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7, JULY 2009

Asymmetric Diversity Modulation Scheme in

Wireless Fading Relay Channels
Jaemin Han, Eunsung Oh, Hyungsik Ju, Student Member, IEEE,
and Daesik Hong, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—In this paper, we propose an asymmetric diversity Relay

modulation (ADM) scheme for a single-source relay system
that utilizes the relay’s higher transmission ability as a form
of diversity. To achieve this, the proposed method transmits
multiple source bits over a high-order modulating relay as a
way to provide additional time diversity. The spatial and time ˧
Second Time Slot Packet

diversity then undergo ‘bit’-based combining at the destination. A D C B

Using the proposed ‘bit’-based channel combining method, we Bits

derive the theoretical bit error rate (BER) for such a system. D C B A

Moreover, we investigate the fact that the proposed scheme shows by 16QAM

a performance trade-off between bit power and time diversity ˧ , First Time Slot Packet

resulting from the reduced bit power caused by a high-order Symbols

modulating relay. A B C D

Index Terms—Wireless fading relay channel, diversity, modu-
lation, bit error probability. Source Destination

Fig. 1. Proposed ADM scheme in a wireless fading channel with one relay.
I. I NTRODUCTION The source is transmitting its packet by BPSK. In order to achieve additional
4th -order time diversity in the R→D link, the relay repeats and rearranges

S IGNALS transmitted via wireless environments suffer

from severe attenuation and random fluctuation in ampli-
tude known as fading. Recently, there has been an upsurge of
the packet and transmits it using a 4th -order modulation, such as 16QAM.

interest in the use of relaying in cellular-based infrastructure as scheme is considered in a three-node fading network, called
a practical solution to mitigate fading and improve reliability a wireless fading relay channel, consisting of a source, a
[1]. The major advantage of relaying is that independent relay, and a destination, as shown in Fig. 1. It is known
transmission paths to the destination can be provided with that second-order diversity can be achieved through two
low deployment costs. Recent proposals have shown that this spatially independent links, i.e., source-destination and relay-
spatial diversity can be realized in a distributed fashion [2]-[3]. destination [5]. In addition to this spatial diversity, the pro-
In addition to the potential of increased diversity, relaying posed scheme additionally provides time diversity through
can offer improved link qualities thanks to decreased propa- the relay by transmitting multiple repeated source bits using
gation loss. This means that higher transmission rates can be high-order modulation. With this approach, each source bit
supported over relays using a spectrally efficient modulation will experience increased fading on the relay-destination link
scheme. However, the transmission rate used by a relaying depending on the order of modulation employed at the relay.
node cannot exceed the rate generated at the source, even Since high-order modulation reduces bit power, the proposed
though the relay link quality may support higher rates. For a method shows a bit-level performance trade-off between bit
single-source network, however, this very fact can be exploited power and time diversity in the relay-destination link. Using
to obtain additional performance enhancement. the proposed ‘bit’-based channel combining method, we derive
Based on this concept, we propose an asymmetric diversity its theoretical bit error rate (BER) performance and study this
modulation (ADM) scheme that utilizes the relay’s higher trade-off relationship. Moreover, in the relay-destination link,
transmission ability as a form of diversity. The proposed we compare the average BER performance with the existing
signal space diversity (SSD) techniques [4].
Manuscript received September 6, 2008; revised February 4, 2009; accepted
April 14, 2009. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and
approving it for publication was X.-G. Xia. II. P ROPOSED A SYMMETRIC D IVERSITY M ODULATION
The authors are with the Information Telecommunication Lab.(B715), Dept.
of Electrical and Electronic Engin., Yonsei Univ., 134 Shinchondong Seodae- S CHEME
mungu, Seoul, Korea, 120-749 (e-mail: {jmHan, daesikh} Let us define source, relay, and destination as S, R and D,
This research was supported by the MKE(Ministry of Knowledge Econ-
omy), Korea, under the ITRC(Information Technology Research Center) respectively. Consider a time-divided transmission of S and R
support program supervised by the IITA(Institute for Information Technology to D as shown in Fig. 1. If the block of binary source bits
Advancement)(IITA-2009-C1090-0902-0005). constitutes one packet for transmission, S broadcasts its packet
This work was supported by Korea Science and Engineering Foundation
through the NRL Program (Grant R0A-2007-000-20043-0). to R and D in the first time slot, and R decodes and forwards
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TWC.2009.081202 (DF) to D in the second time slot.
c 2009 IEEE

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This single-source relaying topology can achieve second- A at the destination from the received symbols of (1) is
order spatial diversity. However, the unreliability of the S→R KS KR
link is a critical bottleneck which could degrade diversity k=1 P (ySi(k) |bk = 0) k=1 P (yRj(k) |bk = 0)
Ł(A) = log KS KR
performance down to the first order [5]. Hence, it is necessary k=1 P (ySi(k) |bk = 1) k=1 P (yRj(k) |bk = 1)
to assume a perfect S → R link for the relay to transmit KS KR
without errors. We also assume that the S → D and R → D = ŁxSi(k)(bk ) + ŁxRj(k)(bk ) ,
links are independent Rayleigh fading channels with mutually k=1 k=1
independent white Gaussian noise [6].  
 (y −hSD Q)2  (y −hSD Q)2
where ŁxSi(bk)=log exp(− Si N i
)/ exp(− Si N i
In the proposed ADM scheme, R duplicates the received Q∈{xS : bk =0} Q∈{xS : bk =1}
packet to the order of modulation employed and rearranges  i i

 (yR −hRD Q)2  (yR −hRD Q)2
them. For the case shown in Fig. 1 using a 4th -order mod- and ŁxRj(bk)=log exp(− j
)/ exp(− j
ulating relay, the 4 bits A, B, C, and D are repeated and Q∈{xR : bk =0}
Q∈{xR : bk =1}

rearranged to make up the relay packet while being relocated are bit LLRs [8] each from the source and the relay.
to a different bit position at a different symbol time. Thus, i(k) and j(k) are indices indicating symbol position in each
each bit is transmitted as part of a set of 4th -order modulation packet where the k th bit, bk , of the symbols xSi(k) and xRj(k)
symbols (xR1 , xR2 , xR3 , and xR4 ) in the relay packet. In order is bit A, respectively.
to provide additional time diversity for a specific bit, every Let us assume that binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is
symbol conveying that bit must go through the uncorrelated used for source transmission (KS = 1), so that we can focus
channel fading. That is, in Fig. 1, xR1 , xR2 , xR3 , and xR4 on the trade-off between bit power and diversity for the high-
need to be faded independently in order for bits A, B, C, and order modulating relay, as shown in Fig. 1. The destination
D to have 4 additional time diversities. then combines the LLR of bit A from the symbol xS1 in the
In practical environments, however, the coherence time of source packet with the corresponding LLRs of bit A from the
typical wireless channels is on the order of tens to hundreds symbols xR1 , xR2 , xR3 , and xR4 in the relay packet. Finally,
of symbols, so that the channel varies slowly relative to the decision of whether
to demodulate the bit A to zero or one
the symbol rate [7]. Thus, we assume that each packet is is made as Ł(A) ≷ 0. However, the non-linear and complicated
composed of several hundreds of symbols so as to give several forms of the bit LLR (2) make it difficult to derive the exact
independent fading gains. Therefore, in the proposed ADM BER and to show its trade-off relationship.
scheme, if the order of modulation employed at the relay
is less than or equal to the number of independent fading III. P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS AND T RADE - OFF
gains, R can successfully lead its bits to have additional time At this point let us turn our focus to deriving the exact
diversity by arranging the same bits sufficiently far apart in BER performance of the proposed ADM scheme. Since it
time. is impossible to derive the theoretical BER when directly
With these assumptions, symbols in the received packets computing the decision variable of (2), we are proposing a
at the destination from the time-divided transmissions of the ‘bit’-based channel combining method. Furthermore, we will
source packet and the relay packet can be written as analyze the performance trade-off between bit power and
time diversity with a proposed ‘bit’-based channel probability
ySi = hSDi xSi + W and yRj = hRDj xRj + W, (1) density function (pdf).
where W is the destination complex white Gaussian noise Let us begin by establishing the notation to be used
(WGN) with variance N , and index i and j denote the i th throughout. We define the transmission power from the source
and j th symbol position in each packet. Thus, hSDi , hRDj are and relay to the destination noise ratio as SNRS = PNS and
Rayleigh fading variables from the S→D and R→D links, SNRR = PNR , respectively. We also denote G= SNR
SNRS , in order

where the i th symbol xSi of the source packet and j th symbol to represent the power gain from the smaller propagation loss
xRj of the relay packet have gone through, respectively. We fix in the relay. The pdf of chi-square random variable z with n
each Rayleigh fading power to be equal to 2σ 2 . However, we degree of freedoms is given by
set the power constraints for each transmitting node, E[xS ] = n
z 2 −1 exp(− 2σz 2 )
PS and E[xR ] = PR , so that we can reflect the relay’s smaller pz (z) = n , (3)
(2σ 2 ) 2 Γ( n2 )
propagation loss by controlling their transmission powers.
where σ 2 is a component variance. For convenience, we will
Since the destination combines diversity performance based
let z = χ2n (σ 2 ). The random variable of Rayleigh fading with
on ‘bit’, each bit in the received packets must be expressed
its expectation 2σ 2 can then be represented as χ22 (σ 2 ).
as a soft value to be combined before decision. By applying
Maximum Likelihood (ML) criterion with coherent demodu-
lation, we can obtain a measurement for a received bit, i.e., a A. Proposed Bit-based Channel Combining Method
bit log-likelihood ratio (LLR). Thus, in the proposed scheme, In the proposed scheme, it is a ‘bit’ that exploits channel
a bit decision variable is expressed as combining the bit LLRs diversity by combining spatial and time diversity in the form
corresponding to the same bit. In the general situation where of a bit LLR. This means that the same bit experiences several
the source is using Kth
S -order modulation and the relay is using independent channel fadings through different modulation
R -order modulation, total combined LLR for a specific bit symbols in each diversity path. Considering the fact that it

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is a modulation symbol (conveying bits) that undergoes the effects can be derived from the conditional BEP of M-
fading channel, and not the bit itself, if we can calculate the QAM. In general, the k th bit BEP of any real or imaginary
effect of channel fading directly on a given bit, this will make axis using
 M-QAM over WGN is expressed as
it easier to perform a ‘bit’-based analysis to derive the average √2 Q 3SNR
for high SNRs [10]. Over fading,
M M−1
∞ k  
First, let us define a notation for the concept described 2 3zSNRR
above. PBER, M-QAM (k) = √ Q pz (z) dz , (7)
 Ifa bit A is part of a symbol through a channel fading 0 M M −1
h, |h|2 denotes a random variable of the effects of channel
A where z indicates a random variable of the channel fading with
fading directly on bit A. With this notation, we can easily a pdf, pz (z).
combine the effects of channel fadings directly on a specific bit
delivered by different modulation symbols. Since the source By changing variables, (7) can be expressed equivalently as
is using BPSK and the relay is using Kth R -order modulation, a ∞ 
random variable of the combined channel fading effects on a 2k
PBER, M-QAM (k) = √ Q( 2z  SNRS )
received bit at the destination, zD , can be expressed as (for a M 0
specific bit A): 2(M − 1)  2(M − 1)   
pz z dz .
  3G 3G
zD = zSD + zRD = |hSDi |2 + | hRDj(k) |2 , (4)
Hence, the effect of the channel fading on the k th bit of
th th
where hSDi , hRDj(k) are channel fadings of the i and j(k) any axis in an M-QAM  symbol is
 now solved
 as shown above
symbol position on the S → D and R → D links where the into the changed pdf 2(M−1) 2(M−1)
from its original
3G pz 3G z
corresponding bit A has beendelivered.
 Forthe case shown pdf pz (z) of the channel fading. Any other linear modulation
in Fig. 1, zD = |hSD1 |2 + j=1 |hRDj |2 . Since all bits scheme can be employed at the relay, and the pdf of the bit-
experience the same fading scenario, there is no difference in based channel fading effects can also be derived using the
zD for any specific bit. above approach.
In general, BER analysis over fading has a form that aver-
ages the channel fading on the conditional (fading-dependent) In the case of Rayleigh fading, that is when z = χ22 (σ 2 ),
bit error probability (BEP). For example, the average BER for the changed pdf is
BPSK over fading with coherent demodulation is [9]

∞ √   2(M − 1)
2(M − 1)  exp −z/ 3σ2 G
PBER, BPSK = Q 2 z SNR pz (z) dz , (5) pz z = 3σ2 G
, (9)
3G 3G (M−1)
where z indicates the random variable of the channel fading and (9) is the same as a pdf of two degrees of freedom chi-
with a pdf, pz (z). square random variable with its component variance scaled
3σ2 G
Since the proposed ADM scheme employs a different from σ 2 to 2(M−1) .
modulation order on each diversity path, the conditional BEPs
from the source and relay are different. Performing bit-based From (9), we can see that transformation to the bit-level
channel combining for the BER requires a bit-level BEP that basis by changing variables translates the reduced bit power
can serve as the basis for the combining. We regard the BEP of a higher-order modulation into the reduced component
for BPSK as a good candidate, because one

BPSK symbol variance of the random variable of the bit-based channel fading
means exactly one bit. In other words, Q 2zSNR is the effects. Furthermore, we can see in (9) that the power of the
basis for combining the bit-based channel fading effects that bit-based channel fading effects decreases exponentially as the
the corresponding bit has undergone. If we take SNRS as our QAM order increases. This is because the minimum distance
performance measure, the average BER over the combined between the constellation points decreases exponentially as
bit-based channel fading effects can be solved in a manner the order of modulation increases, since the required number
similar to equation (5) as of points is proportional to 2 to the power of the modulation
∞   order.

PBER, ADM = Q 2 zD SNRS pzD (zD ) dzD , (6)
Combining accordingly, the random variable of the total bit-
with the random variable zD of the combined bit-based based channel fading effects from the R→D link in the case
channel fading effects in (4). of Fig. 1 is
B. Derivation of the Bit-based Channel Fading Effects KR 
zRD = |hRDj(k)|2
Since we assume that the source transmission is done by A
BPSK, the channel fading effect from the S→D link to bit A (10)
 3σ 2 G 
  3σ 2 G 
( zSD in (4) 
) is the same
 as a random variable of the channel = χ22 2
= χ2KR ,
fading, i.e., |hSD1 | 2
= χ22 (σ 2 ). 2(M − 1) 2(M − 1)
A k=1
For a relay employing M-ary quadrature amplitude mod-   2  2
ulation (M-QAM) (M = 2KR ), the bit-based channel fading
3σ G
whereby its expectation is E χ22KR 2(M−1) = G 3K Rσ
2KR −1

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C. Achieved Diversity Order 8

Chi−square PDF of (10) for the different modulation orders when G = 1

Utilizing the result of equations (4) and (10) in (6), the 7

average BER of the proposed ADM scheme is 4QAM

∞ ∞   6


0 0 (11) 5

probability density
pzSD(zSD )pzRD(zRD ) dzSD dzRD , 4

3σ G
where zSD = χ22 (σ 2 ) and zRD = χ22KR 2(M−1) . 3

We use the upper bound Q(x) ≤ e−x /2 , for x > 0 [7], in 2

(11) to get

1 1
PBER, ADM ≤ , (12) 0

1 + 2σ 2 SNRS 1 + 3σ
2G 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2


At high SNRS , the above bound on the average BER of the

proposed ADM scheme becomes Fig. 2. Chi-square pdf of (10) for the cases of 4QAM, 16QAM and 64QAM
   K  when G = 1. The figure clearly shows that the expected power of zRD falls
as the order of modulation rises, even though higher-order modulation has a
PBER, ADM ≤ 6σ14 G SNRS −(KR +1) = 26σ4−1 −(KR +1)
G SNRS . greater diversity-combining effect because of its sharper pdf.
M −1
Thus, the average BER achieves (KR + 1)th -order diversity
performance, one from the source and KR from the relay as rises, although higher-order modulation presents a greater
we intended. diversity-combining effect because of its sharper pdf. This
is due to the fact that bit power decreases exponentially
but diversity combining increases linearly as the order of
D. Closed Form Analysis modulation increases in the proposed method.
In order to compute the average  ∞ BER of xthe proposed Since a bit-based constellation of relay faded by zRD has its
scheme (11), we use Q(x) = π1 0 exp (− 2 sin 2φ )dφ, x≥ BER performance determined based on the destination WGN,
∞ from [11] and the moment-generating

1 n function (MGF) a low value of zRD requires low noise power to be error-
0 exp(−az)pz (z)dz = 1+a2σ2
2 of a chi-square random free. As the order of modulation rises, the higher probability
variable z = χ2n (σ 2 ). Then, that zRD will be low, as shown in Fig. 2, causes greater
π  KR performance loss over the same noise level. Therefore, a
1 2 sin2φ sin2φ
PBER, ADM = 2 2G dφ. higher signal power is required for the higher-order modulated
π sin φ+2σ 2 SNRS sin2φ+(3σ SNRS
0 M −1) relay packet to exhibit an increased time diversity performance
over the destination WGN.
This characteristic also appears in the upper-bounded av-
The integral of equation (14) can be rendered in a closed erage BER of (13). A higher modula-tion order at the
form by [12, eqs. (5A.58), (5A.59) and (5A.60)] as

yields faster BER decay but decreases the coding gain 26σ4−1
 2 KR−1
k G
PBER,ADM = c 1− 1+2σ 2σ SNRS 3G
− 2(M−1) 3G of (13) beyond the diversity performance. This explains the
2 SNR k=0 1−2(M−1)

performance loss over the WGN for an increased time diver-
 3σ2 G
   sity. Consequently, this trade-off appears in the form of the
1− (M−1)
3σ G
1+ n=1 3σ2 G
n , outperforming modulation orders over certain ranges of SNRS ,
1+ (M−1) SNRS n n!2 1+ (M−1) SNRS
(15) as we will discuss in more detail in Section IV.
Furthermore, we can also see in the expectation of (10)
where ! denotes the factorial and !! the double factorial nota- that G clearly provides a power gain no matter what order of

from 1 to 2n−1.
tion denoting the product of only odd integers
 KR/2 2 modulation is employed at the relay. As in (13), G increases
2 2k
The coefficient c in (15) is calculated as KR


. the coding gain. Thus, in the general situation where the
2 3G
1− 2(M− 1) relay provides less propagation loss than the source to the
destination, G allows the relay to use higher-order modulation
E. Trade-off between bit power and time diversity for higher time diversity performance by compensating the
reduced bit power. Therefore, in a single source relaying topol-
We can see that the trade-off between bit power and addi- ogy, the proposed ADM scheme, which obtains additional time
tional time diversity in the R→D link is effectively resolved diversity from the R→D link, becomes practical.
into the random variable of the bit-based channel fading
effects (10), in the form of its increased degree of freedom
and reduced component variance for high-order QAM. More IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS
specifically, Fig. 2 shows (10) for the case of 4QAM, 16QAM Fig. 3 depicts the average BER of the proposed ADM
and 64QAM when G equals 1. The Rayleigh fading power scheme and its theoretical performance under (15) when
2σ 2 is set to 1. As its expectation indicates, we can see G = 1. A packet size of 240 symbols (conveying 240 bits
that the expectation of zRD falls as the order of modulation per packet) was used in this simulation. The simulated block

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BER Performance Comparison

BER of Asymmetric Diversity Modulation Scheme and its Theoretical Performance between 4QAM−Relay−ADM and 2−dimensional SSD schemes
0 0
10 10
2−dim SSD : R2,0
Crossover SNR betwwen
2−dim SSD : R

−2 −1 2−dim SSD : R2,1

10 10

X −2
10 10

−6 −3
10 10

−8 −4
10 10
M=4 in Theor. BER of (15)
10 64QAM−ADM 10
M=64 in Theor. BER of (15) Crossover SNR between
M=16 in Theor. BER of (15)
−12 −6
10 10
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
SNRS [dB] when G=1 SNRR [dB]

Fig. 3. BER for the proposed ADM scheme and its theoretical performance the 2-dimensional
 θ −sin θSSD schemes. The simplest1 real rotation matrix is
in a wireless fading channel with one relay. A scheme showing the relay using R2,0 = cos with the optimum θ = 2 tan−1 2 [7]. Its complex
BPSK (BPSK-ADM) is also presented for comparison. The theoretical per- 
sin θ cos θ 
version is R2,1 = 1j 1j R2,0 . For R2,2 , we use the 2-dimensional rotation
formance tracks the corresponding simulation results quite well. Furthermore, matrix from the construction A of the general L-dimensional matrix,
due to its bit-based trade-off, a higher SNRS is required for the higher-order achieving not only full diversity
modulating relay to exhibit its additional time diversity performance. ⎡ but also maximizing
⎤ the minimum coding
1 α0 ··· αL−1
⎢ 1 α1 ··· αL−1 ⎥
TABLE I ⎢ 1 ⎥
gain [13]. That is, RL,2 = √1 ⎢ . . . . ⎥ where L = 2k for k ∈ N
L ⎣ .

1 αL−1 ··· αL−1
LINK PROPAGATION LOSS . A S G INCREASES , THE CROSSOVER SNRS and αi = exp j2π(i + 1/4)/L for i = 0, 1, . . . , L−1. N means the positive
FALLS DUE TO THE FACT THAT THE POWER GAIN FROM THE RELAY SHIFTS integers. Then, the 2-dimensional rotation matrix used in this simulation is
THE ENTIRE BER CURVE LEFT BY THE SAME AMOUNT OF SNRS , R2,2 . We can see that the proposed 4QAM-Relay-ADM achieves the best
RESULTING IN THE CROSSOVER POINTS MOVING LEFTWARD DUE TO THE BER performance compared to the other 2-dimensional SSD schemes.

Table 1 shows the approximated crossover SNRS between

Crossover SNRS Crossover SNRS
Case the different relay modulation orders for several values of G.
As G increases, the SNRS crossover points drop. As shown
G = 0.5 14.4 dB 29.3 dB in the expectation of (10) and in the coding gain of (13), the
power gain achieved by the decreased propagation loss of the
G=1 11.3 dB 26.3 dB
relay does not depend on the order of modulation at the relay.
G=5 4.2 dB 19.3 dB Thus, G moves the entire BER curve left by the same amount.
This lowers the crossover SNRS due to the different diversity
G = 15 -0.4 dB 14.5 dB
performance on the slope of each BER curve.
So, as the link quality between the relay and destination
rises, the benefit of increasing additional time diversity us-
channel fading model has the same number of independent ing a higher-order modulating relay becomes realistic for
fadings as the order of QAM modulation employed at the a target SNRS . Therefore, for a single-source network, the
relay. The Rayleigh fading power 2σ 2 is set to 1 for the proposed ADM scheme is an efficient diversity-enhancing
sake of convenience. A scheme where the relay uses BPSK method which converts the good R → D link quality into
(BPSK-ADM) without extracting additional time diversity in additional time diversity.
the R → D link is also simulated for comparison. Fig. 3
For more concrete conclusions, we also compare the per-
confirms that the numerical analysis of (15) closely matches
formance of the proposed ADM scheme with existing SSD
the simulation results for SNRS above 5dB, since we derive
schemes in regard to time-diversity aspects, as shown in Fig.
(15) from the high-SNR approximated BEP of M-QAM.
4 and Fig. 5. To keep the comparison fair, we compare these
Furthermore, there are clearly outperforming modulation
schemes with the same diversity performance in the block
orders for certain ranges of SNRS . Roughly speaking, 4QAM-
fading channel model. For this purpose, in the proposed ADM
ADM outperforms the others below 11dB of SNRS , 16QAM-
scheme, we consider only the R → D link where the relay
ADM is best from 11dB to 26dB and so on for 64QAM-
leads each bit to have additional time diversity. In the 2-
ADM. This is due to the fact that increased time diversity
dimensional case of Fig. 4, the proposed 4QAM-Relay-ADM
performance by higher-order modulating relays requires higher
achieves the best BER performance compare to the simplest
SNRS values, as explained in Section III-F. BPSK-ADM shows
real rotation matrix of R2,0 , its complex-version of R2,1 , and
the worst performance over all ranges of SNRS due to the
the construction A of R2,2 from [13]. This is due to the fact
limited degree of freedom in the time diversity aspect.
that, in the 2-dimensional case, there is a limitation on the
dispersion of the 2-dimensional spaces.
Fig. 4. Average BER performance comparison between the proposed Fig. 5. Average BER performance comparison between the proposed ADM
ADM scheme with 4QAM in the R → D link (4QAM-Relay-ADM) and scheme with 16QAM in the R→D link (16QAM-Relay-ADM) and the 4-

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BER Performance Comparison

between 16QAM−Relay−ADM and 4−dimensional SSD schemes nels. We also derived the theoretical BER performance nu-
4−dim SSD : 4−point DFT matrix
4−dim SSD : R4,0 merically based on a proposed ‘bit’-based channel-combining
4−dim SSD : R4,1
method and analyzed a trade-off relationship between the bit
4−dim SSD : R4,2
power and time diversity arising from a high-order modulating
relay. Finally, we confirmed our analysis via simulation results
and compared its performance to existing SSD techniques. The
results demonstrated that the proposed method efficiently en-


hances diversity through relaying in the block fading channel

Although our research covered only the uncoded packet
scenario by addressing the issue from the perspective of
diversity, the proposed ADM scheme can also be generalized
to channel-coded packets. In that situation, the coding gain
0 5 10 15 20
after channel decoding can easily be added into the provided
theoretical BER.
dimensional SSD schemes. The real rotation matrix of R4,0 is derived

a from

! a+jb "of R2,2 by a 2×2 matrix b a
R2,2 by replacing each complex entry
1 0 j 0
0 1 0 j
[4]. Its complex version is R4,1 = j 0 1 0 R4,0 . In addition, we compare [1] R. Pabst, B. H. Walke, D. C. Schultz, P. Herhold, H. Yanikomeroglu,
0 j 0 1 S. Mukherjee, H. Viswanathan, M. Lott, W. zirwas, M. Dohler, H. Agh-
the performance with the R4,2 and 4-point DFT matrix. Fig. 5 clearly shows vami, D. D. Falconer, and G. P. Fettweis “Relay-based deployment
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