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AE 430 - Stability and Control of

Aerospace Vehicles

Aircraft Equations of
Motion

Dynamic Stability

Degree of
dynamic
stability:
time it takes
the motion to
damp to half or
to double the
amplitude of its
initial
amplitude
Handling
quality of an
airplane

Oscillations
growing
exponentially

Dynamic Stability

Airplane Modes of Motion

z

Longitudinal (symmetric)

Long period (phugoid)

z
z
z

Short period
z
z

Exchange of KE and PE
Easily controlled by pilot (usually)
Lightly damped
Usually heavily damped
Higher frequency than phugoid

Lateral-directional (asymmetric)

Spiral mode (aperiodic bank angle divergence)

Roll mode (aperiodic roll rate convergence)
Dutch roll mode
z
z

Moderately damped
Moderate frequency

Vector Analysis
z
z

A scalar quantity is one which has only magnitude, whereas a

vector quantity has both magnitude and direction.
From physical point of view, when a mathematical vector is
used to express a physical element, such as force acting on an
object, velocity of a mass point, the third factor of location
needs to be accounted for.
As a result, the vector quantities can be classified into three
types:

a free vector, such as wind speed, is one with a specified slope

(direction) and sense (magnitude) but not acting through any
particular point ;
a sliding vector, such as the moment acting on the body depends
upon the line of action of the force, has definite or specific line of
action, but is independent of the precise point of application along
that line;
a fixed vector is a vector with specified magnitude, direction, and
point of application.

Rigid body
z

A rigid body is a system of particles in which the

distances between the particles do not vary. To
describe the motion of a rigid body we use two
systems of coordinates, a space-fixed system
xe, ye, ze, and a moving system xb, yb, zb, which is
rigidly fixed in the body and participates in its motion.

Rigid body equation of motion are obtained from

Newtons second law

Body frame
m

vc

CM

Fixed frame
inertial axis

Velocity and acceleration of differential

mass respect to inertial reference system
z

a,v referred to an
absolute reference
system (inertial)

P (t ) = c (t ) + r (t )
P m
r

vc

dr
v = vc +
= vc + r
dt
a = ac +
CM

d 2r
dt

CM

= ac + r + ( r )

Angular velocity

= pi + qj + rk

c
o
ye

xe
Fixed frame
ze inertial axis

Newtons second law

Summation of all external forces acting on a body is equal to
the time rate of change of the momentum of the body

F=

F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k

d
( mv )
dt

Fx =

d
d
d
( mu ) ; Fy = ( mv ) ; Fz = ( mw )
dt
dt
dt

Summation of all external moments acting on a body is equal to

the time rate of change of the moment of the momentum (angular
momentum)
M = M x i + M y j + M z k = Li + Mj + Nk

M = dt H
d

L=

d
d
d
Hx; M = H y; N = Hz
dt
dt
dt

The time rate of change of linear and angular momentum

are referred to an absolute or inertial reference frame

F, M

Force Equation

F = dt (mv)
d

F =m

dv
dt

v = vc +

dr
dt

Total external force acting on the airplane

dr

dr

F = F = dt vc + dt m = dt vc m + dt m
d

Assuming constant mass:

dv c d
dv
dr
d2
+ m = m c + 2 r m
dt dt
dt
dt dt
r

m
=
0
r
measured
from
the
center of mass

F=m

Force equation:

F=m

dv c
dt

Moment Equation M = dt H
d

M =

d
d
H = (r v ) m
dt
dt

v = vc +

dr
= vc + r
dt

Total angular momentum acting on the airplane

H = H = ( r vc ) m + r ( r ) m
vc constant with respect to the summation

H=

r m vc + r ( r ) m
r m = 0 r measured from the center of mass
H=

r ( r ) m

H=

Moment Equation
Angular velocity

r ( r ) m

Position vector

= pi + qj + r k

r = xi + yj + zk

Propriety of Cross
Product

Vector equation for the angular momentum

H = ( pi + qj + r k ) x + y + z m
2

r ( r )

(r r ) (r ) r

( xi + yj + zk )( px + qy + rz ) m

( y 2 + z 2 ) m q xy m r xz m
H y = p xy m + q ( x 2 + z 2 ) m r yz m
Hx = p

Hz = p

xz m q yz m + r ( x2 + y 2 ) m
Ix

Moment Equation
z

Mass moments and products of inertia

( y + z ) m
I y = ( x 2 + z 2 ) m
I z = ( x 2 + y 2 ) m
Ix =

xy m
I xz = xz m
I yz = yz m
I xy =

The larger moment of inertia, the greater will be the

resistance to rotation

Moment Equation
Scalar equations for the angular momentum

H x = pI x qI xy rI xz
H y = pI xy + qI y rI yz
H z = pI xz qI yz + rI z
NOTE: If the reference frame is not rotating, then as the airplane rotates
the moments and the products of inertia will vary with the time
To simplify the problem we will fix the axis system to the aircraft
(body axis system)

z

dA
dt

=
I

dA
dt

+ A
B

then

F=m

dv c
dt

M=

=m
I

dH
dt

=
I

dv c
dt

dH
dt

+ m ( vc )

+ H

Scalar equations of motion for

reference axis fixed to the airplane
vc = ui + vj + wk

dv
Fx = m c
dt

+ m ( vc ) i

Force equations

Fx = m ( u + qw rv ) ; Fy = m ( v + ru pw ) ; Fz = m ( w + pv qu )
Moment equations L = (

dH
dt

+ H) i
B

L = H x + qH z rH y ; M = H y + rH x pH z ;
xz plane of symmetry
I yz = I xy = 0
Moment equations:

N = H z + pH y qH x

L = I x p I xz r + qr I z I y I xz pq

M = I y q + rp ( I x I z ) + I xz p 2 r 2

N = I xz p + I z r + pq I y I x + I xz qr

Orientation and position of the airplane

(respect to a fixed frame)
z

At t = 0 the axis system fixed to the

airplane and the one of a fixed
frame coincide

Orientation of airplane described by

three consecutive angular rotation
(Euler Angles)
rotation about z (through the
yaw angle
rotation about y (through the
pitch angle
rotation about x (through the
roll (bank) angle

Euler Angles
Fixed Reference Frame:

dx
= u1 cos v1 sin
dt
dy
= u1 sin + v1 cos
dt
dz
= w1
dt

u1 , v1 , w1 = f (u2 , v2 , w2 )
u2 , v2 , w2 = g (u, v, w)

u1
w1

v1

Orientation and position of the airplane

(respect to a fixed frame)
The orientation of an airplane, relative to local axes, can
be specified by the three sequential rotations about the
body axes. Starting with the body axes aligned with the
local axes, the first rotation is about the z-axis through
an angle , followed by a rotation about the y-axis
through an angle , followed by a rotation about the
x-axis through an angle . These angles of rotation
are the Euler angles, and can represent any possible
orientation of the airplane.

Airplane's direction cosine matrix

constructed from the Euler angles

dx
dt
u

dy = C v
[
]

dt

w
dz

dt

dx dy dz Absolute velocity components

; ;
dt dt dt along the fixed frame
u; v; w

Velocity components
along the body axes

=
=

=
NOTE: Use of Quarternions is sometime better: see

Kinematic
equations for
the Euler angles

http://www.aerojockey.com/papers/meng/node19.html

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Relationship between body angular velocities

(in the body frame) and the Euler rates
0
p 1
q = 0 C

r 0 S
1 S tan

C
= 0
0 S sec

S

C S
C C
C tan p
S q
C sec r

F = Faero + Fgrav + Fprop

Gravitational Forces
Along the body axes

Fgrav = mg
Fx

grav

Fy

grav

Fz

grav

= mg sin
= mg cos sin
= mg cos cos

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Force and
Moment due to
propulsion
system
Fprop

Trust forces

Fxprop = X T
Fy
Fz

prop

prop

= YT
= ZT

Lprop = LT
M prop = M T
N prop = NT

Summary

xz plane of symmetry I yz = I xy = 0

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Summary

12 equations, 12 unknowns/variables: x, y, z; , , ; u, v, w; p, q, r

z

The nonlinear equations of motion given previously may be

used to predict the motion of a vehicle assuming the forces and
moments can be computed at the flight conditions of interest.
The equations are nonlinear because of the quadratic
dependence of the inertia forces on the angular rates, the
presence of trigonometric functions of the Euler angles
and angles of attack and sideslip, and the fact that the forces
depend on the state variables in fundamentally nonlinear
ways. While the quaternion formulation avoids some of the
trigonometric nonlinearities, the equations remain nonlinear.

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z

Despite the nonlinear character of the equations, one may

consider small variations of motion about some reference
condition for which the equations (including the forces and
moments) may be approximated by a linear model.
This approach was extremely important in the early days of
simulation when high speed computers were not available to
solve the fully nonlinear system.
Now, the general set of equations is often maintained for the
purposes of simulation, although there are still important
reasons to consider linear approximations and many conditions
for which the linear approximation of the system is perfectly
acceptable.

approximations
z
z

Much of the mathematics of control system design was

developed based on linear models.
The theory of linear quadratic regulator design (LQR) and most
other optimal control law synthesis techniques are based on a
linear system model.
Even many nonlinear simulations, that keep the full equations
of motion, rely on linear aerodynamic models (or at least
partially linearized aero models) to keep the size of the
aerodynamic database more manageable

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Linearized Aerodynamics: Stability

Derivatives
z

There are two senses in which we may deal with "linear" aerodynamic
models.

To most aerodynamicists, this means that the partial differential equations

describing the fluid flow are linearized. These linear models lead to
aerodynamic characteristics that are nonlinear in the dynamics state
variables (such as angle of attack) due to nonlinearities in the boundary
conditions and speed-pressure relations. Thus, dynamicists must deal with
the results of potential flow codes, Euler codes, or Navier-Stokes solvers in
much the same way as they do with wind tunnel data.
The linearizations lead to aerodynamic models that are comprised of a set
of reference values and a set of "stability derivatives" or first order
expansions of the actual variations of forces and moments with the state
variables of interest.
Because these are first order models, the total force can be
conveniently "built-up" as the sum of the individual effects of angle
of attack, pitch rate, sideslip, etc. Since the six aerodynamic forces and
moments do not depend explicitly on the orientation of the vehicle with
respect to inertial coordinates, we expect derivatives only with respect to
the 3 relative wind velocity components and the 3 rotation rates.

Derivatives

This means that there are usually 36 stability derivatives required

to describe the first order aerodynamic characteristics of a flight
vehicle. However, the applied forces and moments may also vary,
not just with the values of the state variables, but also their time
derivatives. This can represent a significant complication to the
basic concept of stability derivatives. In most cases, however,
these effects are small and usually the only terms of much
significance are those associated with the rate of change of angle
of attack.
These derivatives can be expressed in dimensional form
making them just the coefficients in the linear state space
model, and assigning some direct physical significance to
their numerical values, or in dimensionless form. The latter
has the advantage that the values are relatively independent of
dynamic pressure and model size and that this is the form that is
used in wind tunnel databases and computational aerodynamics
models.

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Small-Disturbance Theory
The equations of motion are frequently linearized for use in stability
and control analysis. It is assumed that the motion of the aircraft
consists of small deviation from a steady flight condition. The use of
small disturbance theory predicts the stability of unaccelerated flight. In
most cases, a perturbed fluid-aerodynamic force is a function of
perturbed linear and angular velocities and their rates:

Thus the aerodynamic force at time t0 is determined by its series

expansion of the right-hand side of this equation:

stability derivatives, or more generally as

aerodynamic derivatives.

Small-Disturbance Theory
z

For small perturbations, the higher-order terms are dropped.

Also, due to the assumed symmetry of the vehicle, derivatives
of X, Z, M w.r.t. motions out of the longitudinal plane are zero,
thus may be visualized by noting that X, Z, M must be
symmetrical w.r.t. lateral perturbations.
In other words, we neglect the symmetric derivatives w.r.t. the
asymmetric motion variables, i.e., for aerodynamic force X,
and so on.

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Stability Derivative

Control

17

We obtain the following linearized equations

(taking first order approximations),

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Assume the reference flight condition to be symmetric,

unaccelerated, steady, and with no angular velocity, therefore

equations

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Linearized longitudinal and lateral

equations

Small-Disturbance Theory

u = u0 + u; v = v0 + v; w = w0 + w;
p = p0 + p; q = q0 + q; r = r0 + r ;
X = X 0 + X ; Y = Y0 + Y ; Z = Z 0 + Z ;
L = L0 + L;

M = M 0 + M ; N = N 0 + N ;

= 0 + ;
Symmetric flight condition and constant propulsive forces

v0 = p0 = q0 = r0 = 0 = 0 = 0
(x-axis in the direction of the velocity vector)

w0 = 0

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X Force Equation
X mg sin = m ( u + qw rv )
X 0 + X mg sin ( 0 + ) =
d

= m ( u0 + u ) + ( q0 + q )( w0 + w ) ( r0 + r )( v0 + v )
dt

Derivation of the linearized small-disturbance

longitudinal and lateral rigid body equation of
motion
Longitudinal equation for the X force equation

X mg cos 0 = mu
X ( u , w, e , T ) =

X
X
X
X
u +
w +
e +
T
u
w
e
T

X
X
d X
X
m dt u u w w + ( mg cos 0 ) = e +

T
e
d

dt X u u ( X w ) w + ( g cos 0 ) = X e e + X T T

( )

Xu =

1 X
m u

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representation
z

Expressed by mean of a Taylor series in the term of

perturbation variables about the reference equilibrium condition

X =

X
X
X
X
u +
w +
e +
T
u
w
e
T

Stability derivative (evaluated at the

reference flight condition)
Stability
coefficient
= C x QS
(dimensionless)

Bryan, 1904
X,M (aero)
Expressed as
function of the
instantaneous
values of the
perturbation
variables

C x 1
X C x u0
1
=
QS =
QS = C xu
QS
u
u u0
u u0 u0
u0

Change in the force in x direction and change in the

pitching moment (in terms of perturbation variables)

X u , u , w, w, , e , e =
X =

X
X
X
X
u +
u + +
e +
e + H.O.T.
u
u
e
e

M ( u , v, w, u, v, w, p, q, r , a , e , r ) =
M =

M
M
M
M
u +
v +
w + +
p +
u
v
w
p

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X =

X
X
X
X
u +
w +
e +
T
u
w
e
T

Y =

Y
Y
Y
Y
v +
p +
r +
r
v
p
r
r

Z =

Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
u +
w +
w +
q +
e +
T
u
w
w
q
e
T

L =

L
L
L
L
L
v +
p +
r +
r +
a
v
p
r
r
a

M =

M
M
M
M
M
M
T
u +
w +
w +
q +
e +
T
u
w
w
q
e

N =

N
N
N
N
N
v +
p +
r +
r +
a
v
p
r
r
a

Linearized small-disturbance longitudinal

and lateral rigid body equation of motion
Longitudinal Equations
d

dt X u u X w w + ( g cos 0 ) = X e e + X T T

d
d

Z u u + (1 Z w ) Z w w u0 + Z q
g sin 0 = Z e e + ZT T
dt
dt

d2
d
d

M u u M w + M w w + 2 M q = M e e + M T T

dt
dt

dt

Lateral Equations

dt Yv v Y p p + ( u0 Yr ) r ( g cos 0 ) = Y r r

I d

Lv v + L p p xz
+ Lr r = L a a + L r r
I
dt
dt

I d

N v v xz
+ N p p + N r r = N a a + N r r
dt

I z dt

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Effect of the Mach number on the

Stability Derivatives

Derivatives due to the change in

Forward Speed
L,M,D,T all vary with changes in the airplanes forward speed

X
D
T
u =
u +
u
u
u
u
X
D T
1
=
+
= C xu
QS
u
u u
u0

X =

D,T in the x direction

changes in the x Force

S 2 CD
X
T
=
u0
+ 2u0CD0 +

u
u
2
u

CX u

u X
= 0 u
QS

CDu

Tu

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C xu = u0
=

1 S 2 CD
T
u0
+ 2u0 CD0 +

QS 2
u
u

1 S 2 CD
T
+ 2CD0 +

u0
QS 2 u u0
u u0

CD u =

= ( CDu + 2CD 0 ) + CT u

CD
CT
; CT u =
u u0
u u0

CD u = M

CD
; M = Mach number
M

C xu = ( CDu + 2CD 0 ) + CT u

CT u = 0

Gliders and jet powered

a/c (constant trust cruise)

Change in the Z force

Z
1
= Su0 CLu + 2CL0
u
2
CZu = CLu + 2CL0
CL M =0
CL =
Prandtl-Glauert Formula
1 M 2
CL
M
=
CL M = 0
M 1 M 2
CLu =

u CL
CL
CL
M2
= 0
=M
=
CL
u u0
M 1 M 2
a u a

M =0

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M =

M
u
u

M
= Cmu Scu0
u
Cm
Cmu = M
M

C zq

Cmq

Derivative due to the Pitching Velocity, q

(for the tail)

Lt = CL t Qt St
t

Z = Lt = CL
CZ =

qlt
Qt St
u0

Z
QS

CZ = CL
CZ q

qlt Qt St
ql S
= CL t t
t u
u0 QS
S
0

2u CZ
l S
CZ
= 0
= 2CL t t = 2CL VH
t
t
qc 2u0
c q
c S

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Derivative due to the Pitching Velocity, q

M cgq = lt Lt = lt CL
Cmcg =
q

Cmq

M cg q
QSc

qlt
Qt St
u0

= VH CL

qlt
u0

2u Cm
Cm
= 0
c q
qc 2u0

Cmq 2CL VH
t

lt
c

Due to the lag in the wing

downwash getting to the tail

C z Cm

Derivative due to the Time Rate of

Change of the AOA,
t = lt u0
t =

lt

d
d d
d
t
t =
t =
dt
d dt
d

t : Increment in time that it

takes to the change
in circulation imparted to the
trailing vortex wake
to reach the tail

t =

d lt

d u0

at the tail

Lag in the angle of

attack at the tail

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Derivative due to the Time Rate of

Change of the AOA,
d
t
dt
d lt
d d lt
d lt

t =
=
=
dt u0 d dt u0 d u0
t = lt u0 ;

t =

Lt = CL t Qt St
t

C z =
C z =

Lt
S
d lt St

= CL t t = CL
t
t
QS
S
d u0 S

2u C z
C z
d
= 0
= 2VH CL
t d
c
( c / 2u0 )

VH =

Qt
Q

lt St
c S

Derivative due to the Time Rate of

Change of the AOA,

M cg = lt Lt = lt CL t Qt St
t

Cmcg = VH CL
Cm =

d lt

d u0

Cm
2u Cm
d lt
= 0
= 2VH CL
t d c
( c / 2u0 )
c

1.1CZ ; 1.1Cm

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C yp , Cnp , Clp

Lift=Cl Qcdy
(roll rate)

py
u0

dL = Lift y
CL

CL
pb

2u0

Derivative due to the Yawing Rate, r

Y = CL v Qv Sv CY CY r
CYr =

CY
( rb / 2u0 )

N = CL v Qv Sv lv Cn Cnr
=

rlv
u0

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