Communication Navigation Surveillance/ Air Traffic Management

By Zulfiqar Mirani

Senior Electronics Engineer School of Electronics Engineering Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad
Monday; 25 April 2005

Brief History & Introduction

CNS/ATM

Brief History
FANS (Future Air Navigation System) ICAO Council established, in 1983 , the Special Committee on Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) to study, identify and assess new technologies, including satellite technology, and to make recommendations for the future development of navigation systems for civil aviation. Shortcomings into the then air navigation system The propagation limitations of the line-of-sight systems; The difficulty of implementing CNS systems and of operating them in a consistent manner in large parts of the world; The limitations of voice communication; and The lack of digital air-ground data interchange systems to support modern aeronautical systems.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

FANS-II FANS-II
FANS committee submitted its report in May 1988 and suggested comprehensive Communication, Navigation and Surveillance system for Air Traffic Management based on utilizing latest technologies. FANS-II Special Committee was established, in 1989, to develop 1989 international standards for air navigation and air traffic management.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Tasks of FANS-II FANS-II
1.

To identify and make recommendations for acceptable institutional arrangements; To develop a global coordinated plan; To monitor the nature and direction of research and development programmes, trials and demonstrations in CNS and ATM; To develop policy guidelines for the evolution of ATM; and To prepare the necessary documentation to support the expected ICAO Air Navigation Conference in 1991.

2. 3.

4. 5.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

CNS/ATM
The concept of CNS/ATM was adopted at the 10th Air Navigation Meeting held in September 1991 at Montreal, Canada. Accordingly a new committee, known as FANS II Special Committee, was set up by the ICAO to develop international standards of air navigation. CNS/ATM involves three major functions Communication; Navigation; and Surveillance. The concept is a mix of the best use of satellite technology and the line-of-sight systems to achieve the desired goal of organized Air Traffic Management. Management

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Benefits of CNS/ATM
Improve communications performance; Improve navigation performance; Provide visual situational awareness for the controller; Provide real-time conformance monitoring; Reduce human input errors; Reduced Separation Between Aircraft; Provide more efficient route changes; Have no altitude loss when crossing tracks; and Have more direct routings.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Transition to CNS/ATM
Transition to the new system will be one of the largest undertaking ever carried out by the aviation community. Major elements of change from ground-based to satellite based systems; from limited coverage to global coverage; and from analog to digital (data) communication. There will be a great change in the pilot-controller interaction.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Technology
Key technologies involved in CNS/ATM are: Satellite Communication, Navigation and Surveillance; and Data Communication Air-Ground Communication VHF or HF voice link Data link via SATCOM, VDL, HFDL, or Mode-S Satellite Navigation GPS (Global Positioning System) GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System) ADS (Automatic Dependence Surveillance) CDTI (Cockpit Display of Traffic Information) FMCS (Flight Management Computer System) ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Application of IT in CNS/ATM
Information Technology deals matters concerned with computer science and technology, design, development, installation and implementation of information systems and applications IT is involved in all the three components of CNS/ATM; that is Communication, Navigation and Surveillance. IT makes the future ATC/ATM systems and Voice/Data communication networks work efficiently at enormously high speeds. Other advantages of IT based CNS/ATM systems include Reliability, Flexibility, Multi Facility Integration, Expanded Operation, User convenience, Security (of information).

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

Air Traffic Management

CNS/ATM

Air Traffic Management
Goals : ATM systems Offer users maximum flexibility and efficiency in airspace utilization, taking into account their operational and economic needs; Provide the flexibility to cater for different levels of aircraft equipage, and allow sharing of airspace by different categories of users; Allow for the implementation of ATM at varying levels of sophistication, to provide services tailored to the needs of particular regions; Provide for transitions across airspace boundaries to be transparent to airspace users ; and Ensure that present levels of safety are maintained or improved upon, both in the final mature ATM system, and during the transition period.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Elements of ATM
Air Space Management (ASM) Flight Operations (ATM related aspects) Air Traffic Services (ATS) Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Air Space Management
ASM is recognized as dynamic sharing of airspace by civil and military users.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Flight Operations
The ATM-related aspects of flight operations are an integral part of ATM in CNS/ATM systems.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Air Traffic Services
ATS is the prime element of ATM ATS Sub-elements are the Alerting Services; Flight Information Service (FIS); and Air Traffic Control. The main objectives of ATC services are to prevent collisions between aircrafts and between aircraft and obstructions on the maneuvering area and to expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Air Traffic Flow Management
The objective of ATFM is to ensure an optimum flow of air traffic. ATFM should reduce delays to aircraft both in flight and on the ground and prevent system overload. ATFM assists ATC in meeting its objectives and achieving the most efficient utilization of available airspace and airport capacity . ATFM is to ensure that safety is not compromised by the development of unacceptable levels of traffic congestion and traffic is managed efficiently without unnecessary flow of restrictions being applied.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

Communication

CNS/ATM

Communication
The communication element of CNS/ATM system provides for the exchange of aeronautical data and messages between aeronautical users and/or automated systems. Communication systems are used in support of navigation and surveillance functions.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Categories Of Aeronautical Communications
Safety-related communications, requiring high integrity and rapid response such as Communications carried out among ATS units, between ATS and an aircraft for ATC, flight information and alerting Aeronautical Operational Control (AOC) communication carried out by aircraft operators for matters related to safety, regularity and efficiency of flights. Non-safety related communications such as Aeronautical administrative communications carried out by aeronautical personnel and/or organizations on administrative and private matters Aeronautical passenger communications.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Air-Ground Communications Air-Ground
Most of the routine communications in the en-route phase of flight will be via data interchange. Data transfers will also take place between automated airborne and ground systems without the need for manual intervention. A special communication arrangement between controller and pilot is introduced that is named as Controller-Pilot Digital Link Communication abbreviated as CPDLC.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Data Link: Definition and main objectives
Data link is a generic term for a communications technique, which enables the exchange of digitized information between end-users (sources and/or consumers of information). Data link has many different forms ( for example; AirGround, Air-Air, Ground-Ground ), protocols, applications ( addressable, broadcast ), and utilizes a number of communications media ( such as VHF, HF, Satellite, Mode S ).

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC)
CPDLC will be part of the Aeronautical Data Link system and provide an additional digital communications channel to supplement the voice frequencies. Multiple controllers will have the capability to send Data Link messages from any given sector to any or all Data Link equipped aircraft in that sector, and transmissions will take place simultaneously over multiple media. A defined set of (pre-formatted) message elements is used, that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current ATC procedures. A ‘free text’ capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Radio Links
Transmission of air-ground messages is carried out over one of the following radio links: Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service (AMSS) – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM VHF (analog) – traditional communication link HF (analog) - traditional communication link VHF digital link (VDL) – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM SSR Mode-S data link – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM HF data link – a new standard introduced in CNS/ATM

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

VHF Digital Link (VDL)
VHF Digital Link (VDL) is a constituent mobile sub-network of the aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN), operating in the aeronautical mobile VHF frequency band. Modes of VDL VDL Mode-2 VDL Mode-4

It is assumed that only VDL Mode 4 appears to meet all the broad requirements defined (so far) in various operational forums. Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan by: z.mirani

CNS/ATM

HF Data Link System
The HFDL service allows aircraft to send and receive packet data via a network of HFDL ground stations. HFDL can provide very significant improvements over current HF Voice Communications in terms of system availability, system capacity, ease of use, and information integrity.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Mode-S Data Link Mode-S
Mode S is a type of secondary radar that can be used to exchange longer and more varied data. Mode S transmissions between the station and the transponder use 56 or 112 bit formats called frames. There are 24 formats. First five bits in each format define the Uplink Format No. There are two types of Mode S data link Specific Interoperable

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Mode-S : Interoperable data link Mode-S
The interoperable data link was designed to allow ground-toaircraft exchanges using Mode S as a packet switching data transmission network. The messages (data packets) transmitted are then cut into pieces and distributed around the data fields in the frames, which are sent from the station to the transponder (or vice-versa) where the data fields are extracted and reconstituted a little further on at the exit from the Mode S " world ", for routing to the addressee. The interoperable services will enable the integration of Mode S sub-networks in the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (A.T.N.). It can, truly, be used as a data communication link CPDLC.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Mode-S : Specific data link Mode-S
The specific data link is more closely linked to the Mode S surveillance system. In particular there is a highly optimized "aircraft data collection" protocol using the COMM-B frames. It is based on the following principle : in the transponder, there is a series of 256 buffers of 56 bits each, in which information concerning the flight and aircraft status are stored and permanently refreshed. Each buffer, identified by an order number, contains data of a precise nature formatted according to a predetermined code.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunication Network)
ATN allows ground, air-ground and avionics data subnetworks to inter-operate for the specified aeronautical applications. All the afore-mentioned data links are ATN-compatible and therefore constitute ATN sub-networks. In ATN environment, sub-networks are connected to other sub-networks through ATN routers, which select the best route for transmission of each data message. As such, the choice of the air-ground data link is often transparent to the end-user.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Ground-Ground Communications Ground-Ground
Communications between and within ATS units may be by AFTN, Voice, or ATS Inter-facility Data Communications (AIDC). The use of AIDC significantly reduces the need for voice coordination. The AIDC message sets and procedures are designed for use over any ground-to-ground circuit, including the AFTN and ATN.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

Short Break

Navigation

CNS/ATM

Navigation
Since the 1980s, aircraft systems have evolved towards the use of satellite navigation. Navigation satellites or Global Navigation Satellite System as named by ICAO SARPs are alternative to NDB, VOR and ILS provided they meet the required standard. The major technological change in navigation will be the progressive adoption of GNSS.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)
Currently, GNSS requires augmentation systems to monitor signal reliability and enhance accuracy to make them suitable for civilian use. The augmentation systems are currently being developed. Navigation satellite is being used today for en-route navigation, but it also assists in landing an aircraft only in good weather conditions, so called non-precision approaches and landings.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

GPS (Global Positioning System)]
GPS] was developed by the United States Department of Defense for position fix coordination of the inertial navigation systems (INS) on board military aircraft and cruise missiles. At present GPS is far more accurate than NDB/ADF or VOR and certainly more accurate than necessary for VFR flight. Commercial airliners and military aircraft have already demonstrated fully automatic instrument approach and landing under Category 3B conditions

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

GLONASS
GLONASS is a Soviet space-based navigation system comparable to the US GPS system. The operational system contains 21 satellites in 3 orbital planes, with 3 on-orbit spares. GLONASS provides 100 meters accuracy with its C/A (deliberately degraded) signals and 10-20 meter accuracy with its P (military) signals.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Augmentation Systems
Ground based augmentation systems Satellite based augmentation systems Aircraft based augmentation systems

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Ground based augmentation systems
LAAS (Local Area Augmentation System) GBAS (Ground Based Augmentation System)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Satellite based augmentation systems
WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System ) EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) MSAS (Multi Satellite-based Augmentation System)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Aircraft-Based Augmentation System Aircraft-Based
Aircraft-based augmentation system (ABAS - ICAO definition) augments and/or integrates the information obtained from the GNSS elements with other information available on board the aircraft.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

GNSS-II (The next generation GNSS) GNSS-II
meets the needs of the most demanding civil users would lead to a sufficiently accurate, redundant and independent system for use as the sole means of positioning timing Navigation allow its use as a sole means of navigation for the Category 3B precision approach – which allows landings in conditions of almost zero visibility

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Geo-coordinate standard Geo-coordinate
ICAO has mandated the use of WGS 84 as the common geodetic reference system for civil aviation with an applicability from 1 January 1998. The World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) is the geodetic reference system used by GPS.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

RNP (Required Navigation Performance)
RNP is intended to characterize an airspace through a statement of the navigation performance accuracy (RNP type) to be achieved within the airspace. The RNP type is based on a navigation performance accuracy value that is expected to be achieved at least 95 per cent of the time by the population of aircraft operating within the airspace. Under this concept aircraft will be certified or approved as meeting a certain RNP type. Air Traffic Service providers will designate certain routes or airspace as specific RNP routes or airspace.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

Surveillance

CNS/ATM

Surveillance
Independent Surveillance (IS) Co-operative Independent Surveillance (CIS) Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Automatic Dependent Surveillance
ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) ADS-C (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Traffic Information Service - Broadcast
TIS-B is a surveillance technique that broadcasts surveillance information from the ground for suitably equipped air or ground-based mobiles or Objects of Interest (mobile: an aircraft in the air or on the ground, or a surface vehicle equipped to receive TIS-B)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).
ACAS issue two types of alert:
i)

Traffic Advisories (TAs), which aim at helping the pilot in the visual search for the intruder aircraft, and by alerting him to be ready for a potential resolution advisory. Resolution Advisories (RAs), which are avoidance manoeuvres recommended to the pilot. When the intruder aircraft is also fitted with an ACAS system, both ACAS’ coordinate their RAs through the Mode S data link, in order to select complementary resolution senses.

ii)

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Airborne Systems
Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) FMCS (Flight Management Computer System) Multi-Mode Receiver (MMR) Collision Avoidance Systems: ACAS (Airborne Collision Avoidance System) TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) Automatic Dependant Surveillance Airline Operational Control Datalink Air Traffic Control (ATC) Datalink GNSS or Global Positioning System Receiver Required Navigational Performance Required Time of Arrival

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CONCLUSION

CNS/ATM

Communication
a) Voice Air-Ground Communications: VHF, UHF, Direct HF, Indirect HF and SATVOICE (SATVOICE is a satellite telephone system that is available on suitably equipped aircraft through the Inmarsat Geostationary Satellite Network) b) Data Link Air-Ground Communications: Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) application via data link utilising Satellite, VDL, HFDL and Mode-S subnetworks c) ATS Ground-Ground Communications: Voice communications; ATS Interfacility Data Communications (AIDC); and AFTN. d) DSP (Data Link Service Providers} Internetworking. e) Aeronautical Telecommunication Network

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Navigation
The major technological changes in navigation are the adoption of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Area Navigation (RNAV) computers and databases. The level of aircraft navigation capability required for particular operations is expressed by Required Navigation Performance (RNP) criteria.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

CNS/ATM

Surveillance
Surveillance information will be obtained by Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) SSR Mode – S Traditional surveillance means such as Radar (both Primary and Mode A/C) will also be used. Traffic information will also be broadcasted from ground ATS centers via TIS-B.

by: z.mirani

Civil Aviation Training Institute, Hyderabad-Pakistan

Future Environment as foreseen by AIRBUS industries

CNS/ATM overview
Communication Satellites (Satcom) Navigation Satellites (GNSS) Space

Air

Ground
Ground-based radios (VHF & HF) Satcom Transponder

Ground Network for

Data Communications Differential GNSS station
Airline Host Information Service ATC Center

FANS is no more a Future air navigation system

FLY FREE

This and other related information is also available at http://geocities.com/zamsnet http://geocities.com/zmirani Please visit

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