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syllabus in reinforcement concrete..

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- Assignment highway
- water sampling
- Water Quality Lab

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Frame Analysis

Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini

rizuan@uthm.edu.my

07/09/2014

Learning Outcome

At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

1) Analyse the responses of building (shear force and bending

moment) subjected to combined vertical actions and wind

load.

(C4-PLO4)

2) Manipulate structural design processes to complete the

assigned project.

(P4-PLO2)

3) Report design works which comprise of ideas and problem

solving through suitable tools or methods

(A3-PLO3)

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction

The building structure is 3D, comprising floor slabs, beams,

columns and footings, which monolithically connected and act

integrally to resist vertical/lateral loads.

In the design, it has to analyze the structure subjected to all

probable combinations of loads, considering the ultimate limit

state.

reinforcements can be designed according to the standard.

Generally, 3D wide frame analysis is the most accurate method

to analyse the frame building

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction

3D frame is complex and

need to be carried out

using relevant computer

software such as StaadPro,

ESTEEM, ETABS, etc.

However, in many cases

the slabs are analyzed

separately.

Thus, the analysis may be

simplified to appropriate

sub-frame, consist only

beams and columns.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction

However, in many cases

the slabs are analyzed

separately.

Thus, the analysis may be

simplified appropriately

sub-frame, consist only

beams and columns.

3D frame which consist of

slabs, beams and column

simplified

beams and columns

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Introduction

In order to simplify the analysis, the 3D structure is generally

divided into a series of independent parallel 2D plane frames.

View-X

View -Y

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames

2D plane frame can be further simplified into 3 level sub-frames:

i)

Complete sub-frame

The frame consists of all beams at each level with columns

top and bottom of beams. Moments at columns and beams

are tabulated by analyzing the complete sub-frame.

ii)

Simplified sub-frame

The frame consists of a selected beam with columns and

neighbouring beams at both sides of selected beam.

The frame consists of a selected point or node with columns

at top and bottom, and neighbouring beams coming into the

point.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames

2D plane frame >>> complete sub-frame:

Roof

Second

floor

First

floor

Complete 2D Frame

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames

Complete sub-frame >>> Simplified sub-frame:

Roof

A

Second

floor

First

floor

Complete 2D Frame

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Sub-Frames

Simplified sub-frame >>> One point sub-frame:

Roof

Second

floor

First

floor

Complete 2D Frame

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Type of Frame

1) Braced Framed (BF)

Frames that not contribute

to the overall stability of the

structure.

None of the lateral actions,

including wind, are

transmitted to the columns

and beams but carries by

bracing members such as

shear wall.

Support vertical actions

only.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Type of Frame

2) Unbraced Framed (UBF)

Frame that contribute to the

overall stability of the

structure.

All lateral actions, including

wind, are transmitted to the

columns and beams since

there are no bracing

members such as shear

wall are provided.

Support vertical and lateral

actions

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis

Primary objective: to

obtain a set of internal

forces and moments

throughout the structure

that are in equilibrium

with the design loads for

the required loading

combinations.

General provisions to

analysis are set out in

EN 1992-1-1 Section 5.

Braced Frame

Unbraced Frame

Vertical load

Vertical load +

Horizontal load

Load transfer

from slabs to

beams

Load transfer

from slabs to

beams ; wind to

column

Moment distribution method

Fixed end moments, Shear forces, Bending

moments

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

General Consideration

General consideration for sub-frame analysis:

i)

Method of sub-frame analysis can be conducted using onelevel sub-frame, two-point sub-frame or one-point sub-frame

with continuous beam.

ii)

The column or/and beam ends remote from the beam under

consideration may generally be assumed to be fixed unless

the assumption of pinned is clearly more reasonable.

iv) Stiffness for fixed end (beam elements) posses half their

actual stiffness, 0.5KB.

v)

should be such as to cause the maximum moment the

column.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis

One-level sub-frame

Each sub-frame mat be taken to consist of the beams at one

level together with the columns above and below.

KB1

KB2

KB3

[Max][Min][Max]; [Min][Max][Min]

[Max][Max][Min]; [Min][Max][Max]

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis

ii)

Two-point sub-frame

The moments and forces in certain individual beam may be

found by considering a simplified sub-frame consisting only

of the beam, the columns attached to the end of that beam

and the beams on either side is any.

KB1

0.5KB2

0.5KB1

KB2

0.5KB2

maximum design load.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Method of Analysis

iii) One-point sub-frame with continuous beam

The moments and forces in the beams at one level

considering the beams as a continuous beam over supports

providing no restraint to rotation.

The ultimate moment for column simple moment

distribution procedure

0.5KB1

0.5KB1

0.5KB2

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

0.5KB3

Combination of Actions

Action on buildings is due to permanent (dead load), variable

(imposed, wind, dynamic, seismic loads) and accidental load.

Mostly multistory buildings for office or residential purpose are

design for dead, imposed and wind loads.

Separate actions must be applied to the structure in appropriate

directions and various types of actions combined with partial

safety factors selected to cause the most severe design

condition.

Maximum design load = 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk

Minimum design load = 1.35Gk

Vertical load due to wind = 1.2Gk + 1.2Qk

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Combination of Actions

For the combination of dead load and imposed load, the following

loading patterns are considered:

Braced frame

imposed loads

2) Alternate spans loaded with maximum

dead load and imposed load and all other

spans loaded with minimum dead load

Unbraced frame

braced sub-frame

2) Vertical actions for sub-frame

3) Wind load for complete frame

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Procedure:

1. Analyse all actions, maximum and minimum design loads

2. Calculate moment inertia, I = bh3 /12

3. Calculate stiffness of beams and columns, k = I/L

4. Determine distribution factor, DF = ki / k

5. Determine fixed end moment (FEM) of beams

a) Case 1 [Max][Max][Min]

b) Case 2 [Min][Min][Max]

c) Case 3 [Max][Min][Max]

d) Case 4 [Min][Max][Min]

7. Calculate actual shear force and bending moment

7. Draw BMD and SFD

diagrams

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Loading

Wind forces are variable loads which act directly on the internal

and external surfaces of structures.

The intensity of wind load on a structure is related to the square

of the wind velocity and the dimension of the members that are

resisting the wind.

Wind velocity is dependent on:

a) Geographical location

b) The height of the structure

c) The topography of the area

d) The roughness of the surrounding terrain

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Loading

The response of a structure to the variable action of wind can be

separated into 2 components:

Background component

Resonant component

the structure under the

wind pressure

the structure in response to

changes in wind pressure

- Relatively small and structural

response to wind forces is

usually treated using static

method of analysis.

hurricane, micro-burst,

windblast

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Loading

Wind creates pressure of the windward side of a buildings and

suction on three sides.

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Effect of Wind

howling winds

wind from Hurricane Katrina

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis

Three procedures are specified in MS 1553:2002, Malaysian

Standard for the calculation of wind pressures in buildings:

1)

Limited in application to building of rectangular in plan and

not greater than 15 m high

2)

Limited to regular buildings that are not more than 200 m

high and structure with roof spans less than 100 m

3)

Used for complex building

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis

Simplified procedure (MS1553 Appendix A)

p 0.613 Vs

M z ,cat

C pe

2

C pi

where:

Vs

C pe

building (A2.3 and A2.4)

C pi

building which shall be taken as +0.6 or -0.3. The two

cases shall be considered to determinate the critical load

requirements for the appropriate condition.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis

Analytical procedure(MS1553 Section 2)

p 0.613 Vdes

where:

Vdes = Vsit l

CfigCdyn

= Importance factor (Table 3.2)

Vs = Basic wind speed 33.5m/s for zone I and

32.5m/s for zone 2 (refer Figure 3.1)

M s = Shielding multiplier (Table 4.3) equal to 1.0 if the

effects of shielding are ignored or not applicable.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis

M h = Hill shape multiplier. Shall be taken as 1.0 except

that for particular cardinal direction in the local

topographic zones.

pressure.

for windward and leeward walls respectively for

rectangular enclosed building

pressure factor and porous cladding reduction factor

respectively. All shall be taken as 1.0 in most cases.

structure is wind sensitive.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Wind Analysis

Wind tunnel procedure

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Procedure:

1. Calculate design wind load, Wd=1.2Wk

2. Calculate lateral point load at each level of frame

a) Assume contraflexure point at center of frame

b) Axial loads in column are in its proportion to distances

from the centre of gravity of frame

3. Lateral load analysis using Cantilever Method.

- Calculate axial force in columns, then shear force in

beams and columns from top to ground levels.

- analysis of one level sub-frame

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

1.2WK

1.2WK

1.2WK

1.2WK

A3

B3

C3

D3

A2

B2

C2

D2

A1

B1

C1

D1

A3

B3

C3

D3

A2

B2

C2

D2

1.2GK +1.2QK

1.2GK +1.2QK

1.2GK +1.2QK

A1

B1

C1

Lateral load

of wind load

+

Vertical load

due to wind

pressure

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

D1

Tutorial

1) The framing plans for a multistory building are shown in the

layout. Analyze sub frame 3/A-D, Level 1 to determine shear

forces and bending moments of corresponding beams and

columns. Use all the three methods of analysis. Given the

following data: Permanent office building (Design life 50 years);

Location: Near sub-urban (Zone 1 of Malaysia wind speed

mapping), Topography: Flat areaslope<0.05 (Building around

within 1 KM radius); Beam in grid line 1,2,312: 250x600mm,

Beam in grid line A, B, C & D: 250x500mm; Slab thickness =

150mm; Columns: 300x400mm; Imposed load: 4.0kN/m2,

finishes, ceiling, services etc: 0.75kN/m2, Partitions: 0.5 kN/m2.

Download the layout here.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

Tutorial

2) The framing plans for a multistory building are shown in the

layout (download here). Given the following data: Permanent

office building (Design life 50 years); Location: Near sub-urban

(Zone 1), Topography: Flat area-slope<0.05 (Building around

within 1 KM radius); Beam in grid line 1,2,312: 250x600mm,

Beam in grid line A, B, C & D : 250x500mm, Slab thickness =

150mm, Columns: 300x400mm; Imposed load: 4.0kN/m2,

Finishes, ceiling, services etc: 0.75kN/m2, Partitions: 0.5kN/m2.

For the multistory building:

a) Calculate the wind load on the building

b) Calculate the bending moments for all beams and

columns, due to wind load

c) Analyse the subframe consisting Beam 3/A-D, Level 1

with the column above and below then, subjected to

vertical load only.

BFC32803 Reinforced Concrete Design II

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

References

1) M. S. Yassin. Reinforced Concrete Design To Eurocode 2. Skudai:

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2012.

2) B. Mosley, J. Bungey and R. Hulse. Reinforced Concrete Design

To Eurocode 2. 7th Ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

3) A. J. Bond, O. Brooker, A. J. Harris, T. Harisson, R. M. Moss, R. S.

Narayanan and R. Webster. How To Design Concrete Structures

Using Eurocode 2. Surrey: The Concrete Centre, 2006.

by Dr. Zainorizuan Mohd Jaini (rizuan@uthm.edu.my)

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