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Function, Technology and Features

of IGCTs and High Voltage IGBTs


Steffen Bernet
Berlin University of Technology
Power Electronics Lab
Berlin, Germany

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Outline
1. Introduction
2. Structure, Function and Characteristics of IGBTs
3. Structure, Function and Characteristics of IGCTs
4. Latest IGCT Technology Developments

IGCT Series Connection

10kV IGCTs

5. Conclusions

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Power Semiconductors

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Power Semiconductors for MV Converters


Power
Semiconductor
GTO

IGBT

IGCT

Company

Ratings

Switch
Power
(MVA)

Case

MITSUBISHI

6000V; 6000A

36

Press-Pack

HITACHI

6000V; 6000A

36

Press-Pack

ABB

4500V; 4000A

18

Press-Pack

EUPEC

3300V; 1200A,
6500V; 600A

3.96
3.6

Module
Module

MITSUBISHI

3300V; 1200A
4500V

3.96

Module

HITACHI

3300V; 1200A

3.96

Module

TOSHIBA

3300V; 1200A

3.96

Press-Pack

ABB

4500V; 1500A

6.75

IPM

ABB

4500V; 3500A
5500V; 2300A

15.75
12.65

Press-Pack
Press-Pack

MITSUBISHI

4500V; 4000A
6000V; 6000A

18
36

Press-Pack
Press-Pack

Characteristics of Conventional GTOs


Advantages:
1. High on-state current density
2. High blocking voltage and switch power
3. High off-state dv/dt withstand capability
4. Integration of inverse diode on the same
silicon wafer
5. Small part count in the reliable presspack case

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Turn-off Waveforms of GTOs

Udc

Characteristics
Typical Turn-off Gain:
IT/IRG = 3 5
dv/dt = (500-1000) V/s

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Turn- off Behaviour of GTOs


20 V

Gate
Unit

Shrinking
Plasma

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Characteristics of Conventional GTOs


Disadvantages:
1. Inhomogeneous turn-off transient
2. Limitation of dv/dt to about 5001000V/s
3. Bulky and expensive snubber circuits
4. Complex gate drive
5. High gate drive power

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Structure of a NPT - IGBT Chip

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Conduction State of a NPT - IGBT


Emitter
+

A Gate

Emitter
+
Al

SiO2
-

p-

p+ +

n+

+
+

+ -

+ -

+ -

+ -

+ -

np+

B
+

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A
+ -

p+

Collector

np+

Structure of an IGBT Module


Silicon Chip 220 m
Chip 1

...

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Chip n

Solder 80 m
Aluminium oxide Isolation 380 m
Upper & lower copper
layer 300 m
Solder 80 m
Baseplate
(Copper) 3 mm
Thermal
compound 50 m
Heatsink

Hard Turn on Transient of an IGBT Module


2.0

2.5
VCE
2.0
[kV]

IC
kA
[kA]

1.5
1.0
1.0
0.5
0

0
-2

10

12 14

18

(FZ1200R33KF1 (3300V; 1200A), Vdc=2250V, Io=1050A, Tj=25C)


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Hard Turn off Transient of an IGBT Module


3.0
VCE
[kV]
2.0

1.2
IC
[kA]
0.8

1.0

0.4

0
-2

10 12

14 s 18

(FZ1200R33KF1 (3300V; 1200A), Vdc=2250V, Io=1050A, Tj=25C)


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Characteristics of High Power IGBT Modules


Protection:
Limitation of short circuit current by
IGBT (e.g. VGE=15V; IC=3*Ir )
Turn off transient within 10s
Short Circuit Safe Operating Area:
Vdcmax=2500V; ICmax=3.5*Ir
Failure:
Heavy destruction of IGBT by
overcurrent
Mostly open circuit after destruction
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Characteristics of High Power IGBT Modules


Reliability:
Aluminum wires and bonds are critical
parts at power cycling tests
Increase of thermal resistance by
migration of thermal contact grease and
inhomogeneous thermal contacts

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Characteristics of IGBT Gate Units


Very low gate drive

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power (e.g. 3-5 W)


Control of dv/dt and
di/dt
Active overvoltage
protection active
clamping (e.g. for
series connection)
Active short circuit
protection

Characteristics of IGBT Modules


Advantages
1. Full insulation of base plate (simple cooling)
2. Simple mounting
3. Low cost plastic package
Disadvantages
1. Undefined failure mode (mostly open terminals)
2. Possibility of explosion
3. Poor power cycling capability
4. Single sided cooling
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Physical Arrangement of an IGBT Press Pack

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Characteristics of IGBT Press Packs


Advantages
1. Short circuit in failure mode enables redundant
converter design (e.g. (n+1), (n+2))
2. No explosion
3. Double sided cooling
Disadvantages
1. No insulation of heat sink
2. Higher packaging costs

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Physical Arrangement of IGCTs

91mm 4.5kV IGCT for water cooling


51 mm 4.5kV IGCT for air cooling

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Comparison of PT and NPT Structure


NPT: n
PT:

n+

n-

p+
20

1.4E+5

5000
UVAC
= =5000
VV
AC

E(PT)

1.0E+5

19
18
17

8.0E+4

16

6.0E+4

E(NPT)

15

4.0E+4

14

2.0E+4

13

0.0E+0

12
0.0

100.0

200.0

300.0

400.0

500.0

600.0

distance from cathode [ m]

Electric Field and Doping Level of 4,5 kV PT- und NPT-GTOs


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700.0

Log doping concentration [cm-3]

1.2E+5

Electric field [V/cm]

IGCT Turn-off Waveforms


Vd (kV)

Ia (kA)
Vdm
anode - voltage Vd

4
3

3
anode - current Ia

2
1

Itgq

thyristor

Tj = 90C

transistor
1
0

0
-10
gate voltage Vg

-20
Vg (V)

15

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20

25

30

35

t!!m!s)

Characteristics of IGCTs
Protection:
Active turn-off transient for Ishort (t)<IAmax
(e.g. at external short circuit)
Internal shoot through:
IGCTs savely short circuit the dc-link
di/dt-clamp limits maximum peak
current

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Characteristics of an IGCT- Gate Drive in


Comparison to a GTO Gate Drive

Storage time: ts-IGCT=1/15*ts-GTO


Despite of increase of Igqrm:
Qg-IGCT=0.4*Qg-GTO
Transparent anode : On-state gate
current of IGCT is reduced by 50%
IGCT gate drive power is reduced by
50%
Uncritical minimum switching times do
not require control on IGCT gate drive

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Characteristics of IGCTs
Reliability:
Low part count and press-pack case
enable high reliability
Qualification tests and field eperience:
FIT(Failure in one billion
hours)<2300
for a 3MVA inverter

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Turn-off Transient of an IGCT Inverse Diode


(4500V; 1560A - RCIGCT;
VDC=2800V, IF=1300A; VDM=4335A;
di/dt=400A/s)

kV

2250

1500

750

-750

-2

-1500

-4
0

10

15

20

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Motivation of Research
- General Development Trend
Increasing importance of PWM-VSIs

- Replacement of Cycloconverter and LCI


- Increasing use in energy systems (e.g. Windparks, HVDC,
STATCOMs, Active Filters, High Power UPS)

Increase of converter voltage and power


- Converter voltage of Vout,RMS = 6 kV 10 kV
- Series Connection of IGCTs
(e.g. n=3 devices per switch position in 3L-NPC VSI)
- Increase of device voltage at useful silicon utilization
(e.g. 10kV IGCT / diode: Vout,RMS =6 kV 7.2 kV in 3L-NPC VSI)
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Voltage definitions

100 s

VDC MAX

VDC NOM

( 15 seconds @ TJmax)

(continuous @ TJmax)

10 ms
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VDRM

Device Voltage Ratings in 3-Level Inverter (N =1)


Nominal RMS
Line Voltage

Nominal DC Half- Maximum DC Half


Link Voltage
Link Voltage

Maximum
Repetitive
Blocking Voltage

15% Vll,, 100 FIT


and long-term DC
stability

33% Vll, , SOA


and short-term
DC stability

VRMS (kV)

VDC NOM (kV)

VDCMAX (kV)

VDRM (kV)

2.3
3.3
4.16
6
6.6
6.9
7.2

1.9
2.7
3.4
4.9
5.4
5.6
5.9

2.2
3.1
3.9
5.6
6.2
6.5
6.8

3.3
4.5
5.5
8
9
9.5
10

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Number N of Series Connected Devices in 3L NPC VSI


Nominal RMS
Line Voltage

N of 4.5 kV IGCTs N of 5.5 kV IGCTs N of 10 kV IGCTs /


/ Diodes
/ Diodes
Diodes

VRMS (kV)

2.3
3.3
4.16
6
6.6
6.9
7.2
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1
1
2
3
3
3

1
2
2
2

1
1
1
1

IGCT - Series Connection


Reasons for Voltage Unbalance of Series Connected Devices
Static
Deviating leakage currents
Dynamic
Delay between Gate Signals
Deviating switching behavior (e.g.)
Different tail or reverse recovery
charges
Different switching times (dv/dts,
di/dts)
Consider
The IGCT has a latching thyristor structure !
Control of dv/dt or clamping of switch voltage
by gate control in active region is not possible
in contrast to the IGBT or MOSFET !
External balancing 2-Pole required !
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Bal.
2-Pole
Bal.
2-Pole
Bal.
2-Pole

Balancing Circuit
Dynamic voltage balancing: RC-Snubber
Static voltage balancing: balancing resistor
RSnub
CSnub

Rp

Design Tradeoffs:
low losses

CSnub

good balancing

CSnub , selected IGCTs

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Design Criteria

Values given for 4.5kV IGCTs

avoid Vmax > 4.5kV (immediate device destruction)


average blocking voltage lower than 2.8kV (FIT)
VGCT
4.5kV
2.8kV

switching transient
s
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Blocking
ms

IGCT - Series Connection (RC - Snubber)


Test Setup
snubber
resistor
snubber
capacitor

current
sensor

Buck Converter
VDC=6 kV, Iout=4 kA
n=2
91mm 4.5kV IGCTs
68mm 4.5kV diodes
Snubber
Rsnub=1
Csnub= 500 nF
Rp=25 k

R snub
C

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snub

Rp

IGCT voltage, IGCT current (kV, kA)

IGCT Series Connection - Turn-off Transient


3
voltage
2
IGCT 1
IGCT 2
1
current
0
100

101

102

103

104

105

time (s)

VDC=4.6kV; Iout=2kA; n=2; Tj=115C; Csnub=500nF; Rsnub=1


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Losses
VDC = 4.5 kV, Iout = 2 kA

10

Losses (J)

9.28
8.5

snubberless
with snubber

8
6.4

6
4
2

1.6
0.5

0.65

0.63

Eoff, IGCT Eon, IGCT Eoff,Snubber Eon,Snubber Etotal

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Technical Data Phase Leg / 3~ Inverter


Parameter
Value / Type
nominal dc input voltage
VDC = 13.2 kV (10%)
rms output current
Iout = 1.5 kA
nominal peak output current
Iout, peak = 2.5 kA
output power
Sout = 8 MVA / 24 MVA
carrier frequency
fs = 700 Hz
IGCT 5SHY35L4503
(4.5kV 91mm)
diode (4.5kV 68mm)
D65S45 (4.5kV 68mm)

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IGCT Series Connection - Output Waveforms


10
Vout

V4

14.2kV

Vout

Iout

-5

-1

-10

-2
20

Iout

10
Time / ms

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VDC=14.2kV; Iout,rms=1.5kA;
fs=700Hz; fout=50Hz

15

IGCT Series Connection - Test Setup


DC-Link
DC-Link
Capacitors
Capacitors

Load
Load
Inductor
Inductor

0,9m

IGCT-Stack
IGCT-Stack
RC-Snubber
RC-Snubber
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Photo Phase Leg

Trade-off Curves of 5.5 kV and 10 kV IGCTs


Similar losses of ideal series

connection of 5.5 kV IGCTs and


10 kV IGCTs
Additional snubber losses in

real series connection (e.g.)


Static: PR (Rp=25 k)
Dynamic: Esnub,C 0.15
Eoff,IGCT
(4.5 kV IGCTs / N=2
@VDC=4500V, Ilout=2 kA)

J=20A/cm2
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Potential of 10 kV IGCTs and Diodes


Compared to an IGCT series connection (N=2)
10 kV IGCTs / diodes feature:
Comparable losses for fs=200 Hz-1 kHz
Reduction of part count
- by 71% (S 5.5 MVA)
- by 41% (S > 5.5 MVA)
Increase of reliability
- by 56% (S 5.5 MVA)
- by 12% (S > 5.5 MVA)
Simpler stack design
Avoidance of RC snubber
Simpler maintenance
Avoidance of semiconductor selection and RC snubber
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Design of 10 kV IGCTs
Cathod
e

Gate

p Base
n+ Cathode

Anode

1050 m

Manufacturing process in line


with standard IGCT / GTO

n Base

process
n Buffer
Layer
Low Efficiency
p - Anode

Cosmic ray withstand capability: 2 FIT / cm2


n-base thickness: 1050 m
Substrate doping level: 4.2 1012 cm-3
Silicon resistivity: 1000 cm

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Double diffused p-base


Heavily doped cathode emitter
Buffer layer for field stopping
Low efficiency p Anode

Engineering Sample of 68 mm 10 kV IGCT

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Forward Blocking Characteristics at 25C

magnified by factor 1000:


1 A / div

(<17 A @ 10 kV, 25C)


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Forward Blocking Characteristics at 125C

(<14 mA @ 7 kV, 125C) (8-13 mA @ 6 kV, 125C, PL=50W-80W


( 5%-10% of PRP)
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On-state Characteristics

VT = VT0 + rdIA
VT0 (Threshold voltage): 3.5V
Rd (On-state resistance):1m
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(4.5V @ 1 kA, 125C)

Turn-off Characteristics
L
D

Lh

D
1R

Cbat
1R

27k

0,68uF

C
0,68uF

27k

DUT
1R

Test circuit and stack design


(VDC=2.4kV-7kV, IA=100A-1kA,
Tj=25C-115C, Lcl=13.6H,
Ccl=1F, Rcl=2.3 )
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1R

27k

0,68uF

27k

0,68uF

Turn-off Waveforms

Switching characteristics:
VDC=5.7 kV, IA=900 A,Tj=85C: Eoff=11 Ws, tf=1 s, ttail=6 s, VAK,max=6.7 kV
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Turn-off Waveforms
VAK [V] 1kV / div

IA [A] 100A / div

Time [s] 5s / div


Operating conditions:
VDC=2.5kV 5.7kV, IA=800A 900A, Tj=85C

Time [s] 5s / div

Switching characteristics:
VDC=5.7kV, IA=900A: Eoff=11 Ws, VAK,max=6.6kV, tf=1s, ttail=6s
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Turn-off Waveforms (SOAR)

Operating conditions:
VDC=7kV, IA=1000A, Tj=85C

World Record !

Switching characteristics:
Eoff=14.8 J, VAK,max=8 kV, toff=8s, tf=1s, ttail=5s
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Specification of 68mm 10kV IGCTs


Electrical and thermal
characteristics

Conditions

VDRM

10 kV

Tj = 0 - 125 C

VDC

6 kV

for 100 FIT, 100 % DC

VGR

22 V

VTM

4.5 V

1 kA (rd = 1 m, VTO = 3.5


V)

ITGQ

1000 A

VDC = 6 kV

EOFF

11 Ws

IA = 1000 A, VDC = 6 kV

Rth J-C

13 K/kW

TJ MAX

125C

ITSM

10 kA

T = 1ms

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Conclusions
IGBTs and IGCTs replace GTOs in MV Converters
Advantages of IGBTs
IGBT MOS-controlled device

Low power GU

GU control of dv/dt and di/dt

Short circuit current limitation and active turn off

Active clamping

Simple mechanics
Simple scalability

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Conclusions
Disadvantages of IGBTs
Higher losses and poorer Si-utilization than IGCTs
Limited power cycling capability of IGBT modules
Costs (especially of IGBT press packs)
Development trends
Reduction of losses and costs by new technologies
and high volume production

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Applications of HV - IGBTs
1. Traction Converters (LSC, MSC)
2. Energy Systems (e.g. HVDC, SVC)
3. Industrial Medium Voltage Drives

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Conclusions
Advantages of IGCTs
Maximum Silicon Utilization Low costs / MVA
Small Part Count + Press pack
High Reliability + Explosion Free Inverters
Low On-state and Total Losses
High Efficiency and Power Density
4.5 kV / 5.5 kV IGCT product family
300 kVA-10 MVA Inverters without Series or
Parallel Connection

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Conclusions
Disadvantages of IGCTs
Shoot through protection
High mechanical stress for IM / SM
Thyristor structure
No dv/dt or di/dt control Clamp
Larger gate drive power and size

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Conclusions
Development trends
IGCT: Mature device
Increase of device voltage (e.g. 10kV IGCT)
Increase of Tjmax (e.g Tjmax=175C).
Low cost, efficient series connection

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Applications of IGCTs
1. Industrial Medium Voltage Drives
2. Energy Systems
- Railway Interties
- Power Quality Products
- e.g. Dynamic Voltage Restorer
- Wind Energy Systems

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