MATH 126 Unit 2

1

Unit 2 Fundamental Identities
2.1 Develop and apply basic identities
2.1.1 Verify identities.
Example: Determine if the equation is an identity. If so, find the domain of validity.
1.

x3 −1
= x2 + x +1
x −1

2.

1
= ex +1
−x
1− e

Try This: Determine if the equation is an identity. If so, find the domain of validity.
1.

2.1.2

x4 −1
= x3 + x2 +1
x −1

1
ex
2.
=
1 − e−x e x − 1

Determine the domain of validity for trig identities.

Example: Determine the domain of validity for each of the following.
1. csc θ =

1
sin θ

2. cot θ =

cos θ
sin θ

Try This: Determine the domain of validity for each of the following.
1. sec θ =

1
cos θ

2. tan θ =

sin θ
cos θ

2.2 Develop and apply cofunction and odd-even identities
2.2.1 Determine cofunction identities.
Example: Complete each cofunction identity.

π

1. sin − θ  =
2

π

2. tan  − θ  =
2

Try This: Complete each cofunction identity.
π

π

1. cos − θ  =
2. cot − θ  =
2

2

Dr. Paul Kennedy,

8/11/2008

3.3.2 Apply the Pythagorean Identities. Find sec θ given that tan θ =1 sec θ >0. Find csc θ and tan θ given that cos θ =0.3. sin( − x ) = 2. Example: 1.2.3.3 Develop and apply Pythagorean Identities 2.1E1 by sin 2 θ to write another identity.6 and cosθ >0. 2. 2. csc(− x ) = 1. 8/11/2008 . Dr. 2. Example: Use a Pythagorean Identity to solve each problem. Derive the Pythagorean Identity: cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1 .6 and cosθ >0. Try This: 1. Divide both sides of the identity 2. 2.1 Develop the Pythagorean Identities. 1. 2. cos(− x ) = 2. Example: Complete each identity. Find sec θ given that tan θ =0. 1.1E1 by cos 2 θ to write another identity.2 2 Determine odd-even identities. 1. Paul Kennedy. sec(− x ) = Try This: Complete each identity. Try This: Use a Pythagorean Identity to solve each problem.4 and sec θ >0. Divide both sides of the identity in 2.MATH 126 Unit 2 2. Find cosθ and tan θ given that sin θ =0.

Try this: 1. Show that (sec x + 1)(sec x − 1) = sec 2 x .4. Example: 1.2 Prove identities.1 Prove elementary identities. 2 sin x 2. cos t 1 − sin t 3. Example: 1. Dr. Show that 1 + sin t cos t = . Use addition and subtraction to rewrite cot 2 θ + 1 = csc 2 θ as two other identities. Use addition and subtraction to rewrite cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1 as two other identities. 2. 8/11/2008 . 2.4.MATH 126 Unit 2 3 2. Use addition and subtraction to rewrite tan 2 θ + 1 = sec 2 θ as two other identities.4 Verify Identities 2. Paul Kennedy. Show that (1 + tan 2 x)(cos 2 x − sin 2 x) = 1 − tan 2 x .

2. Dr.MATH 126 Unit 2 4 Try This: 1. Show that sec 4 x − tan 4 x = 2 tan 2 x + 1 . Paul Kennedy. 3. Show that cos 3 x + cos x sin 2 x = cos x . 8/11/2008 . Show that sin 2 x − cos 2 x = 1 − 2 cos 2 x .

sin 2 θ = cos θ − cos 2 θ Dr. 2.5.5 Solve equations 2. 1. 1. sin 4 θ − cos 4 θ = 0 8/11/2008 .1 Solve trigonometric equations. cos θ 2.5. sin 3 θ = tan θ 1. 1. sin 2 θ − sin θ cos θ = 0 2. cot 2 θ + 2 cot θ = −1 Use Pythagorean identities to solve trigonometric equations.MATH 126 Unit 2 5 2. Example: Find all solutions. 2 sin 2 θ + sin θ = 1 Try This: Find all solutions.2 2. tan θ + 3 = sec θ (square each side) Try This: Find all solutions. Example: Find all solutions. sin θ tan θ = sin θ 2. Paul Kennedy.