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7, JULY 2009

Wireless Fading Relay Channels

Jaemin Han, Eunsung Oh, Hyungsik Ju, Student Member, IEEE,

and Daesik Hong, Senior Member, IEEE

modulation (ADM) scheme for a single-source relay system

that utilizes the relay’s higher transmission ability as a form

of diversity. To achieve this, the proposed method transmits

multiple source bits over a high-order modulating relay as a

way to provide additional time diversity. The spatial and time ˧

Symbols

Second Time Slot Packet

B

C

A

B

D

A

C

D

derive the theoretical bit error rate (BER) for such a system. D C B A

Moreover, we investigate the fact that the proposed scheme shows by 16QAM

a performance trade-off between bit power and time diversity ˧ , First Time Slot Packet

Bits

modulating relay. A B C D

by BPSK

Index Terms—Wireless fading relay channel, diversity, modu-

lation, bit error probability. Source Destination

Fig. 1. Proposed ADM scheme in a wireless fading channel with one relay.

I. I NTRODUCTION The source is transmitting its packet by BPSK. In order to achieve additional

4th -order time diversity in the R→D link, the relay repeats and rearranges

from severe attenuation and random fluctuation in ampli-

tude known as fading. Recently, there has been an upsurge of

the packet and transmits it using a 4th -order modulation, such as 16QAM.

interest in the use of relaying in cellular-based infrastructure as scheme is considered in a three-node fading network, called

a practical solution to mitigate fading and improve reliability a wireless fading relay channel, consisting of a source, a

[1]. The major advantage of relaying is that independent relay, and a destination, as shown in Fig. 1. It is known

transmission paths to the destination can be provided with that second-order diversity can be achieved through two

low deployment costs. Recent proposals have shown that this spatially independent links, i.e., source-destination and relay-

spatial diversity can be realized in a distributed fashion [2]-[3]. destination [5]. In addition to this spatial diversity, the pro-

In addition to the potential of increased diversity, relaying posed scheme additionally provides time diversity through

can offer improved link qualities thanks to decreased propa- the relay by transmitting multiple repeated source bits using

gation loss. This means that higher transmission rates can be high-order modulation. With this approach, each source bit

supported over relays using a spectrally efficient modulation will experience increased fading on the relay-destination link

scheme. However, the transmission rate used by a relaying depending on the order of modulation employed at the relay.

node cannot exceed the rate generated at the source, even Since high-order modulation reduces bit power, the proposed

though the relay link quality may support higher rates. For a method shows a bit-level performance trade-off between bit

single-source network, however, this very fact can be exploited power and time diversity in the relay-destination link. Using

to obtain additional performance enhancement. the proposed ‘bit’-based channel combining method, we derive

Based on this concept, we propose an asymmetric diversity its theoretical bit error rate (BER) performance and study this

modulation (ADM) scheme that utilizes the relay’s higher trade-off relationship. Moreover, in the relay-destination link,

transmission ability as a form of diversity. The proposed we compare the average BER performance with the existing

signal space diversity (SSD) techniques [4].

Manuscript received September 6, 2008; revised February 4, 2009; accepted

April 14, 2009. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and

approving it for publication was X.-G. Xia. II. P ROPOSED A SYMMETRIC D IVERSITY M ODULATION

The authors are with the Information Telecommunication Lab.(B715), Dept.

of Electrical and Electronic Engin., Yonsei Univ., 134 Shinchondong Seodae- S CHEME

mungu, Seoul, Korea, 120-749 (e-mail: {jmHan, daesikh}@yonsei.ac.kr). Let us define source, relay, and destination as S, R and D,

This research was supported by the MKE(Ministry of Knowledge Econ-

omy), Korea, under the ITRC(Information Technology Research Center) respectively. Consider a time-divided transmission of S and R

support program supervised by the IITA(Institute for Information Technology to D as shown in Fig. 1. If the block of binary source bits

Advancement)(IITA-2009-C1090-0902-0005). constitutes one packet for transmission, S broadcasts its packet

This work was supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation

through the NRL Program (Grant R0A-2007-000-20043-0). to R and D in the first time slot, and R decodes and forwards

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2009.081202 (DF) to D in the second time slot.

1536-1276/09$25.00

c 2009 IEEE

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009 3443

This single-source relaying topology can achieve second- A at the destination from the received symbols of (1) is

order spatial diversity. However, the unreliability of the S→R KS KR

link is a critical bottleneck which could degrade diversity k=1 P (ySi(k) |bk = 0) k=1 P (yRj(k) |bk = 0)

Ł(A) = log KS KR

performance down to the first order [5]. Hence, it is necessary k=1 P (ySi(k) |bk = 1) k=1 P (yRj(k) |bk = 1)

to assume a perfect S → R link for the relay to transmit KS KR

(2)

without errors. We also assume that the S → D and R → D = ŁxSi(k)(bk ) + ŁxRj(k)(bk ) ,

links are independent Rayleigh fading channels with mutually k=1 k=1

independent white Gaussian noise [6].

(y −hSD Q)2 (y −hSD Q)2

where ŁxSi(bk)=log exp(− Si N i

)/ exp(− Si N i

)

In the proposed ADM scheme, R duplicates the received Q∈{xS : bk =0} Q∈{xS : bk =1}

packet to the order of modulation employed and rearranges i i

(yR −hRD Q)2 (yR −hRD Q)2

them. For the case shown in Fig. 1 using a 4th -order mod- and ŁxRj(bk)=log exp(− j

N

j

)/ exp(− j

N

j

)

ulating relay, the 4 bits A, B, C, and D are repeated and Q∈{xR : bk =0}

j

Q∈{xR : bk =1}

j

rearranged to make up the relay packet while being relocated are bit LLRs [8] each from the source and the relay.

to a different bit position at a different symbol time. Thus, i(k) and j(k) are indices indicating symbol position in each

each bit is transmitted as part of a set of 4th -order modulation packet where the k th bit, bk , of the symbols xSi(k) and xRj(k)

symbols (xR1 , xR2 , xR3 , and xR4 ) in the relay packet. In order is bit A, respectively.

to provide additional time diversity for a specific bit, every Let us assume that binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is

symbol conveying that bit must go through the uncorrelated used for source transmission (KS = 1), so that we can focus

channel fading. That is, in Fig. 1, xR1 , xR2 , xR3 , and xR4 on the trade-off between bit power and diversity for the high-

need to be faded independently in order for bits A, B, C, and order modulating relay, as shown in Fig. 1. The destination

D to have 4 additional time diversities. then combines the LLR of bit A from the symbol xS1 in the

In practical environments, however, the coherence time of source packet with the corresponding LLRs of bit A from the

typical wireless channels is on the order of tens to hundreds symbols xR1 , xR2 , xR3 , and xR4 in the relay packet. Finally,

of symbols, so that the channel varies slowly relative to the decision of whether

0

to demodulate the bit A to zero or one

the symbol rate [7]. Thus, we assume that each packet is is made as Ł(A) ≷ 0. However, the non-linear and complicated

1

composed of several hundreds of symbols so as to give several forms of the bit LLR (2) make it difficult to derive the exact

independent fading gains. Therefore, in the proposed ADM BER and to show its trade-off relationship.

scheme, if the order of modulation employed at the relay

is less than or equal to the number of independent fading III. P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS AND T RADE - OFF

gains, R can successfully lead its bits to have additional time At this point let us turn our focus to deriving the exact

diversity by arranging the same bits sufficiently far apart in BER performance of the proposed ADM scheme. Since it

time. is impossible to derive the theoretical BER when directly

With these assumptions, symbols in the received packets computing the decision variable of (2), we are proposing a

at the destination from the time-divided transmissions of the ‘bit’-based channel combining method. Furthermore, we will

source packet and the relay packet can be written as analyze the performance trade-off between bit power and

time diversity with a proposed ‘bit’-based channel probability

ySi = hSDi xSi + W and yRj = hRDj xRj + W, (1) density function (pdf).

where W is the destination complex white Gaussian noise Let us begin by establishing the notation to be used

(WGN) with variance N , and index i and j denote the i th throughout. We define the transmission power from the source

and j th symbol position in each packet. Thus, hSDi , hRDj are and relay to the destination noise ratio as SNRS = PNS and

Rayleigh fading variables from the S→D and R→D links, SNRR = PNR , respectively. We also denote G= SNR

SNRS , in order

R

where the i th symbol xSi of the source packet and j th symbol to represent the power gain from the smaller propagation loss

xRj of the relay packet have gone through, respectively. We fix in the relay. The pdf of chi-square random variable z with n

each Rayleigh fading power to be equal to 2σ 2 . However, we degree of freedoms is given by

set the power constraints for each transmitting node, E[xS ] = n

z 2 −1 exp(− 2σz 2 )

PS and E[xR ] = PR , so that we can reflect the relay’s smaller pz (z) = n , (3)

(2σ 2 ) 2 Γ( n2 )

propagation loss by controlling their transmission powers.

where σ 2 is a component variance. For convenience, we will

Since the destination combines diversity performance based

let z = χ2n (σ 2 ). The random variable of Rayleigh fading with

on ‘bit’, each bit in the received packets must be expressed

its expectation 2σ 2 can then be represented as χ22 (σ 2 ).

as a soft value to be combined before decision. By applying

Maximum Likelihood (ML) criterion with coherent demodu-

lation, we can obtain a measurement for a received bit, i.e., a A. Proposed Bit-based Channel Combining Method

bit log-likelihood ratio (LLR). Thus, in the proposed scheme, In the proposed scheme, it is a ‘bit’ that exploits channel

a bit decision variable is expressed as combining the bit LLRs diversity by combining spatial and time diversity in the form

corresponding to the same bit. In the general situation where of a bit LLR. This means that the same bit experiences several

the source is using Kth

S -order modulation and the relay is using independent channel fadings through different modulation

Kth

R -order modulation, total combined LLR for a specific bit symbols in each diversity path. Considering the fact that it

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3444 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

is a modulation symbol (conveying bits) that undergoes the effects can be derived from the conditional BEP of M-

fading channel, and not the bit itself, if we can calculate the QAM. In general, the k th bit BEP of any real or imaginary

effect of channel fading directly on a given bit, this will make axis using

gray-coded

M-QAM over WGN is expressed as

k

it easier to perform a ‘bit’-based analysis to derive the average √2 Q 3SNR

for high SNRs [10]. Over fading,

M M−1

BER.

∞ k

First, let us define a notation for the concept described 2 3zSNRR

above. PBER, M-QAM (k) = √ Q pz (z) dz , (7)

Ifa bit A is part of a symbol through a channel fading 0 M M −1

h, |h|2 denotes a random variable of the effects of channel

A where z indicates a random variable of the channel fading with

fading directly on bit A. With this notation, we can easily a pdf, pz (z).

combine the effects of channel fadings directly on a specific bit

delivered by different modulation symbols. Since the source By changing variables, (7) can be expressed equivalently as

is using BPSK and the relay is using Kth R -order modulation, a ∞

random variable of the combined channel fading effects on a 2k

PBER, M-QAM (k) = √ Q( 2z SNRS )

received bit at the destination, zD , can be expressed as (for a M 0

(8)

specific bit A): 2(M − 1) 2(M − 1)

pz z dz .

KR

3G 3G

zD = zSD + zRD = |hSDi |2 + | hRDj(k) |2 , (4)

A A

k=1

Hence, the effect of the channel fading on the k th bit of

th th

where hSDi , hRDj(k) are channel fadings of the i and j(k) any axis in an M-QAM symbol is

now solved

as shown above

symbol position on the S → D and R → D links where the into the changed pdf 2(M−1) 2(M−1)

from its original

3G pz 3G z

corresponding bit A has beendelivered.

Forthe case shown pdf pz (z) of the channel fading. Any other linear modulation

4

in Fig. 1, zD = |hSD1 |2 + j=1 |hRDj |2 . Since all bits scheme can be employed at the relay, and the pdf of the bit-

A A

experience the same fading scenario, there is no difference in based channel fading effects can also be derived using the

zD for any specific bit. above approach.

In general, BER analysis over fading has a form that aver-

ages the channel fading on the conditional (fading-dependent) In the case of Rayleigh fading, that is when z = χ22 (σ 2 ),

bit error probability (BEP). For example, the average BER for the changed pdf is

BPSK over fading with coherent demodulation is [9]

∞ √ 2(M − 1)

2(M − 1) exp −z/ 3σ2 G

(M−1)

PBER, BPSK = Q 2 z SNR pz (z) dz , (5) pz z = 3σ2 G

, (9)

3G 3G (M−1)

0

where z indicates the random variable of the channel fading and (9) is the same as a pdf of two degrees of freedom chi-

with a pdf, pz (z). square random variable with its component variance scaled

3σ2 G

Since the proposed ADM scheme employs a different from σ 2 to 2(M−1) .

modulation order on each diversity path, the conditional BEPs

from the source and relay are different. Performing bit-based From (9), we can see that transformation to the bit-level

channel combining for the BER requires a bit-level BEP that basis by changing variables translates the reduced bit power

can serve as the basis for the combining. We regard the BEP of a higher-order modulation into the reduced component

for BPSK as a good candidate, because one

√

BPSK symbol variance of the random variable of the bit-based channel fading

means exactly one bit. In other words, Q 2zSNR is the effects. Furthermore, we can see in (9) that the power of the

basis for combining the bit-based channel fading effects that bit-based channel fading effects decreases exponentially as the

the corresponding bit has undergone. If we take SNRS as our QAM order increases. This is because the minimum distance

performance measure, the average BER over the combined between the constellation points decreases exponentially as

bit-based channel fading effects can be solved in a manner the order of modulation increases, since the required number

similar to equation (5) as of points is proportional to 2 to the power of the modulation

∞ order.

√

PBER, ADM = Q 2 zD SNRS pzD (zD ) dzD , (6)

0

Combining accordingly, the random variable of the total bit-

with the random variable zD of the combined bit-based based channel fading effects from the R→D link in the case

channel fading effects in (4). of Fig. 1 is

B. Derivation of the Bit-based Channel Fading Effects KR

zRD = |hRDj(k)|2

Since we assume that the source transmission is done by A

k=1

BPSK, the channel fading effect from the S→D link to bit A (10)

3σ 2 G

KR

3σ 2 G

( zSD in (4)

) is the same

as a random variable of the channel = χ22 2

= χ2KR ,

fading, i.e., |hSD1 | 2

= χ22 (σ 2 ). 2(M − 1) 2(M − 1)

A k=1

For a relay employing M-ary quadrature amplitude mod- 2 2

ulation (M-QAM) (M = 2KR ), the bit-based channel fading

3σ G

whereby its expectation is E χ22KR 2(M−1) = G 3K Rσ

2KR −1

.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009 3445

Chi−square PDF of (10) for the different modulation orders when G = 1

64QAM

16QAM

average BER of the proposed ADM scheme is 4QAM

∞ ∞ 6

0 0 (11) 5

probability density

pzSD(zSD )pzRD(zRD ) dzSD dzRD , 4

2

3σ G

where zSD = χ22 (σ 2 ) and zRD = χ22KR 2(M−1) . 3

2

We use the upper bound Q(x) ≤ e−x /2 , for x > 0 [7], in 2

(11) to get

KR

1

1 1

PBER, ADM ≤ , (12) 0

1 + 2σ 2 SNRS 1 + 3σ

2G 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

M−1 SNRS

zRD

proposed ADM scheme becomes Fig. 2. Chi-square pdf of (10) for the cases of 4QAM, 16QAM and 64QAM

K when G = 1. The figure clearly shows that the expected power of zRD falls

as the order of modulation rises, even though higher-order modulation has a

PBER, ADM ≤ 6σ14 G SNRS −(KR +1) = 26σ4−1 −(KR +1)

R

G SNRS . greater diversity-combining effect because of its sharper pdf.

M −1

(13)

Thus, the average BER achieves (KR + 1)th -order diversity

performance, one from the source and KR from the relay as rises, although higher-order modulation presents a greater

we intended. diversity-combining effect because of its sharper pdf. This

is due to the fact that bit power decreases exponentially

but diversity combining increases linearly as the order of

D. Closed Form Analysis modulation increases in the proposed method.

In order to compute the average ∞ BER of xthe proposed Since a bit-based constellation of relay faded by zRD has its

2

scheme (11), we use Q(x) = π1 0 exp (− 2 sin 2φ )dφ, x≥ BER performance determined based on the destination WGN,

0

∞ from [11] and the moment-generating

1 n function (MGF) a low value of zRD requires low noise power to be error-

0 exp(−az)pz (z)dz = 1+a2σ2

2 of a chi-square random free. As the order of modulation rises, the higher probability

variable z = χ2n (σ 2 ). Then, that zRD will be low, as shown in Fig. 2, causes greater

π KR performance loss over the same noise level. Therefore, a

1 2 sin2φ sin2φ

PBER, ADM = 2 2G dφ. higher signal power is required for the higher-order modulated

π sin φ+2σ 2 SNRS sin2φ+(3σ SNRS

0 M −1) relay packet to exhibit an increased time diversity performance

(14)

over the destination WGN.

This characteristic also appears in the upper-bounded av-

The integral of equation (14) can be rendered in a closed erage BER of (13). A higher modula-tion order at the

form by [12, eqs. (5A.58), (5A.59) and (5A.60)] as

Krelay

yields faster BER decay but decreases the coding gain 26σ4−1

R

2 KR−1

k G

PBER,ADM = c 1− 1+2σ 2σ SNRS 3G

− 2(M−1) 3G of (13) beyond the diversity performance. This explains the

2 SNR k=0 1−2(M−1)

S

performance loss over the WGN for an increased time diver-

3σ2 G

SNRS

sity. Consequently, this trade-off appears in the form of the

k

(2n−1)!!

1− (M−1)

2

3σ G

1+ n=1 3σ2 G

n , outperforming modulation orders over certain ranges of SNRS ,

1+ (M−1) SNRS n n!2 1+ (M−1) SNRS

(15) as we will discuss in more detail in Section IV.

Furthermore, we can also see in the expectation of (10)

where ! denotes the factorial and !! the double factorial nota- that G clearly provides a power gain no matter what order of

from 1 to 2n−1.

tion denoting the product of only odd integers

KR/2 2 modulation is employed at the relay. As in (13), G increases

2 2k

The coefficient c in (15) is calculated as KR

k=1

√

M

. the coding gain. Thus, in the general situation where the

KR

2 3G

1− 2(M− 1) relay provides less propagation loss than the source to the

destination, G allows the relay to use higher-order modulation

E. Trade-off between bit power and time diversity for higher time diversity performance by compensating the

reduced bit power. Therefore, in a single source relaying topol-

We can see that the trade-off between bit power and addi- ogy, the proposed ADM scheme, which obtains additional time

tional time diversity in the R→D link is effectively resolved diversity from the R→D link, becomes practical.

into the random variable of the bit-based channel fading

effects (10), in the form of its increased degree of freedom

and reduced component variance for high-order QAM. More IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS

specifically, Fig. 2 shows (10) for the case of 4QAM, 16QAM Fig. 3 depicts the average BER of the proposed ADM

and 64QAM when G equals 1. The Rayleigh fading power scheme and its theoretical performance under (15) when

2σ 2 is set to 1. As its expectation indicates, we can see G = 1. A packet size of 240 symbols (conveying 240 bits

that the expectation of zRD falls as the order of modulation per packet) was used in this simulation. The simulated block

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3446 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009

BER of Asymmetric Diversity Modulation Scheme and its Theoretical Performance between 4QAM−Relay−ADM and 2−dimensional SSD schemes

0 0

10 10

2−dim SSD : R2,0

Crossover SNR betwwen

S

4QAM−ADM and 16QAM−ADM

2−dim SSD : R

2,2

10 10

4QAM−Relay−ADM

−4

X −2

10 10

BER

BER

−6 −3

10 10

−8 −4

10 10

BPSK−ADM

4QAM−ADM

M=4 in Theor. BER of (15)

−5

−10

10 64QAM−ADM 10

M=64 in Theor. BER of (15) Crossover SNR between

S X

16QAM−ADM 16QAM−ADM and 64QAM−ADM

M=16 in Theor. BER of (15)

−12 −6

10 10

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

SNRS [dB] when G=1 SNRR [dB]

Fig. 3. BER for the proposed ADM scheme and its theoretical performance the 2-dimensional

θ −sin θSSD schemes. The simplest1 real rotation matrix is

in a wireless fading channel with one relay. A scheme showing the relay using R2,0 = cos with the optimum θ = 2 tan−1 2 [7]. Its complex

BPSK (BPSK-ADM) is also presented for comparison. The theoretical per-

sin θ cos θ

version is R2,1 = 1j 1j R2,0 . For R2,2 , we use the 2-dimensional rotation

formance tracks the corresponding simulation results quite well. Furthermore, matrix from the construction A of the general L-dimensional matrix,

due to its bit-based trade-off, a higher SNRS is required for the higher-order achieving not only full diversity

modulating relay to exhibit its additional time diversity performance. ⎡ but also maximizing

⎤ the minimum coding

1 α0 ··· αL−1

0

⎢ 1 α1 ··· αL−1 ⎥

TABLE I ⎢ 1 ⎥

gain [13]. That is, RL,2 = √1 ⎢ . . . . ⎥ where L = 2k for k ∈ N

L ⎣ .

C ROSSOVER SNRS FOR SEVERAL VALUES OF G CONSIDERING THE POWER . . . . . . ⎦

.

GAIN RATIO OF THE R→D LINK PROPAGATION LOSS VERSUS THE S→D L−1

1 αL−1 ··· αL−1

LINK PROPAGATION LOSS . A S G INCREASES , THE CROSSOVER SNRS and αi = exp j2π(i + 1/4)/L for i = 0, 1, . . . , L−1. N means the positive

FALLS DUE TO THE FACT THAT THE POWER GAIN FROM THE RELAY SHIFTS integers. Then, the 2-dimensional rotation matrix used in this simulation is

THE ENTIRE BER CURVE LEFT BY THE SAME AMOUNT OF SNRS , R2,2 . We can see that the proposed 4QAM-Relay-ADM achieves the best

RESULTING IN THE CROSSOVER POINTS MOVING LEFTWARD DUE TO THE BER performance compared to the other 2-dimensional SSD schemes.

DIFFERENT DIVERSITY SLOPES IN THE BER.

Crossover SNRS Crossover SNRS

Case the different relay modulation orders for several values of G.

4QAM-ADM vs 16QAM-ADM 16QAM-ADM vs 64QAM-ADM

As G increases, the SNRS crossover points drop. As shown

G = 0.5 14.4 dB 29.3 dB in the expectation of (10) and in the coding gain of (13), the

power gain achieved by the decreased propagation loss of the

G=1 11.3 dB 26.3 dB

relay does not depend on the order of modulation at the relay.

G=5 4.2 dB 19.3 dB Thus, G moves the entire BER curve left by the same amount.

This lowers the crossover SNRS due to the different diversity

G = 15 -0.4 dB 14.5 dB

performance on the slope of each BER curve.

So, as the link quality between the relay and destination

rises, the benefit of increasing additional time diversity us-

channel fading model has the same number of independent ing a higher-order modulating relay becomes realistic for

fadings as the order of QAM modulation employed at the a target SNRS . Therefore, for a single-source network, the

relay. The Rayleigh fading power 2σ 2 is set to 1 for the proposed ADM scheme is an efficient diversity-enhancing

sake of convenience. A scheme where the relay uses BPSK method which converts the good R → D link quality into

(BPSK-ADM) without extracting additional time diversity in additional time diversity.

the R → D link is also simulated for comparison. Fig. 3

For more concrete conclusions, we also compare the per-

confirms that the numerical analysis of (15) closely matches

formance of the proposed ADM scheme with existing SSD

the simulation results for SNRS above 5dB, since we derive

schemes in regard to time-diversity aspects, as shown in Fig.

(15) from the high-SNR approximated BEP of M-QAM.

4 and Fig. 5. To keep the comparison fair, we compare these

Furthermore, there are clearly outperforming modulation

schemes with the same diversity performance in the block

orders for certain ranges of SNRS . Roughly speaking, 4QAM-

fading channel model. For this purpose, in the proposed ADM

ADM outperforms the others below 11dB of SNRS , 16QAM-

scheme, we consider only the R → D link where the relay

ADM is best from 11dB to 26dB and so on for 64QAM-

leads each bit to have additional time diversity. In the 2-

ADM. This is due to the fact that increased time diversity

dimensional case of Fig. 4, the proposed 4QAM-Relay-ADM

performance by higher-order modulating relays requires higher

achieves the best BER performance compare to the simplest

SNRS values, as explained in Section III-F. BPSK-ADM shows

real rotation matrix of R2,0 , its complex-version of R2,1 , and

the worst performance over all ranges of SNRS due to the

the construction A of R2,2 from [13]. This is due to the fact

limited degree of freedom in the time diversity aspect.

that, in the 2-dimensional case, there is a limitation on the

dispersion of the 2-dimensional spaces.

Fig. 4. Average BER performance comparison between the proposed Fig. 5. Average BER performance comparison between the proposed ADM

ADM scheme with 4QAM in the R → D link (4QAM-Relay-ADM) and scheme with 16QAM in the R→D link (16QAM-Relay-ADM) and the 4-

Authorized licensed use limited to: VELLORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 28, 2009 at 06:41 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 8, NO. 7, JULY 2009 3447

0

10

between 16QAM−Relay−ADM and 4−dimensional SSD schemes nels. We also derived the theoretical BER performance nu-

4−dim SSD : 4−point DFT matrix

4−dim SSD : R4,0 merically based on a proposed ‘bit’-based channel-combining

−1

10

4−dim SSD : R4,1

16QAM−Relay−ADM

method and analyzed a trade-off relationship between the bit

4−dim SSD : R4,2

power and time diversity arising from a high-order modulating

−2

10

relay. Finally, we confirmed our analysis via simulation results

and compared its performance to existing SSD techniques. The

results demonstrated that the proposed method efficiently en-

BER

−3

10

−4

10

model.

Although our research covered only the uncoded packet

−5

10

scenario by addressing the issue from the perspective of

diversity, the proposed ADM scheme can also be generalized

−6

10

to channel-coded packets. In that situation, the coding gain

0 5 10 15 20

SNRR [dB]

after channel decoding can easily be added into the provided

theoretical BER.

dimensional SSD schemes. The real rotation matrix of R4,0 is derived

a from

−b

! a+jb "of R2,2 by a 2×2 matrix b a

R2,2 by replacing each complex entry

1 0 j 0

R EFERENCES

0 1 0 j

[4]. Its complex version is R4,1 = j 0 1 0 R4,0 . In addition, we compare [1] R. Pabst, B. H. Walke, D. C. Schultz, P. Herhold, H. Yanikomeroglu,

0 j 0 1 S. Mukherjee, H. Viswanathan, M. Lott, W. zirwas, M. Dohler, H. Agh-

the performance with the R4,2 and 4-point DFT matrix. Fig. 5 clearly shows vami, D. D. Falconer, and G. P. Fettweis “Relay-based deployment

that, unlike the 4-point DFT matrix, 16QAM-Relay-ADM achieves fairly good concepts for wireless and mobile broadband radio," IEEE Commun. Mag.,

BER performance without losing any diversity, even while still in its simplest vol. 42, no. 9, pp.80-89, Sept. 2004.

coding structure. [2] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, “Cooperative diversity in

wireless networks: efficient protocols and outage behavior," IEEE Trans.

For the 4-dimensional cases shown in Fig. 5, we can see that Inform. Theory, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 3064-80, Dec. 2002.

[3] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, and B. Aazhang, “User cooperation diversity—

the real rotation matrix of R4,0 and its complex-version R4,1 , part I and part II," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1927-48,

which are derived from R2,2 , limit their diversity performance Nov. 2003.

to the second order due to the second-order diversity property [4] J. Boutros and E. Viterbo, “Signal space diversity: a power- and

bandwidth-efficient diversity technique for the Rayleigh fading channel,"

of their origin R2,2 . The construction A of R4,2 not only IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1453-1467, July 1998.

obtains 4th -order diversity as 16QAM-Relay-ADM, but also [5] R. U. Nabar, H. Bölcskei, and F. W. Kneubühler, “Fading relay channels:

provides larger coding gain, which shows that R4,2 fully dis- performance limits and space-time signal design," IEEE J. Select. Areas

Commun., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1099-1109, Aug. 2004.

perses its codewords over the 4-dimensional complex spaces. [6] J. Han, E. Oh, S. Ahn, and D. Hong, “A simple technique to enhance

However, the 4-point discrete Fourier transform (DFT) matrix diversity order in wireless fading relay channels," IEEE Commun. Lett.,

exhibits diversity-limited BER performance due to its poor vol. 12, no. 3, pp 194-96, Mar. 2008.

[7] D. N. C. Tse, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, 2nd ed. New

rotation, whereas 16QAM-Relay-ADM achieves fairly good York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

BER performance without losing any diversity. While we can [8] K. Kim, K. Hyun, C. Yu, Y. Park, D. Yoon, and S. Park, “General log-

be certain that there are better performance-achieving rotation likelihood ratio expression and its implementation algorithm for gray-

coded QAM signals," ETRI J., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 291-300, June 2006.

matrices than the proposed ADM method in 4-dimensional [9] B. Sklars, Digital Communications, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, 2001.

cases or higher, we can nevertheless conclude from these [10] K. Cho and D. Yoon, “On the general BER expression of one- and

comparisons that the proposed ADM scheme provides com- two-dimensional amplitude modulations," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50,

no. 7, pp. 1074-80, July 2002.

parable BER performances with its simplest coding structure, [11] M. Alouini and A. J. Goldsmith, “A unified approach for calculating er-

especially in regard to the simple rotation matrices of the ror rates of linearly modulated signals over generalized fading channels,"

existing SSD schemes. IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 1324-34, Sept. 1999.

[12] M. Simon and M. Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading Chan-

nels: A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis, 1st ed. New York:

V. C ONCLUSION John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

[13] Y. Xin, Z. Wang, and G. B. Giannakis, “Space-time constellation-

In this paper, we proposed a new diversity scheme which rotating codes maximizing diversity and coding gains," in Proc. IEEE

extracts additional time diversity in wireless fading relay chan- GLOBECOM, vol. 1, pp. 455-459, 2001.

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