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TRIBHUWAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TRI-CHANDRA MULTIPLE CAMPUS


DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY
SARASWOTI SADAN, GHANTAGHAR
KATHMANDU, NEPAL

A REPORT ON FAUNAL DIVERSITY OF ARUNODAYA


Prepared for the fulfillment of field study in Zoology of B.Sc. First Year under the syllabus of T.U.

Prepared by:
Sunita Timalsina
B.Sc. First Year
Symbol No. : 50371165
Year: 2071

TRIBHUWAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TRI-CHANDRA MULTIPLE CAMPUS


DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY
SARASWOTI SADAN, GHANTAGHAR
KATHMANDU, NEPAL

A REPORT ON FAUNAL DIVERSITY OF ARUNODAYA


Prepared for the fulfillment of field study in Zoology of B.Sc. First Year under the syllabus of T.U.

Prepared by:
Surendra Kumar Subedi
B.Sc. First Year
Symbol No. : 5037165
Year: 2071
2071-08-03

Approved by:
Prof. Shree Prasad Dhoubhadel
Head of Department
Department of Zoology
Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus
Saraswoti Sadan, Ghantaghar
Kathmandu,Nepal

Date: 2071-08-03

Certificate of Approval
This is to certify that report entitled General Faunal Survey at
Arunodaya, submitted by Ms. Sunita Timalsina for the zoology practical of B.Sc.
First year, and has been accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
completion of first year Bachelors Degree in Science (Zoology). This is his own work
and has not previously formed the basis for award of any degree, diploma or any other
similar title.

Prof. Shree Prasad Dhoubhadel


Head of Department
Department of Zoology
Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus
Ghantaghar, Kathmandu

Acknowledgement
The preparation and writing of this report faced much more challenges. In
particular, it had to be prepared and delivered within a short time frame. In addition, as
a sitting judge with both judicial and administrative responsibilities to my court, I
could not devote myself full-time to work.
Every report big or small is successful largely due to the effort of a number
of wonderful people who have always given their valuable advice or lent a helping
hand. I sincerely appreciate the inspiration; support and guidance of all those people
who have been instrumental in making this report a success.
I, Sunita Timalsina, the student of Tri-Chandra Multiple Campus, am
extremely grateful to our Department of Zoology for the confidence bestowed in me
and entrusting my report entitled Faunal Diversity with special reference to TriChandra Multiple Campus.
At this juncture I feel deeply honored in expressing my sincere thanks to my
field team and teachers for lending me special supervision and providing me kindly
cooperation along with prompt data collection leading to the successful completion of
my report.
I express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to our respected teacher Shree
Prasad Dhoubhadel, HOD (Head of Department) of Zoology Department for arranging
the field trip study in good schedule. I also extend my gratitude to non-teaching staffs
of Department, who assisted me in compiling the report. I would also like to thank all
the teachers of Zoology Department for their critical advice and guidance without
which this report would not have been possible.
Last but not the least I place a deep sense of gratitude to my classmates and
my friends who have been constant source of inspiration during the preparation
of this report work.
Finally I would like to express my thankfulness to the administration, local
people on the field and all others who helped me us directly and indirectly during the
field trip.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page
Certificate of Approval
Acknowledgement
Pages
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Introduction...................................................................... 1
Objectives. 2
Materials and Method.. 3
Observations. 4
Table 1: Inertebrates Observed in Arunodaya
Table 2: Vertebrates Observed in Arunodaya
Some Observed Invertebrates
Ecological Values..9
Discussion and Conclusion. 10
Recommendation. 11
References....12

Introduction

As per the requirement of B.Sc. first year course in zoology practical


according to the syllabus of 4 years B.Sc. program of T.U., one day trip to Arunodaya
village in Tanahun district was taken. The main purpose of this field trip was to survey
faunal diversity along with habit, habitat, identification and study of ecological values
of invertebrates over there.
Arunodaya is a village situated on south-west Tanahun which is about 195
km. from Kathmandu and about 43 km. from Pokhara. It is one of the visiting
destination in Tanahun for its wild specimen,invertebrates, avifauna and different
types of flora. There are two fascinating caves namely Siddha Gufa and Chameri
Gufa near Arunodaya. Inside the chameri gufa, we can found the bats. I have chosen
this place due to my accessibility in terms of transportation and other resources.

This place is rich in water resources and dense forest over the hill, so we can
find different types of specimens for observation and study due to the variation in
vegetation. I have chosen this place to get more and more benefit in small cost. It is
also rich in different types of invertebrates,fishes, amphibians, reptiles and other
vertebrates
along
there.

OBJECTIVES
This study is designed to document patterns of faunal diversity and community
composition among the ecological habitats at Arunodaya. I have sought to discover which
aspects of habitat structure are associated with high levels of diversity. I also want to understand
how the ecological habitat contributes to the overall diversity of invertebrates at Arunodaya,
and how this diversity arises from the reserves complex habitat mosaic.
Furthermore, this report is highly dedicated to make completion of our Zoology course
in first year of B.Sc. under the syllabus of T.U. This report is the outcome of our field trip to
Arunodaya. The major objectives of our report relating the field trip are highlighted below:
Objective 1. The report is prepared to make the study of diversity found in invertebrates of the
area.
Objective 2. It has been prepared to collect information about invertebrates found in
Arunodaya area.
Objective 3. The report will identify and evaluate spatially referenced diversity in animals and
help to compare them with those present in other parts and around the place.
Objective 4. To track if there is likely to be found some new species of animals.

Materials and Method


In this report various descriptions, terminology and abbreviations are
used to describe elements of the data or the source of data used in the analysis.
Furthermore, different materials and methods were used and found to be helpful
during the preparation of this report.
As our field trip was decided we planned to visit our study place by
means of locally available transportation by making a crew/team of students under
the supervision of our engaged class teacher as guidance to all of us. The
transportation facilities were easily available so we didnt find it difficult to reach
there. After reaching the site, we dispersed in the area in the member of three in
different groups and made the clear study and collection of report in the Arunodaya
area inclusion to the forest nearby there along with the area inhabited by the local
people. We also made a walk up and down the hill so that we can have overlook on
different invertebrates on to the way.
The different materials we used during our study was hand-globe which
made us easy to catch the invertebrates overall the place. Also we used the
standard animals records to help us identify the fauna we observed at the site. We
took photograph of much of the animals we saw. Also we were lucky to make
collection of some of them which we brought for our specimen collection.
We also made conversation with the locales about how often the
invertebrates are likely to be seen and what efforts have been done to protect them.
Moreover, we involved internet help that helped us making analysis of collected
overall data on the place along with the supplementary information about the place.
In total, past record and reports from different researchers were found
much beneficial material which sought past data reference method to complete our
report.

Observation
The faunal diversity can be classified into : Invertebrates
Vertebrates
As the prescribed syallabus of Zoology,B.Sc. first year course, our aim is
to identify and study the habit, habitat of the invertebrates. Beside invertebrates
other vertebrates were a;so studied.
The faunal studied in the spot are written in the tables.

Table 1: Invertebrates
S.N. Scientific name
1. Pheritima posthuma
2. Hirudinaria
3. Apis
4. Scolopendra
5. Pieris
6. Melolontha
7. Vespa orientalis
8. Melanopus
9. Aranea
10. Cancer
11. Photinus
12. Helix

Local name
Earthworm
Leech
Honey bee
Centipede
Butterfly
Beetle
Wasp
Grasshopper
Spider
Crab
Fire fly
Garden snail

Phylum
Annelida
Annelida
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Mollusca

Class
Oligochaeta
Hirudinea
Insecta
Myriapoda
Insecta
Insecta
Insecta
Insecta
Arachnida
Crustacea
Insecta
Gastropoda

Order
Neoligochaeta
Gnathobdellida
Hymenoptera
Chilopoda
Lepidoptera
Coleoptera
Hymenoptera
Orthoptera
Araneae
Decapoda
Coleoptera
Stylommatophora

The most widely found invertebrates are of arthropods. The dominant of animals
species present there are arthropods. As the visit was done on Ashoj, the species
such as leech, earthworms,grasshopper were seen on some places only. As the
data, there are more than 200 species of butterfly and varities of moths, wasps are
found. Similarly different types of dragon fly are found.
As our main aim was yo study about the invertebrates according to our syallabus
of B.Sc. first year but during the field trip,different varities of vertebrates were
also found. There names are collected in thetable below:

Table 2: Vertebrates observed in Arunodaya


S.N.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Scientific name
Labeo rohita
Rana tigrina
Bufo melanostictus
Hemidactylus
Columba livia
Corvus
Passer domestica
Eudynamis
Rattus rattus
Funambulus
Macaca mullata

Common name
Rohu
Frog
Toad
Wall lizard
Pigeon
Crow
Sparrow
Koel
Rat
Squirrel
Monkey

Some Observed specimens

Spider

Leech

Class
Pisces
Amphibia
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Aves
Aves
Aves
Mammalia
Mammalia
Mammalia

Order
Anura
Anura
Cilumbiformes
Passeriformes
Passeriformes
Cuculiformes
Rodentia
Rodentia
Primates

Spider

Earthworm

Garden Snail

Leech

Photinus

Grasshopper

Economic values
There are some insects, arthropods and other specimens in that locality in which
we have had the survey. The specimens found around there are of great
importance. Economic values means both harmful as well as beneficial effects to
the mankind and environment. Some species such as Apis, Pieris, Melanopus,
Pheritima are very beneficial to the environment as well as to the mankind. But
some specimens such as Culex, Musca,bettle causes different types of diseases in
human. So insects plays significant role in our daily life. Secretion of some insects
are used in medicinal purpose.
The molluscs are also of great importance. Some of them are used as food by
mankind and some molluscan shells are used as ornamental goods. They are also
the source of income. Molluscans as well as arthropods also helps in pollination.
Some molluscans as well as annelids are used as bait during fishing. The hard
shells of molluscs are used as buttons.

Discussion and Conclusion


Finally, we have successfully completed a day of field trip at Arunodaya
village in Tanahun district as per the completion of B.Sc. first year zoology practical.
Though it was very difficult to study their habit, habitat, and to comment on them, but
our teamwork and co-operation between friends, teachers and local people made it
possible. It was relly difficult to collect animal species, so we collected some of them
as the collection specimen for the submission. During the survey, we found the varities
of arthropods( specially insects) as the dominant class of invertebrates followed by
molluscs by number. But we also studied about the other class animals around there.

Recommendations
After the completion of field trip at Arunodaya, I would like to consider
some points as my recommendations for the protection and continuity of the faunal
as well as floral diversity of Arunodaya.
People should be made aware about the conservation of forest resources.
The area should be enlisted as Conservation Area,so that the biodiversity
present can be conserved.
Local people must be aware about the importanceof faunal diversity.
The forest area should be increased to improve the habitat of animals.
Proper policies should be made to come in action for the proper utilization of
forest resources.
This area must be declared as a tourist area or research site.

Moreover, the area is also handling previous and ongoing conservation


efforts. This effort should be quietly modified and must run on long-term. Thus,
this long-term conservation effort helps in the protection of different native and
migratory invertebrates as well as vertebrates of this place. It is highly
recommended for all general public to make assurement of the best suited
conservation area which will finally contribute to make the area rich in natural
faunal diversity. Thus, this conservation effort will also help to maintain the
protection of endangered and near to extinct faunal species.

References
R.L. Kotpal, A Text Book Of Zoology Vertebrates, Rastogi Publications
Shakya, S.R., Zoology Laboratory Manual, Part I,Ms. Kushum Shakya,
Kathmandu, Nepal
Jordan, E.L. and Verma, P.S. Invertebrates Zoology
L.H. Hyman: The Invertebrates, vol: I-VI
www.google.com/invertebrates in nepal
www.google.com/photos_of_invertebrates