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Psychological Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking in
English Class (A Case Study in a Senior High School in South
Tangerang, Banten, ndonesia!

Ju'ana
('e Englis' )epart*ent% Indonesia #pen +ni,ersit-
Jln. .a/e 0a-a% Pondo1 .a/e% (angerang Selatan% 2anten 1531!% Indonesia
(el4 52-&!177&6553 E-*ail4 7u'ana8ut.ac.id

A"stract
('e stud- ai*s to find out ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder students fro* spea1ing and t'e causes of t'e factors
as well as t'e possi/le solutions to o,erco*e t'e factors. ('e data were o/tained t'roug' classroo* o/ser,ations%
9uestionnaires and inter,iews. In ter*s of findings% t'e stud- re,ealed t'at ps-c'ological factors suc' as fear of
*a1ing *ista1e% s'-ness% an:iet-% lac1 of confidence and lac1 of *oti,ation 'inder students fro* spea1ing in
Englis' class. ('ose factors% li1e fear of *a1ing *ista1es% were co**onl- caused /- t'eir fear of /eing laug'ed
at /- t'eir friends. ('e possi/le solution to o,erco*e t'ose ps-c'ological factors% *ost students /elie,ed t'at
*oti,ating t'e* to /e *ore confident to spea1 Englis' is wort' considering. ('is finding suggests t'at t'e
teac'ers s'ould /e *ore aware of t'eir students; 'indrance to spea1 in Englis' class.
#ey$ords<, ps-c'ological factors% 'indrance% spea1ing Englis'

%& ntroduction
In t'e teac'ing of Englis'% as one of t'e producti,e s1ills% spea1ing acti,it- *ust focus on 'ow to assist students
to use and to co**unicate in Englis' (0ic'ard% 2&&!. ('is is i*portant as 0ic'ard furt'er sa-s% *ost students
often e,aluate t'eir success in language learning as well as t'e effecti,eness of t'eir Englis' course on t'e /asis
of 'ow *uc' t'e- feel t'e- 'a,e i*pro,ed in t'eir spea1ing proficienc-. ('at is w'- teac'ers; efforts s'ould /e
focused on de,eloping students; a/ilit- to spea1 since learning to spea1 is considered as t'e greatest c'allenge
for all language learners (Pinter% 2&&5. In t'is sense% teac'ers 'a,e to gi,e *ore opportunities to t'eir students to
e:press t'e*sel,es /- pro,iding t'e* wit' spea1ing acti,ities t'at ena/le t'e* to spea1 Englis' (2rown% 2&&1.
0egarding t'is% it;s found in t'e literature so*e ps-c'ological factors suc' as s'-ness and an:iet- are considered
as t'e *ain causes of students; reluctance to spea1 (2rown% 2&&1. ('is is also in line wit' =e/'ard (2&&& w'o
sa-s t'at t'e students; pro/le* in spea1ing is caused *ostl- /- t'eir s'-ness or an:iet-. >ll t'ese indicate t'e
i*portance for teac'ers to 'elp students reduce t'ose feelings to *a:i*i?e t'eir learning to spea1 in Englis'.
('e ai* of t'e stud- is to e:plain t'e researc' 9uestions4 w'at ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder students fro*
practicing t'eir spea1ing in Englis' class and t'e causes of t'e factors as well as t'e possi/le solution to
o,erco*e t'e factors.

'& (iterature )e*ie$
2.1. The Nature of Speaking Skill
It is *entioned in t'e literature t'at% naturall-% to spea1 *eans to produce so*e words representing one;s ideas. It
is a process of /uilding and s'aring *eaning t'roug' t'e use of ,er/al and non-,er/al s-*/ols% in a ,ariet- of
conte:ts (.'ane-% 166! in @a-i% 2&&5.
In line wit' t'is issue% t'ere 'a,e /een so*e rele,ant researc'es conducted. 2urns and Jo-ce in Nunan
(1666< Sc'wart? (2&&5< and ('orn/ur- (2&&5 argue t'at ps-c'ological factors suc' as an:iet- or s'-ness% lac1
of confidence% lac1 of *oti,ation% and fear of *ista1es are t'e factors co**onl- t'at 'inder students fro*
spea1ing.
>not'er stud- conducted /- @oic'i Sato (2&&3 finds t'at students of Englis' are not 'ig'l- co*petent in
spea1ing /ecause of t'eir fear of *a1ing *ista1es. ('e sa*e finding is also s'ared /- anot'er researc'
conducted /- 2allard (1665% in JIN Aan-'ua% 2&&7 w'o finds t'at students fail to 7oin in t'e Englis' discussion
/ecause of t'eir ,oca/ular- pro/le*s and fear of *a1ing *ista1es resulting in t'eir ina/ilit- to spea1 Englis'
well. In addition% s'e sa-s t'at students find spea1ing Englis' a stressful acti,it- especiall- if t'e- 'a,e to
perfor* so*et'ing using Englis'. ('e finding a/o,e confir*s t'e results of t'is stud- as will /e e:plained in
part of t'e result findings.
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2.2. Psychological Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking
It 'as /een *entioned earlier t'at t'ere are so*e ps-c'ological factor t'at 'inder students fro* practicing t'eir
spea1ing in Englis' class. Eac' of t'e* is e:plained /elow.
'&'&%& Fear of Mistake
>s argued /- *an- t'eorists% fear of *ista1e /eco*es one of t'e *ain factors of students; reluctance to spea1 in
Englis' in t'e classroo* ((sui in Nunan% 1666< Ai Btwe% 2&&7< 0o//-% 2&1&. Cit' respect to t'e fear of *a1ing
*ista1e issue% >ftat% (2&&! adds t'at t'is fear is lin1ed to t'e issue of correction and negati,e e,aluation. In
addition% t'is is also *uc' influenced /- t'e students; fear of /eing laug'ed at /- ot'er students or /eing
critici?ed /- t'e teac'er. >s a result% students co**onl- stop participating in t'e spea1ing acti,it- (Bieu% 2&11.
('erefore% it is i*portant for teac'ers to con,ince t'eir students t'at *a1ing *ista1es is not a wrong or /ad t'ing
/ecause students can learn fro* t'eir *ista1es.
2.2.1.1 Causes of Fear of istake
('e pri*ar- reason of fear of *ista1e is t'at students are afraid of loo1ing foolis' in front of ot'er people and
t'e- are concerned a/out 'ow ot'er will see t'e* (@urtus% 2&&1. In addition% Bieu (2&11 and Dang (2&&5 cited
in Be and .'en (2&1& e:plain t'at students feel afraid of t'e idea of *a1ing *ista1es as t'e- are worried t'at
t'eir friends will laug' at t'e* and recei,e negati,e e,aluations fro* t'eir peers if t'e- *a1e *ista1e in
spea1ing Englis'. Students; fear of *a1ing *ista1es in spea1ing Englis' 'as /een a co**on issue especiall- in
an EEF conte:t li1e in Indonesia. >s argued /- Giddleton (2&&6% *ost EEF students are afraid to tr- and to
spea1 in a foreign language t'e- learn. In t'is conte:t% as 'e adds% students do not want to loo1 foolis' in front of
t'e class. In so*e ot'er cases% t'e- also worr- a/out 'ow t'e- will sound% and are scared of sounding sill- and
so on.
2.2.1.2 Possi!le Solutions to "#ercome Fear of istake
In ter*s of possi/le solution to o,erco*e students; fear of *ista1es% Dua (2&&! gi,es se,eral suggestions. Eirst%
s'e suggests t'at e*otional /onds /etween students and teac'ers s'ould /e /uild. ('is wa-% t'e students are
e:pected to feel co*fort wit' t'eir teac'er and /elie,e t'at t'e teac'er will 'elp t'e* if t'e- *a1e *ista1e.
Second% Dua furt'er states t'at t'e teac'er s'ould i*pro,e t'e studentsH concentration w'en learning Englis'.
('is can /e done% as s'e suggests% /- creating a supporting learning at*osp'ere. Einall-% t'e last suggestion is
t'at t'e teac'er creates a 'ar*onious at*osp'ere t'at can reduce students; ner,ousness. In t'is conte:t% 'ow to
deal wit' errors in con,ersational Englis' of students is wort' discussing and e*p'asi?es t'at *ista1es in
co**unication are 1e-s to carr- out a co**unication.

'&'&' Shyness
S'-ness is an e*otional t'ing t'at *an- students suffer fro* at so*e ti*e w'en t'e- are re9uired to spea1 in
Englis' class. ('is indicates t'at s'-ness could /e a source of pro/le* in students; learning acti,ities in t'e
classroo* especiall- in t'e class of spea1ing. ('erefore% pa-ing attention on t'is aspect is also 9uite i*portant in
order to 'elp t'e students do t'eir /est in t'eir spea1ing perfor*ance in t'e classroo* (=e/'ard% 2&&&. In line
wit' t'is% 2aldwin (2&11 furt'er e:plains t'at spea1ing in front of people is one of t'e *ore co**on p'o/ias
t'at students encounter and feeling of s'-ness *a1es t'eir *ind go /lan1 or t'at t'e- will forget w'at to sa-.
('is t'eor- is also supported /- t'e result of t'is researc' in w'ic' *ost students fail to perfor* t'e spea1ing
perfor*ance at t'eir /est. >s t'e- sa-% t'eir ina/ilit- to s'ow t'eir a/ilit- in spea1ing is also influenced *uc' /-
t'eir feeling of s'-ness. In ot'er words% it can /e said t'at s'-ness pla-s an i*portant role in spea1ing
perfor*ance done /- t'e students.
2.2.2.1 Causes of Shyness
Cit' regard to t'e cause of s'-ness% 2owen (2&&5 and 0o//- (2&1& argue t'at so*e s'- learners are caused /-
t'eir nature t'at t'e- are ,er- 9uiet. In t'is case% t'e students are not ,er- confident and tend to /e s'- /ecause
*ost of t'e* find it ,er- inti*idating w'en spea1ing Englis' in front of t'eir friends and teac'er. In addition%
Sauri1 (2&11 indentifies t'at *ost of Englis' students feel s'- w'en t'e- spea1 t'e language /ecause t'e- t'in1
t'e- will *a1e *ista1es w'en t'e- tal1. ('e- are also afraid of /eing laug'ed at /- t'eir peers. ('is fact is also
found in t'e data of t'is stud- t'at students; s'-ness is t'eir perception on t'eir own a/ilit-. In t'is sense% t'e-
are afraid of /eing laug'ed at /- t'eir friends due to t'eir low a/ilit- in spea1ing Englis'.
2.2.2.2. Possi!le Solutions to "#ercome Shyness
In ter*s of possi/le solution to o,erco*e s'-ness% Pesce (2&11 sa-s t'at it is urgent t'at teac'er creates a
friendl- and open classroo* en,iron*ent. 2- doing t'is% s'- students are 'oped to feel fine of *a1ing *ista1es
in t'eir learning. ('is wa-% students will not worr- of t'eir i*perfect pronunciation and gra**ar. >s a result%
t'e- dare to spea1 in t'eir spea1ing class. Sol,ing t'e s'-ness pro/le*% .'in*o- (2&&7 suggests t'at in order to
'elp students to /e *ore confident in t'eir spea1ing t'at con,ince students to loo1 upon s'-ness as a t'ing to
o,erco*e and do not fear failure or success. ('e a/o,e solutions to reduce s'-ness are wort' doing. >s said /-
students in,ol,ed in t'is stud-% t'eir feeling of s'-ness needs to /e sol,ed. In t'is case% t'e- need guidance fro*
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t'eir teac'ers.
2.2.3 Anxiety
>n:iet- is a feeling of tension% appre'ension and ner,ousness associated wit' t'e situation of learning a foreign
language (Borwit? et all cited in Nascente% 2&&1. Eurt'er Nascente writes t'at% a*ong ot'er affecti,e ,aria/les%
an:iet- stands out as one of t'e *ain /loc1ing factors for effecti,e language learning. In ot'er words% an:iet-
influences students in learning language. ('erefore% pa-ing attention to t'is factor of learning s'ould also /e
ta1en into consideration.
('e fact t'at an:iet- pla-s an i*portant role in students; learning is also s'ared /- ot'er researc'ers li1e
Borwit? (1661 as cited in S-l,ia and (iono (2&&3. Be /elie,es t'at an:iet- a/out spea1ing a certain language
can affect students; perfor*ance. It can influence t'e 9ualit- of oral language production and *a1e indi,iduals
appear less fluent t'an t'e- reall- are. ('is e:planation suggests t'at teac'ers s'ould *a1e an atte*pt to create a
learning at*osp'ere w'ic' gi,es students *ore co*forta/le situations in t'eir learning acti,it-.
2.2.3.1 Causes of $n%iety
0egarding t'e causes of an:iet-% Borwit? and .ope (16!5% in D'ao Na% 2&&7 /ased on t'e findings of t'eir
stud-% found out t'ree *ain causes of students; an:iet- i.e co**unication appre'ension% test an:iet- and fear of
negati,e e,aluation. ('e co**unication appre'ension refers to t'e students; a/ilit- to co**unicate in t'e target
language. ('eir low a/ilit- in t'is aspect% in *an- cases% causes an:ious feeling a*ong *an- students. ('e
second cause w'ic' is test an:iet- deals wit' students; fear of /eing tested. ('e last cause 'as to do wit' ot'er
students; e,aluation. In t'is case% as *entioned a/o,e% ,er- often t'at ot'er students; e,aluation causes an:iet-
a*ong students t'e*sel,es. In addition% fear of /eing e,aluated /- t'eir teac'ers is also anot'er factor affecting
students; an:iet- (Fiu% 2&&7< D'ou% et all 2&&3. >ll t'ese s'ow t'at understanding students /etter and /eing
s1illful in *anaging classroo* s'ould /e part of t'e teac'ers; concern. >s suggested /- Bar*er (2&&7% to
reduce t'is an:iet- feeling% teac'ers need to pa- attention to eac' students; strengt's and wea1nesses so t'at t'e-
can create a learning *et'od w'ic' acco**odates all students in t'e classroo*.
2.2.3.2 Possi!le Solutions to "#ercome $n%iety
In order to o,erco*e an:iet-% @oic'i Sato (2&&3 on 'is researc' a/out i*pro,ing students; spea1ing s1ills
suggests t'at teac'ers s'ould /e *ore careful a/out an:iet- w'ic' can /e intense in students and find tec'ni9ues
t'at allow students to participate *ore in oral acti,ities. In addition% pro,iding students wit' positi,e
reinforce*ent (@era*ida% 2&&6% *oti,ating students (.'ristop'el% 166&< Er-*ier% 1663 cited in @era*ida%
2&&6 and creating an ease en,iron*ent in class are i*portant to /e noticed /- t'e teac'er since it can lower
students; an:iet-% increase t'eir confidence% and encourage t'eir willingness to co**unicate (.'an% 2&&2 cited
in Noon-ura% 2&&!. )ealing wit' an:iet- in students; learning% (sui (in Nunan% 1666 e:plains t'at to deal wit'
t'e reluctant students% teac'ers s'ould accept a ,ariet- of answers. ('is wa-% t'e students can feel *ore confident
in answering t'e teac'er 9uestions and participating in e,er- acti,ities of t'e class.

2.2.4 Lack of Confidence
It is co**onl- understood t'at students; lac1 of confidence usuall- occurs w'en students reali?e t'at t'eir
con,ersation partners 'a,e not understood t'e* or w'en t'e- do not understand ot'er spea1ers. In t'is situation%
t'e- would rat'er 1eep silent w'ile ot'ers do tal1ing s'owing t'at t'e students are lac1 of confidence to
co**unicate. In response to t'is% (sui cited Nunan (1666 sa-s t'at student w'o lac1 of confidence a/out
t'e*sel,es and t'eir Englis' necessaril- suffer fro* co**unication appre'ension. ('is s'ows t'at /uilding
students; confidence is an i*portant part of teac'er;s focus of attention. ('is *eans t'at t'e teac'er s'ould also
learn fro* /ot' t'eories and practical e:perience on 'ow to /uild t'e students; confidence.
2.2.3.1 Causes of &ack of Confidence
Be and .'en (2&1& state t'e *ain cause of students; confidence is t'eir low a/ilit- in spea1ing Englis'. In t'is
case% as t'e- add% *an- students t'in1 t'at t'eir Englis' is /ad and feel t'at t'e- can not spea1 Englis' well. ('e
ot'er cause of students; lac1 of confidence also deals wit' t'e lac1 of encourage*ent fro* t'e teac'er (2rown%
2&&1. In t'is conte:t% *an- teac'ers do not t'in1 t'at con,incing students t'at t'e- are a/le to spea1 Englis' is
i*portant. >s a result% as 2rown adds% students find t'e learning de*oti,ating rat'er t'an *oti,ating. ('is
suggests t'at encourage*ent /eco*es a ,ital t'ing in order to /uild t'e students; confidence. ('erefore% gi,ing
students encourage*ent and s'owing t'at t'e- will /e a/le to co**unicate well in Englis' pla-s a role in
students; success of learning.
2.2.3.2 Possi!le Solutions to "#ercome &ack of Confidence
Cit' regard to possi/le solution to o,erco*e t'e students; lac1 of confidence% Ae Btwe (2&&7 s'ares t'e
strateg- to /uild students; confidence. Be sa-s t'at *a:i*i?ing students; e:posure to Englis' is a good wa- to
/uild t'e students; confidence. In line wit' t'is% @u/o (2&&6 adds t'at to /uild students; confidence to spea1
Englis'% teac'ers can pro,ide regular opportunities to practice proper pronunciation and intonation% and to
con,erse freel-. 2- doing t'is% students will e:perience a greater sense of a/ilit- to spea1 Englis'. ('erefore
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teac'er s'ould create a co*forta/le at*osp'ere in w'ic' learners are encouraged to tal1 in Englis' and are
praised for tal1ing.
2.2.5 Lack of Motivation
It is *entioned in t'e literature t'at *oti,ation is a 1e- to students; learning success (Songsiri% 2&&7. Cit'
regard to t'e issue of *oti,ation in learning% Nunan (1666 stresses t'at *oti,ation is i*portant to notice in t'at
it can affect students; reluctance to spea1 in Englis'. In t'is sense% *oti,ation is a 1e- consideration in
deter*ining t'e preparedness of learners to co**unicate. Dua (2&&! furt'er adds t'at *oti,ation is an inner
energ-. S'e sa-s t'at no *atter w'at 1inds of *oti,ation t'e learners possess it will en'ance t'eir stud- interest.
It 'as /een pro,en in *an- studies t'at students wit' a strong *oti,ation to succeed can persist in learning and
gain /etter scores t'an t'ose w'o 'a,e wea1er *oti,ation of success s'owing t'at /uilding students *oti,ation
to learn is urgent for e,er- teac'er.
2.2.5.1 Causes of &ack of oti#ation
Cit' respect to t'e causes of lac1 of *oti,ation% =ardner in Nunan (1666 ela/orates t'e causes of t'e students;
lac1 of *oti,ation e.g. uninspired teac'ing% /oredo*% lac1 of percei,ed rele,ance of *aterials and lac1 of
1nowledge a/out t'e goals of t'e instructional progra*. ('ese four% as 'e furt'er sa-s% ,er- often /eco*e source
of students; *oti,ation. +ninspired teac'ing% for e:a*ple% affects students; *oti,ation to learn. In t'is conte:t% a
*onotonous teac'ing% in *an- cases% reduces t'e students; *oti,ation due to t'eir feeling of /oredo*. ('is
s'ows t'at pa-ing attention to t'ose four factors is ,ital.
In response to t'e issue of *oti,ation% 2a/u (2&1& argues t'at lac1 of *oti,ation in learning causes
students; 'esitation to spea1 Englis' in t'e classroo*. Be sa-s t'at t'e /ac1ground of t'is situation is t'at
students are not *oti,ated /- t'e teac'ers towards t'e co**unication in Englis'. In line wit' w'at 2a/u sa-s%
Siegel (2&&3% in >ftat% 2&&! /elie,es t'at *oti,ation is a product of good teac'ing. In 'is furt'er e:planation%
>ftat e*p'asi?es t'at to *oti,ate students to learn well and acti,el- co**unicate in Englis'% teac'ers s'ould
'a,e passion% creati,it- and interest in t'eir students. In ot'er words% students; *oti,ation is reall- influenced /-
t'e teac'ers; teac'ing perfor*ance. ('erefore% it is i*portant t'at teac'ers also s'ow ent'usias* in t'eir
teac'ing perfor*ance.
2.2.5.2 Possi!le Solutions to "#ercome &ack of oti#ation
>ftat (2&&! suggets t'at to encourage students; *oti,ation% teac'ers s'ould pro,ide constant encourage*ent
and support as well as1 9uestions t'at re,eal t'e /asis of a students; pro/le*s. )oing t'is /eco*es ,er-
i*portant /ecause encourage*ent also gi,es students a feeling of secure and welco*e in t'eir learning. #t'er
suggestions to increase students; *oti,ation are s'ared /- Fiu and Buang (2&1&. ('e- sa- t'at to o,erco*e
students; lac1 of *oti,ation% teac'ers can do acti,ities li1e pro*oting students; awareness of t'e i*portance of
Englis'% en'ancing students; interest in Englis'% and de,eloping t'eir self-confidence.

+& ,ethodology
3.1 'esearch Setting and Participants
('is stud- was underta1en at a senior 'ig' sc'ool in Sout' (angerang% 2anten pro,ince. ('e participants
consisted of 52 second grade students to find out t'eir perspecti,e related to t'e ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder
t'e* fro* spea1ing.
3.2 Techni(ues of Collecting )ata
('is stud- e*plo-ed t'ree tec'ni9ues of collecting data na*el- o/ser,ations% 9uestionnaires and inter,iew. ('e
o/ser,ation was carried out to find out students; participations and responses in spea1ing acti,it-. #pen-ended
9uestionnaires were addressed to t'e respondents to get t'eir responses in a for* of written data. In t'is stud-%
t'e 9uestionnaires consisted of fi,e nu*/ers of c'oices related to ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder t'e* fro*
spea1ing in w'ic' students can select t'eir answers. ('e inter,iew was conducted to gain furt'er infor*ation
a/out ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder students fro* spea1ing and t'e causes of t'e factors as well as t'e
solutions to o,erco*e t'e factors. ('e inter,iews addressed to 12 students /- reference of t'eir Englis' teac'ers
na*el- 3 students of 'ig' ac'ie,ers% 3 students of *ediu* ac'ie,ers% and 3 students of low ac'ie,ers. (a/le 1
s'ows t'e ite*s of t'e 9uestionnaire.
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(a/le 14 Iuestionnaire ite*s
Choose one of the follo$ing factors and ans$er the -uestions&
From these factors "elo$, $hich one that hinder you the most from speaking English
in English Class
1. >n:iet-
C'-J (C'at are t'e causes of -our an:iet-J
C'at are t'e solutions -ou do to o,erco*e -our an:iet-J
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK.
2. S'-ness
C'-J (C'at are t'e causes of -our s'-nessJ
C'at are t'e solutions -ou do to o,erco*e -our s'-nessJ
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
3. Eear of Gista1e
C'-J (C'at are t'e causes of -our fear of *ista1eJ
C'at are t'e solutions -ou do to o,erco*e -our fear of *ista1eJ
3. Fac1 of .onfidence
C'-J (C'at are t'e causes of -our lac1 of confidenceJ
C'at are t'e solutions -ou do to o,erco*e -our lac1 of confidenceJ
5. Fac1 of Goti,ation
C'-J (C'at are t'e causes of -our lac1 of *oti,ationJ
C'at are t'e solutions -ou do to o,erco*e -our lac1 of *oti,ationJ

.& )esearch Finding and /iscussions
('e stud- re,eals t'at *ost students 'a,e ps-c'ological factors in ter*s of practicing spea1ing in Englis' class.
#f t'e fi,e ps-c'ological factors% fear of *ista1e range first (37L w'ile s'-ness is t'e second (25L%
followed /- an:iet- (1!L% lac1 of confidence (13L% and t'e last is lac1 of *oti,ation (5L. ('e ta/le 2
/elow pro,ides t'e distri/ution of t'e ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder students fro* spea1ing /ot' fro* t'e
students; and t'e teac'ers; perspecti,e.

(a/le 24 ('e )istri/ution of t'e ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder students fro* spea1ing
No Ps-c'ological
Eactors
Percei,ed /- t'e students (respondents; nu*/er (otal L
1 Eear of Gista1e

3% 5% !% 13% 16% 2&% 23% 25% 27% 2!% 3&% 33% 33% 35% 3&% 32%
5&% 52% 53% 55% 57% 56% 51
23 37
2 S'-ness 2% 7% 6% 1&% 12% 15% 15% 17% 21% 31% 33%35% 35% 37% 3!% 53 15 25
3 >n:iet- 5% 11% 25% 31% 32% 3!% 36% 33% 51% 5&% 52 11 1!
3 Fac1 of
.onfidence
3% 13% 23% 26% 35% 37% 36% 55 ! 13
5 Fac1 of
Goti,ation
1% 1!% 22% 5! 3 5
('is needs furt'er concern t'at t'e teac'ers s'ould /e aware of t'e fact t'at t'e students were afraid to *a1e
*ista1e is t'e /iggest pro/le* t'at t'e- 'a,e in spea1ing. ('is awareness is 'ig'l- needed since encouraging
en,iron*ent in classroo* in w'ic' students need to feel ease or co*forta/le is one of t'e supporting factors to
*a1e students to spea1 as =e/'ard (2&&& argues. ('e teac'ers s'ould actuall- tr- to find out t'e reason w'-
t'e students did not want to spea1 in spea1ing class w'en t'e- found t'at t'e students were passi,e.

.&% Causes of Psychological Factors
('e followings are t'e result of data gained fro* students; perspecti,e in ter*s of causes of ps-c'ological
factors t'at 'inder t'e* fro* practicing spea1ing.
3.1.1 Fear of istake
0egarding fear of *ista1e% it is t'e *ost fre9uentl- c'osen (37L /- t'e students as t'eir 'indrance to spea1 in
Englis' class. ('is 1ind of 'indrance *ade t'e* reluctant to spea1 Englis' in class. So*e of t'e* *entioned
t'at t'e cause of t'eir fear *ista1e was t'e- were afraid of /eing laug'ed as represented /- respondents (0M23%
0M33 and 0M53 co**ents;4
0M23* +,ecause -f - make mistake .hen -/m talking in 0nglish, -/m
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afraid the class .ill laugh at me1.
0M33* .22.13es, there is. - mean, -/m afraid to make mistake. -f -
miss use or miss pronounce the .ords, my friends .ill mock me1.
0M534 +,ecause -/m afraid to make mistake and my friends .ill laugh
at me1.
('ose co**ents are rele,ant to t'e reports /- @urtus% (2&&1 and Eran1 Giddleton% (2&&6< stating t'at students
are afraid of *a1ing *ista1e /ecause t'e- are worr- t'at t'eir friends will laug' at t'e* and recei,e negati,e
e,aluations fro* t'eir peers if t'e- *a1e *ista1e in spea1ing Englis'. ('is is t'e condition t'ose students
encountered w'en t'e- wanted to spea1 t'at e,entuall- 'inders t'e* fro* spea1ing in Englis' class.

3.1.2 Shyness
Cit' respect to t'e cause of s'-ness% so*e students answered t'at t'e- felt s'- due to t'eir nature as s'- persons.
('is was represented /- 0M12% 0M31% and 0M3!4
0M12* +,ecause -/m shy to speak in front of people1.
0M314 +,ecause - feel shy if e#eryone is looking at me1.
0M3!* + ,ecause -/m a kind of shy person1.
('e co**ents are in line wit' 2owen (2&&5 and 0o//- (2&1& arguing t'at so*e s'- learners are caused /-
t'eir nature. ('is needs teac'ers; effort to 1eep encouraging t'eir students to /uild t'eir self-confidence.

3.1.3 $n%iety
(o turn to t'e cause of an:iet-% students said t'at t'e- felt an:ious to spea1 /ecause t'e- got ner,ous and fear
w'at t'e- said was wrong as noted /- 0M5% 0M3!% and 0M5&4
0M5* +- get ner#ous .hen people are looking at me1.
0M3!* +,ecause -/m afraid that e#eryone does not understand
.hat -/m really saying. - kno. .hat -/m saying !ut it !ecomes
difficult .hen - get ner#ous1.
0M5&* +Ner#ous !ecause -/m .rong a lot. So - feel an%ious and
ner#ous if -/m doing it .rong1.
('ese are in line wit' w'at Fiu% (2&&7< GacInt-re N =ardner% 16!6 as cited in D'ou (2&&3 arguing t'at error
and afraid of /eing e,aluated are t'e causes of an:iet- t'at *a1e students ,er- an:ious in learning oral Englis'.
In t'is case% t'e- are aware t'eir perfor*ance is /eing e,aluated /- t'eir peers and teac'ers. Cit' respect to t'is%
Eurt'er Borwit? et al cited in Nascente (2&&1 e:plains t'at an:iet- is a feeling of tension% appre'ension and
ner,ousness associated wit' t'e situation of learning a foreign language. ('at is w'- t'e- were ner,ous w'en
t'e- wanted to spea1 Englis'. 0egarding t'is% teac'ers s'ould create a supporting learning at*osp'ere in w'ic'
students can /uild t'eir confidence and learn cooperati,el- eac' ot'er so t'at teac'es can *ini*i?e derision
a*ong t'e*.
#t'er students *entioned t'at t'e cause of an:iet- was t'eir lac1 of ,oca/ular-% as represented /- 0M11% 0M32%
and 0M33;s responses4
0M11* +,ecause - don/t kno. 0nglish #oca!ulary a lot so - get
ner#ous1.
0M324 +- feel an%ious !ecause - 4ust remem!er a fe.
#oca!ularies1.
0M33* +$n%ious !ecause - don/t ha#e a lot of #oca!ularies
('ese responses are rele,ant to t'e argu*ent t'at not 1nowing t'e *eaning of words or sentences can *a1e
students feel an:iet- to spea1. Ba,ing li*ited ,oca/ularies% students find it difficult to con,e- w'at t'e- wanted
to sa-. ('is condition can create students; an:iet- resulting in t'eir reluctance to spea1 (=e/'ard% 2&&&.
3.1.3 &ack of Confidence
Cit' regard to lac1 of confidence% students found t'is feeling as an o/stacle for t'e* to spea1 in Englis' class.
('e cause of feeling lac1 of confidence was t'eir ina/ilit- to spea1 Englis' as 0M35 and 0M55 e:plained4
0M354O,ecause -/m not that fluent in 0nglish, so - often feel lack of
confidence1.
0M55* 1- feel lack of confidence !ecause my 0nglish is not really good1.

('is is in line wit' 2rown% (2&&1< Eli% 16!5 as cited in @era*ida% (2&&6 stating t'at students lac1 confidence
and feel t'at t'e- cannot spea1 Englis' /ecause t'e- t'in1 t'at t'e- do not 'a,e t'e a/ilit- to spea1 Englis' well
and t'eir li*ited 1nowledge of t'e language. ('is 1ind of feeling% for sure% 'inders t'e* fro* tr-ing to spea1
Englis'. ('e teac'ers s'ould concern wit' t'is issue% since it will influence students; ac'ie,e*ent and
participation as Ban (2&1& and @u/o (2&&6 note. ('e- said t'at spea1ing a/ilit- and aural co*pre'ension can
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in'i/it learning ac'ie,e*ent w'en second language students 'a,e lac1 of confidence in t'eir class participation.
C'ile anot'er student *entioned t'e cause of lac1 of confidence was afraid to tr- new t'ings% as 0M3 said4
+- feel lack of confidence !ecause - ha#en/t got much e%perience, ne.
things scare me e#en to the point of 4ust trying out, including to talk in
0nglish1.
('e state*ent a/o,e indicates t'at t'e student was not sure t'at 'ePs'e could do so*et'ing well since 'ePs'e 'ad
no an- confidence to do t'ings. ('is is also in line wit' w'at 2rown (2&&& furt'er co**ents. Be adds t'at
students feel lac1 of confidence /ecause t'e- do not 'a,e an- /elief t'at t'e- can do it.
('e teac'ers s'ould concern wit' t'is issue% since it will influence students; ac'ie,e*ent and participation as
Ban (2&1& and @u/o (2&&6 note. ('e- said t'at spea1ing a/ilit- and aural co*pre'ension can in'i/it learning
ac'ie,e*ent w'en second language students 'a,e lac1 of confidence in t'eir class participation.
3.1.5 &ack of oti#ation
In ter*s of lac1ing in *oti,ation% 5L students *entioned t'at t'e cause of t'eir lac1 of *oti,ation is caused /-
t'e teac'er;s wa- of teac'ing %as 0M1% 0M1!% and 0M22 e:plained4
0M14 +,ecause - ha#e no moti#ation .hile listening to the
0nglish teacher1.
0M1!4 +3es, !ecause the class is full of other students, you kno.
ho. noisy the situation is. -t cuts my eagerness to go up in
front of the class and ask the teacher further. $nd the
teacher is not helping !ecause she/s not used to ask us
.hether .e ha#e understood or not. So, it/s al.ays kept in
silence1.
0M224 +The lack of ad#ice and pointer gi#en !y the teacher1.
('e fact is lined up wit' =ardner in Nunan (1666 and 2a/u (2&1& stressing t'at *oti,ation is a product of
good teac'ing% not its prere9uisite% students are un*oti,ated and unwilling to spea1 Englis' in t'e classroo*
a*ong ot'ers are /ecause uninspiring teac'ing and lac1 of appropriate feed/ac1. ('erefore teac'er s'ould
concern a/out t'is issue since *oti,ation is a 1e- consideration in deter*ining t'e preparedness of learners to
co**unicate (Nunan% 1666

.&' Possi"le Solution to 0*ercome the Psychological Factors
('e followings are so*e possi/le solutions proposed /- students concerning wit' t'eir 'indrance to practice
t'eir spea1ing in Englis' class.
3.2.1 Fear of istake
Cit' regard to fear of *ista1e% t'e students ga,e t'e solution to o,erco*e t'is difficult-. So*e of t'e* wrote
t'at i*pro,ing self confidence /eca*e t'e solution to con9uer t'eir fear of *ista1e. ('is solution a*ong ot'ers
was *entioned /- 0M5% 0M13% 0M2!% and 0M35. It can /e seen fro* t'eir e:cerpts /elow4
0M5* +Ha#e self confidence to o#ercome the fear of mistake1.
0M13* +Try to !uild my self confidence to speak 0nglish .ithout
thinking that .ill !e .rong or not, .hat most importance is to
ha#e a try1.
0M2!* +ay!e - ha#e to !e more confident and !elie#ing in myself1.
0M354 +3eah, 4ust !e confident2.. .hether it/s .rong or not 4ust
speak. This .ay .e .ill kno. if .e speak correctly or not1.
Students feel afraid of *a1ing *ista1e as t'e- are worried t'at t'eir friends will laug' at t'e* and recei,e
negati,e e,aluations fro* t'eir peers if t'e- *a1e *ista1e in spea1ing and t'e- are afraid of loo1ing foolis' in
front of ot'er people (@urtus% 2&&1< @i*% 2&&5< and Eran1 Giddleton% 2&&6. ('us% it;s ,er- necessar- for t'e
teac'ers to con,ince t'eir students t'at t'e- do not 'a,e to worr- to e:press t'eir ideas /- spea1ing since t'e
language is a foreign language t'at e,er-one in t'e class is also stud-ing t'e language. In ot'er words it;s natural
if t'e- *a1e *ista1e.
0egarding t'is% Dua (2&&! notices t'at 'ow to treat students; *ista1es in co**unication will /eco*e t'e 1e- to
carr- out a co**unication. Eurt'er s'e argues if t'e teac'er corrects a students; error at an unsuita/le ti*e 'e
will lose 'is confidence. >dditionall-% t'e teac'ers are also suggested to 'elp t'eir students to de,elop t'eir self
confidence in order to /e a/le to spea1 in Englis' class as w'at t'e students *entioned a/o,e.
2esides t'e solution t'at 'as /een descri/ed a/o,e% ot'er solutions was also e:pressed /- t'e students. ('e- said
t'at as1ing friends w'o understand /etter was t'e solution t'at could /e done as represented /- 0M3&% 0M5&% and
0M57;s co**ents4
0M54 +2.read more and ask friends .ho understand !etter1.
0M354 O- ask my friends first1
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0M554 +- ask my friends .ho understand !etter and more fluent in
0nglish1.
('ose state*ents see* to /e reasona/le since as it 'as /een *entioned a/o,e% students are worried to recei,e
negati,e e,aluations% and t'erefore t'e- as1ed t'eir friends first. ('e- feel *ore co*forta/le to as1 t'eir friends
in order to a,oid negati,e co**ents. ('is condition is rele,ant wit' (sui;s suggestion (1665 as cited in 2a/u
(2&1&. >s s'e said t'at allowing students to c'ec1 t'eir answers wit' t'eir peers /efore offering t'e* to t'e
w'ole class can encourage students to spea1 up.
('is is actuall- a sign t'at students need to feel co*fort wit' t'eir teac'ers and /elie,e t'at t'e teac'ers will 'elp
t'e* if t'e- *a1e *ista1e. In addition% teac'ers s'ould encourage students to as1 for 'elp wit'out running t'e
ris1 of e*/arrass*ent since *ista1es are considered as a natural part of learning a foreign language.
3.2.2 Shyness
Cit' respect to o,erco*e s'-ness% so*e students *entioned t'at t'e- s'ould do *ore practice to spea1 Englis'
to reduce t'eir s'-ness as 0M6% 0M15% and 0M35 e:plained4
0M64 +5sed the 0nglish more2.1.
0M154 +Ha#e more con#ersation in 0nglish1.
0M35* +)o a lot of e%ercise in talking in 0nglish, it .ill make us get
used to speak 0nglish1.
C'at t'e- e:pected is consistent wit' t'e argu*ent t'at one wa- to o,erco*e students; s'-ness is to gi,e
students to ta1e opportunit- to practice a lot. It will i*pro,e t'eir s1ills of spea1ing. ('is condition for sure will
*a1e t'e* get used to tr- to spea1 (Aeon Fi*% 2&&3.
Eurt'er anot'er student wrote t'at t'e possi/le solution to o,erco*e 'isP'er s'-ness is /- tr-ing to o,erco*e
'isP'er s'-ness and to feel confidence. 0M21 e:plained4 +- try to o#ercome my shyness and to !e confident1.
0M21;s co**ent *a- support t'e idea t'at t'at one wa- to o,erco*e s'-ness is /- loo1ing upon s'-ness as a
t'ing to o,erco*e it% .'in*o- (2&&7. Eurt'er .'in*o- adds t'at teac'ers s'ould encourage t'e students in
order to reali?e t'at /eing s'-ness is not a good t'ing /ecause it will pre,ent t'e* fro* i*pro,ing t'eir
spea1ing. If students can see s'-ness as a /ad t'ing% t'e- will /e in a position to tr- and to o,erco*e it.
3.2.3 $n%iety
(o turn to possi/le solution to o,erco*e an:iet- so*e students e:pected t'at t'eir teac'ers s'ould *oti,ate t'e*
to spea1 Englis' as noted /- 0M31% 0M35% and 0M524
0M54 +Teacher should moti#ate students to !e moti#ated to speak
0nglish1.
0M324 +y suggestion is 2. you kno.2 take notice each other, that
one is still confused. then teacher should gi#e him6her further
pointers2.. gi#e moti#ation and the encouragement to mo#e on1.
0M524 +Teacher should gi#e more attention to their students and gi#e
them moti#ation to learn2..1.
('e e:pectation coincide wit' t'e argu*ent t'at pro,ide students wit' positi,e reinforce*ent% *oti,ate students
and create an ease en,iron*ent in class are i*portant to /e noticed since it can lower students; an:iet-% increase
t'eir confidence% and encourage t'eir willingness to co**unicate (Noon-ura% 2&&!< @itano% 2&&1 cited in
@era*ida% 2&&6.
(eac'ers s'ould concern wit' t'is finding since it is a proof t'at students need *oti,ation fro* t'eir teac'ers.
Goti,ation fro* t'e teac'ers can gi,e great affect to students w'en t'e- are tr-ing to spea1 Englis' to e:press
t'eir ideas. ('is condition relates to t'e i*portance of *oti,ation since it is an inner energ- (Dua% 2&&!. It 'as
/een pro,ed t'at students wit' a strong *oti,ation to succeed can persist in learning.

3.2.3 &ack of Confidence
0egarding lac1 of confidence% so*e students addressed t'e solutions and suggestions eit'er for t'e*sel,es or for
t'e teac'ers. ('e- said t'at t'e- tried to /e cal* and con,inced t'e*sel,es t'at t'e- can do it as w'at 0M23 told
so. Geanw'ile 0M37 *entioned t'at 'ePs'e tried to 1eep spea1ing and ignored all t'e derisions t'at would *a1e
'i*P'er lost 'isP'er confidence and 0M36 e:pected t'at teac'er gi,es t'e students *ore c'ances to spea1 Englis'
as t'e- said /elow4
0M234 +- try to !e calm and con#ince myself that -/m a!le to do that and ha#e
the !elief that - can !e the !est1.
0M37* +- try to practice my 0nglish and not to notice my friends/ derision
.hich only can reduce my self confidence/.
0M364 +Teacher gi#es the students more chances to e%press themsel#es in
0nglish so that the students .ill get used to it and hopefully it .ill
o#ercome the lack of confidence1.
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('ese suggestions relate to t'e idea of t'e i*portance of *a:i*i?ing students; e:posure to Englis' and allowing
students to e:perience repeated success wit' second language use as t'e strategies to /uild students; confidence
(2enson% 1661< )Qrn-ei 2&&1 as cited in @u/o 2&&6< and Ae Btwe 2&&7<. In response to t'is idea% @u/o (2&&6
furt'er adds t'at to /uild students; confidence to spea1 Englis'% teac'ers can pro,ide regular opportunities to
practice proper pronunciation and intonation% and to con,erse freel-% t'us it will *a1e students e:perienced a
greater sense of a/ilit- to spea1 Englis'. ('erefore teac'er s'ould create a co*forta/le at*osp'ere in w'ic'
learners are encouraged to tal1 in Englis' and are praised for tal1ing. In ot'er words% t'e students need to 1now
t'at teac'er does not e:pect t'e* to spea1 perfect Englis' and teac'er reali?es it ta1es ti*e and effort for t'e*
to learn to con,erse in Englis'.
3.2.5 &ack of oti#ation
In ter*s of lac1 of *oti,ation% so*e students s'ared t'eir solutions to o,erco*e lac1 of *oti,ation. Eor instance
0M1% said t'at 'ePs'e tried to *oti,ate 'i*P'erself /- 1eep stud-ing Englis'. C'ereas 0M1! as1ed 'isP'er friends
to /e *ore serious and to respect so*eone w'o was tal1ing. Eurt'er 'ePs'e added t'at t'e teac'ers s'ould as1
t'e students w'et'er t'e students 'a,e understood or not. C'ile 0M5! *ore focused t'e solution on t'e teac'ers
/- sa-ing t'at teac'ers s'ould teac' in interacti,e wa- in order to a,oid *onotonous class situation. ('e
followings are t'e e:cerpts of t'eir solutions to o,erco*e t'eir lac1 of *oti,ation4
0M1* +oti#ate myself !y constantly learning and keep searching
a!out 0nglish su!4ect1
0M1!4 +7ell, ask your friends to !e serious and gi#e some respect if
someone is talking and the teacher should ask a lot the
students .hether they ha#e understood or not1
0M5!4 +Suggestion for teacher to !e more interacti#e rather than a
monotone teaching1.
('ese solutions are in line wit' >ftat;s (2&&! suggestion t'at in order to encourage students; *oti,ation teac'ers
s'ould pro,ide constant encourage*ent and support and as1 9uestions t'at re,eal t'e /asis of a student;s
pro/le*s.
0egarding t'is% se,eral solutions to o,erco*e students; lac1 of *oti,ation proposed /- )orn-ei in Pinter (2&&5
and Fiu and Buang (2&1& can /e applied /- t'e teac'ers in order to 'elp t'eir students to o,erco*e t'eir lac1 of
*oti,ation. )orn-ei (2&&1 in Pinter (2&&5 notices four stages to encourage students; *oti,ation as follows4
('e first stage is to create *oti,ating condition for learning. ('is *eans creating a pleasant and supporti,e
en,iron*ent in t'e classroo*.
('e second stage is to introduce initial *oti,ating tec'ni9ues /- creating *aterials t'at are rele,ant for t'e
students.
('e ne%t stage is to ta1e care to *aintain and to protect students; *oti,ation /- offering sti*ulating acti,ities
and fostering self-estee*% self-confidence% and co-operation a*ong students.
('e last stage is to turn e,aluation and feed/ac1 into positi,e e:periences.

1& Conclusion
0eferring to t'e ai* of t'e stud-% it can /e concluded t'at students 'a,e ps-c'ological factors suc' as fear of
*ista1e% s'-ness% an:iet-% and t'e li1e t'at 'inder t'e* fro* practicing t'eir spea1ing in Englis' class. ('e
factors% li1e fear of *a1ing *ista1es% were co**onl- caused /- t'eir fear of /eing laug'ed at /- t'eir friends. In
addition% in ter*s of s'-ness% t'e students said t'at t'eir s'-ness was caused /- t'eir nature as s'- persons.
(o turn to t'e possi/le solutions to o,erco*e t'e ps-c'ological factors t'at 'inder students fro* spea1ing% t'e
students /elie,ed t'at *oti,ating t'e* to /e *ore confident to spea1 is wort' considering. In t'is sense%
*oti,ating students to spea1 in Englis'% to so*e e:tent% encourages t'e* to acti,el- participate in spea1ing in
t'e class. >ll t'ese suggest t'e i*portance of creating a supporting at*osp'ere of learning in t'e classroo*.

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(ec'ni9ues.R#nlineS>,aila/le4'ttp4PPwww.eltwee1l-.co*Pelt-newsletterP2&1&P&5P5&-article-teac'ing-spo1en-engl
is'-for-non-nati,e-students-pro/le*s-solutions-and-tec'ni9ues-/--a-ra*es'-/a/uP. (Garc' 15% 2&11
2aldwin% .aroline% (2&11. Bow to #,erco*e S'-ness )uring an #ral Presentation. R#nlineS >,aila/le4
'ttp4PPwww.e'ow.co*P'owT7!52353To,erco*e-s'-ness-during-oral-presentation.'t*l (Ee/ruar-17% 2&11
2owen% (i*% (2&&5% Get'odolog-4 S'- Students< >n >rticle #ffering Suggestions >nd >d,ice #n
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol 3% No 12% 2&12

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2rown% B.). (2&&1. Teaching !y Principles. $n -nteracti#e $pproach to &anguage Pedagogy. Englewood .liffs4
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Bar*er% Jere*-. (2&&7. Ho. to Teach 0nglish. .'ina4 Pearson Education Fi*ited.
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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol 3% No 12% 2&12

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Ai Btwe% Ai% (2&&7% S'-ness Gain #/stacle (o Fearning Englis'. R#nlineS >,aila/le4
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