&erin it 2ill go into the yarn and cause a yarn fault# The tip fusion occurs 2hen the blade is fully blunt# *f the blade is not very sharp4 it does not give a straight edge4 there could be some rounding at the cut edge# 1uch fibres are called nail heads# Tungsten carbide blades gives sharp cut (pening of fibre cluster after opening: ;hen fibres are cut4 they fall do2n by gravity into the baler# $ecause of crimping clusters get formedK and so those need to be opened outK other2ise these can cause cho&ing either in blo2rrom pipes or in chute feed# This opening is obtained by having a ring of no<<les belo2 the cutter through 2hich high pressure air >ets are pointed upK and these >ets open up fibre clusters# (ver length 0 ultilength: (ver length fibres are those 2hose length is greater than the cut length plus =0mm and are casued by bro&en filaments 2hich being bro&en cannot be straightened by tensioning at the cutter# ultilength are fibre 2hose length is e/actly . or ' times the cut length and are caused by nic&s in neighbouring blades#


C*"C0D(; 1C,*)G E*$,!1: The high shrin& fibre shrin&s upto 50% at =00 degree C 2hile that of lo2 shrin&age is =%# The high shrin& fibre enable fabrics 2ith high density to be produced and is particularly used in artificaial leather and high density felt# Do2 shrin&age fibre is recommended for air filters used in hot air4 furniture4 shoes etc# *C,( %!)*!,: Available in 0#500#700#8 deniers in cutlengths '.0'8 mm# *deal for high class shirts4 suitings4 ladies dress material because of its e/ceptional soft feel# *t is also available in siliconised finish for pillo2s# To get the best results4 it is suggested that the blend be polyester rich and the reed0pic& of the fabric be heavy# EDA ! ,!TA,%A)T: Cas to be used by la2 in furnishings 0 curtains4 etc 2here a large number of people gather 9 li&e in cinema theatres4 buses4 cars etc in !urope and @1A# *t is recommended for curtains4 seat covers4 car mats4 automotive interior4 aircraft interiors etc# CAT*()*C %+!A$D!: "ives very brilliant shades 2ith acid colours in dyeing 0 printing# *deal for ladies 2ear !A1+ %+!A$D!: Can be dyed 2ith disperse %yes F38 degrees C 2ithout the need for CTCP e5uipment# *deal for village handicrafts etc# D(; P*DD: *n . and ' deniers4 for suiting end use and &nit2ear fibre 2ith lo2 tenacity of ' to '#5 gm0denier4 so that pills 2hich forms during use fall a2ay easily# A)T*$ACT!,*AD:*t is antibacterial throughout the 2ear life of the garment inspite repeated 2ashing# 1uggested uses are under2ears4 soc&s4 sports4 blan&ets and air conditioning filters 1@P!, C*"C T!)AC*T+: *t is above 7 g0denier and it is mainly used for se2ing threads# Do2 dry heat shrin&age is also recommended for this purpose# 1tandard denier recommended is =#. and today 0#8 is also available#

(%*E*!% C,(11 1!CT*(): *n this there are T,*D($AD4 T,*A)"@DA,4 EDAT4 %(" $()! and C(DD(; E*$,!1 2ith single and multiple hollo2s# Trilobal fibre gives good feel# Triangular fibre gives e/cellent lustre# Elat and dog bone fibres are recommended for furnishings4 2hile hollo2 fibres are used as filling fibres in pillo2s4 5uilts4 beddings and padding# Eor pillo2s silicoised fibres is re5uired# 1ome fibre producers offer hollo2 fibre 2ith built in perfumes# C()%@CT*)" E*$,!: This fibre has fine po2der of stainless steel in it to ma&e fibre conductive# ,ecommended as carpets for computer rooms# D(; !DT E*$,!: *t is a bi9component fibre 2ith a modified polyester on the surface 2hich softens at lo2 temperature li&e ==0 degree C 2hile the core is standard polyester polymer# This fibre is used for binding non 2oven 2ebs#

,!E!,!)C!: P(D+!1T!, 1TAPD! E*$,! A)% $D!)% 1P*))*)" 1! *)A, $+ ,#1#+#)A)AD #T!-T4 E#T#*