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State of Illinois

Rod R. Blagojevich, Governor

A Guide to Permit Requirements, Funding


Opportunities, and Other Considerations

Illinois Environmental Department of Commerce


Protection Agency & Economic Opportunity
Douglas P. Scott, Director Jack Lavin, Director
Table of Contents

I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

II. Environmental Controls and Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


Air Pollution Controls and Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Water Pollution Controls and Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

III. State Resources Available for Ethanol Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Illinois Department of Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Other State Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

IV. Site/Location Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


Summary of Site/Location Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Brownfield Siting Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Using Landfill Gas as Alternative Energy Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

V. Illinois Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Major Sand and Gravel Aquifers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Major Bedrock Aquifers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Industrial and Commercial Groundwater Pumpage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Community Well Pumpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Combined Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Illinois Natural Gas Pipelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Illinois Rail Transportation Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Appendix A - Federal, State, and Local Permits That May Be Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


Appendix B - Grants and Funding Opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Appendix C - Best Practices for Ethanol Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

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I. INTRODUCTION In order to enhance energy efficiency while reducing an
ethanol plant’s “environmental footprint,” we encourage
Ethanol’s benefits are well documented: it is renewable, companies to use environmental best practices for
reduces dependence on foreign oil, supports the agricul- ethanol plants. A summary of these practices can be
tural economy, provides a net reduction in green house found in Appendix C.
gases, and is cleaner-burning for carbon monoxide,
particulates and air toxins compared to typical gasoline. AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS AND PERMITS
In general, companies should consider the most effective
Six ethanol fuel plants are operating in the State of controls that are available at the time the plant is
Illinois, with a total capacity of over 800 million gallons developed, based on guarantees from the contractors.
per year of ethanol. Ethanol production is expected to At a minimum, for the principal process operations,
significantly ramp up because at least 16 states, including consider the use of an afterburner or combustion type
California, Illinois, and Connecticut, have adopted bans control system for feed dryers and a high efficiency
on the use of the fuel additive MTBE, which is being scrubber(s) for fermentation. Other routine control
replaced by ethanol. In August of 2005, President Bush measures include internal floating roofs for storage tanks
signed into law a Renewable Fuels Standard that is and the use of good work practices to minimize dust and
expected to double ethanol production and use by 2012. abate odors. In addition to pollution control
efficiencies, companies should also assess reliability
To meet this increasing demand, the State of Illinois and durability.
wants to help companies build new fuel ethanol plants
that are energy efficient, environmentally sound, and of Ethanol plants must first get an air pollution construc-
course profitable. With this in mind, the Illinois tion permit before getting an operating permit. The
Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) and construction permit establishes, among other things,
the Department of Commerce and Economic emission limits for individual pollutants, production
Opportunity (DCEO) have developed Building an limitations, stack testing and underlying record keeping,
Ethanol Plant in Illinois. reporting and monitoring requirements. Plants can
open with only an approved construction permit, but
Anyone interested in building a fuel ethanol plant is an operating permit is needed for long-term operation.
encouraged to seek assistance from environmental profes-
sionals who have experience with ethanol plant design Companies must submit a construction permit applica-
and permitting. When you are ready to move forward, tion that includes, but is not limited to, a general
please schedule a meeting with Illinois EPA and DCEO description of the proposed plant, emission units and air
to learn more about permitting issues and financial pollution control equipment, and detailed information
incentives that are available. Contact Illinois EPA at on the uncontrolled and controlled emissions generated
217-558-6818 or DCEO at 217-785-3969. by all emission units, including wet cake, emergency
engines and methanators. Applicants must cite all appli-
cable emissions standards and control requirements that
II. ENVIRONMENTAL apply, and indicate how emissions will be minimized to
prevent an air pollution nuisance such as odors or dust.
CONTROLS AND PERMITS
When a complete construction permit application has
This chapter focuses on the most common air and water
been submitted to the Illinois EPA, the Illinois EPA has
pollution controls and permits that may be required for
up to 180 days to process the application. A construc-
an ethanol plant in Illinois. Appendix A includes a
tion permit fee is required upon submittal of the applica-
complete list of air, water and land permits that may be
tion. Expect a fee of at least $40,000. When the Illinois
required to build and operate an ethanol plant.
EPA has approved a draft construction permit, public
However, for most plants, only a few of these permits
notice must be provided with the possibility of a public
will be necessary.
hearing if it is requested.

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“Major” sources of air pollution have emissions over ethanol plants: (1) NPDES Permit for Waste Water
certain thresholds, specifically 100 tons/year for volatile Discharges to Surface Waters; (2) NPDES General
organic compounds and 10 tons/year for a single Storm Water Permit for Construction Site Activities for
hazardous air pollutant, like acetaldehyde, and are storm water runoff; and (3) NPDES General Storm
subject to more stringent and complex air pollution con- Water Permits for Industrial Activity, also for storm
trol requirements. As a result, ethanol plants in Illinois water runoff.
have attempted to keep emissions below these thresholds.
A NPDES permit must be obtained prior to the start of
Ethanol plants with a design production rate significant- facility construction. When Illinois EPA has approved a
ly greater than 60 million gallons per year are more likely draft NPDES permit, public notice must be provided,
to be “major” sources of air emissions. Constructing an with the possibility of a public hearing if it is requested.
ethanol plant anywhere in or near the Chicago or Metro
East St. Louis areas will also trigger more stringent If it is determined that a NPDES permit is required for
emissions rules. In either of these cases, the applicant the discharge of process and/or non-process wastewater,
will be required to install very stringent control measures the appropriate application forms should be submitted
(e.g., best available control technology or lowest to Illinois EPA at least 180 days prior to the anticipated
achievable emission rate, air quality modeling and discharge date. The application must include an anti-
possibly the acquisition of offsets). degradation analysis. This analysis states that alternatives
and impacts of any proposed discharge must be
The construction permit will specify initial testing that evaluated. NPDES permits will establish pollutant
must be performed to ensure compliance to the emission limitations, monitoring requirements, and special
limitations established within the permit. This will be conditions governing discharges from your facility. The
required as a precondition for future long-term duration of NPDES permits can not be any longer than
operation. Only when the stack test verifies that emis- five years. Individual NPDES permit fees for process and
sion limits were met can an operating permit application non-process discharges from ethanol plants could range
be submitted. Once Illinois EPA issues the operating from $1,000 to $50,000 with a typical fee being $10,000
permit, a renewal application won’t be required for per year based on other ethanol facilities permitted in
five years. the state.

To learn how existing ethanol plants are controlling air Storm water permits have an annual fee of $500 and
emissions, review their air pollution construction permits first year fees are due with the initial application. Storm
at www.epa.state.il.us/air/permits/. All necessary air Water Construction Site Activity NPDES permits may be
pollution permit application forms are available from the obtained by submitting a Notice of Intent form to
Illinois EPA website at www.epa.state.il.us/air/state- Illinois EPA at least 30 days prior to start of construction
forms/. For further information, contact Illinois EPA’s and should be terminated at the completion of
Air Pollution Permitting program at 217-782-2113. construction to avoid unnecessary annual fees. You will
be notified of your fee prior to the public notice of your
WATER POLLUTION CONTROLS AND PERMITS NPDES permit.
There are two basic wastewater permit programs adminis-
tered by Illinois EPA that are applicable to discharges Storm Water Permits for Industrial Activity may be
from ethanol plants: the National Pollutant Discharge required for ethanol plants if raw materials, finished
Elimination System (NPDES) permit and the State products (or by-products), or manufacturing processes are
Water Pollution Control (WPC) permit program. See exposed to storm water at the site. If none of these
Appendix A for these and other applicable permits. materials or processes is exposed to storm water, a No
Exposure Certification form must be submitted to
The NPDES permit program regulates discharges to Illinois EPA so that development of a Storm Water
waters of the state (surface waters), and there are three Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) would not be
kinds of NPDES permits that may be required for required. It should be noted that discharges of industrial

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storm water might be covered under the same permit as III. STATE RESOURCES AVAILABLE
discharges of process and non-process wastewater. FOR ETHANOL PLANTS
The State WPC permit program regulates discharges to
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Publicly Owned Treatment Plants (POTWs), subsurface
AND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
discharges, and land application of treated wastewater
DCEO manages a number of research, demonstration
and solids (sludge). State WPC permit applications for
and grant programs in order to promote and expand the
discharges to sanitary sewers or POTWs should be
use of ethanol as a clean, renewable transportation fuel.
submitted 45 days prior to the anticipated discharge
Illinois is a leader in corn and ethanol production, and
date. A one-time permit fee can range from $1,000 to
DCEO works with the state’s agricultural community to
$6,000, depending on whether or not you require
increase demand for and production of ethanol.
pretreatment for toxic pollutants.

Re n ewa b le Fu el s Re se a r ch , De ve lo pmen t a n d
A construction permit is also necessary for construction
Demo nstratio n Program (RFDP)
of equipment that reduces pollutant loads either by
This program provides grants for the construction of new
pretreating discharge before it goes to a POTW, or
biofuels production facilities in Illinois. The RFDP is
treating it prior to surface or subsurface discharge.
designed to:
Construction permit applications for equipment that
• enhance the economy of Illinois;
discharges to the subsurface should be submitted 90 days
• expand rural economic development;
prior to expect discharge date, and require no fee.
• create new, permanent jobs in the state;
Construction permit aplications for treatment equip-
• provide increased income to Illinois grain farmers;
ment that discharges to surface waters should be
• reduce our dependence on foreign oil; and
submitted at the same time as the NPDES permit
• improve air quality by reducing vehicular
application. No fee is required for this permit.
exhaust emissions.
If process wastewater will be discharged from your facili-
A Project Labor Agreement is required to be eligible to
ty, this wastewater discharge may fall under the Federal
receive a grant award. The RFDP provides up to a $5.5
Categorical Standards for Manufactures of Organic
million incentive for the construction of a new biofuels
Chemicals, Plastics, and Synthetic Fibers (OCPSF). If
production facility, or for the expansion/modification of
so, a State WPC permit is required. If process
an existing facility by at least 30 million gallons per year.
wastewater is recycled back into the process, these
The total grant award cannot exceed 10 percent of the
regulations will not apply. Other discharges such as
total construction costs of the facility, or $0.10 per gallon
cooling tower or boiler blow down reverse osmosis
of the new production.
concentrates would most likely not be considered process
wastewater, but would still require a State WPC permit.
Bi ofuels Planning Grants
DCEO provides planning grants of up to $25,000 to
All necessary water permit application forms are available
potential biofuel production facilities for developing
from the Illinois EPA website at www.epa.state.il.us/
business plans, engineering/architectural design plans
water/permits/wastewater/index.html.
and studies, permitting costs, or legal fees associated with
For further information, call Illinois EPA’s Water
these plans. A feasibility study is required to be eligible
Pollution Control Permit Program at 217-782-0610.
for a grant award.

D em on s tr at ion P ro jec ts
DCEO manages ethanol development, testing and
demonstration projects designed to encourage
economic growth in both industrial manufacturing
and rural communities.

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DCEO has funded a series of demonstrations to develop eligible local agency roadway-related construction and
and test a new ethanol blended diesel fuel known as engineering to improve highway access to new or
“E-diesel” fuel. E-diesel is a blend of #2 diesel fuel, up to expanding industrial distribution or tourism develop-
15 percent ethanol, and a special blending additive ments. The EDP targets those projects that will expand
package that significantly reduces black smoke emissions the state's existing job base or create new employment
from diesel engines. Laboratory and field testing is opportunities.
currently underway with John Deere & Company to
thoroughly test and evaluate the use of this fuel in diesel Priority considerations include:
engines and equipment. The current market for diesel • need for the highway improvement and imminence
fuel in this country is over 50 billion gallons per year, of development;
and the commercialization of E-diesel could help reduce • compatibility of the proposed roadway with the
our dependence on foreign oil as well as reducing design of the existing roadway system;
harmful diesel exhaust emissions. • primary jobs created or retained in Illinois and
total developer site cost estimate;
DCEO and the U.S. Department of Energy co-funded • annual and peak day attendance at tourist
the development of an ethanol-powered fuel cell through developments;
a joint project with Caterpillar, Aventine Renewable • commitment of the industrial/distribution/tourist
Energy, Inc., and Nuvera Fuel Cells. The fuel cell development to the site to be served by facility; and
developed under this project provided electrical power • willingness of the sponsoring local government
for the Aventine Renewable Energy Visitor's Center to participate in the local share of the
in Pekin. improvement cost.

R esea rch Local matching funds may be comprised of the local


DCEO sponsors the research and development of jurisdiction's motor fuel tax allocation, local road and
new and innovative technologies to help reduce bridge tax funds, or other local revenues. In some cases,
ethanol production costs, and to develop new local acceptance of the jurisdictional transfer of a
value-added products. state-owned unmarked highway may be used as payment-
in-kind toward the local share of the total project cost.
DCEO helped fund the National Ethanol Research Truck Access Route Program funds (discussed later), if
Pilot Plant at Southern Illinois University–Edwardsville, awarded, can be applied towards the local matching
which produces ethanol like a private manufacturer, funds. Local matching funds cannot include grant funds
but leases space and time to private companies and received from other state agencies, such as DCEO. This
other universities to test their technological ideas and basic funding arrangement may be altered on a case-by-
inventions. case basis for projects involving improvements on roads
under state jurisdiction.
ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
A major factor in siting an ethanol plant for prospective Projects must be constructed to motor fuel tax standards
builders is transportation infrastructure. Normal modes and must have a local government sponsor (a county,
of transportation for the products and by-products of an municipality, township or other taxing body). If
ethanol plant include road, rail, and water. In many selected for funding, a joint local-state agreement must
cases the transportation infrastructure of a proposed site be executed between the governmental entities
needs upgraded. The Illinois Department of involved to serve as the basis of understanding for
Transportation (IDOT) has several programs that meet financial responsibilities.
this need.

Ec ono mic Deve lopment Progra m (E DP)


The EDP is a reimbursement program designed to
provide up to 50 percent state matching funds for
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Examples of ineligble items include: Illinois, 62764. An additional copy should be
• land acquisition, forwarded to the local district IDOT office. General
• building demolition, questions concerning the EDP can also be directed
• landscaping, to 1-800-493-3434.
• sidewalks,
• street lighting, and
Tr uc k A ccess Ro u te Pro gram (TA RP)
• utility adjustments.
The purpose of TARP is to help local governments
upgrade roads to accommodate 80,000-pound trucks.
To apply for EDP funds, local governments should
The routes are to provide access to points of loading and
submit the following information for all projects:
unloading and to facilities for food, fuel, truck repair and
• name of company, type of product and total
driver rest. Projects must connect to a truck route and
company site investment
end at another truck route or truck generator. IDOT
• location (include a map showing the location of
will provide up to $30,000 per lane mile and $15,000
the site) and general description of improvement
per intersection. The state participation will not exceed
• estimate of the number of primary jobs created
50 percent of the total construction cost or $600,000,
and/or retained
whichever is less. Every fall IDOT solicits local projects
• anticipated opening date for the company
that can be constructed during the upcoming fiscal year.
• projected visitors at tourist attraction (if a tourism
We encourage you to initiate your inquires and
project)
requests for assistance at the district engineer’s office
• letter of commitment from the company to expand
for your county.
or locate
• engineer’s cost estimate for the improvement
The following information is needed for application:
• extent of local participation and source of local
• general description of the project and map showing
matching funds
project site and connections to existing truck
• completed Employment Reporting Form
routes
• total mileage, including lane miles and number of
An economic development pre-application form entitled
intersections
Notification of Intent to Apply for Economic
• description of truck generators and number of
Development Funds is available on-line at
trucks per day
www.dot.il.gov/edpapp.pdf. Please be advised that the
• total cost of the project along with the local
pre-application form is being utilized as an initial notifi-
funding share
cation for your project. IDOT will require additional
• anticipated letting date
information before EDP funds can be committed.
For more information on this program, contact IDOT’s
The local sponsor should apply for funding as soon as
Truck Access Route Program at 217-782-3805 or
possible after the project site and an appropriate range of
www.dot.state.il.us/tarp.html.
access needs are identified. Notification of the Bureau
of Statewide Program Planning will trigger a site evalua-
tion process, which must occur before review of the Rai l Frei ght Pr og ram (R FP)
funding application can begin. An application can be The purpose of the RFP is to provide capital assistance
submitted before all of the details of firm cost estimates to communities, railroads and shippers to preserve and
and local participation have been finalized. This improve rail freight service in Illinois. IDOT will gener-
advance effort can help to expedite final review and ally provide low interest loans to finance rail improve-
disposition of the application. ments and, in some cases, provide grants. The focus is
on projects with the greatest potential for improving
Two copies of each submittal should be forwarded to access to markets and maintaining transportation cost
IDOT, Bureau of Statewide Program Planning, EDP, savings, and where state participation will leverage
2300 South Dirksen Parkway, Room 307, Springfield, private investment to foster permanent solutions to rail

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service problems. A benefit/cost ratio is used to evaluate This small-scale facility has all of the unit operations and
rail freight projects. laboratory capabilities of a commercial facility. These
capabilities make the facility ideal for validating commer-
Requests for RFP funds should include the following cial concepts for improving fuel ethanol production,
information: generating co-products for feeding trials or process
• general description of the project and a location streams for further development, toll use of individual or
map depicting the beginning and ending points collective unit operations for other bioprocessing needs,
• benefits expected from the project (e.g., job cre- and laboratory method development or analytical
ation/retention, transportation savings, etc.) services. For more information visit www.ethanolre-
• name of the industries involved, and principal search.com/.
contact information
• engineer’s cost estimate, if available I llinois Etha nol Pre-f eas ibility Evaluator
The State of Illinois is committed to helping interested
For more information on the program contact IDOT’s parties learn more about the possibilities of producing
Bureau of Railroads at 217-782-2835 or ethanol. The web site, www.iletohprefeas.com/
www.dot.state.il.us/rfp.html. provides an introduction to the business issues around
ethanol production. Its aim is to inform interested
OTHER STATE RESOURCES individuals and groups about the potential of building
ethanol plants.
I l l i n o i s C o m m e rc e Co m m i ss i o n ( I C C )
If there is a railroad crossing within the limits of the Ethanol market conditions, grain supply and prices,
proposed access improvement, additional funding may transportation choices, environmental issues, energy
be available from the ICC’s Grade Crossing Protection costs, federal and state incentives and funding
fund through separate application to the ICC. For more alternatives are some of the many variables which must
information on this program, please contact the ICC’s be understood and managed prior to embarking upon
Manager of Railroad Safety at 217-782-7660. an ethanol venture. This web site can aid your
understanding of how these economic factors operate
N at iona l Corn -T o-E th an ol in successful and less successful combination before
R esear ch C enter (NC ER C) you proceed with an in-depth analysis of your
The NCERC is a not-for-profit research center focused specific opportunity.
on the validation of near term technologies for enhanc-
ing the economics and sustainability of renewable fuel
production. Alternate use of the facility for bioprocessing IV. SITE/LOCATION CONSIDERATIONS
scale up or validation is also possible.
This chapter provides information on how to find the
NCERC: right site for a new ethanol plant, a complex issue that is
• conducts work for industrial or institutional clients vital to its sustainability.
under confidentiality agreement on a fee-for-service
basis; SUMMARY OF SITE/LOCATION FACTORS
• conducts its own research in areas of unmet need by Listed below is a summary of the many factors that
leading or participating in collaborative grant funded should be considered when choosing an ethanol plant
research; location.
• provides education and information to the public on
the importance of renewable fuels; and
• provides training opportunities to those interested in a
career in the industry.

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F ee d st oc k Ma rk et A cces s – Co -p ro d uc ts
• historic prices of feedstock • wet market vs. dry market for distillers grains
• competition for feedstock from other businesses • proximity to cattle/dairy/poultry feeding areas for
• sufficient feedstock availability or easy acceptance dry-mill co products (DDG, DDGS and syrup)
and handling of unit trains • potential for carbon dioxide market or proximity to
• proximity of feedstock to plant processor
• seasonality of the feedstock
• storability Site Size
• regional collection and delivery to plant • ample room for future capacity expansion
• provisions for future co product systems (e.g.,
Water aquaculture, hydroponics)
• city water (contracts can be expensive)
• well water (actual availability and water quality • adequate space for truck and rail traffic to move
must be thoroughly investigated) with ease
• river water (for non contact cooling) • adequate space for feedstock storage
• water quality (mineral content) • space for water treatment facility if required
• adequate wastewater disposal options • space for run-off lagoon, if required, on the
plant property
En erg y • proper ethanol and denaturant storage facilities
• proximity to energy source (natural gas, coal, other) with adequate storage volumes
• low utility rates • ample space for efficient ethanol and co product
• availability of good long term contracts loading facilities
• access to technological established alternative
energy sources (e.g., geothermal, lignin from Proximity to Reside ntia l Areas
cellulose conversion, landfill gases) • The closer a site is to residential areas and schools,
• locate so plant can act as a steam host to other the more likely it is to face local opposition.
industrial facilities
BROWNFIELD SITING
Tra nsp ort ati on OPPORTUNITIES FOR ETHANOL PLANTS
• access to rail for larger ethanol plants Brownfields are abandoned or under-used industrial and
• close proximity to “mainline” of rail systems commercial properties with actual or perceived
• access to good roads and interstate contamination and an active potential for redevelop-
• minimal winter or springtime road restrictions ment. Illinois EPA manages the brownfields grant and
• ability to generate back-hauls for truckers loan programs and offers technical support to
• track siding (away from the main building for communities through the services of its brownfields
ethanol loading) representatives. Brownfields representatives work directly
• railcar switching performed by rail service provider with communities to explain cleanup options, regulatory
or by plant programs and requirements and guide municipalities
through the municipal brownfields cleanup and
Ma rk et A ccess – Eth ano l redevelopment process.
• geographical market potential (e.g., RFG areas, CO
non-attainment areas, oxygenated mandate areas, A number of brownfields sites in Illinois may be well
major and secondary metropolitan areas) suited for an ethanol plant as they offer significant
• proximity to gasoline blending terminals acreage along with rail and highway access. Some of
• adequate trucking/rail/barge services these sites include:

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Site Location: S ilvis S i t e L o c a t i o n : Dixo n/Ambo y Area
County: Rock Island County: Lee
Contact: Lyle Lohse, Mayor, 309-792-4804 Contact: Andrew Cox, Jr., First Industrial Corp.,
Description: This 133-acre site has received a “No 815-284-3375
Further Remediation” (NFR) letter from Description: This 130-acre site was the former location
the Illinois EPA. It has rail lines on site of the Green River Ordinance Plant. It
and has major roadway access close by. lies in close proximity to Interstate 88.

Si t e Loc a t i on : Ca rbon Cliff Site Location: P a n a


County: Rock Island County: Christian
Contact: Karen Hopkins, Village Clerk, 309-792-8235 Contact: Vanessa Myers, Illinois EPA Project
Description: This 250-acre site is close to receiving NFR Manager, 217-558-6046
letter. It has rail lines on site and has Description: This 93-acre site is an old petroleum
major roadway access close by. refinery. It is located on Route 51 just
south of Pana.
S i t e L o c a t i o n : Sterli ng
County: Whiteside Us ing La ndfi l l G as a s an A lter na tiv e Energy So u rce
Contact: Jay Wieland, City Administrator, Companies may want to explore the potential for
815-632-6621 using methane gas from landfills as an alternative
Description: This 730-acre site was the former location energy source. The landfills listed below currently
of Northwestern Steel & Wire. One-half capture methane.
of the acreage has been parceled out. The
site has direct rail service. Its most recent
redevelopment is a one million bushel
grain facility.
Municipality Landfill
Greenville D & L Landfill
Taylorville Five Oaks (Waste Management of IL)
S i t e L o c a t i o n : Ra nto ul Clinton Clinton Landfill
County: Champaign Effingham Landfill 33 Ltd.
Contact: Mike Loschen, Community Development Morris Environtech Allied
Director, 217-893-1661, ext. 2224 Iroquois County K & H Mod #7
Description: This 2,100-acre site was the former Wataga Knox County Landfill # 3
location of Chanute Air Force Base. Ottawa SLIC # 2
FSRS is still working on the site. There is Bloomington McLean County Landfill
a rail spur on site and it has access from Decatur Macon County Landfill
Interstate 57. Granite City Chain of Rocks – North
Litchfield/Hillsboro American Disposal
Site Location: S a v a n n a Ar e a Baylis Pike County Landfill
County: Carroll East Moline Upper Rock Island County Landfill
Contact: Dave Ylinden, Exec. Director Jo-Carroll Granite City Chain of Rocks – South
Local Redevelopment Authority, Harrisburg Saline County Landfill
815-273-4371, www.lrasavanna.com.
Description: This 2,930-acre site was the
former location of Savanna Army Depot.
It is on the Mississippi River and has rail
access (twin line of Union Pacific).

- 11 -
- 12 -
- 13 -
- 14 -
Community Water Supply Groundwater
Pump Rate in Millions of Gallons Per Day

- 15 -
Major Aquifiers in Illinois and
Industrial/Commercial Groundwater Pumpage

Major Aquifers in Illinois and


Industrial/Commercial
Groundwater Pumpage

Legend
County Boundary
Sand & Gravel Aquifer

Shallow Bedrock Aquifer

Deep Bedrock Aquifer

Groundwater Pumpage Industrial/Commercial (2001)


Less than .1 MGD
.1 to .5 MGD
.5 to 1 MGD
1 to 5 MGD
Over 5 MGD

- 16 -
Illinois Natural Gas Pipelines

- 17 -
Illinois Rail Transportation Routes

- 18 -
Appendix A
FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL PERMITS THAT MAY BE REQUIRED
FOR AN ETHANOL PLANT

Name and Description of Permits and Approvals Required Information Contact Information

AIR
Construction Permit/PSD Approval – • Process and operating data Illinois EPA
Comprehensive air quality construction permit for • Air pollution emissions and control Bureau of Air
new major sources of emissions or a major modifica- equipment data 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
tion of existing sources; required before beginning • Process flow diagrams P.O. Box 19276
construction; implements the federal permit • Evaluation of applicable regulatory Springfield, IL 62694-9506
required the Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements Ph: 217-782-2113
(PSD) rules; 40 CFR 52.21 • Locations and dimensions of principle www.epa.state.il.us/air/permits
structures
• Air quality impact modeling
• Detailed BACT/LAER1/MACT demon-
stration
• Identification of emission offsets
• Compliance plan for ERMS2

Federal Operating Permit (CAAPP Permit) – • Technical information as in Construction Illinois EPA
Operating permit pursuant to Clean Air Act Title V Permit/PSD Approval, i.e., process data, Bureau of Air
Permit for major sources; required for continuing emission data, rule evaluation 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
operation following the period of initial operation • Compliance monitoring provisions P.O. Box 19276
allowed by a Construction Permit / PSD Approval • Compliance certification Springfield, IL 62694-9506
Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air/permits
Construction Permit w/out PSD Approval – • Process and operating data Illinois EPA
Construction of minor sources of emissions or a • Emissions and air pollution control Bureau of Air
minor project at a major source; required before equipment data 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
beginning construction • Evaluation of applicable regulating P.O. Box 19276
requirements Springfield, IL 62694-9506
• Description of plot plan/ process flow Ph: 217-782-2113
drawings www.epa.state.il.us/air

State Air Operating Permit – Operation of minor • Information confirming compliance with Illinois EPA
sources of emissions; not applicable if a source requirements established by construction Bureau of Air
needs a CAAPP permit permit(s) 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9506
Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air

Acid Rain Notification – Designation by the source • Contact information Illinois EPA
of a Designated Representative and alternative for • Plant information Bureau of Air
the federal Acid Rain Program; required to be sub- • DOE ORIS number for plant 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
mitted concurrent with Acid Rain Permit P.O. Box 19276
Application; 40 CFR Part 72 Springfield, IL 62694-9506
Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air

1Applicable in ozone nonattainment area for a proposed source that would be major for VOM or NOx emission.
2Applicable in Chicago ozone nonattainment area for major VOM source.

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Name and Description of Permits and Approvals Required Information Contact Information

Acid Rain Permit – Operating permit pursuant to • Completed Acid Rain Notification Illinois EPA
Clean Air Act Title IV, for an affected source; sub- • NOx and SO2 compliance plan Bureau of Air
mittal required 2 years before starting operation (or 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
permit must be issued prior to start of operation); P.O. Box 19276
permit can be applied for and processed at the same Springfield, IL 62694-9506
time as a Construction Permit/PSD Approval Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air

Budget Permit – Operating permit pursuant to the • Completed Account Certificate of Illinois EPA
regional NOx Trading Program; permit can be Representation Bureau of Air
applied for and processed at the same time as a • Identification of affected units 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
Construction Permit/PSD Approval P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9506
Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air

Qualifying Facility Certification – Cogeneration • Self-certification should be based on a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
facilities; form no. 556; necessary for rating benefits determination if facility qualifies 888 First St. N.E.
to sell power at wholesale Washington, D.C. 20585
Ph: 202-208-2168
www.fe.doe.gov/programs_coalpwr

Certification of Continuous Emission Monitoring • Relative accuracy and bias test Illinois EPA
System (CEMS) – Approval on installation of SO2 • Calibration error test Bureau of Air
and NOx CEMS and in compliance with Acid Rain • Cycle response time test 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
Emission Monitoring requirements; CFR Part 75 • Linearity test P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9506
Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air

Risk Management Plan – Plan must be submitted • Chemical inventory including maximum U.S. EPA CEPPO
to U.S. EPA and found complete prior to storage or storage capacity Risk Management Plan Reporting
use of hazardous air pollutants (such as ammonia); Center
in quantities greater than threshold amounts; 40 P.O. Box 3346
CFR Part 68 Merrifield, Virginia 22116-9280
www.epa.gov/ceppo

First contact:
Illinois EPA
Bureau of Air
1021 N. Grand Ave. East
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9506
Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/air

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Name and Description of Permits and Approvals Required Information Contact Information

Water
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System • Water balance diagram Illinois EPA
(NPDES) Permit – Clean Water Act Section 402; • Expected wastewater flow and Bureau of Water
discharge of wastewater to surface waters; requires characteristics Div. of Water Pollution Control
prior to operation: obtaining prior to construction • Water pollution control equipment and 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
recommended systems P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph: 217-782-3362
www.epa.state.il.us/water

NPDES Storm Water General Permit • Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan, Illinois EPA
Construction Site – Storm water runoff from con- including: 1) site description, 2) pollution Bureau of Water
struction areas; required before construction and erosion control measures, and 3) Div. of Water Pollution Control
maintenance procedures 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph. 217-782-3362
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Illinois EPA
NPDES Storm Water General Permit Industrial • Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan,
Bureau of Water
Site – Industrial storm water runoff; required prior including: 1) site description 2) pollution
Div. of Water Pollution Control
to operation and erosion control measures, and 3)
1021 N. Grand Ave. East
maintenance procedures
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph: 217-782-3362
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Sewer Connection Permits – Construction and • Design drawings of sewer connection Illinois EPA
operation of connection to public sewer system; • Description of wastewater and treatment Bureau of Water
required prior to construction equipment Division of Water Pollution Control
1021 N. Grand Ave. East
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph: 217-782-0610
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Federal Endangered Species Consultation – • Detailed biological assessment of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Issuance of COE Construction permit if it has potential impacts Chief, Ecological Services Operations
potential effects to federally listed species or critical U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
habitat; Section 10 (Exceptions) of the Endangered Bishop Henry Federal Building
Species Act One Federal Drive
Ft. Snelling, MN 55111-4056
Ph: 612-713-5308
www.nfwf.org

State Endangered Species/ Natural Areas • Map and legal description of location Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources
Consultation – State agencies/ local governments • Project conceptual or design plans Div. of Resource Review and
which authorize, fund, or perform actions altering Coordination
environmental conditions must consult IDNR and One Natural Resources Way
use their authority to avoid or minimize adverse Springfield, Illinois 62702-1271
impacts; 520 ILCS 10/11; 525 ILCS 30/17; 17 Ill. Ph: 217- 785-5500
Admin. Code 1075 www.dnr.state.il.us/orep/nrrc

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Name and Description of Permits and Approvals Required Information Contact Information

IDNR Wetland Review – Requires that all projects • Name and address of the supporting Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources
receiving state support shall meet the state goal of agency Div. of Resource Review and
no overall net loss of the state’s existing wetland • Project design plans Coordination
acres. Projects shall be submitted to the IDNR for a • Wetland delineation of the project areas One Natural Resources Way
wetland impact assessment; Illinois Wetland Policy as prescribed by the COE 1987 Manual Springfield, Illinois 62702-1271
Act of 1989 [20 ILCS 830] Ph: 217- 785-5500
www.dnr.state.il.us/orep

Nationwide Permits – Construction of specified • Design drawings for structures and shore- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
types of structures (e.g. intake/discharge structures) line protection St. Louis District
in lakes, streams, wetlands; 33 CFR 330 • Description of overall project Attention: CEMVS-CO-F
1222 Spruce Street
St. Louis, Missouri 63103-2833
Ph: 314-331-8185
Fax: 314-331-8741
www.mvs.usace.army.mil

Water Quality Certificate – Triggered by application • Design drawings for facility Illinois EPA
for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction • Description of overall project Bureau of Water
Permit (Section 404 only); Section 401 of CWA • Delineation of wetland areas Watershed Management
• EIS would require information on 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
existing environment, expected impacts, P.O. Box 19276
and alternatives Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph: 217-782--3362
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Water Supply Connection Permits – Construction • Design drawings of water connection Illinois EPA
and operation of connection to public water supply • Description of water use plans Bureau of Water
system; 2 permits – one required prior to construc- Division of Public Water Supply
tion, another for operation of system; permits typi- 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
cally issued to municipal water supplier, but P.O. Box 19276
obtained by the project developer Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph: 217-782-9470
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Well Installation Permit – Installation of new • Design drawings of water connections Illinois Department of Public Health
groundwater wells used for non-public drinking • Plans for disinfections and sampling 525 W. Jefferson
water system; required before construction Springfield, Illinois 62762
Ph: 217-782-5830
www.idph.state.il.us

Well Water Withdrawal Permit – Installation of • Design drawings for wells County Public Health Department
new groundwater wells used for non-public drinking • Plans for disinfections and sampling
water system; required prior to construction (Check the local phone directory of the
county where the facility will be built for
contact information.)

- 22 -
Name and Description of Permits and Approvals Required Information Contact Information

Septic Permit – Construction and operation of a • Design drawings of septic system County Public Health Department
septic system; required prior to construction
Note: Illinois EPA issues permits for septic (Check the local phone directory of the
systems larger than 15,000 gallons/day, county where the facility will be built for
serving more than one building, and/or contact information.)
containing non-domestic wastewater. For
more information call (217-782-0610)

Wastewater Facility Construction Approval – • Design information for wastewater Illinois EPA
Construction of wastewater treatment equipment treatment equipment Bureau of Water
(oil separators, etc.); required prior to construction • Expected characteristics of raw and Division of Water Pollution Control
treated wastewater 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
P.O. Box 19276
Springfield, IL 62694-9276
Ph: 217-782-0610
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Land
Conditional Use Permit / Zoning – Construction • Description of project County Board
of facilities not specifically allowed by local zoning • Site development plans
ordinances; required prior to construction (Check the local phone directory of the
county where the facility will be built for
contact information.)

Highway Alteration Permit – Construction of • Design drawings for highway connection Illinois Department of Transportation
access road connection to state highway; required • Plans for traffic controls Room 322
before construction 2300 South Dirksen Parkway
Springfield, Illinois 62764-0002
Ph: 217-782-7526
www.dot.state.il.us

Local Road Construction Permit(s) – Construction • Design drawings for highway connection County or Township Highway
of access road connection to local road; required • Plans for controlling traffic during con- Department
prior to construction struction
(Check the local phone directory of the
county where the facility will be built for
contact information.)

Building / Occupancy Permits – Construction of • Building design plans County Building Commissioner
plant buildings; required prior to construction
(Check the local phone directory of the
county where the facility will be built for
contact information.)

- 23 -
Name and Description of Permits and Approvals Required Information Contact Information

Storage Tank Construction – Construction of above • Design drawings for storage tanks Illinois State Fire Marshal
ground oil storage tanks; required before Fire Prevention Division
construction 100 W. Randolph Street
Suite 11-800
Chicago, IL 60601
Ph: 312-814-2693
www.state.il.us/osfm

Determination of Obstruction Hazard – • Locations and dimensions of stacks and Illinois Department of Transportation
Construction of tall structures; required if facility other tall structures Division of Aeronautics
structures higher than 200 feet or located less than 1 Langhorne Bond Drive
20,000 feet from airport Submit FAA Form 7460-I to: Springfield, Illinois 62707-8415
FAA-Great Lakes Regional Office Ph: 217-524-1580
Air Traffic Division, AGL-520 www.dot.state.il.us/aero/avaioforms.html
2300 E Devon Ave. www.mvs.usace.army.mil
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Ph: 847-294-7568

Historic Preservation Approval – Construction of • Location and nature of project Illinois Historic Preservation Agency
industrial facilities; require review of historical Preservation Services Division
archaeological resources One Old State Capitol Plaza
Springfield, Illinois 62701
Ph: 217-785-5027
www.state.il.us/HPA
Ph: 217-782-3362
www.epa.state.il.us/water

Noise Requirements – Noise emissions to residen- Illinois EPA


tial and commercial property; no permits or review 1021 N. Grand Ave. East
required; enforcement by local agencies or by Illinois P.O. Box 19276
Pollution Control Board upon receipt of complaints; Springfield, IL 62694-9276
35 Ill. Rev. Code Parts 900 – 950 Ph: 217-782-2113
www.epa.state.il.us/land
www.epa.state.il.us/water

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Appendix B
GRANTS AND FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ETHANOL PLANTS IN ILLINOIS
Listed below are several funding opportunities that are available for ethanol production plants. Funding opportunities
include grants, loans and specific incentives that are put in place to help the ethanol industry. In the first column the
name of the grant or incentive is listed, followed by any specific qualification that is needed to be met and contact
information in the third column. Specific questions pertaining to the grant or incentive should be taken to the appro-
priate agency, department, or organization in which the program originates.

Name and Description of Grants/Incentives Qualifications Contact Information

Renewable Fuels Development Program (RFDP) - • The minimum eligible facility size is 30 Dept. of Commerce
This program was established by Public Act 93-15 to million gallons per year. and Economic Opportunity
provide grants for the construction of new biofuels • A Project Labor Agreement is required to 620 East Adams, 3rd Floor
production facilities in Illinois. be eligible to receive a grant award. Springfield, IL 62701
• Total grant award cannot exceed 10per- Ph: 217- 785-3969
cent of the total construction costs of the www.illinoisbiz.biz
facility, or $0.10 per gallon of the new
production.
• Maximum RFDP grant award is
$5.5 million.
• Applies to the construction of new bio-
fuels facilities, or to the expansion/modi-
fication of existing facilities.

Illinois Enterprise Zone Program – An enterprise • The program depends upon a Dept. of Commerce
zone is a specific area designated by the State of creative partnership between and Economic Opportunity
Illinois in cooperation with local government to state and local government, Business Development Division
receive various tax incentives such as: sales tax businesses, labor and community Enterprise Zone Program
exemption on specific purchases, utility tax exemp- groups in areas designated as 620 East Adams, 3rd Floor
tions, investment tax credits, dividend income Enterprise Zones. Springfield, IL 62701
deductions, job tax credits, interest deductions and • Businesses invest in qualified Ph: 217-785-6145
contribution deductions. Enterprise zones range property and create or retain www.illinoisbiz.biz
from a half square mile to 15 square miles. jobs.
• The exemptions, credits, and
deductions available have various
requirements.

Property Tax Abatement – Local taxing districts • Local taxing districts may abate Contact the local enterprise zone admin-
may abate a portion of the property taxes on new property taxes on new High istrator to find out if abatements for this
facilities for a period not to exceed 10 years for proj- Impact Businesses project type are available in the zone.
ects designated as a High Impact Business.
Enterprise Zone property tax abatement may be
available for eligible projects.

Economic Development for a Growing Economy • Businesses newly locating or Dept. of Commerce
(EDGE) – Tax credits calculated from personal expanding facilities in Illinois and Economic Opportunity
income tax collected on salaries paid for the created • Interstate services that add an Business Development Division
and/or retained jobs; taken as a non-refundable tax overall positive impact to the 620 East Adams, 3rd Floor
credit against corporate state income taxes assessed Illinois economy Springfield, IL 62701
over a period of not more than 10 taxable years. • Businesses investing at least $5 Ph: 217-524-8449
million in capital improvements www.illinoisbiz.biz
and creating a minimum of 25
new jobs or investing at a level
specified by DCEO

- 25 -
Name and Description of Grants/Incentives Qualifications Contact Information

First-Stop Business Information Center of Illinois -- • Starting a new business or Dept. of Commerce
Provides access to information and referral assis- operating an existing one in and Economic Opportunity
tance to guide through the permitting, licensing and Illinois Business Development Division
regulatory processes First Stop Business Information Center
620 East Adams, 3rd Floor
Springfield, IL 62701
Ph: 800-252-2923
www.illinoisbiz.biz

Community Development Assistance Program • Grants made to units of local Dept. of Commerce
(CDAP) Economic Development Component – governments with populations and Economic Opportunity
This federally funded program assists smaller Illinois less than 50,000 that are not Business Development Division
local governments in financing economic develop- located within one of eight large First Stop Business Information Center
ment needs for infrastructure improvements or busi- urban counties that receive funds 620 East Adams, 3rd Floor
ness loans. Funds are targeted toward projects that directly form the federal Springfield, IL 62701
benefit low to moderate-income people. government. Ph: 800-252-2923
www.illinoisbiz.biz

Industrial Training Program – Assists Illinois com- • Trainees must have been Dept. of Commerce
panies in training new workers and retaining/ employed by the company before and Economic Opportunity
upgrading skills of the existing workforce; grants can implementation of the training Business Development Division
reimburse companies for up to 50 percent of the program. First Stop Business Information Center
cost of training their employees 620 East Adams, 3rd Floor
Springfield, IL 62701
Ph: 800-252-2923
www.illinoisbiz.biz

Economic Development Program (EDP) – Up to • Commitment to expand or locate Illinois Dept. of Transportation
50 percent in matching state funds for highway in Illinois Bureau of Statewide
improvements that are needed to provide access to • Create or retain primary jobs in Program Planning
new or expanding existing industrial, distribution or Illinois Room 307
tourism departments • Retail and future, speculative 2300 South Dirksen Parkway
projects are NOT eligible Springfield, IL 62764-0002
Ph: 217-782-2755
www.dot.state.il.us

Truck Access Route Program (TARP) -- $20,000 • Local government agencies may Illinois Dept. of Transportation
per lane mile and $10,000 per intersection or up to apply. Bureau of Local Roads and Streets
50 percent of the total project cost to upgrade roads • Roads must connect to a truck Room 205
to accommodate 80,000-pound trucks to access route and end at another truck 2300 South Dirksen Parkway
points of loading and unloading. route or truck generator. Springfield, IL 62764-0002
Ph: 217-782-3970
www.dot.state.il.us

USDA Value-Added Producer Grants (VAPG) • Grants may be used for planning
activities and working capital for
marketing value-added
agricultural products and for
farm-based renewable energy.
• Eligible applicants are
independent producers, farmer
and rancher cooperatives,
agricultural producer groups, and
majority-controlled producer-
based business ventures.

- 26 -
Name and Description of Grants/Incentives Qualifications Contact Information

Illinois Clean Energy Community Foundation – • The deadlines to submit letters of Illinois. Clean Energy
Grants for programs designed to develop consumer inquiry for competitive grants are Community Foundation
demand for renewable energy. posted on their website. 2 N. LaSalle St.
• The Illinois Clean Energy Suite 950
Community Foundation provides Chicago, IL 60602
funding to charitable (federally Ph: 312-372-5191
recognized 501c3) organizations, www.illinoiscleanenergy.org/
educational institutions and state
and local government agencies
serving Illinois residents.

Rail Freight Program (RFD) – Low interest loans or • Communities, railroads and Illinois Dept. of Transportation
grants to finance rail improvements. shippers Bureau of Railroads
• Projects should focus on: Room 302
achieving statewide economic 2300 South Dirksen Parkway
development, improving access Springfield, Illinois 62764-0002
to markets, maintaining Ph: 217-782-2835
transportation costs savings www.dot.state.il.us
and/or leveraging private
investments to foster permanent
solutions to rail service
problems.

- 27 -
Appendix C
BEST PRACTICES FOR BUILDING AN ETHANOL PLANT: ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT AND
NEW ETHANOL PLANT EFFICIENCY

HEAT RECOVERY FOR INCREASED EFFICIENCY


✓ Electricity can be generated or heat recovered for the distillation columns from the steam produced in the

liquefaction portion of the process where the meal is passed through cookers at high temperatures.
✓ Heat should be recovered from the TO/RTO for the DDG dryer.

✓ Heat recovery should be possible from the fermentation tanks.

✓ During the mash preparation, a new natural starch-degrading enzyme can be used to reduce the amount of heat

needed and can reduce the time required in that step of the process. www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2001/010404.htm

CONSIDER ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES



❒ Utilize syrup from the evaporators as a fuel supply.

❒ Consider alternative fuels such as wood chips or fluidized bed biomass.

❒ When using an anaerobic digester system, the methane can be captured and used as an energy source.

❒ Use solar energy for some of the heat required in the distillation process.
http://narithaltan.virturalave.net/ethanoldist.pdf

OUTREACH AND COMMUNITY RELATIONS


✓ Hold informational meetings with the community.

✓ Set up a repository of information about the proposed project.

✓ Make sure that the company establishes a point of contact.

• New ethanol plants should recover at least 2.7 gallons of ethanol per bushel of corn processed and consume less
than 32,000 Btu’s per gallon of ethanol produced.

• The process of dry milling is more efficient than wet milling in terms of BTU/gallon of ethanol produced.

• Molecular sieves reduce distillation energy significantly in the dehydration step, where the last of the ethanol is
separated for the water.

• Elimination of wastewater from dry plants should be easily attainable. Zero discharge dry plants are possible by
eliminating the need for live steam injection for starch conversion; and using semi-permeable membranes to
remove co-products from the process water.

• Uses of byproducts such as carbon dioxide for the carbonation in sodas (food grade) and the distillers grain for
use in animal feed help reduce waste generation and provide energy credit.

• Minimize compressed air use and pressure requirements in the plant design since 90 percent of input power is
lost to heat. Locate necessary compressors away from heat sources and utilize outdoor cool air for compression.

• Utilize high efficiency electric motors and implement variable frequency drives for operations that require varying
motor speeds (i.e. fans, pumps).

- 28 -
• Great strides in energy efficiency could be gained by minimizing the removal of water from the products.
Elimination of the dryer, RTO, and evaporator would drastically reduce power consumption and save tens of
millions in installation costs while reducing the annual operating expense by millions of dollars (depending upon
plant size).

• When designing an ethanol production facility a Combined Heat and Power System (CHP) should be considered
and evaluated for its potential to reduce electrical costs, provide a means of destroying VOCs from the dryers and
an efficient means of recovering and utilizing waste heat. The U.S. EPA has established a CHP Partnership to
evaluate and provide technical assistance on the design and use of CHP systems for ethanol production facilities.
For more information contact U.S. EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership at www.epa.gov/chp/ or contact
the University of Illinois at Chicago Energy Resources Center at 312-996-4382.

- 29 -
Printed by the Authority of
The State of Illinois
January 2006 • 200