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BFC32803

Reinforced Concrete Design II

Frame Analysis
Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini
rizuan@uthm.edu.my

07/09/2014

Learning Outcome
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1) Analyse the responses of building (shear force and bending
moment) subjected to combined vertical actions and wind
load.
(C4-PLO4)
2) Manipulate structural design processes to complete the
assigned project.
(P4-PLO2)
3) Report design works which comprise of ideas and problem
solving through suitable tools or methods
(A3-PLO3)
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction
The building structure is 3D, comprising floor slabs, beams,
columns and footings, which monolithically connected and act
integrally to resist vertical/lateral loads.
In the design, it has to analyze the structure subjected to all
probable combinations of loads, considering the ultimate limit
state.

Once the bending moment, shear force etc. were obtained,


reinforcements can be designed according to the standard.
Generally, 3D wide frame analysis is the most accurate method
to analyse the frame building
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction

3D frame which consist of slabs, beams and column

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction
3D frame is complex and
need to be carried out
using relevant computer
software such as StaadPro,
ESTEEM, ETABS, etc.
However, in many cases
the slabs are analyzed
separately.
Thus, the analysis may be
simplified to appropriate
sub-frame, consist only
beams and columns.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction
However, in many cases
the slabs are analyzed
separately.
Thus, the analysis may be
simplified appropriately
sub-frame, consist only
beams and columns.
3D frame which consist of
slabs, beams and column

simplified

3D frame consist only


beams and columns

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction
In order to simplify the analysis, the 3D structure is generally
divided into a series of independent parallel 2D plane frames.

View-X

View -Y

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames
2D plane frame can be further simplified into 3 level sub-frames:
i)

Complete sub-frame
The frame consists of all beams at each level with columns
top and bottom of beams. Moments at columns and beams
are tabulated by analyzing the complete sub-frame.

ii)

Simplified sub-frame
The frame consists of a selected beam with columns and
neighbouring beams at both sides of selected beam.

iii) Simplified sub-frame at point


The frame consists of a selected point or node with columns
at top and bottom, and neighbouring beams coming into the
point.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames
2D plane frame >>> complete sub-frame:
Roof
Second
floor

First
floor

Complete 2D Frame

Sub-frame at second floor


BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames
Complete sub-frame >>> Simplified sub-frame:
Roof
A

Second
floor

First
floor

Complete 2D Frame

Simplified sub-frame beam BC

Simplified sub-frame beam AB

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames
Simplified sub-frame >>> One point sub-frame:
Roof
Second
floor

First
floor

Complete 2D Frame

Simplified sub-frame at point A

Simplified sub-frame at point C

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Type of Frame
1) Braced Framed (BF)
Frames that not contribute
to the overall stability of the
structure.
None of the lateral actions,
including wind, are
transmitted to the columns
and beams but carries by
bracing members such as
shear wall.
Support vertical actions
only.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Type of Frame
2) Unbraced Framed (UBF)
Frame that contribute to the
overall stability of the
structure.
All lateral actions, including
wind, are transmitted to the
columns and beams since
there are no bracing
members such as shear
wall are provided.
Support vertical and lateral
actions
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis
Primary objective: to
obtain a set of internal
forces and moments
throughout the structure
that are in equilibrium
with the design loads for
the required loading
combinations.
General provisions to
analysis are set out in
EN 1992-1-1 Section 5.

Braced Frame

Unbraced Frame

Vertical load

Vertical load +
Horizontal load

Load transfer
from slabs to
beams

Load transfer
from slabs to
beams ; wind to
column

Design action patterns: maximumminimum


Moment distribution method
Fixed end moments, Shear forces, Bending
moments

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

General Consideration
General consideration for sub-frame analysis:
i)

Method of sub-frame analysis can be conducted using onelevel sub-frame, two-point sub-frame or one-point sub-frame
with continuous beam.

ii)

The column or/and beam ends remote from the beam under
consideration may generally be assumed to be fixed unless
the assumption of pinned is clearly more reasonable.

iii) Stiffness for interior beam is KB.


iv) Stiffness for fixed end (beam elements) posses half their
actual stiffness, 0.5KB.
v)

The arrangement of the design ultimate variable loads


should be such as to cause the maximum moment the
column.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis

One-level sub-frame
Each sub-frame mat be taken to consist of the beams at one
level together with the columns above and below.

KB1

KB2

KB3

At least four cases combination of actions:

[Max][Min][Max]; [Min][Max][Min]
[Max][Max][Min]; [Min][Max][Max]
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis
ii)

Two-point sub-frame
The moments and forces in certain individual beam may be
found by considering a simplified sub-frame consisting only
of the beam, the columns attached to the end of that beam
and the beams on either side is any.

KB1

0.5KB2

0.5KB1

KB2

0.5KB2

Load at interior beam where stiffness = KB is always for


maximum design load.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis
iii) One-point sub-frame with continuous beam
The moments and forces in the beams at one level
considering the beams as a continuous beam over supports
providing no restraint to rotation.
The ultimate moment for column simple moment
distribution procedure
0.5KB1

0.5KB1

0.5KB2

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

0.5KB3

Combination of Actions
Action on buildings is due to permanent (dead load), variable
(imposed, wind, dynamic, seismic loads) and accidental load.
Mostly multistory buildings for office or residential purpose are
design for dead, imposed and wind loads.
Separate actions must be applied to the structure in appropriate
directions and various types of actions combined with partial
safety factors selected to cause the most severe design
condition.
Maximum design load = 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk
Minimum design load = 1.35Gk

Wind load = 1.2Wk


Vertical load due to wind = 1.2Gk + 1.2Qk
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Combination of Actions
For the combination of dead load and imposed load, the following
loading patterns are considered:
Braced frame

1) All spans loaded with maximum dead plus


imposed loads
2) Alternate spans loaded with maximum
dead load and imposed load and all other
spans loaded with minimum dead load

Unbraced frame

1) Three cases loading arrangements as


braced sub-frame
2) Vertical actions for sub-frame
3) Wind load for complete frame
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Analysis of Braced Frame


Procedure:
1. Analyse all actions, maximum and minimum design loads
2. Calculate moment inertia, I = bh3 /12
3. Calculate stiffness of beams and columns, k = I/L
4. Determine distribution factor, DF = ki / k
5. Determine fixed end moment (FEM) of beams

6. Perform moment distribution by cases:


a) Case 1 [Max][Max][Min]
b) Case 2 [Min][Min][Max]
c) Case 3 [Max][Min][Max]
d) Case 4 [Min][Max][Min]
7. Calculate actual shear force and bending moment
7. Draw BMD and SFD
diagrams
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Loading
Wind forces are variable loads which act directly on the internal
and external surfaces of structures.
The intensity of wind load on a structure is related to the square
of the wind velocity and the dimension of the members that are
resisting the wind.
Wind velocity is dependent on:
a) Geographical location
b) The height of the structure
c) The topography of the area
d) The roughness of the surrounding terrain
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Loading
The response of a structure to the variable action of wind can be
separated into 2 components:

Background component

Resonant component

- Involves static deflection of


the structure under the
wind pressure

- Involve dynamic vibration of


the structure in response to
changes in wind pressure
- Relatively small and structural
response to wind forces is
usually treated using static
method of analysis.

- Example: Natural wind

- Example: High-fluctuate wind,


hurricane, micro-burst,
windblast

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Loading
Wind creates pressure of the windward side of a buildings and
suction on three sides.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Effect of Wind

Hurricane Sandy batters New York with


howling winds

Building failure due to high pressure


wind from Hurricane Katrina

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis
Three procedures are specified in MS 1553:2002, Malaysian
Standard for the calculation of wind pressures in buildings:

1)

The simplified procedure:


Limited in application to building of rectangular in plan and
not greater than 15 m high

2)

The analytical procedure:


Limited to regular buildings that are not more than 200 m
high and structure with roof spans less than 100 m

3)

The wind tunnel procedure:


Used for complex building
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis
Simplified procedure (MS1553 Appendix A)

p 0.613 Vs

M z ,cat

C pe
2

C pi

where:

= The design wind pressure in Pa

Vs

= The basic wind speed (Figure A1)

M z ,cat = The terrain/height multiplier (Table A1)


C pe

= The external pressure coefficient for surface of enclose


building (A2.3 and A2.4)

C pi

= The internal pressure coefficient for surface of enclose


building which shall be taken as +0.6 or -0.3. The two
cases shall be considered to determinate the critical load
requirements for the appropriate condition.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis
Analytical procedure(MS1553 Section 2)

p 0.613 Vdes
where:
Vdes = Vsit l

CfigCdyn

= The design wind speed


= Importance factor (Table 3.2)

Vsit Vs M d M z ,cat M s M h = Site wind speed


Vs = Basic wind speed 33.5m/s for zone I and
32.5m/s for zone 2 (refer Figure 3.1)

M d = Wind directional multiplier = 1.0

M z ,cat = Terrain/height multiplier (Table 4.1)


M s = Shielding multiplier (Table 4.3) equal to 1.0 if the
effects of shielding are ignored or not applicable.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis
M h = Hill shape multiplier. Shall be taken as 1.0 except
that for particular cardinal direction in the local
topographic zones.

Cfig C pe K a K c K 1K p = Aerodynamic shape factor for external


pressure.

C pe = External pressure coefficient (Table 5.2.a and 5.2.b)


for windward and leeward walls respectively for
rectangular enclosed building

K a K c K 1K p = Area reduction factor, combination factor, local


pressure factor and porous cladding reduction factor
respectively. All shall be taken as 1.0 in most cases.

Cdyn = Dynamic response factor. Shall be taken as 1.0 unless the


structure is wind sensitive.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis
Wind tunnel procedure

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Analysis of Unbraced Frame


Procedure:
1. Calculate design wind load, Wd=1.2Wk
2. Calculate lateral point load at each level of frame
a) Assume contraflexure point at center of frame
b) Axial loads in column are in its proportion to distances
from the centre of gravity of frame

c) All columns are equal cross-section area


3. Lateral load analysis using Cantilever Method.
- Calculate axial force in columns, then shear force in
beams and columns from top to ground levels.

4. Vertical load analysis due to wind, 1.2 Gk + 1.2Qk


- analysis of one level sub-frame
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Analysis of Unbraced Frame


1.2WK
1.2WK
1.2WK

1.2WK

A3

B3

C3

D3

A2

B2

C2

D2

A1

B1

C1

D1

A3

B3

C3

D3

A2

B2

C2

D2

1.2GK +1.2QK

1.2GK +1.2QK

1.2GK +1.2QK

A1

B1

C1

Lateral load
of wind load
+
Vertical load
due to wind
pressure

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

D1

Tutorial
1) The framing plans for a multistory building are shown in the
layout. Analyze sub frame 3/A-D, Level 1 to determine shear
forces and bending moments of corresponding beams and
columns. Use all the three methods of analysis. Given the
following data: Permanent office building (Design life 50 years);
Location: Near sub-urban (Zone 1 of Malaysia wind speed
mapping), Topography: Flat areaslope<0.05 (Building around
within 1 KM radius); Beam in grid line 1,2,312: 250x600mm,
Beam in grid line A, B, C & D: 250x500mm; Slab thickness =
150mm; Columns: 300x400mm; Imposed load: 4.0kN/m2,
finishes, ceiling, services etc: 0.75kN/m2, Partitions: 0.5 kN/m2.
Download the layout here.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Tutorial
2) The framing plans for a multistory building are shown in the
layout (download here). Given the following data: Permanent
office building (Design life 50 years); Location: Near sub-urban
(Zone 1), Topography: Flat area-slope<0.05 (Building around
within 1 KM radius); Beam in grid line 1,2,312: 250x600mm,
Beam in grid line A, B, C & D : 250x500mm, Slab thickness =
150mm, Columns: 300x400mm; Imposed load: 4.0kN/m2,
Finishes, ceiling, services etc: 0.75kN/m2, Partitions: 0.5kN/m2.
For the multistory building:
a) Calculate the wind load on the building
b) Calculate the bending moments for all beams and
columns, due to wind load
c) Analyse the subframe consisting Beam 3/A-D, Level 1
with the column above and below then, subjected to
vertical load only.
BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II
by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

References
1) M. S. Yassin. Reinforced Concrete Design To Eurocode 2. Skudai:
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2012.
2) B. Mosley, J. Bungey and R. Hulse. Reinforced Concrete Design
To Eurocode 2. 7th Ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
3) A. J. Bond, O. Brooker, A. J. Harris, T. Harisson, R. M. Moss, R. S.
Narayanan and R. Webster. How To Design Concrete Structures
Using Eurocode 2. Surrey: The Concrete Centre, 2006.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II


by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)