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Problem Assignment 1

Consider the process shown in the figure. The

insulated tank A has a volume of VA = 600 L, and

contains steam at P1A = 1.4 MPa, T1A = 300 C. The

uninsulated tank B has a volume of VB = 300 L and

contains steam at P1B = 200 kPa, T1B = 200 C. A

valve connecting the two tanks is opened, and steam

flows from A to B until the temperature in A reaches

T2A = 250 C, and the valve is closed. During the

process heat is transferred between B and the surroundings, such that the temperature in B remains

constant at T2B = T1B = 200 C. For simplicity, it can be assumed that the steam remaining in A has

undergone a reversible adiabatic expansion. Determine:

(a) The final pressure and final mass in each tank (note: P2A P2B)

(b) The total heat transferred during this process

Problem 2 (review - 1st and 2nd laws, steady-state open systems)

We want to produce pure liquid

methane from a gaseous stream of

that gas using a Linde liquefaction

process (see figure).

The following data is known for

the process:

T1 = 280 K

m! 2 = 1 kg/s

P3 = P4 =1 MPa

T4 = 280 K

P5 = P6 = P7 = 10 MPa

T6 = 210 K

P8 = P9 = P10 = 0.1 MPa

Stream 9 is a saturated liquid (x9

= 0)

Stream 10 is a saturated vapor (x10 = 1)

T11 = 200 K; P11 = P1 = P2 = 0.1 MPa

Both compressors are adiabatic and have an isentropic efficiency of 90%

(a) Determine the mass flow rate m! 9

(b) Determine the temperature of stream 2

(c) Determine the power consumed by compressors 1 and 2, W! c1 and W! c2

1

Problem taken from O. Levenspiel, Understanding Engineering Thermo, Prentice Hall, New Jersey (1996)

Problem 4

(a)

From

the

Maxwell

relations,

we

know

that

T

P

v s

s v

Show

that

T v

=

P s s P

Show

that

T P

T

P

=

=

v s

s v

CV T v

(b)

From

the

Maxwell

relations,

we

know

T v

T v

= =

P s

s P CP T P

that

Problem 5

According to an old

article from Scientific

American (issue of

March 1989), harbor

seals are believed to

have

sophisticated

acoustic transmission

and detection systems that are similar to sonar. For example, mother seals can locate their pups by

measuring the difference in reflected acoustic wave arrival times in air and in water (since the speed of

sound in air is different from that in water). Estimate about how far a mother seal is from her pup, if

the time difference is 3 seconds, and the temperatures of air and water are about 2 C.

Hint. Lets analyze how this principle works based on our knowledge of thermodynamics. The speed

of sound vc in any given fluid can be calculated as follows:

P

P

P

= v 2

vc2 = =

v s

s (1 v ) s

(1)

Where v is the specific volume [m3/kg], P is the pressure [kPa] and s is the specific entropy [kJ/(kg k)].

Using thermodynamic relations to evaluate the partial derivative of the pressure P with respect to the

specific volume v at constant specific entropy s, it is possible to show that:

C p P

P

vc2 = v 2 = v 2

C v v T

v s

(2)

Where Cp and Cv are the specific heats at constant pressure and volume, respectively [kJ/(kg K)], and T

is the temperature [K]. Equation (2) can also be rewritten as follows:

vc2 = v 2

C p P

v Cp

=

C v v T C v

(3)

1 v

v P T

(4)

(a) Determine the speed of sound in air at T = 2 C and P = 1 atm.

(b) Determine the speed of sound in water at the same conditions (T = 2 C and P = 1 atm).

(c) Use the previous calculations to estimate how far a mother seal is from her pup, if the time

difference in the arrival times of the acoustic waves in air and in water is 3 seconds.

(d) Use your knowledge of thermodynamic relations to derive Equation (2).

3

Problem 6

Solve problem 2.1 of PLA (Prausnitz, Lichtenthaler and Gomes de Azevedo)

Problem 7

Solve problem 2.5 of PLA (Prausnitz, Lichtenthaler and Gomes de Azevedo)

Problem 8

Solve problem 2.14 of PLA (Prausnitz, Lichtenthaler and Gomes de Azevedo)

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